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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - Li+


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - Li+
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS1995-1917
1995
LiTong, LiElement abundances of China's continental crust and its sedimentary layer and upper continental crustChinese Journal of GeocheM., Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 26-32ChinaContinental crust
DS1995-2024
1995
liWang, liAutomatic identification of rocks in thin sections using texture analysisMath. Geol, Vol. 27, No. 7, pp. 847-865GlobalGeostatistics, Classification -texture
DS2000-0277
2000
LiEvans, D.A.D., Li, Kirschvink, WingateA high quality mid-Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic pole from south Chin a implications for ice age breakup...Precambrian Research, Vol. 100, No. 1-3, pp. 313-34.China, South China, RodiniaTectonics, Geophysics - paleomagnetics
DS2001-0081
2001
LiBaosheng, Li, Liebermann, R.C., Weidner, D.J.P V V V T measurements on wadsleyite to 7 GPa and 873 K: implications for the 410 km seismic discontinuity.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106, No. 12, pp. 30,579-92.MantleBoundary zone
DS2001-0651
2001
LiLan, C.Y., Chung, S.L., Lo, Lee, Wang, Li, Van ToanFirst evidence for Archean continental crust in northern Vietnam and its implications for crustal ...Geology, Vol. 29, No. 3, Mar. pp.219-22.GlobalTectonic evolution, Geochronology, Yangtze Craton
DS2002-0939
2002
LiLi, Aibing, Fischer, K.M., Van der Lee, S., Wysession, M.Crust and upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath eastern North AmericaJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol.107,5, May 28, 10.1029/2002JB001891AppalachiaCore - mantle boundary, Geophysics - seismics
DS2002-1745
2002
LiXiao, W.J., Windley, B.F., Chen, H.L.,Zhang, G.C., LiCarboniferous Triassic subduction and accretion in the western Kunln: implications for collisional tectonics..Geology, Vol. 30,4,Apr.pp.295-8.China, TibetTectonics - accretionary
DS201506-0300
2015
LiWu, Xiao, Xu, Santosh, Li, Huang, Hou.Geochronology and geochemistry of felsic xenoliths in lamprophyre dikes from the southeastern margin of the North Chin a Craton: implications for the interleaving of the Dabie Sulu orogenic crust.International Geology Review, Vol. 57, 9-10, pp. 1305-1325.ChinaDabie Sulu
DS201809-2016
2018
LiDuan, Yunfei, Sun, Ningyu, Wang, Siheng, Li, Xinyang, Guo, Xuan, Ni.Phase stability and thermal equation of state of delta -AIOOH: implication for water transportation in the deep lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 494, 1, pp. 92-98.Mantlewater

Abstract: In this study, we present new experimental constraints on the phase stability and thermal equation of state of an important hydrous phase, d-AlOOH, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 142 GPa and 2500 K. Our experimental results have shown that d-AlOOH remains stable at the whole mantle pressure-temperature conditions above the D? layer yet will decompose at the core-mantle boundary because of a dramatic increase in temperature from the silicate mantle to the metallic outer core. At the bottom transition zone and top lower mantle, the formation of d-AlOOH by the decomposition of phase Egg is associated with a ~2.1-2.5% increase in density (?) and a ~19.7-20.4% increase in bulk sound velocity (VF). The increase in ? across the phase Egg to d-AlOOH phase transition can facilitate the subduction of d-AlOOH to the lower mantle. Compared to major lower-mantle phases, d-AlOOH has the lowest ? but greatest VF, leading to an anomalous low ? /VF ratio which can help to identify the potential presence of d-AlOOH in the region. More importantly, water released from the breakdown of d-AlOOH at the core-mantle boundary could lower the solidus of the pyrolitic mantle to cause partial melting and/or react with Fe in the region to form the low-velocity FeO2Hx phase. The presence of partial melting and/or the accumulation of FeO2Hx phase at the CMB could be the cause for the ultra-low velocity zone. d-AlOOH is thus an important phase to transport water to the lowermost mantle and helps to understand the origin of the ultra-low velocity zone.
DS201901-0083
2018
LiSun, N., Wei, W., Han, S., Song, J., Li, X, Duan, Y., Prakapenka, V.B., Mao, Z.Phase transition and thermal equations of state of ( Fe, Al) - bridgmanite and post-perovskite: implication for the chemical heterogeneity at the lowermost mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 490, 1, pp. 161-169.Mantlegeothermometry

Abstract: In this study, we have determined the phase boundary between Mg0.735Fe0.21Al0.07Si0.965O3-Bm and PPv and the thermal equations of state of both phases up to 202 GPa and 2600 K using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in laser heated diamond anvil cells. Our experimental results have shown that the combined effect of Fe and Al produces a wide two-phase coexistence region with a thickness of 26 GPa (410 km) at 2200 K, and addition of Fe lowers the onset transition pressure to 98 GPa at 2000 K, consistent with previous experimental results. Furthermore, addition of Fe was noted to reduce the density (?) and bulk sound velocity () contrasts across the Bm-PPv phase transition, which is in contrast to the effect of Al. Using the obtained phase diagram and thermal equations of state of Bm and PPv, we have also examined the effect of composition variations on the ? and profiles of the lowermost mantle. Our modeling results have shown that the pyrolitic lowermost mantle should be highly heterogeneous in composition and temperature laterally to match the observed variations in the depth and seismic signatures of the D? discontinuity. Normal mantle in a pyrolitic composition with ~10% Fe and Al in Bm and PPv will lack clear seismic signature of the D? discontinuity because the broad phase boundary could smooth the velocity contrast between Bm and PPv. On the other hand, Fe-enriched regions close to the cold slabs may show a seismic signature with a change in the velocity slope of the D? discontinuity, consistent with recent seismic observations beneath the eastern Alaska. Only regions depleted in Fe and Al near the cold slabs would show a sharp change in velocity. Fe in such regions could be removed to the outer core by strong core-mantle interactions or partitions together with Al to the high-pressure phases in the subduction mid ocean ridge basalts. Our results thus have profound implication for the composition of the lowermost mantle.
DS202007-1159
2020
LiLi, W, Yang, Z., Chiaradia, M., Yong, L., Caho, Yu., Zhang, J.Redox state of southern Tibetan mantle and ultrapotassic magmas. Lhasa TerraneGeology, Vol. 48, 7, pp. 733-736. pdfAsia, Tibetalkaline rocks

Abstract: The redox state of Earth’s upper mantle in several tectonic settings, such as cratonic mantle, oceanic mantle, and mantle wedges beneath magmatic arcs, has been well documented. In contrast, oxygen fugacity (graphic) data of upper mantle under orogens worldwide are rare, and the mechanism responsible for the mantle graphic condition under orogens is not well constrained. In this study, we investigated the graphic of mantle xenoliths derived from the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle beneath the Himalayan orogen, and that of postcollisional ultrapotassic volcanic rocks hosting the xenoliths. The graphic of mantle xenoliths ranges from ?FMQ = +0.5 to +1.2 (where ?FMQ is the deviation of log graphic from the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer), indicating that the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle is more oxidized than cratonic and oceanic mantle, and it falls within the typical range of mantle wedge graphic values. Mineralogical evidence suggests that water-rich fluids and sediment melts liberated from both the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab and perhaps the Indian continental plate could have oxidized the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle. The graphic conditions of ultrapotassic magmas show a shift toward more oxidized conditions during ascent (from ?FMQ = +0.8 to +3.0). Crustal evolution processes (e.g., fractionation) could influence magmatic graphic, and thus the redox state of mantle-derived magma may not simply represent its mantle source.
DS1998-0869
1998
Li, A.Li, A., Fischer, K.M., Clarke, T.J.Mantle discontinuities and temperature under the North American continentalkeel.Nature, Vol. 395, No. 6698, Sept. 10, pp. 160-63.North America, Canada, United StatesMantle, Geothermometry
DS2002-0938
2002
Li, A.Li, A., Fischer, K.M., Van Der Lee, S., Wysession, M.E.Crust and upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath eastern North AmericaJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. 5, ESE7AppalachiaGeophysics - seismics, Core-mantle boundary
DS2003-0806
2003
Li, A.Li, A., Forsyth, D.W., Fischer, K.M.Shear velocity structure and azimuthal anisotropy beneath eastern North America fromJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, B8, 2362 Aug. 2, 10.1029/2002jb002259United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-1124
2003
Li, A.Li, A., Forsyth, D.W., Fischer, K.M.Shear velocity structure and azimuthal anisotropy beneath eastern North America from Rayleigh inversion.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, B8, 2362 Aug. 2, 10.1029/2002 jb002259United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0810
2006
Li, A.Li, A., Burke, K.Upper mantle structure of southern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, B 10, B 10303.Africa, South Africa, BotswanaGeophysics - seismics
DS200712-0161
2007
Li, A.Chai, Y., Li, A., Shi, Y., He, J., Zhang, K.Kimberlites identification by classification methods.Lecture Notes in Computer Science, No. 4488, pp. 409-414.TechnologyClassification
DS200712-0162
2007
Li, A.Chai, Y., Li, A., Shi, Y., He, J., Zhang, K.Kimberlites identification by classification methods.Lecture Notes in Computer Science, No. 4488, pp. 409-414.TechnologyClassification
DS200712-1233
2006
Li, A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, A., Zhang, J.Some key issues in reconstructions of Proterozoic supercontinents.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 1, Oct. 15, pp. 3-19.Russia, United StatesAldan, Wyoming , Laurentia, paleomagnetism
DS200812-1295
2008
Li, A.Yang, Y., Li, A., Ritzwoller, M.H.Crustal and uppermost mantle structure in southern Africa revealed from ambient noise and teleseismic tomography.Geophysical Journal International, In Press available.Africa, South AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-1296
2008
Li, A.Yang, Y., Li, A., Ritzwoller, M.H.Crustal and uppermost mantle structure in southern Africa revealed from ambient noise and teleseismic tomography.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 174, 1, pp. 235-248.Africa, South AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-1297
2008
Li, A.Yang, Y., Li, A., Ritzwoller, M.H.Crustal and uppermost mantle structure in southern Africa revealed from ambient noise and teleseismic tomography.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 174, pp. 235-248.Africa, South AfricaTomography
DS201112-0589
2011
Li, A.Li, A.Shear wave model of southern Africa from regional rayleigh wave tomography.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 185, 2, May pp. 832-844.Africa, South AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201212-0125
2012
Li, A.Chen, C-W., Li, A.Shear wave structure in the Grenville Province beneath the lower Great Lake region from Rayleigh wave tomography.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B1, B01303United StatesGeophysics, seismics
DS201612-2292
2016
Li, A.Dave, R., Li, A.Destruction of the Wyoming craton: seismic evidence and geodynamic processes.Geology, Vol. 44, 11, pp. 883-886.United States, Wyoming, Colorado PlateauWyoming craton - kimberlites

Abstract: Cratons are old and strong continental cores where the lithosphere is thick and remains largely undeformed for 2-3 b.y. Unlike typical cratons, the Wyoming craton underwent pervasive deformation ca. 80-55 Ma during the Laramide orogeny in the west-central United States, and has been subsequently encroached upon by the Yellowstone hotspot since 2.0 Ma. However, the mechanism for the deformation and the craton-hotspot interaction are not well understood. We present here a three-dimensional shear wave velocity model beneath the Wyoming craton constrained from Rayleigh wave data, which reveal new details about the cratonic lithosphere. The average lithosphere thickness beneath the craton is ~150 km, significantly thinner than a normal cratonic root (>200 km). Continuous low velocities are observed beneath the Yellowstone hotspot and the Cheyenne belt. A low-velocity column is also present in the central-eastern craton at depths of 115-250 km. These low velocities can be explained by hot temperature and partial melting, implying mantle upwelling. A high-velocity anomaly with a dripping shape in central Wyoming extends to 200-250 km depth, indicating mantle downwelling and lithosphere erosion. Our model provides the first seismic evidence for complex small-scale mantle convection beneath the Wyoming craton. The convection probably developed during the subduction of the Farallon plate and has been reinforced by the Yellowstone hotspot. We propose that the combination of flat-slab subduction, small-scale convection, and hotspot activity can lead to massive destruction of a cratonic lithosphere.
DS1996-1590
1996
Li, B.Zhan, M., Li, B.The confirmation and study on Cenozoic kimberlites, Anyuan, southernChina.International Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 396.ChinaKimberlites, Deposit -Anyuan
DS1998-0872
1998
Li, B.Liebermann, R.C., Li, B.Elasticity at high pressures and temperaturesReviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 37, pp. 459-524.MantleMineralogy, Petrology - experimental
DS200512-0590
2005
Li, B.Kung, J., Li, B.In situ measurement for the unquenchable high pressure clinopyroxene phase: implication for the upper mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, 1, Jan. 16, L01307 10.1029/2004 GLO21661MantleUHP
DS200512-0630
2005
Li, B.Li, B., Zhang, J.Pressure and temperature dependence of elastic wave velocity of MgSiO3 perovskite and the composition of the lower mantle.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 151, 1-2, pp. 143-154.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0246
2006
Li, B.Chen, D., Ni, T., Deloule, E., Li, B.Zircon Lu Hf and U Pb isotopic compositions in ultrahigh pressure eclogite from Dabie orogen eastern central China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, 1, p. 19, abstract only.ChinaUHP
DS200612-0816
2006
Li, B.Liebermann, R.C., Kung, J., Li, B., Jackson, I.Elastic properties of pyroxene polymorphs of MgSiO3 and implications for seismic models and discontinuities in the Earth's upper mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 18, abstract only.MantleGeophysics - seismic
DS200712-0172
2007
Li, B.Chen, D., Deloule, E., Li, B., Ni, T.Zircon Lu-Hf isotope and its significance to ultra high pressure metamorphic rocks from Dabie Terrain, Eastern China.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A164.ChinaUHP
DS200812-0087
2008
Li, B.Bass, J.D., Sinogelkin, S.V., Li, B.Elastic properties of minerals: a key to understanding the composition and temperatures of Earth's interior.Elements, Vol. 4, 3, June pp. 165-170.MantleMineral physics
DS201412-0507
2014
Li, B.Li, B., Liebermann, R.C.Study of the Earth's interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 233, pp. 135-153.MantleSpectroscopy
DS201502-0051
2015
Li, B.Chen, T., Gwanmesia, G.D., Wang, X., Zou, Y., Liebermann, R.C., Michaut, C., Li, B.Anomalous elastic properties of coesite at high pressure and implications for the upper mantle X-discontinuity.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 412, pp. 42-51.MantleCoesite

Abstract: Compressional and shear wave velocities of coesite have been measured using ultrasonic interferometry in a multi-anvil apparatus up to 12.6 GPa at room temperature for the first time. While the P wave velocity increases continuously with pressure, the S wave exhibits an anomalous softening and the velocity decreases continuously with pressure. Finite strain analysis of the data yielded KS0=103.6(4) GPaKS0=103.6(4) GPa, G0=61.6(2) GPaG0=61.6(2) GPa and View the MathML sourceK0'=2.9(1), View the MathML sourceG0'=0.3(1) for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives, respectively. The anomalous elastic behavior of coesite results in large velocity and impedance contrasts across the coesite–stishovite transition, reaching ~39% and ~48% for P and S wave velocity contrasts, and ~70% and 78% for P and S wave impedance contrasts, respectively, at pressure ~8 GPa, with P and S wave velocity perturbations showing no apparent dependence on depths (i.e., View the MathML sourcedln?V(PorS)/dh~0) within 8–12 GPa. These unusually large contrasts and depth independent characteristics render the transition between the two silica polymorphs one of the most plausible candidates for the cause of the seismically observed X-discontinuity. The current P and S wave velocity perturbation dependences on the SiO2 content, d(ln?VP)/d(SiO2)~0.43 (wt%)-1d(ln?VP)/d(SiO2)~0.43 (wt%)-1 and d(ln?VS)/d(SiO2)~0.60 (wt%)-1d(ln?VS)/d(SiO2)~0.60 (wt%)-1, can serve as a geophysical probe to track ancient subducted eclogite materials to gain insights on the geodynamics of the mantle.
DS202012-2229
2020
Li, B.Massonne, H-J., Li, B.Zoning of eclogitic garnet cores - a key pattern demonstrating the dominance of tectonic erosion as part of the burial process of worldwide occurring eclogites.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 210, 103356 27p. PdfMantleeclogites
DS202102-0206
2020
Li, B.Massonne, H-J., Li, B.Zoning of eclogitic garnet cores - a key pattern demonstrating the dominance of tectonic erosion as part of the burial process of worldwide occurring eclogites.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 210, doi.org/10.1016 /j.earscirev.2020. 103356 27p. Pdf MantleUHP, geodynamics

Abstract: Eclogites are witnesses of geodynamic processes that are commonly related to subduction of oceanic crust. Information on the part of these processes that refers to the burial of this rock type is rarely published but stored in the eclogitic garnet core and inclusions therein. To better understand general aspects of the burial process, a literature search on the chemical characteristics of garnet in worldwide occurrences of eclogite was undertaken. In most cases extended garnet cores show either a prograde growth zoning with increasing Mg, starting at a few percent of pyrope component, and decreasing Mn contents (type I eclogite) or a (nearly) constant chemical composition frequently with pyrope contents significantly above 10 percent (eclogites of types II and III). Only in minor cases, it is difficult to assign the reported garnet core to an eclogite type. The growth zoning of garnet was thermodynamically modelled for the chemical composition of a basalt following different burial paths. These paths are characterized either by a trajectory along a low geothermal gradient (type I eclogite), as expected for the subducting upper portion of oceanic crust, or a one characterized by nearly isothermal burial at temperatures above 500 °C reaching peak pressures up to 2.1 GPa (type III eclogite), as possibly due to crustal thickening during continent-continent collision, or more (type II eclogite) when basic rocks are tectonically eroded from the overriding continental plate before deep subduction. In addition, diffusion modelling was undertaken on mm-sized garnet demonstrating that the characteristics of the core zoning are not fully obliterated even during residence at temperatures of 800-850 °C within 10 million years. The scrutiny of more than 200 eclogites reported in the literature led to the following result: about half of them are type II eclogites; a third and a sixth can be related to type I and type III, respectively. Among type III are almost all of the few Proterozoic eclogites considered. To demonstrate the benefit of our study, we link the core zoning of eclogitic garnet from various (ultra)high-pressure terranes in Phanerozoic orogenic belts to the geodynamics shaping corresponding orogens. The eclogites in these belts are dominated by type II. Thus, we propose that some of the material of the lower portion of the overriding continental crust was tectonically eroded by a subducted oceanic plate and brought to great depth. Afterwards, this material was exhumed first in a deep subduction channel and then in an exhumation channel during continent-continent collision where a contact with the upper continental plate was re-established. Furthermore, we suggest that type II eclogite can also occur in extrusion wedges as far as oblique subduction took place.
DS2003-0807
2003
Li, C.Li, C., Ripley, E.M., Mathez, E.A.The effect of S on the partitioning of Ni between olivine and silicate melt in MORBChemical Geology, Vol. 201, 3-4, pp. 293-306.MantleGeochemistry - nickel
DS200412-0747
2004
Li, C.Guo, F., Fan, W., Wang, Y., Li, C.When did the Emeishan mantle plume activity start? Geochronological and geochemical evidence from ultramafic mafic dykes in soutInternational Geology Review, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 226-234.ChinaPlume, geochronology
DS200412-1125
2003
Li, C.Li, C., Ripley, E.M., Mathez, E.A.The effect of S on the partitioning of Ni between olivine and silicate melt in MORB.Chemical Geology, Vol. 201, 3-4, pp. 293-306.MantleGeochemistry - nickel
DS200612-0512
2006
Li, C.Guo, F., Fan, W., Li, C.Geochemistry of late Mesozoic adakites from the Sulu belt, China: magma genesis and implications for crustal recycling beneath continental collisional orogens.Geological Magazine, Vol. 143, 1, pp. 1-13.ChinaCrust, Geochemistry REE, eclogite
DS200612-0811
2006
Li, C.Li, C., Van der Hilst, R.D., Toksoz, M.N.Constraining P wave velocity variations in the upper mantle beneath southeast Asia.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 154, 2, Feb. 16, pp. 180-195.Asia, ChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0812
2006
Li, C.Li, H., Wang, L., Li, C., Hu, D., Yu, D.S wave velocity structure of the lithosphere beneath the western Dabie Mountain, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 15, abstract only.ChinaUHP, geophysics - seismics
DS200712-1133
2007
Li, C.Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Xu, J., Jian, P., Zhao, Z., Li, C., Xu, W., Ma, J., He, B.Early Cretaceous adakitic granites in the northern Dabie Complex, central China: implications for partial melting and delamination of thickened lower crust.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 71, 10, May 15, pp. 2609-2636.ChinaUHP - Dabie Shon
DS200812-0661
2008
Li, C.Li,C., Vander Hilst, R., Meltzer, A.S., Engdahl, E.R.Subduction of the Indian lithosphere beneath the Tibetan Plateau and Burma.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 274, 1-2, pp. 157-168.Asia, Tibet, MyanmarSubduction
DS201112-0590
2011
Li, C.Li, C., Guo, F., Fan, W.Lower crustal melting via magma underplating: elemental Sr Nd Pb isotopic constraints from late Mesozoic intermediate felsic volcanic rocks in NE Chin a block.Island Arc, in press available,ChinaGeochemistry, alkaline - shoshonites
DS201709-2035
2017
Li, C.Morrison, S.M., Liu, C., Prabhu, E.A., Li, C., Downs, R.J., Golden, J.J., Fox, P., Hummer, D.R., Meyer, M.B., Hazen, R.M.Network analysis of mineralogical systems.American Mineralogist, in press availableTechnologydata sets

Abstract: A fundamental goal of mineralogy and petrology is the deep understanding of mineral phase relationships and the consequent spatial and temporal patterns of mineral coexistence in rocks, ore bodies, sediments, meteorites, and other natural polycrystalline materials. The multi-dimensional chemical complexity of such mineral assemblages has traditionally led to experimental and theoretical consideration of 2-, 3-, or n-component systems that represent simplified approximations of natural systems. Network analysis provides a dynamic, quantitative, and predictive visualization framework for employing “big data” to explore complex and otherwise hidden higher-dimensional patterns of diversity and distribution in such mineral systems. We introduce and explore applications of mineral network analysis, in which mineral species are represented by nodes, while coexistence of minerals is indicated by lines between nodes. This approach provides a dynamic visualization platform for higher-dimensional analysis of phase relationships, because topologies of equilibrium phase assemblages and pathways of mineral reaction series are embedded within the networks. Mineral networks also facilitate quantitative comparison of lithologies from different planets and moons, the analysis of coexistence patterns simultaneously among hundreds of mineral species and their localities, the exploration of varied paragenetic modes of mineral groups, and investigation of changing patterns of mineral occurrence through deep time. Mineral network analysis, furthermore, represents an effective visual approach to teaching and learning in mineralogy and petrology.
DS201805-0986
2018
Li, C.van de Locht, J., Hoffmann, J.E., Li, C., Wang, Z., Becker, H., Rosing, M.T., Kleinschrodt, R., Munker, C.Earth's oldest mantle peridotites show entire record of late accretion.Geology, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 199-202.Europe, Greenlandperidotites

Abstract: An important issue in Earth’s earliest history is the timing and mixing history of the late accreted material that supplied highly siderophile elements to Earth’s mantle after core segregation. Previously, constraints on ancient mantle processes could only be obtained indirectly from mantle-derived magmas such as basalts or komatiites. Relics of Eoarchean (older than 3.8 Ga) mantle were proposed to occur within the Eoarchean terrains of western Greenland. Here we provide geochemical evidence, including combined platinum group element (PGE) and Re-Os isotope data, showing that modern mantle-like peridotites occur at two localities in southwest Greenland. Rhenium-depletion model ages of these peridotites are mostly of Eoarchean age, in accord with U-Pb zircon ages of crosscutting granitoid intrusives. PGE abundances and patterns are similar to those of modern depleted mantle peridotites. For the first time, such patterns provide conclusive evidence for preservation of Eoarchean depleted mantle rocks that are clearly distinguishable from magmatic cumulates or komatiites. Abundances of Os, Ir, and Ru combined with Os isotope compositions in the Greenland peridotites reveal that primitive late accreted material appears to have been efficiently mixed into the sampled mantle domains by Eoarchean time.
DS200612-1507
2006
Li, C-F.Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Xu, J-F., Zhao, Z-H., Jian, P., Xiong, X-L., Bao, Z-W., Li, C-F., Bai, Z-H.Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui Province: implications for geodynamics and Cu-Au mineralization.Lithos, In pressChinaShoshonites - not specific to diamond
DS202107-1139
2021
Li, C-y.Sun, W-D., Zhang, L., Li, R., Xie, G., Liu, L., Li, C-y., Zhang, L. Origin of kimberlite from the base of the upper mantle.Research Square, doi.org/10.21203/rs-532988/v1 19p. PdfMantlemagmatism
DS202104-0598
2021
Li, D.Pearson, D.G., Li, D., Xu, Y., Liu, S-A., Chu, Z., Chen, L-H., Li, S.Oxidation of the deep mantle wedge by recycled carbonates: constraints from highly siderophile elements and osmium isotopes.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 295, pp. 207-223.Chinanephelinites, basanites

Abstract: Widespread Cenozoic intraplate basalts from eastern China offer the opportunity to investigate the consequences of interaction between the stagnant Pacific slab and overlying asthenosphere and chemical heterogeneity within this “big mantle wedge”. We present and compile a comprehensive study of highly siderophile elements and Mg-Zn isotopes of this magmatic suite (60 samples including nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and tholeiites). The large-scale Mg-Zn isotopic anomalies documented in these basalts have been ascribed to mantle hybridization by recycled Mg-carbonates from the stagnant western Pacific plate. Our results reveal that the nephelinites and basanites are characterized by unfractionated platinum-group element (PGE) patterns normalized to primitive upper mantle (PUM) (e.g., PdN/IrN normalized to PUM?=?1.1?±?0.8, 1s), relatively high total PGE contents (e.g., Ir?=?0.25?±?0.14?ppb) and modern mantle-like 187Os/188Os (0.142?±?0.020). These characteristics are coupled with lighter Mg isotope (d26Mg?=?-0.48?±?0.07‰) and heavier Zn isotope (d66Zn = +0.46?±?0.06‰) compositions compared to the mantle values (d26Mg: -0.25?±?0.07‰; d66Zn: +0.18?±?0.05‰). Together, these data are interpreted to reflect the oxidative breakdown of low proportions of mantle sulfides in the sources of these small-degree melts, likely caused by recycled carbonates, which then release chalcophile-siderophile elements into carbonatitic melts. By contrast, the contemporaneous alkali basalts and tholeiites are characterized by highly fractionated PGE patterns (e.g., PdN/IrN?=?4.4?±?3.3; Ir?=?0.037?±?0.027?ppb) and radiogenic 187Os/188Os (0.279?±?0.115) coupled with less fractionated Mg-Zn isotope compositions (d26Mg: -0.39?±?0.05‰; d66Zn: +0.35?±?0.03‰). In combination with other isotopic (e.g., Sr-Nd) and chemical (SiO2, Ce/Pb, Ba/Th, Fe/Mn) constraints, the alkali basalts and tholeiites were derived from higher degree melting of ancient pyroxenite-bearing mantle in addition to mixing with the aforementioned nephelinitic and basanitic melts. Collectively, we suggest that deep recycled carbonates promoted melting within the "big mantle wedge" leading to the generation of Cenozoic intraplate basalts across eastern China and the "redox freezing of carbonates" may cause the oxidation of Fe0 and S2-. This process may provide an important mechanism to oxidize mantle sulfides and transfer precious metals from deep mantle to crust.
DS200812-1280
2008
Li, E.Xu, C., Qi, L., Huang, Z., Chen, Y., Yu, X., Wang, L., Li, E.Abundances and significance of platinum group elements in carbonatites from China.Lithos, in press available, 7p.ChinaCarbonatite
DS1970-0340
1971
Li, F.S.Li, F.S.Interpretation of a Gravity Profile Across the Midcontinent gravity High at Latitude 45 30.Msc. Thesis, University Minnesota., GlobalMid-continent, Kimberley
DS202106-0952
2021
Li, G.Li, W., Xie, X., Song, J., Xie, R., Wang, J., Li, G.,Hou, H., Lu, J.Assessment and source identification of toxic metals in an abandoned synthetic diamond production plant from Anhui Province, China.Environmental Forensics, Vol. 22, 3-4, pp. 340-350. abstract onlyChinasynthetics

Abstract: In this study, soil and sediment samples along with groundwater samples were collected and analyzed from an abandoned synthetic diamond production plant in Anhui Province, South China. Chemical analysis, pollution characteristics analysis, and correlation analysis were conducted to assess and to determine the source(s) of the toxic metal and organic pollutions in the study sites. The Co and Ni concentrations of soil samples collected from the production area exceed the risk screening value for contaminated development land in Soil Environment Quality Standards for soil pollution risk control on construction land (Trial) of China, while the concentrations of other toxic elements such as Cr, Cu, and Zn are lower than the screening value. The PCA and HCA results are consistent with the correlation coefficient analysis and indicate that industrial activities are the main sources of Co and Ni. The chemical composition and source analysis results of soil and groundwater show that toxic metals originating from catalyst and low pH value from acid waste water should be the main point of concern in the synthetic diamond production plant.
DS1991-0986
1991
Li, H.Li, H., Schwarcz, H.P., Shaw, D.M.Deep crustal oxygen isotope variations: the Wawa Kapuskasing crustaltransect, OntarioContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 107, pp. 448-458OntarioTectonics, Kapuskasing structural zone
DS2003-0810
2003
Li, H.Li, Q., Li, S., Zheng, Y.F., Li, H., Massone, H.J., Wang, Q.A high precision U Pb age of metamorphic rutile in coesite bearing eclogite from theChemical Geology, Vol. 200, 3-4, pp. 255-65.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS2003-0820
2003
Li, H.Ling, W., Gao, S., Zhang, B., Li, H., Liu, Y., Cheng, J.Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the northwestern Yangtze Craton, South China:Precambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.111-140.China, RodiniaTectonics
DS200412-1128
2003
Li, H.Li, Q., Li, S., Zheng, Y.F., Li, H., Massone, H.J., Wang, Q.A high precision U Pb age of metamorphic rutile in coesite bearing eclogite from the Dabie Mountains in central China: a new conChemical Geology, Vol. 200, 3-4, pp. 255-65.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS200412-1139
2003
Li, H.Ling, W., Gao, S., Zhang, B., Li, H., Liu, Y., Cheng, J.Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the northwestern Yangtze Craton, South China: implications for amalgamation and break up ofPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.111-140.China, RodiniaTectonics
DS200412-2223
2004
Li, H.Zheng, J., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Lu, F., Yu, C., Zhang, M., Li, H.U Pb and Hf isotope analysis of zircons in mafic xenoliths from Fuxian kimberlites: evolution of the lower crust beneath the NorContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 148, 1, pp. 79-103.ChinaGeochronology - Fuxian
DS200612-0812
2006
Li, H.Li, H., Wang, L., Li, C., Hu, D., Yu, D.S wave velocity structure of the lithosphere beneath the western Dabie Mountain, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 15, abstract only.ChinaUHP, geophysics - seismics
DS200812-1234
2008
li, H.Wang, D., li, H., Li, S.Baoping.The electrical conductivity of upper mantle rocks: water content in the upper mantle.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 157-162.MantleHydrous
DS200912-0316
2009
Li, H.Huang, Z., Li, H., Zheng, Y., Peng, Y.The lithosphere of North Chin a craton from surface wave tomography.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 288, 1-2, pp. 164-173.ChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0439
2010
Li, H.Li, H., Gerya, T.V., Burg, J.P.Influence of tectonic overpressure on P-T paths of HP-UHP rocks in continental collision zones: thermomechanical modeling.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 28, 3, pp. 227-247.MantleUHP
DS201112-0591
2011
Li, H.Li, H., Li, S., Song, D., Gong, M., Li, X., Jia, J.Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath northwestern Chin a from seismic ambient noise tomography.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-0592
2011
Li, H.Li, H., Wang, D., Cheng, X.Metamorphic fluid activities and their effects on petrologgical and geochemical characteristics of UHP rocks, southern Sulu UHP terrane, China.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1310.ChinaUHP - eclogites
DS201508-0364
2015
Li, H.Li, H., Zhang, Z., Ernst, R., Lu, L., Santosh, M., Zhang, D., Cheng, Z.Giant radiating mafic dyke swarm of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province: identifying the mantle plume centre.Terra Nova, Vol. 27, 4, pp. 247-257.ChinaMantle plume
DS201904-0804
2017
Li, H.Zhou, Z., Wang, G., Di, Y-J,m Gu, Y-C., Zhang, D., Zhu, W-p., Liu, C., Wu, C., Li, H., Chen, L.-z.Discovery of Mesoproterozoic kimberlite from Dorbed Benner, Inner Mongolia and its tectonic significance.Geochemistry International, doi:10.1002/gi.2939 14p.China, Mongoliadeposit - Longtou Shan

Abstract: Porphyritic olivine kimberlitic breccia, discovered in the Dörbed Banner of Inner Mongolia, Western China, is referred to as Longtou Shan Kimberlite in our study. This kimberlite occurs as a pipe in the Halahuogete Formation of Bayan Obo Group. Zircon U-Pb ages of Longtou Shan Kimberlite reveals a Mesoproterozoic age of ~1,552 Ma, constraining the deposition age of Halahuogete Formation to the Mesoproterozoic. Compared with Mesoproterozoic kimberlite of the ancient landmass, it can be inferred that the North China Craton is a member of the Ur ancient continent of the Columbia supercontinent. Furthermore, according to the tectonic background of the Bayan Obo Group, we raise this possibility that “Bayan Obo Aulacogen” should be renamed the “Bayan Obo Continental Rift.”
DS202108-1278
2021
Li, H.Ding, J., Zhang, S., Evans, D.A.D., Yang, T., Li, H.North China craton: the conjugate margin for northwestern Laurentia in Rodinia.Geology, Vol. 49, March pp. 773-778.ChinaRodinia

Abstract: In the Rodinia supercontinent, Laurentia is placed at the center because it was flanked by late Neoproterozoic rifted margins; however, the conjugate margin for western Laurentia is still enigmatic. In this study, new paleomagnetic results have been obtained from 15 ca. 775 Ma mafic dikes in eastern Hebei Province, North China craton (NCC). Stepwise thermal demagnetization revealed a high-temperature component, directed northeast or southwest with shallow inclinations, with unblocking temperatures of as high as 580 °C. Rock magnetism suggests the component is carried by single-domain and pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains. Its primary origin is supported by a positive reversal test and regional remanence direction correlation test, and the paleomagnetic pole (29.0°S, 64.7°E, A95 = 5.4°) is not similar to any published younger poles of the NCC. Matching the late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic (ca. 1110-775 Ma) apparent polar wander paths of the NCC and Laurentia suggests that the NCC could have been the conjugate margin for northwestern Laurentia in Rodinia, rather than sitting off the northeast coast of the main Rodinian landmass. Geological data indicate that breakup of the NCC and Laurentia occurred between ca. 775 and 720 Ma.
DS202108-1289
2021
Li, H.Hu, Z., Zeng, L., Foerster, M.W., Li, S., Zhao, L., Gao, L., Li, H., Yang, Y.Recycling of subducted continental crust: geochemical evidence from syn-exhumation Triassic alkaline mafic rocks of the southern Liaodong Peninsula, China.Lithos, 10.1016/j.lithos.2021.106353 13p. Chinaalkaline rocks

Abstract: Syn-exhumation mafic magmatism during continental collision provides insights into the crust-mantle reaction during deep subduction and the nature of orogenic lithospheric mantle in collisional orogens. In this study, we present a comprehensive data set of zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock major-trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of alkaline mafic rocks from the southern Liaodong Peninsula, eastern China. Zircon U-Pb analyses yield Late Triassic age of 213 ± 3 to 217 ± 3 Ma, younger than the Middle Triassic ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dabie-Sulu orogen. Thus, the alkaline mafic rocks are products of syn-exhumation magmatism during continental collision of the South and North China blocks. The rocks show shoshonitic affinities with high K2O (3.78-5.23 wt%) and K2O/Na2O (0.71-1.22). They are characterized by arc-like trace-element patterns with enriched LILE, Pb, and LREE, and depleted HFSE. They exhibit enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with high initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7058-0.7061 and negative eNd(t) values of -13.0 to -15.1. These results suggest involvement of recycled continental crust in their mantle source. The mantle source likely formed by the metasomatic reaction of subducted continental crust-derived melts with the overlying subcontinental lithospheric mantle during the Triassic continental collision. Decompressional melting of this metasomatized mantle formed syn-exhumation mafic magmas during the transition from convergent to extensional tectonics in the Late Triassic. Accordingly, mafic rocks from the southern Liaodong Peninsula provide a geochemical record of the subduction and recycling of continental crust into the mantle and melt-mantle reaction induced metasomatism within the orogen.
DS2003-0248
2003
Li, H.M.Chen, J.F., Xie, Z., Li, H.M., Zhang, X.D., Zhou, T.X., Park, Ahn, Chen, ZhangU Pb zircon ages for a collision related K rich complex at Shidao in the Sulu ultrahighGeochemical Journal, Vol. 37, pp. 35-46.ChinaBlank
DS200412-0319
2003
Li, H.M.Chen, J.F., Xie, Z., Li, H.M., Zhang, X.D., Zhou, T.X., Park, Ahn, Chen, ZhangU Pb zircon ages for a collision related K rich complex at Shidao in the Sulu ultrahigh pressure terrane, China.Geochemical Journal, Vol. 37, pp. 35-46.ChinaUHP, shoshonites
DS201312-1009
2013
Li, H-K.Zhang, C-L., Li, H-K., Santosh, M.Revisiting the tectonic evolution of South China: interaction between Rodinia superplume and plate subduction?Terra Nova, Vol. 25, 3, pp. 212-220.ChinaSubduction
DS201708-1586
2017
Li, H-Y.Zhou, Z-G., Wang, G-S., Di, Y-J., Gu, Y-C., Zhang, D., Zhu, W-P., Liu, C-F., Wu, C., Li, H-Y., Chen, L-Z.Discovery of Mesoproterozoic kimberlite from Dorbed Banner Inner Mongolia and its tectonic significance.Geological Journal, pp. 1-13.Asia, Mongoliadeposit - Longtou Shan

Abstract: Porphyritic olivine kimberlitic breccia, discovered in the Dörbed Banner of Inner Mongolia, Western China, is referred to as Longtou Shan Kimberlite in our study. This kimberlite occurs as a pipe in the Halahuogete Formation of Bayan Obo Group. Zircon U–Pb ages of Longtou Shan Kimberlite reveals a Mesoproterozoic age of ~1,552 Ma, constraining the deposition age of Halahuogete Formation to the Mesoproterozoic. Compared with Mesoproterozoic kimberlite of the ancient landmass, it can be inferred that the North China Craton is a member of the Ur ancient continent of the Columbia supercontinent. Furthermore, according to the tectonic background of the Bayan Obo Group, we raise this possibility that “Bayan Obo Aulacogen” should be renamed the “Bayan Obo Continental Rift.”
DS201802-0249
2018
Li, H-Y.Li, H-Y., Chen, R-X., Zheng, Y-F., Hu, Z.Water in garnet pyroxenite from the Sulu orogen: implications for crust mantle interaction in continental subduction zones.Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 18-38.Chinasubduction

Abstract: Mineral water contents, together with the major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock, were determined for garnet pyroxenites enclosed by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic gneiss at Hujialin in the Sulu orogen. The garnet pyroxenites have low SiO2 contents of 40.25 to 46.68 wt% and MgO contents of 10.99 to 14.79 wt%. They are characterized by enrichment in LREE and LILE (Ba, Sr, Pb) but depletion in HFSE (Nb, Zr) and HREE. They were generated in the Triassic by metasomatic reaction of the mantle wedge peridotite with hydrous felsic melts derived from partial melting of the deeply subducted continental crust. Measured water contents vary from 523 to 1213 ppm for clinopyroxene, and 55 to 1476 ppm for garnet. These mineral water contents are not only correlated with mineral major and trace element abundances but also relatively homogenous within single mineral grains. Such features preclude significant disturbance of the mineral water contents during pyroxenite exhumation from the mantle depth to the surface and thus indicate preservation of the primary water contents for the UHP metasomatites. The garnet pyroxenites are estimated to have bulk water contents of 424-660 ppm, which are higher than those for the MORB source, similar to or higher than those for the OIB sources and close to the lower limit for the arc magma source. The relationships between contents of mineral water and some elements suggest that the high water contents of garnet pyroxenites are primarily determined by the abundance of water-rich clinopyroxene. Garnet also has the high water contents, suggesting its importance in hosting water at mantle depths. Calculated whole-rock H2O/Ce ratios are 63-145, higher than those for Hawaiian garnet pyroxenites and SWIR abyssal pyroxenites. These observations suggest that metasomatic pyroxene-rich lithologies have the capacity to contribute high H2O concentrations and variable H2O/Ce ratios to the mantle. This lends support to the interpretation that the source of some intraplate basalts may be a heterogeneous mixture of peridotite and pyroxenite. On the other hand, the high water contents of garnet pyroxenites suggest that the presence of ultramafic metasomatites in the mantle wedge would enhance its water storage and thus reduce the water transport into deeper mantle by subduction.
DS1996-0840
1996
Li, J.Li, J., Agee, C.B.Geochemistry of mantle core differentiation at high pressuresNature, Vol. 381, No. 6584, June 20, pp. 686-688.MantleGeochemistry
DS2001-0682
2001
Li, J.Li, J., Agee, C.B.Element partitioning constraints on the light element composition of the Earth's core.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan. pp.81-4.MantleGeochemistry - core
DS2001-0683
2001
Li, J.Li, J., Fei, Y., Mao, H.K., Hirose, K., Shieh, S.R.Sulfur in the Earth's coreEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 193, No. 3-4, pp.509-14.MantleSulphur, Geochemistry
DS2002-0940
2002
Li, J.Li, J., Kusky, T.M., Huang, X.Archean podiform chromitites and mantle tectonites in ophioltic melange, north Chin a Craton: a record of early oceanic mantle processes.Gsa Today, Vol.12,7,July, pp. 4-11.ChinaChromite, ophiolites, Tectonics
DS2003-0608
2003
Li, J.Huang, X., Li, J., Niu, X.Microscopic deformation of the Neoarchean oceanic lithospheric mantle: evidence fromProgress in Natural Science, Taylor and Francis Publ., Vol. 13, 8, pp. 607-618.ChinaStructure
DS2003-0764
2003
Li, J.Kusky, T.M., Li, J.Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the North Chin a CratonJournal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 22, 4, pp. 383-97.ChinaTectonics
DS2003-0765
2003
Li, J.Kusky, T.M., Li, J.Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the North Chin a CratonJournal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 22, 4, December, pp. 383-397.ChinaBlank
DS200412-0857
2003
Li, J.Huang, X., Li, J., Niu, X.Microscopic deformation of the Neoarchean oceanic lithospheric mantle: evidence from the Zunhua Neoarchean ophiolitic melange, NProgress in Natural Science, Vol. 13, 8, pp. 607-618.ChinaStructure
DS200412-1073
2003
Li, J.Kusky, T.M., Li, J.Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the North Chin a Craton.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 22, 4, December, pp. 383-397.ChinaTectonics
DS200512-0631
2004
Li, J.Li, J., Niu, X., Kusky, T.Neoarchean plate tectonic evolution of North Chin a and its correlation with global cratonic blocks.Earth Science Frontiers, Vol. 11, 4, pp. 273-284. Ingenta 1045384780ChinaTectonics
DS200612-0602
2006
Li, J.Hou, G., Liu, Y., Li, J.Evidence for ~1.8 Ga extension of the Eastern block of the North Chin a Craton from SHRIMP U-Pb dating of mafic dyke swarms in Shandong Province.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, 4, Sept. 1, pp. 392-401.Asia, ChinaGeochronology
DS200612-1098
2006
Li, J.Polat, A., Herxberg, C., Munker, C., Rodgers, R., Kusky, T., Li, J., Fryer, B.Geochemical and petrological evidence for a supra subduction zone origin of Neoarchean (ca 2.5 Ga) peridotites, central orogenic belt, North Chin a craton.Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 118, 7, July pp. 771-784.ChinaPeridotite, picrites
DS200712-0474
2007
Li, J.Jackson, J.M., Sturhahn, W., Lerche, M., Li, J.Electronic structure of iron in aluminous ferromagnesium silicate perovskite under lower mantle conditions.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.146.MantlePerovskite
DS200712-0475
2007
Li, J.Jackson, J.M., Sturhahn, W., Lerche, M., Li, J.Electronic structure of iron in aluminous ferromagnesium silicate perovskite under lower mantle conditions.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.146.MantlePerovskite
DS200712-0589
2007
Li, J.Kusky, T., Li, J., Santosh, M.The Paleoproterozic North Hebei orogen: North Chin a craton's collisional suture with the Columbia supercontinent.Gondwana Research, Vol. 12, 1-2, August pp. 4-28.ChinaTectonics
DS200712-0590
2007
Li, J.Kusky, T., Li, J., Santosh, M.The Paleoproterozic North Hebei orogen: North Chin a craton's collisional suture with the Columbia supercontinent.Gondwana Research, Vol. 12, 1-2, August pp. 4-28.ChinaTectonics
DS200812-0486
2008
Li, J.Hou, G., Santosh, M., Qian, X., Lister, G.S., Li, J.Configuration of the Late Paleoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia: insights from radiating mafic dyke swarms.Gondwana Research, Vol. 14, pp. 395-409.Mantle, South America, ColombiaSupercontinents
DS200812-0653
2007
Li, J.Li, J.Electronic transitions and spin states in the lower mantle.AGU American Geophysical Union Monograph, No. 174, pp. 47-68.MantleGeophysics
DS200812-0654
2008
Li, J.Li, J., Chen, Q.F., Vanacore, E., Niu, F.Topography of the 660 km discontinuity beneath northeast China: implications for a retrograde motion of the subducting Pacific Slab.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, 1, L01302.ChinaSubduction
DS200912-0665
2009
Li, J.Santosh, M., Wan, Y., Liu, D., Chunyan, D., Li, J.Anatomy of zircons from an ultrahot orogen: the amalgamation of the North Chin a craton within the supercontinent Columbia.Journal of Geology, Vol. 117, pp. 429-443.ChinaCraton, geochronology
DS201012-0440
2010
Li, J.Li, J.,Xu, J-F., Suzuki, K., He, B., Xu, Y-G., Ren, Z-Y.Os, Nd and Sr isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Muli picrites: insights into the mantle source of the Emeishan large igneous province.Lithos, in press available, 15p.ChinaGeochronology
DS201012-0838
2010
Li, J.Wei, C.J., Li, J., Yu, Y., Zhang, J.S.Phase equilibration temperatures and metamorphic evolution of glaucophane bearing UHP eclogites from the western Dabie Shan terrane, central China.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 28, 6, pp. 647-666.ChinaUHP
DS201012-0872
2010
Li, J.Yang, J., Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Li, Y., Li, J., Jia, Y., Liu, Z., Ba, D.Diamond in the Purang peridotite Massif, west of the Yarlung Zangbu Suture, Tibet: a new discovery.Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, abstractAsia, TibetPurang Massif
DS201112-1131
2011
Li, J.Yang, J., Xu, X., Li, Y., Liu, Z., Li, J., Ba, D., Robinson, P.T.Diamond discovered from six different ultramafic massifs along the Yarlung Zangbu suture between the Indian and Eurasian plates.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Oct. 9-12, abstractAsia, IndiaMantle harzburgites
DS201112-1136
2011
Li, J.Ye, L., Li, J., Tseng, T-L., Yao, Z.A stagnant slab in a water bearing transition zone beneath northeast China: implications from regional SH waveform modelling.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 186, 2, pp. 706-710.ChinaSubduction
DS201312-0397
2014
Li, J.Carlson, R.W., Garnero, E., Harrison, T.M., Li, J., Manga, M., McDonough, W.F., Mukhopadhyay, S., Romanowicz, B., Rubie, D., Williams, Q., Zhong, S.Deep time: how did the early Earth become our modern world?Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 42, pp. 151-178.MantleConvection, composition
DS201312-0536
2014
Li, J.Li, J., Wang,-C., Ren, Z-Y., Xu, J-F., He, B., Xu, Y-G.Chemical heterogeneity of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidence from highly siderophile element abundances in picrites.Journal of Asian Earth Studies, Vol. 79, A, pp. 191-205.ChinaPicrite
DS201312-0983
2013
Li, J.Wood, B.J., Li, J., Shahar, A.Carbon in in the core: its influence on the properties of core and mantle.Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 75, pp. 231-350.MantleCarbon
DS201412-0100
2014
Li, J.Carlson, R.W., Garnero, E., Harrison, T.M., Li, J., Manga, M., McDonough, W.F., Mukhopadhyay, S., Romanowicz, B., Rubie, D., Williams, Q., Zhong, S.How did early Earth become our modern world?Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 42, pp. 151-178.MantleMelting
DS201703-0439
2016
Li, J.Wang, H., Li, J., Zhang, H., Xu, L., Li, W.The absolute paleoposition of the North Chin a block during the middle Ordovician.Science China Earth Sciences, Vol. 59, 3, pp. 573-582.ChinaCraton, North China

Abstract: Present-day hot spots and Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) and kimberlites mainly occur at the edges of the projections of Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) on the earth’s surface. If a plate contains accurately dated LIPs or kimberlites, it is possible to obtain the absolute paleoposition of the plate from the LIP/kimberlite and paleomagnetic data. The presence of Middle Ordovician kimberlites in the North China Block provides an opportunity to determine the absolute paleoposition of the block during the Middle Ordovician. In addition to paleobiogeographical information and the results of previous work on global plate reconstruction for the Ordovician Period, we selected published paleomagnetic data for the North China Block during the Middle Ordovician and determined the most reasonable absolute paleoposition of the North China Block during the Middle Ordovician: paleolatitude of approximately 16.6°S to 19.1°S and paleolongitude of approximately 10°W. The block was located between the Siberian Plate and Gondwana, close to the Siberian Plate. During the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, the North China Block may have moved toward the Siberian Plate and away from the Australian Plate.
DS201709-2021
2017
Li, J.Li, J., Xhu, F., Dong, J., Liu, J., LaI, X., Chen, B., Meng, Y.Experimental investigations into the fate of subducted carbonates and origin of super deep diamonds.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Mantlepetrology

Abstract: Carbonates are common rock-forming minerals in the Earth’s crust and act as sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Subduction of hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere returns carbon to the interior, where more than three quarters of Earth’s carbon is stored. The contribution of subducted carbonates to the Earth's long-term deep carbon cycle is uncertain and has recently emerged as a topic of intense debate [1]. Moreover, mantle-slab interaction has been proposed as a mechanism to produce super-deep diamonds, thus questioning the use of certain mineral inclusions to infer lower-mantle origin [2]. Here we report new data on the chemical stability and reaction kinetics of carbonates in the mantle from multianvil and diamond-anvil-cell experiments. Our results suggest that carbon can be sequestered into deep Earth through reaction freezing and that the index minerals for super-deep diamonds are not reliable indicators for their formation depths.
DS201904-0805
2019
Li, J.Zhu, F., Li, J., Liu, J., Lai, X., Chen, B., Meng, Y.Kinetic control on the depth of superdeep diamonds.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 4, pp. 1984-1992.Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Superdeep diamonds originate from great depths inside Earth, carrying samples from inaccessible mantle to the surface. The reaction between carbonate and iron may be an important mechanism to form diamond through interactions between subducting slabs and surrounding mantle. Interestingly, most superdeep diamonds formed in two narrow zones, at 250-450 and 600-800 km depths within the ~2,700-km-deep mantle. No satisfactory hypothesis explains these preferred depths of diamond formation. We measured the rate of a diamond forming reaction between magnesite and iron. Our data show that high temperature promotes the reaction, while high pressure does the opposite. Particularly, the reaction slows down drastically at about 475(±55) km depth, which may explain the rarity of diamond formation below 450 km depth. The only exception is the second zone at 600-800 km, where carbonate accumulates and warms up due to the stagnation of subducting slabs at the top of lower mantle, providing more reactants and higher temperature for diamond formation. Our study demonstrates that the depth distribution of superdeep diamonds may be controlled by reaction rates.
DS201910-2281
2019
Li, J.Liu, J., Dorfman, S.M., Lv, M., Li, J., Xhu, F., Kono, Y.Loss of immiscible nitrogen from metallic melt explains Earth's missing nitrogen.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 11, pp. 18-22.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen and carbon are essential elements for life, and their relative abundances in planetary bodies are important for understanding planetary evolution and habitability. The high C/N ratio in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) relative to chondrites has been difficult to explain through partitioning during core formation and outgassing from molten silicate. Here we propose a new model that may have released nitrogen from the metallic cores of accreting bodies during impacts with the early Earth. Experimental observations of melting in the Fe-N-C system via synchrotron X-ray radiography of samples in a Paris-Edinburgh press reveal that above the liquidus, iron-rich melt and nitrogen-rich liquid coexist at pressures up to at least 6 GPa. The combined effects of N-rich supercritical fluid lost to Earth’s atmosphere and/or space as well as N-depleted alloy equilibrating with the magma ocean on its way to the core would increase the BSE C/N ratio to match current estimates.
DS202002-0206
2020
Li, J.McCammon, C., Bureau, H., Cleaves II, H.J., Cottrell, E., Dorfman, S.M., Kellogg, L.H., Li, J., Mikhail, S., Moussallam, Y., Sanloup, C., Thomson, A.R., Brovarone, A.V.Deep Earth carbon reactions through time and space. ( mentions diamond)American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 22-27.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Reactions involving carbon in the deep Earth have limited manifestations on Earth's surface, yet they have played a critical role in the evolution of our planet. The metal-silicate partitioning reaction promoted carbon capture during Earth's accretion and may have sequestered substantial carbon in Earth's core. The freezing reaction involving iron-carbon liquid could have contributed to the growth of Earth's inner core and the geodynamo. The redox melting/freezing reaction largely controls the movement of carbon in the modern mantle, and reactions between carbonates and silicates in the deep mantle also promote carbon mobility. The 10-year activity of the Deep Carbon Observatory has made important contributions to our knowledge of how these reactions are involved in the cycling of carbon throughout our planet, both past and present, and has helped to identify gaps in our understanding that motivate and give direction to future studies.
DS202007-1150
2020
Li, J.Ionov, D.A., Liu, Z., Li, J., Golovin, A.V., Korsakov, A.V., Xu, Y.The age and origin of cratonic lithospheric mantle: Archean dunites vs paleoproterozoic harzburgites from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberian craton.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 281, pp. 67-90. pdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: Cratonic lithospheric mantle is believed to have been formed in the Archean, but kimberlite-hosted coarse peridotites from Udachnaya in the central Siberian craton typically yield Paleoproterozoic Re-depletion Os isotope ages (TRD). By comparison, olivine megacrysts from Udachnaya, sometimes called “megacrystalline peridotites”, often yield Archean TRD ages, but the nature of these rare materials remains enigmatic. We provide whole-rock (WR) Re-Os isotope and PGE analyses for 24 olivine-rich xenoliths from Udachnaya as well as modal and petrographic data, WR and mineral major and trace element compositions. The samples were selected based on (a) high olivine abundances in hand specimens and (b) sufficient freshness and size to yield representative WR powders. They comprise medium- to coarse-grained (olivine??1?cm) dunite, olivine megacrysts and low-orthopyroxene (11-21% opx) harzburgites equilibrated at 783-1154?°C and 3.9-6.5 GPa; coarse dunites have not been previously reported from Udachnaya; two xenoliths contain ilmenite. The harzburgites and dunites have similar WR variation ranges of Ca, Al, Fe, Cr and Mg# (0.917-0.934) typical of refractory cratonic peridotites, but the dunites tend to have higher MgO, NiO and Mg/Si. Mineral abundances and those of Ca and Al are not correlated with Mg#WR; they are not due to differences in melting degrees but are linked to metasomatism. Several samples with high 187Re/188Os show a positive linear correlation with 187Os/188Os with an apparent age of 0.37?Ga, same as eruption age of host kimberlite. Robust TRD ages were obtained for 16 xenoliths with low 187Re/188Os (0.02-0.13). TRD ages for low-opx harzburgites (1.9-2.1?Ga; average 2.0?±?0.1?Ga, 1 s) are manifestly lower than for dunites and megacrysts (2.4-3.1?Ga); the latter define two subsets with average TRD of 2.6?±?0.1?Ga and 3.0?±?0.1?Ga, and TMA of 3.0?±?0.2?Ga and 3.3?±?0.1?Ga, respectively. Differences in olivine grain size (coarse vs. megacrystalline) are not related to age. The age relations suggest that the dunites and megacrysts could not be produced by re-melting of harzburgites, e.g. in arc settings, nor be melt channel materials in harzburgites. Instead, they are relict fragments of lithospheric mantle formed in the Archean (likely in two events at or after 2.6?Ga and 3.0?Ga) that were incorporated into cratonic lithosphere during the final assembly of the Siberian craton in the Paleoproterozoic. A multi-stage formation of the Siberian lithospheric mantle is consistent with crustal basement ages from U-Pb dating of zircons from crustal xenoliths at Udachnaya and detrital zircons from the northern Siberian craton (1.8-2.0, 2.4-2.8 and 3.0-3.4?Ga). The new data from the Siberian and other cratons suggest that the formation of strongly melt-depleted cratonic lithosphere (e.g. Mg# =0.92) did not stop at the Archean-Proterozoic boundary as is commonly thought, but continued in the Paleoproterozoic. The same may be valid for the transition from the ‘Archean’ (4-2.5?Ga) to modern tectonic regimes.
DS202009-1673
2020
Li, J.Volante, S., Pouteau, A., Collins, W.J., Blereau, E., Li, Z-X., Smit, M., Evans, N.J., Nordsvan, A.R., Spencer, C.J., McDonald, B.J., Li, J., Gunter, C.Multiple P-T-d-t paths reveal the evolution of the final Nuna assembly in northeast Australia. Georgetown InlierJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 38, pp. 593-627.Australiageochronology

Abstract: The final assembly of the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent Nuna was marked by the collision of Laurentia and Australia at 1.60 Ga, which is recorded in the Georgetown Inlier of NE Australia. Here, we decipher the metamorphic evolution of this final Nuna collisional event using petrostructural analysis, major and trace element compositions of key minerals, thermodynamic modelling, and multi-method geochronology. The Georgetown Inlier is characterised by deformed and metamorphosed 1.70-1.62 Ga sedimentary and mafic rocks, which were intruded by c. 1.56 Ga old S-type granites. Garnet Lu-Hf and monazite U-Pb isotopic analyses distinguish two major metamorphic events (M1 at c. 1.60 Ga and M2 at c. 1.55 Ga), which allows at least two composite fabrics to be identified at the regional scale—c. 1.60 Ga S1 (consisting in fabrics S1a and S1b) and c. 1.55 Ga S2 (including fabrics S2a and S2b). Also, three tectono-metamorphic domains are distinguished: (a) the western domain, with S1 defined by low-P (LP) greenschist facies assemblages; (b) the central domain, where S1 fabric is preserved as medium-P (MP) amphibolite facies relicts, and locally as inclusion trails in garnet wrapped by the regionally dominant low-P amphibolite facies S2 fabric; and (c) the eastern domain dominated by upper amphibolite to granulite facies S2 foliation. In the central domain, 1.60 Ga MP-medium-T (MT) metamorphism (M1) developed within the staurolite-garnet stability field, with conditions ranging from 530-550°C at 6-7 kbar (garnet cores) to 620-650°C at 8-9 kbar (garnet rims), and it is associated with S1 fabric. The onset of 1.55 Ga LP-high-T (HT) metamorphism (M2) is marked by replacement of staurolite by andalusite (M2a/D2a), which was subsequently pseudomorphed by sillimanite (M2b/D2b) where granite and migmatite are abundant. P-T conditions ranged from 600 to 680°C and 4-6 kbar for the M2b sillimanite stage. 1.60 Ga garnet relicts within the S2 foliation highlight the progressive obliteration of the S1 fabric by regional S2 in the central zone during peak M2 metamorphism. In the eastern migmatitic complex, partial melting of paragneiss and amphibolite occurred syn- to post- S2, at 730-770°C and 6-8 kbar, and at 750-790°C and 6 kbar, respectively. The pressure-temperature-deformation-time paths reconstructed for the Georgetown Inlier suggest a c. 1.60 Ga M1/D1 event recorded under greenschist facies conditions in the western domain and under medium-P and medium-T conditions in the central domain. This event was followed by the regional 1.56-1.54 Ga low-P and high-T phase (M2/D2), extensively recorded in the central and eastern domains. Decompression between these two metamorphic events is ascribed to an episode of exhumation. The two-stage evolution supports the previous hypothesis that the Georgetown Inlier preserves continental collisional and subsequent thermal perturbation associated with granite emplacement.
DS202104-0614
2021
Li, J.Wang, W.,Liu, J., Yang, H., Dorfman, S.M., Lv, M., Li, J., Zhao, J., Hu, M.Y., bi, W., Alp, E.E., Xiao, Y., Wu, Z., Lin, J-F.Iron force constants of bridgmanite at high pressure: implications for iron isotope fractionation in the deep mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 294, pp. 215-231. pdfMantlebridgmanite

Abstract: The isotopic compositions of iron in major mantle minerals may record chemical exchange between deep-Earth reservoirs as a result of early differentiation and ongoing plate tectonics processes. Bridgmanite (Bdg), the most abundant mineral in the Earth’s lower mantle, can incorporate not only Al but also Fe with different oxidation states and spin states, which in turn can influence the distribution of Fe isotopes between Bdg and ferropericlase (Fp) and between the lower mantle and the core. In this study, we combined first-principles calculations with high-pressure nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering measurements to evaluate the effects of Fe site occupancy, valence, and spin states at lower-mantle conditions on the reduced Fe partition function ratio (ß-factor) of Bdg. Our results show that the spin transition of octahedral-site (B-site) Fe3+ in Bdg under mid-lower-mantle conditions generates a +0.09‰ increase in its ß-factor, which is the most significant effect compared to Fe site occupancy and valence. Fe2+-bearing Bdg varieties have smaller ß-factors relative to Fe3+-bearing varieties, especially those containing B-site Fe3+. Our models suggest that Fe isotopic fractionation between Bdg and Fp is only significant in the lowermost mantle due to the occurrence of low-spin Fe2+ in Fp. Assuming early segregation of an iron core from a deep magma ocean, we find that neither core formation nor magma ocean crystallization would have resulted in resolvable Fe isotope fractionation. In contrast, Fe isotopic fractionation between low-spin Fe3+-bearing Bdg/Fe2+-bearing Fp and metallic iron at the core-mantle boundary may have enriched the lowermost mantle in heavy Fe isotopes by up to +0.20‰.
DS200812-0655
2008
Li, J.C.Li, J.C.China's rising demand for minerals and emerging global norms and practices in the mining industry.Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 23, pp. 105-126.ChinaEconomics - demand not specific to diamonds
DS200612-1222
2006
Li, J.H.Santosh, M., Sajeev, K., Li, J.H.Extreme crustal metamorphism during Columbia supercontinent assembly: evidence from North Chin a Craton.Gondwana Research, Vol. 10, 3-4, pp. 256-266.ChinaMetamorphism
DS200812-1006
2008
Li, J.H.Santosh, M., Tsunogae, T., Ohyama, H., Sato, K., Li, J.H., Liu, S.J.Carbonic metamorphism at ultrahigh temperatures: evidence from North Chin a Craton.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 266, 1-2, pp. 149-165.ChinaUHP
DS201012-0890
2010
Li, J.P.Zhang, J.X., Mattinson, C.G., Yu, S.Y., Li, J.P., Meng, F.C.U-Pb zircon geochronology of coesite bearing eclogites from the southern Dulan areas of the North Qaidam UHP terrane, northwestern China: spatially and temporallyJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 28, 9, pp. 955-978.ChinaUHP - subduction
DS201012-0861
2010
Li, J-H.Wu, F.Y., Yang, Y-H., Mitchell, R.H., Li, J-H., Yang, J-H., Zhang, Y-B.In situ U Pb age determination and Nd isotopic analysis of perovskites from kimberlites in southern Africa and Somerset Island, Canada.Lithos, Vol. 115, pp. 205-222.Canada, Nunavut, Africa, South AfricaGeochronology
DS202107-1147
2021
Li, J-H.Zhang, W., Chen, H-K, Li, J-H., Chen, W.T., Zhang, X-C.Composition of ore-forming fluids in the Huangshuian carbonatite-related Mo-(REE) deposit: insights from LA-ICP-MS analyses of fluid inclusions.Ore Geology Reviews, doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104284 11p. PdfChinaREE

Abstract: The carbonatites in the southern margin of the North China Craton are distinguishable by containing abundant quartz and are closely spatially associated with Mo-(REE) deposits. Unveiling the nature of ore-forming fluids is key to understand the genesis of these Mo-(REE) deposits and to explore their potential genetic relationships with the quartz-rich carbonatites, but such issues were currently not convincingly addressed. Here, we provide detailed petrographic, microthermometric and LA-ICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions hosted in the primary quartz from the carbonatites in the Huangshuian Mo-(REE) deposit which is the largest Mo-(REE) one in the region, containing 0.4 million tons of Mo metal with REEs as the major by-product. Our results show that the fluid inclusions in the quartz of the carbonatites are two- and three-phase CO2-bearing types with high homogenization temperatures (average at 396 °C) and low salinities (average at 3.88 wt% NaCl equiv). The LA-ICP-MS analyses of these inclusions reveal that the primary fluids contain high concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sr, and Ba, similar to typical carbonatite-related fluids. In addition, they are characterized by high Y, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Such a metal association is broadly consistent with the mineral assemblages of the Huangshuian Mo-(REE) deposit, such as the widespread barite, bastnäsite, xenotime, chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite, strongly supporting the close genetic relation of the deposit with the quartz-rich carbonatites. Although the concentrations of Mo are extremely low in these inclusions (below the detect limit), it was constrained to be gradually enriched in evolved fluids. Considering that the recorded fluids in quartz represent earliest generation of fluids exsolved from carbonatite magmas, our new results highlight that quantifying metal budgets of fluid inclusions could be a robust way to evaluate fertility of carbonatites that are widespread in the southern margin of the North China Craton.
DS201502-0093
2014
Li, J-W.Robinson, P.T., Trumbull, R.B., Schmitt, A., Yang, J-S., Li, J-W., Zhou, M-F., Erzinger, J., Dare, S., Xiong, F.The origin and significance of crustal minerals in ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites.Gondwana Research, Vol. 27 2, pp. 486-506.Peridotite
DS201608-1450
2016
Li, J-X.Wang, R., Collins, W.J., Weinberg, R.F., Li, J-X., Li, Q-Y., He, W-Y., Richards, J.P., Hou, Z., Zhou, Li-M., Stern, R.A.Xenoliths in ultrapotassic volcanic rocks in the Lhasa block: direct evidence for crust mantle mixing and metamorphism in the deep crust.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 19p.Asia, TibetMelting

Abstract: Felsic granulite xenoliths entrained in Miocene (~13 Ma) isotopically evolved, mantle-derived ultrapotassic volcanic (UPV) dykes in southern Tibet are refractory meta-granitoids with garnet and rutile in a near-anhydrous quartzo-feldspathic assemblage. High F-Ti (~4 wt.% TiO2 and ~3 wt.% F) phlogopite occurs as small inclusions in garnet, except for one sample where it occurs as flakes in a quartz-plagioclase-rich rock. High Si (~3.45) phengite is found as flakes in another xenolith sample. The refractory mineralogy suggests that the xenoliths underwent high-T and high-P metamorphism (800-850 °C, >15 kbar). Zircons show four main age groupings: 1.0-0.5 Ga, 50-45, 35-20, and 16-13 Ma. The oldest group is similar to common inherited zircons in the Gangdese belt, whereas the 50-45 Ma zircons match the crystallization age and juvenile character (eHfi +0.5 to +6.5) of Eocene Gangdese arc magmas. Together these two age groups indicate that a component of the xenolith was sourced from Gangdese arc rocks. The 35-20 Ma Miocene ages are derived from zircons with similar Hf-O isotopic composition as the Eocene Gangdese magmatic zircons. They also have similar steep REE curves, suggesting they grew in the absence of garnet. These zircons mark a period of early Miocene remelting of the Eocene Gangdese arc. By contrast, the youngest zircons (13.0 ± 4.9 Ma, MSWD = 1.3) are not zoned, have much lower HREE contents than the previous group, and flat HREE patterns. They also have distinctive high Th/U ratios, high zircon d18O (+8.73-8.97 ‰) values, and extremely low eHfi (-12.7 to -9.4) values. Such evolved Hf-O isotopic compositions are similar to values of zircons from the UPV lavas that host the xenolith, and the flat REE pattern suggests that the 13 Ma zircons formed in equilibrium with garnet. Garnets from a strongly peraluminous meta-tonalite xenolith are weakly zoned or unzoned and fall into four groups, three of which are almandine-pyrope solid solutions and have low d18O (+6 to 7.5 ‰), intermediate (d18O +8.5 to 9.0 ‰), and high d18O (+11.0 to 12.0 ‰). The fourth is almost pure andradite with d18O 10-12 ‰. Both the low and intermediate d18O groups show significant variation in Fe content, whereas the two high d18O groups are compositionally homogeneous. We interpret these features to indicate that the low and intermediate d18O group garnets grew in separate fractionating magmas that were brought together through magma mixing, whereas the high d18O groups formed under high-grade metamorphic conditions accompanied by metasomatic exchange. The garnets record complex, open-system magmatic and metamorphic processes in a single rock. Based on these features, we consider that ultrapotassic magmas interacted with juvenile 35-20 Ma crust after they intruded in the deep crust (>50 km) at ~13 Ma to form hybridized Miocene granitoid magmas, leaving a refractory residue. The ~13 Ma zircons retain the original, evolved isotopic character of the ultrapotassic magmas, and the garnets record successive stages of the melting and mixing process, along with subsequent high-grade metamorphism followed by low-temperature alteration and brecciation during entrainment and ascent in a late UPV dyke. This is an excellent example of in situ crust-mantle hybridization in the deep Tibetan crust.
DS201903-0517
2019
Li, J-Y.Huang, D-L., Wanf, X-L., Xia, X-P., Wan, Y-S., Zhang, F-F., Li, J-Y., Du, D-H.Neoproterozoic low delta 180 zircons revisited: implications for Rodinia configuration.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 2, pp. 678-688.Globalcraton

Abstract: Low-d18O magma has received great attention and it has profound implications on geological and climate evolution. Neoproterozoic era is a unique period to breed low-d18O magmas and snowball Earth. This manuscript first report Neoproterozoic moderately 18O-depleted zircons from the central part of the Cathaysia Block in South China, and it builds a four end-member Hf-O isotopic mixing model to explain the global low-d18O magmas at Neoproterozoic era. Our compilation of low-d18O zircon data and our new data confirms that globally Neoproterozoic 18O-depleted magmatic activities generally began after 800 Ma and reached a peak at 780-760 Ma. This provides new information on the rifting of Rodinia supercontinent and suggests close connections between northwest India, Madagascar, and South China in the Rodinia supercontinent. This manuscript deals with the hot-debated topics on oxygen isotopes and supercontinent cycle. We believe that this manuscript will attract international readers from a wide scope of geosciences.
DS2003-0808
2003
Li, K.Li, K., Wang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhao, H., Di, Y.Mantle plume, large province and continental breakup - additionaly discussion theActa Seismologica Sinica, Vol. 16, 3, pp. 330-9.ChinaTectonics, melting, plumes
DS200412-1126
2003
Li, K.Li, K., Wang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhao, H., Di, Y.Mantle plume, large province and continental breakup - additionaly discussion the Cenozoic and Mesozoic mantle plume problems inActa Seismologica Sinica, Vol. 16, 3, pp. 330-9.ChinaTectonics, melting, plumes
DS201906-1314
2019
Li, K.Li, K., Li, L., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T.Diamond isotope compositions indicate altered igneous oceanic crust dominates deep carbon recycling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 516, pp. 190-201.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: A long-standing unresolved problem in understanding Earth's deep carbon cycle is whether crustal carbon is recycled beyond arc depths. While isotopic signatures of eclogitic diamonds and their inclusions suggest deep recycling of crustal material, the crustal carbon source remains controversial; seafloor sediment - the widely favored crustal carbon source - cannot explain the combined carbon and nitrogen isotopic characteristics of eclogitic diamonds. Here we examined the carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of bulk-rock carbonate for 80 geographically diverse samples from altered mafic-ultramafic oceanic crust (AOC), which comprises 95 vol% of the crustal material in subducting slabs. The results show: (i) AOC contains carbonate with C values as low as -24‰, indicating the presence of biogenic carbonate; (ii) carbonate in AOC was mainly formed during low-temperature (<100 °C) alteration processes. Modeling accounting for this newly recognized carbon source in the oceanic crust with formation temperatures <100 °C yields a global carbon influx of 1.5±0.3 × 1012 mol C/yr carried by subducting AOC into the trench, which is 50-90% of previous estimates, but still of the same order of the carbon influx carried by subducting sediments into the trench. The AOC can retain carbon better than sediment during subduction into the asthenosphere, transition zone and lower mantle. Mixing of asthenospheric and AOC fluids provides the first consistent explanation of the diverse record of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in diamonds, suggesting that AOC, instead of sediment, is the key carrier of crustal carbon into the deep mantle.
DS201908-1802
2019
Li, K.Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Li, L., Li, K., Stern, R., Howell, D., Regier, M.Diamonds and their inclusions: a unique record of plate tectonic recycling. AOCwww.minsocam.org/ MSA/Centennial/ MSA_Centennial _Symposium.html The next 100 years of mineral science, June 20-21, p. 22. AbstractMantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: Much of the temporal record of Earth’s evolution, including its trace of plate tectonics, is blurred due to the dynamic nature of the crust-mantle system. While zircon provides the highest fidelity crustal record, diamond takes over in the mantle as the go-to mineral, capable of retaining critical information for a variety of geochemical proxies, over billion year timescales. Here we use diamond and its inclusions to tell the story of the recycling of C, N, O, H and B from the crust to various depths in Earth’s mantle. In this story, altered oceanic crust (AOC) and lithospheric mantle will play a prominent role. The carbon isotope record of diamond has long been thought to reflect the mixing of primitive mantle carbon with carbon recycled from isotopically light organic material originating from the crust. A major difficulty has been reconciling this view with the highly varied nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures in diamonds of eclogitic paragenesis, which cannot be interpreted by the same mechanism. Recent work on AOC of igneous origin (Li et al., EPSL in press) shows how isotopically varied carbon and nitrogen can be subducted to great depth and retained in spatial juxtaposition with the mafic silicate component of AOC to form the complex C-N isotope systematics observed in diamonds and the varied O isotope compositions of their inclusions. In this model a large portion of the 13C depleted carbon originated from biogenic carbonate within the AOC rather than from overlying sediments. Metamorphosed and partially devolatilized AOC will have very variable C/N ratios and highly variable nitrogen isotopes, explaining why simple two component mixing between organic matter and convecting upper mantle cannot explain the complexity of C-N isotope systematics in diamonds. Igneous AOC and its underlying altered mantle are considerably more efficient than subducted sediment at retaining their volatile inventory when recycled to transition zone and even lower mantle depths. Hence, this combination of mixing between AOC-derived volatiles and those from the convecting mantle produces the isotopic fingerprints of superdeep diamonds and their inclusions. These amazing diamonds, some worth millions of dollars, can contain pristine ultra-high pressure mineral phases never before seen in terrestrial samples. The first hydrous ringwoodite found in Earth provides evidence in support of a locally water-saturated transition zone that may result from altered oceanic lithospheric mantle foundering at that depth in the mantle. The O isotope composition of deep asthenosphere and transition zone phases document clearly crustal precursors that have interacted with the hydrosphere before residing hundreds of km deep within the Earth. Finally, spectacular blue diamonds contain boron, an element of strong crustal affinities, transported into the deep Earth along with crustal carbon, by the plate tectonic conveyor system. Diamond - such a simple mineral - and its inclusions, will continue to provide a unique, brightly illuminating light into the darkest recesses of Earth’s mantle for many years to come.
DS2002-0941
2002
Li, L.Li, L., Liao, X., Fu, R.Slab break odd depth: a slowdown subduction modelGeophysical Research Letters, Vol.29,3,Feb.1,pp.11-1-3.MantleSubduction
DS2003-1559
2003
Li, L.Zheng, Y-F., Fu, B., Gong, B., Li, L.Stable isotope geochemistry of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks from the DabieEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 62, 1-2, July, pp. 105-161.ChinaUHP, Subduction
DS200412-2226
2003
Li, L.Zheng, Y-F., Fu, B., Gong, B., Li, L.Stable isotope geochemistry of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks from the Dabie Sulu orogen in China: implications for geodynEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 62, 1-2, July, pp. 105-161.ChinaUHP Subduction
DS200612-0813
2006
Li, l.Li, l., Long, H., Raterron, P., Weidner, D.Plastic flow of pyrope at mantle pressure and temperature.American Mineralogist, Vol. 91, pp. 517-525.TechnologyUHP, X-ray imaging, garnet
DS200612-0814
2006
Li, L.Li, L.,Weidner, D., Raterron, P., Chen, J., Vaughan, M., Mei, S., Durham, B.Deformation of olivine at mantle pressure using D-DIA.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 18, 1, pp. 7-19.TechnologyExperimental petrology
DS200612-1553
2006
Li, L.Xianwu, B., Ruizhong, H., Jiantang, P., Li, L., Kaixing, W., Wenchao, S.Geochemical characteristics of the Yaoan and Machangqing alkaline rich intrusions in the Ailaoshan Jinshajiang belt, western Yunnan, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.ChinaAlkalic
DS200712-0622
2007
Li, L.Li, L., Zheng, Y-F., Cartigny, P.Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in phengite from UHP metamorphic rocks in the Sulu orogen, China.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A573.ChinaUHP
DS200712-1228
2007
Li, L.Zhang, R.Y., Li, T., Rumble, D., Yui, T-F., Li, L., Yang, J.S., Pan, Y., Liou, J.G.Multiple metasomatism in Sulu ultrahigh P garnet peridotite constrained by petrological geochemiscal investigations.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 25, 2, pp. 149-164..ChinaUHP
DS200812-0656
2008
Li, L.Li, L., Weidner, D.J.Effect of phase transitions on compressional wave velocities in the Earth's mantle.Nature, Vol. 454, no. 7202, August 21, pp. 984-986.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-0657
2008
Li, L.Li, L., Xu, B., li, M.Analysis of the carbon source for diamond crystal growth.Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 53, 6, pp. 937-942.TechnologyDiamond synthesis
DS201112-0599
2011
Li, L.Li, Z., Li, L., Zhang, R., Ma, J.An improved classification method for hyper spectral dat a based on spectral and morphological information.International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, 10, p. 2919-2929TechnologyHyperspectral
DS201412-0520
2014
Li, L.Liu, X., Xiong, X., Audetat, A., Li, Y., Song, M., Li, L., Sun, W., Ding, X.Partitioning of copper between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, garnet, and silicate melts at upper mantle conditions.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 125, pp. 1-22.MantleMineral chemistry
DS201804-0746
2018
Li, L.Su, S-H., Uang, Y., Qu, S., Liu, R., Li, L.Microdiamond/PLA ( Polylactic acid) composites with enhanced thermal conductivity through improving filler/matrix interface compatibility.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 81, pp. 161-167.Technologymicrodiamonds

Abstract: Polylactic acid (PLA)-based composites filled with 20 or 50 µm-diameter microdiamond are synthesized by hot pressing. Through improving the interface compatibility between the filler and the matrix enabled by octadecylamine (ODA) coating on the microdiamond particles, the maximum thermal conductivity of the composites is 2.22 Wm- 1 K- 1, which is a ~ 10-fold increase in comparison with that of pure PLA. According to the analysis on the glass transmission of the composites and the surface chemistry of the fillers using DSC, FI-IR, and Raman microscopy, it is found out that ODA is connected with the -OH group on the microdiamond surface through hydrogen bonding and an interfacial structure of PLA/ODA/microdiamond is formed. Thus, the interfacial thermal transport between PLA and microdiamond is significantly improved, leading to the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the composites. Our work presents a simple method to modify the surface chemistry of microdiamond and to improve the interface compatibility between microdiamond and PLA. The microdiamond/PLA composites with large thermal conductivity are promising thermal management materials used for modern electronic products.
DS201812-2787
2018
Li, L.Buryak, S., Reyes, A.V., Siver, P.A., Li, L., Dufrane, S.A.Bulk organic geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Wombat sedimentary fill.2018 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum , p. 98-99. abstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Wombat

Abstract: The Wombat locality (64.73°N, 110.59°W) is a diamondiferous kimberlite in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field of Northwest Territories. Two drill cores, CH 93-29 and DDH 0-005, intersect the Wombat crater facies and include 195 m of well preserved, undisturbed lake sediment fill. Bulk sediment elemental analysis, C isotope composition, and Rock-Eval pyrolysis, together with inferences from microfossils, are used to characterize conditions of sedimentation and paleoenvironment in the maar lake. Bulk sediment C/N, hydrogen index (HI), and d13C indicate material derived from C3 land plants dominates the sedimentary organic matter, with a minor algal contribution. The d13C values range from -25.3 ‰ to -30.2 ‰ (average -26.6 ‰) and are typical for C3 land plants, with fluctuations in d13C likely related to shifts in the proportions of land-derived material and algal organic matter. An overall trend of higher d13C towards the top of the core suggests increasing autochthonous organic matter production. 18 samples analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis all plot in the Type III kerogen field for HI vs. Tmax,with average Tmax values ~425 °C indicative of the low thermal maturity of organic matter. Total organic carbon (TOC) averages 3.6 wt.% and average total carbonate content is 14.1 wt.%, indicating bottom water anoxia and substantial carbonate input from weathering of overlying carbonate cover rocks, respectively. Together with well-preserved freshwater microfossils (e.g. diatoms, chrysophytes, synurophytes), the results indicate deposition in a non-marine setting. The age of the Wombat maar lake sediments is determined using MC-LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon geochronology from two distal rhyolitic tephra beds found in the core DDH 0-005, yielding a date of 82.97±0.60 Ma (MSWD = 1.7, n=18 of 33 grains analyzed). This minimum age suggests that Wombat kimberlite pipe emplacement occurred during the Late Cretaceous, with sedimentation in the maar beginning shortly thereafter. Though our geochronology is preliminary at this point, our findings from the Wombat pipe post-eruptive lake sediment fill provide direct evidence for a non-marine environment in the Lac De Gras area during the Late Cretaceous. Furthermore, microfossils in the Wombat pipe sediment fill likely include the oldest-known occurrence of freshwater diatoms.
DS201906-1314
2019
Li, L.Li, K., Li, L., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T.Diamond isotope compositions indicate altered igneous oceanic crust dominates deep carbon recycling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 516, pp. 190-201.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: A long-standing unresolved problem in understanding Earth's deep carbon cycle is whether crustal carbon is recycled beyond arc depths. While isotopic signatures of eclogitic diamonds and their inclusions suggest deep recycling of crustal material, the crustal carbon source remains controversial; seafloor sediment - the widely favored crustal carbon source - cannot explain the combined carbon and nitrogen isotopic characteristics of eclogitic diamonds. Here we examined the carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of bulk-rock carbonate for 80 geographically diverse samples from altered mafic-ultramafic oceanic crust (AOC), which comprises 95 vol% of the crustal material in subducting slabs. The results show: (i) AOC contains carbonate with C values as low as -24‰, indicating the presence of biogenic carbonate; (ii) carbonate in AOC was mainly formed during low-temperature (<100 °C) alteration processes. Modeling accounting for this newly recognized carbon source in the oceanic crust with formation temperatures <100 °C yields a global carbon influx of 1.5±0.3 × 1012 mol C/yr carried by subducting AOC into the trench, which is 50-90% of previous estimates, but still of the same order of the carbon influx carried by subducting sediments into the trench. The AOC can retain carbon better than sediment during subduction into the asthenosphere, transition zone and lower mantle. Mixing of asthenospheric and AOC fluids provides the first consistent explanation of the diverse record of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in diamonds, suggesting that AOC, instead of sediment, is the key carrier of crustal carbon into the deep mantle.
DS201908-1802
2019
Li, L.Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Li, L., Li, K., Stern, R., Howell, D., Regier, M.Diamonds and their inclusions: a unique record of plate tectonic recycling. AOCwww.minsocam.org/ MSA/Centennial/ MSA_Centennial _Symposium.html The next 100 years of mineral science, June 20-21, p. 22. AbstractMantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: Much of the temporal record of Earth’s evolution, including its trace of plate tectonics, is blurred due to the dynamic nature of the crust-mantle system. While zircon provides the highest fidelity crustal record, diamond takes over in the mantle as the go-to mineral, capable of retaining critical information for a variety of geochemical proxies, over billion year timescales. Here we use diamond and its inclusions to tell the story of the recycling of C, N, O, H and B from the crust to various depths in Earth’s mantle. In this story, altered oceanic crust (AOC) and lithospheric mantle will play a prominent role. The carbon isotope record of diamond has long been thought to reflect the mixing of primitive mantle carbon with carbon recycled from isotopically light organic material originating from the crust. A major difficulty has been reconciling this view with the highly varied nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures in diamonds of eclogitic paragenesis, which cannot be interpreted by the same mechanism. Recent work on AOC of igneous origin (Li et al., EPSL in press) shows how isotopically varied carbon and nitrogen can be subducted to great depth and retained in spatial juxtaposition with the mafic silicate component of AOC to form the complex C-N isotope systematics observed in diamonds and the varied O isotope compositions of their inclusions. In this model a large portion of the 13C depleted carbon originated from biogenic carbonate within the AOC rather than from overlying sediments. Metamorphosed and partially devolatilized AOC will have very variable C/N ratios and highly variable nitrogen isotopes, explaining why simple two component mixing between organic matter and convecting upper mantle cannot explain the complexity of C-N isotope systematics in diamonds. Igneous AOC and its underlying altered mantle are considerably more efficient than subducted sediment at retaining their volatile inventory when recycled to transition zone and even lower mantle depths. Hence, this combination of mixing between AOC-derived volatiles and those from the convecting mantle produces the isotopic fingerprints of superdeep diamonds and their inclusions. These amazing diamonds, some worth millions of dollars, can contain pristine ultra-high pressure mineral phases never before seen in terrestrial samples. The first hydrous ringwoodite found in Earth provides evidence in support of a locally water-saturated transition zone that may result from altered oceanic lithospheric mantle foundering at that depth in the mantle. The O isotope composition of deep asthenosphere and transition zone phases document clearly crustal precursors that have interacted with the hydrosphere before residing hundreds of km deep within the Earth. Finally, spectacular blue diamonds contain boron, an element of strong crustal affinities, transported into the deep Earth along with crustal carbon, by the plate tectonic conveyor system. Diamond - such a simple mineral - and its inclusions, will continue to provide a unique, brightly illuminating light into the darkest recesses of Earth’s mantle for many years to come.
DS201908-1822
2019
Li, L.Wang, J., Xion, X., Takahashi, E., Zhang, L., Li, L., Liu, X.Oxidation state of arc mantle revealed by partitioning of V, Sc, Ti between mantle minerals and basaltic melts.Journal of Geophysical Research , Vol. 124, 5, pp. 4617-4638.Mantlemelting

Abstract: The oxidation state of the Earth`s mantle, often expressed as oxygen fugacity (fO2), could control the behavior of multivalent elements and thus exert a significant influence on the formation of magmatic ore deposits and the secular evolution of Earth`s atmosphere. Whether arc mantle is more oxidized than oceanic mantle remains a controversial topic. As a multivalent element, partitioning behavior of vanadium is fO2 sensitive and is capable of tracking mantle redox state. However, except fO2, other factors (temperature, pressure, and phase composition) that may affect vanadium partitioning behavior have not been clearly evaluated. Here we conducted high temperature and pressure experiments to determine partition coefficients of vanadium during mantle melting under various fO2 conditions. Combining our and published data, we evaluated the effects of fO2, T, P, and compositions of mineral and melt on the vanadium partitioning using multiple linear regressions. The results indicate that, in addition to fO2, temperature exerts a significant control on the vanadium partitioning. Additionally, we estimated fO2 of the arc mantle via numerical modelling using appropriate partition coefficients for vanadium. Our results clarify and reconcile the discrepancies between previous studies and reveal that arc mantle is generally ~10 times more oxidized than oceanic mantle.
DS200512-1245
2005
Li, L.W.Zhang, M.J., Hu, P.Q., Zheng, P., Wang, X.B., Li, L.W.Modes of occurrence of H2 in mantle derived rocks.Mineral deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge. 8th Biennial SGA Beijing, Aug. 18-22, 2005. Springer, Chapter 1-19, pp. 73-76.Mantle, China, HebeiHdyrogen, lherzolites, pyroxenite xenoliths
DS201312-0896
2013
Li, L-F.Sun, Y., Qui, Z-li., Lu, T-J., Chen, H., Chen, B-H., Eng, S-Y., Wei, R., Li, L-F.Micro-FTIR mapping tracer for the heterogeneity growth of nitrogen impurities in natural diamond from three localities in China.Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, Vol. 32, 8, pp. 2070-2074.ChinaDiamond inclusions
DS2003-0809
2003
Li, Li.Li, Li., Raterron, P., Weidner, D., Chen, J.Olivine flow mechanisms at 8 GPaPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 138, 2, July 16, pp. 113-129.MantlePetrology
DS200412-1127
2003
Li, Li.Li, Li., Raterron, P., Weidner, D., Chen, J.Olivine flow mechanisms at 8 GPa.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 138, 2, July 16, pp. 113-129.MantlePetrology
DS201212-0322
2012
Li, Li.Hunt, S.A., Davies, D.R., Walker, A.M., McCormack, R.J., Wills, A.S., Dobson, D.P., Li, Li.On the increase in thermal diffusivity caused by the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition and its implications for mantle dynamics.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 319-320, pp. 96-103.MantleGeodynamics
DS201112-0593
2011
Li, L-M.Li, L-M., Sun, M., Wang, Y., Xing, G., Zhao, G., Cai, K., Zhang, Y.Geochronological and geochemical study of Paleproterozoic gneissic granites and clinopyroxenite xenolths from NW Fujian: implications for crustal evol.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, 2, pp. 204-212.ChinaMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-2222
2004
Li, M.Zheng, J., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Lu, F., Wang, C., Zhang, M., Li, M.3.6 Ga lower crust in central Chin a: new evidence on the assembly of the North Chin a craton.Geology, Vol. 32, 3, Mar. pp. 229-232.ChinaGeochronology, early Archean
DS200812-0657
2008
li, M.Li, L., Xu, B., li, M.Analysis of the carbon source for diamond crystal growth.Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 53, 6, pp. 937-942.TechnologyDiamond synthesis
DS201412-0377
2014
Li, M.Hsu, T., Lucas, A., Qiu, Z., Li, M.,Yu, Q.Exploring the Chinese gem and jewelry industry.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 50, 1, Spring, pp. 2-29.ChinaGemstones - economics
DS201412-0508
2014
Li, M.Li, M., McNamara, A.K., Garnero, E.J.Chemical complexity of hotspots caused by cycling oceanic crust through mantle reservoirs.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 7, pp. 366-370.MantleHotspots
DS201507-0321
2015
Li, M.Li, M., McNamara, A.K.The difficulty for subducted oceanic crust to accumulate at the Earth's core-mantle boundary.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 118, 4, pp. 1807-1816.MantleSubduction
DS201606-1130
2016
Li, M.Zhang, Z., Dorfman, S.M., Labidi, J., Zhang, S., Li, M., Manga, M., Stixrude, L., McDonough, W.F., Williams, Q.Primordial metallic melt in the deep mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, 8, pp. 3693-3697.MantleMelting

Abstract: Seismic tomography models reveal two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that identify large-scale variations in temperature and composition in the deep mantle. Other characteristics include elevated density, elevated bulk sound speed, and sharp boundaries. We show that properties of LLSVPs can be explained by the presence of small quantities (0.3-3%) of suspended, dense Fe-Ni-S liquid. Trapping of metallic liquid is demonstrated to be likely during the crystallization of a dense basal magma ocean, and retention of such melts is consistent with currently available experimental constraints. Calculated seismic velocities and densities of lower mantle material containing low-abundance metallic liquids match the observed LLSVP properties. Small quantities of metallic liquids trapped at depth provide a natural explanation for primitive noble gas signatures in plume-related magmas. Our model hence provides a mechanism for generating large-scale chemical heterogeneities in Earth's early history and makes clear predictions for future tests of our hypothesis.
DS201607-1323
2016
Li, M.Zhang, Z., Dorfman, S.M., Labidi, J., Zhang, S., Li, M., Manga, M., Stixrude, L., McDonough, W.F., Williams, Q.Primordial metallic melt in the deep mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, 8, pp. 3693-3699.MantleMelting

Abstract: Seismic tomography models reveal two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that identify large-scale variations in temperature and composition in the deep mantle. Other characteristics include elevated density, elevated bulk sound speed, and sharp boundaries. We show that properties of LLSVPs can be explained by the presence of small quantities (0.3 -3%) of suspended, dense Fe-Ni-S liquid. Trapping of metallic liquid is demonstrated to be likely during the crystallization of a dense basal magma ocean, and retention of such melts is consistent with currently available experimental constraints. Calculated seismic velocities and densities of lower mantle material containing low-abundance metallic liquids match the observed LLSVP properties. Small quantities of metallic liquids trapped at depth provide a natural explanation for primitive noble gas signatures in plume-related magmas. Our model hence provides a mechanism for generating large-scale chemical heterogeneities in Earth's early history and makes clear predictions for future tests of our hypothesis.
DS201706-1069
2017
Li, M.Frost, D.A., Rost, S., Garnero, E.J., Li, M.Seismic evidence for Earth's crusty deep mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 470, pp. 54-63.Mantlegeophysics - seismic

Abstract: Seismic tomography resolves anomalies interpreted as oceanic lithosphere subducted deep into Earth's lower mantle. However, the fate of the compositionally distinct oceanic crust that is part of the lithosphere is poorly constrained but provides important constraints on mixing processes and the recycling process in the deep Earth. We present high-resolution seismic array analyses of anomalous P-waves sampling the deep mantle, and deterministically locate heterogeneities in the lowermost 300 km of the mantle. Spectral analysis indicates that the dominant scale length of the heterogeneity is 4 to 7 km. The heterogeneity distribution varies laterally and radially and heterogeneities are more abundant near the margins of the lowermost mantle Large Low Velocity Provinces (LLVPs), consistent with mantle convection simulations that show elevated accumulations of deeply advected crustal material near the boundaries of thermo-chemical piles. The size and distribution of the observed heterogeneities is consistent with that expected for subducted oceanic crust. These results thus suggest the deep mantle contains an imprint of continued subduction of oceanic crust, stirred by mantle convection and modulated by long lasting thermo-chemical structures. The preferred location of the heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle is consistent with a thermo-chemical origin of the LLVPs. Our observations relate to the mixing behaviour of small length-scale heterogeneity in the deep Earth and indicate that compositional heterogeneities from the subduction process can survive for extended times in the lowermost mantle.
DS201710-2238
2017
Li, M.Li, M., Zhong, S.The source location of mantle plumes from 3D spherical models of mantle convection.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 478, pp. 47-58.Mantleplumes

Abstract: Mantle plumes are thought to originate from thermal boundary layers such as Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB), and may cause intraplate volcanism such as large igneous provinces (LIPs) on the Earth's surface. Previous studies showed that the original eruption sites of deep-sourced LIPs for the last 200 Myrs occur mostly above the margins of the seismically-observed large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle. However, the mechanism that leads to the distribution of the LIPs is not clear. The location of the LIPs is largely determined by the source location of mantle plumes, but the question is under what conditions mantle plumes form outside, at the edges, or above the middle of LLSVPs. Here, we perform 3D geodynamic calculations and theoretical analyses to study the plume source location in the lowermost mantle. We find that a factor of five decrease of thermal expansivity and a factor of two increase of thermal diffusivity from the surface to the CMB, which are consistent with mineral physics studies, significantly reduce the number of mantle plumes forming far outside of thermochemical piles (i.e., LLSVPs). An increase of mantle viscosity in the lowermost mantle also reduces number of plumes far outside of piles. In addition, we find that strong plumes preferentially form at/near the edges of piles and are generally hotter than that forming on top of piles, which may explain the observations that most LIPs occur above LLSVP margins. However, some plumes originated at pile edges can later appear above the middle of piles due to lateral movement of the plumes and piles and morphologic changes of the piles. ~65-70% strong plumes are found within 10 degrees from pile edges in our models. Although plate motion exerts significant controls over the large-scale mantle convection in the lower mantle, mantle plume formation at the CMB remains largely controlled by thermal boundary layer instability which makes it difficult to predict geographic locations of most mantle plumes. However, all our models show consistently strong plumes originating from the lowermost mantle beneath Iceland, supporting a deep mantle plume origin of the Iceland volcanism.
DS201805-0958
2018
Li, M.Li, M., Zhong, S., Olson, P.Linking lowermost mantle structure, core-mantle boundary heat flux and mantle plume formation.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 277, 1, pp. 10-29.MantleGeothermometry

Abstract: The dynamics of Earth’s lowermost mantle exert significant control on the formation of mantle plumes and the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux. However, it is not clear if and how the variation of CMB heat flux and mantle plume activity are related. Here, we perform geodynamic model experiments that show how temporal variations in CMB heat flux and pulses of mantle plumes are related to morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles of large-scale compositional heterogeneities in Earth’s lowermost mantle, represented by the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). We find good correlation between the morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles and the time variation of CMB heat flux. The morphology of the thermochemical piles is significantly altered during the initiation and ascent of strong mantle plumes, and the changes in pile morphology cause variations in the local and the total CMB heat flux. Our modeling results indicate that plume-induced episodic variations of CMB heat flux link geomagnetic superchrons to pulses of surface volcanism, although the relative timing of these two phenomena remains problematic. We also find that the density distribution in thermochemical piles is heterogeneous, and that the piles are denser on average than the surrounding mantle when both thermal and chemical effects are included.
DS201810-2344
2018
Li, M.Li, M., McNamara, A.K.The influence of deep mantle compositional heterogeneity on Earth's thermal evolution.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 500, pp. 86-96.Mantlegeothermometry

Abstract: The seismically-observed large low shear velocity provinces in the Earth's lowermost mantle have been hypothesized to be caused by thermochemical piles of compositionally distinct, more-primitive material which may be remnants of Earth's early differentiation. However, one critical question is how the Earth's thermal evolution is affected by the long-term presence of the large-scale compositional heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle. Here, we perform geodynamical calculations to investigate the time evolution of the morphology of large-scale compositional heterogeneity and its influence on the Earth's long-term thermal evolution. Our results show that a global layer of intrinsically dense material in the lowermost mantle significantly suppresses the CMB heat flux, which leads to faster cooling of the background mantle relative to an isochemical mantle. As the background mantle cools, the intrinsically dense material is gradually pushed into isolated thermochemical piles by cold downwellings. The size of the piles also decreases with time due to entraining of pile material into the background mantle. The morphologic change of the accumulations of intrinsic dense material eventually causes a gradual increase of CMB heat flux, which significantly reduces the cooling rate of Earth's mantle.
DS201906-1366
2019
Li, M.Y.H.Zhou, M.F., Li, X.C., Chen, W.T., Li, M.Y.H.Rare earth element deposits in China.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p.abstract p. 65.Chinadeposit - Bayan Obo
DS200812-0336
2008
Li, N.Fan,Q., Sui, J., Li, N., Sun, Q.Silica rich melt inclusions in upper mantle peridotite: implications for subcontinental lithospheric evolution of eastern China.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A253.ChinaGeochemistry
DS2001-0684
2001
Li, P.Li, P., Cui, J., Gao, R.Estimation of shortening between Siberian and Indian plates since the Early CretaceousJour. Asian Earth Sci., Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 241-5.Russia, Siberia, IndiaTectonics - compression Himalayan Block
DS201412-0381
2014
Li, P.Huang, J-X., Li, P., Griffin, W.L., Xia, Q-K, Greau, Y., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y.Water contents of Roberts Victor xenolithic eclogites: primary and metasomatic controls.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 168, pp. 1092-1095Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Roberts Victor
DS201502-0063
2014
Li, P.Huang, J-X., Li, P., Griffin, W.L., Xia, Q-K, Greau, Y., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y.Water contents of Roberts Victor xenolithic eclogites: primary and metasomatic controls.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 168, pp. 1092-1105.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Roberts Victor
DS201812-2840
2018
Li, P.Li, Y., Zhang, J., Mustofa, K.M.G., Wang, Y., Yu, S., Cai, Z., Li, P., Zhou, G., Fu, C., Mao, X.Petrogenesis of carbonatites in the Luliangshan region, North Qaidam, northern Tibet, China: evidence for recycling of sedimentary carbonate and mantle metasomatism within a subduction zone.Lithos, Vol. 322, pp. 148-165.China, Tibetcarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonatitic magmatism in subduction zones provides extremely valuable information on the cycling, behavior and storage of deep carbon within the Earth. It may also shed light on insights into crust-mantle interaction and mantle metasomatism within subduction zones. Origin of carbonatite has long been debated: all hypotheses need to reflect the different mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions of carbonatites and their diverse tectonic settings. Here we present a petrological, geochronological, geochemical and isotopic study of carbonatite bodies associated with orogenic peridotites, which occur as stocks or dykes with widths of tens to hundreds of meters in the Luliangshan region, North Qaidam, northern Tibet, China. On the basis of modal olivine (Ol) content, the studied samples were subdivided into two groups: Ol-poor carbonatite and Ol-rich carbonatite. Zircon grains from the Ol-poor carbonatite show detrital features, and yield a wide age spectrum between 400?Ma and 1000?Ma with a pronounced peak at ca. 410-430?Ma. By contrast, oscillatory zoned zircons and inherited cores show two relatively small Neoproterozoic age peaks at ca. 920 and 830?Ma. Zircon grains from the Ol-rich carbonatite sample are also distributed in a wide spectrum between 400 and 1000?Ma, with a pronounced peak at ca. 440?Ma and a slightly inferior peak at ca. 410?Ma. The oscillatory zoned zircons and inherited cores exhibit a smaller Neoproterozoic age peak at ca. 740?Ma. The pronounced peaks ranging from 430 to 410?Ma are consistent with the deep subduction and mantle metasomatic events recorded in associated ultramafic rocks. Both groups of carbonatites are characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) with high (La/Yb)N values and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. They show high 87Sr/86Sr values (0.708156-0.709004), low 143Nd/144Nd values (0.511932-0.512013) and high d18OV-SMOW values (+17.9 to +21.3‰). This geochemical and isotopic evidence suggests that these carbonatites were derived from remobilized sedimentary carbonate rocks. We propose that the primary carbonatite magma was formed by partial melting of sedimentary carbonates with mantle contributions. Sedimentary carbonates were subducted into the shallow upper mantle where they melted and formed diapirs that moved upwards through the hot mantle wedge. The case presented provides a rare example of carbonatite originating from sedimentary carbonates with mantle contributions and relevant information on the mantle metasomatism within a subduction zone.
DS1991-0987
1991
Li, Q.Li, Q., Nyland, E.A new approach to modeling of the dynamics of the lithosphereJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, No. B12, November 10, pp. 20, 301-10, 307MantleTectonics, geodynamics, Modeling -lithosphere
DS2002-1568
2002
Li, Q.Sun, W., Li, S., Sun, Y., Zhang, G., Li, Q.Mid-Paleozoic collision in the north Qinling: Sm Nd, Rb, Sr and 40 Ar 39Ar ages and their tectonic implications.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, 1, pp. 69-76.ChinaTectonics, geochronology
DS2003-0810
2003
Li, Q.Li, Q., Li, S., Zheng, Y.F., Li, H., Massone, H.J., Wang, Q.A high precision U Pb age of metamorphic rutile in coesite bearing eclogite from theChemical Geology, Vol. 200, 3-4, pp. 255-65.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS200412-1128
2003
Li, Q.Li, Q., Li, S., Zheng, Y.F., Li, H., Massone, H.J., Wang, Q.A high precision U Pb age of metamorphic rutile in coesite bearing eclogite from the Dabie Mountains in central China: a new conChemical Geology, Vol. 200, 3-4, pp. 255-65.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS200712-0174
2007
Li, Q.Chen, Z., Li, Q.Can rutile thermometry link to rutile U-Pb age?Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A169.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS201112-0178
2011
Li, Q.Chen, Y.X., Zheng, Y-F., Chen, R-X., Zhang, S-B., Li, Q., Dai, M., Chen, L.Metamorphic growth and recrystallization of zircons in extremely 18 O depleted rocks during eclogite facies metamorphism: evidence from U-Pb ages, trace elements and O-Hf isotopes.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 75, 17, pp. 4877-4898.MantleMetamorphic zircons
DS201112-0180
2011
Li, Q.Cheng, H., Vervoort, J.D., Li, X., Zhang, C., Li, Q., Zheng, S.The growth interval of garnet in the UHP eclogites from the Dabie orogen, China.American Mineralogist, Vol. 96, 8-9, pp. 1300-1307.ChinaUHP
DS201112-0234
2011
Li, Q.Dai, L-Q., Zhao, Z-F., Zheng, Y-F., Li, Q., Yang, Y., Dai, M.Zircon Hf-O isotope evidence for crust mantle interaction during continental deep subduction.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 308, 1-2, pp. 229-244.MantleSubduction
DS201112-0594
2011
Li, Q.Li, Q., Wu, F-Y., Li, X-H., Qiu, Z-L., Yang, Y-H., Tang, G-Q.Precisely dating Paleozoic kimberlites in the North Chin a craton and Hf isotopic constraints on the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle.Lithos, Vol. 126, pp. 127-134.ChinaMengyin, Fuxian
DS201612-2316
2016
Li, Q.Li, Q., Li, X., Wu, F., Liu, Y., Tang, G.Accessory minerals SIMS U-Th-Pb dating for kimberlite and lamproite. Mengin, Shandong; Dahongshan, Hubei.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, July abstract p. 74-75.ChinaPerovskite
DS201910-2272
2019
Li, Q.Khan, S., Dongre, A., Viljoen, F., Li, Q., Le Roux, P.Petrogenesis of lamprophyres synchronous to kimberlites from the Wajrakarur kimberlite field: implications for contrasting lithospheric mantle sources and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Dharwar craton of southern India.Geological Journal, Vol. 54, 5, pp. 2994-3016.Indiadeposit - Wajrakarur

Abstract: Kimberlite field is an example of widespread Mesoproterozoic intracontinental magmatism. Recent studies have identified deep subcontinental lithospheric mantle as a source region of the kimberlite magmatism while timing, origin, and processes responsible for the generation of coeval lamprophyres remain poorly constrained. Here, we present and discuss new petrological and geochemical data for two lamprophyre dykes from the Wajrakarur kimberlite field and assess their petrogenetic relation to the kimberlite occurrences. Based on mineral compositional and whole-rock geochemical characters, it is suggested that lamprophyres are formed through low degrees of partial melting of “enriched” lithospheric mantle that was modified and metasomatized by melts derived from recycled crust. This differs from geochemical imprints found in coeval kimberlites, where a crustal source component appears to be absent and is more consistent with rock derivation from “depleted” lithosphere which has experienced interaction with asthenosphere-derived melts. An apparent lack of garnet in the mantle sources of lamprophyres is suggestive of melting at comparatively shallow depth (~100 km) relative to the kimberlites. Hence, these geochemically contrasting rocks, although have formed at the same time, are derived from vertically heterogeneous lithospheric mantle sources and can be explained through and linked with a thermal anomaly in the underlying convective asthenosphere. We suggest that the deeper mantle source region of the kimberlites was more pristine and devoid of subduction-related signatures, whereas the shallower mantle source region of the lamprophyres seems to have preserved imprints of plate convergence and subduction associated with the evolution of the Dharwar Craton.
DS200912-0436
2009
Li, Q.L.Li, Q.L., Li, X.H., Wu, F.Y., Yang, J.H.SIMS U-Th-Pb dating of kimberlite perovskite.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A755 Abstract.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Wesselton
DS200812-0290
2008
Li, Q.S.Dong, S.W., Li, Q.S., Gao, R., Liu, F.T., Liu, X.C., Xue, H.M., Guan, Y.Moho mapping in the Dabie ultrahigh pressure collisional orogen, central China.American Journal of Science, Vol. 308, 4, pp. 517-528.ChinaUHP
DS201112-0595
2011
Li, Q-L.Li, Q-L., Wu, F-Y., Li, X-H., Qiu, Z-L., Liu, Y., Yang, Y-H., Tang, G-Q.Precise age determin ation of the Paleozoic kimberlites in North Chin a craton and Hf isotopic constraint on the evolution of its subcontinental lithospheric mantle.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1316.ChinaMengyin, Fuxian
DS201112-1099
2011
Li, Q-L.Wang, H., Wu, Y-B., Gao, S., Liu, X-C., Gong, H-J., Li, Q-L., Li, X-H., Yuan, H-L.Eclogite origin and timing in the North Qinling terrane, and their bearing on the amalgamation of the South and North Chin a blocks.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, in press available,ChinaCraton
DS201112-1122
2011
Li, Q-L.Wu, F-Y., Yang, Y-H.,Li, Q-L., Mitchell, R.H., Dawson, J.B., Brandl, G., Yuhara, M.In situ determination of U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Phalaborwa carbonatites complex, South Africa.Lithos, Vol. 127, 1-2, pp. 309-322.Africa, South AfricaCarbonatite, geochronology, Palaborwa
DS201212-0797
2013
Li, Q-L.Xu, W-L., Zhou, Q-J., Pei, F-P., Gao, S., Li, Q-L., Yang, Y-H.Destructive of the North Chin a craton: delamin ation or thermal/chemical erosion? Mineral chemistry and oxygen isotope insights from websterite xenoliths.Gondwana Research, Vol. 23, 1, pp. 119-129.ChinaCraton, destruction
DS201312-0142
2013
Li, Q-L.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Wu, F-Y., Mitchell, R.H., Li, Q-L., Lehmann, B.Mesoproterozoic U-Pb ages, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of perovskite from kimberlites of the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: distinct mantle sources and a Wide spread 1.1 Ga Tectonomagmatic event.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 48-64.IndiaPerovskite ages, SCLM
DS201312-0984
2013
Li, Q-L.Wu, F-Y., Mitchell, R.H., Li, Q-L., Liu, C-Z., Yang, Y-H.In situ U-Pb age determination and Sr-Nd isotopic analysis of perovskite from the Premier ( Cullinan) kimberlite, South Africa. ~1150Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 83-95.Africa, South AfricaGeochronology
DS201312-0986
2013
Li, Q-L.Wu,F-Y., Arzamastsev, A.A., Mitchell, R.H., Li, Q-L., Sun, J., Yang, Y-H., Wang, R-C.Emplacement age and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the AfrikAnd a alkaline ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 210-229.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAfrikanda Complex
DS201703-0440
2017
Li, Q-L.Wu, F-Y.,Mitchell, R.H., Li, Q-L., Zhang, C., Yang, Y-H.Emplacement age and isotopic composition of the Prairie Lake carbonatite complex, northwestern Ontario, Canada.Geological Magazine, Vol. 154, 2, pp. 217-236.Canada, OntarioCarbonatite

Abstract: Alkaline rock and carbonatite complexes, including the Prairie Lake complex (NW Ontario), are widely distributed in the Canadian region of the Midcontinent Rift in North America. It has been suggested that these complexes were emplaced during the main stage of rifting magmatism and are related to a mantle plume. The Prairie Lake complex is composed of carbonatite, ijolite and potassic nepheline syenite. Two samples of baddeleyite from the carbonatite yield U-Pb ages of 1157.2±2.3 and 1158.2±3.8 Ma, identical to the age of 1163.6±3.6 Ma obtained for baddeleyite from the ijolite. Apatite from the carbonatite yields the same U-Pb age of ~1160 Ma using TIMS, SIMS and laser ablation techniques. These ages indicate that the various rocks within the complex were synchronously emplaced at about 1160 Ma. The carbonatite, ijolite and syenite have identical Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions with a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ~0.70254, and positive eNd(t)1160 and eHf(t)1160 values of ~+3.5 and ~+4.6, respectively, indicating that the silicate and carbonatitic rocks are co-genetic and related by simple fractional crystallization from a magma derived from a weakly depleted mantle. These age determinations extend the period of magmatism in the Midcontinent Rift in the Lake Superior area to 1160 Ma, but do not indicate whether the magmatism is associated with passive continental rifting or the initial stages of plume-induced rifting.
DS201708-1585
2017
Li, Q-L.Zhang, S-H., Zhao, Y., Li, Q-L., Zhao-Chu, C., Zhen, Y.First identification of baddleleyite related/linked to contact metamorphism from carbonatites in the world's largest REE deposit, Bayan Obo in north Chin a craton.Lithos, Vol 284, pp. 654-665.Chinacarbonatite, Bayan Obo

Abstract: Baddeleyite has been recognized as a key mineral to determine the crystallization age of silica-undersaturated igneous rocks. Here we report a new occurrence of baddeleyite identified from REE-Nb-Th-rich carbonatite in the world's largest REE deposit, Bayan Obo, in the North China Craton (China). U-Th-Pb dating of three baddeleyite samples yields crystallization ages of 310–270 Ma with the best estimated crystallization age of ca. 280 Ma. These ages are significantly younger than the ca. 1300 Ma Bayan Obo carbonatites, but broadly coeval to nearby Permian granitoids intruding into the carbonatites. Hence, the Bayan Obo baddeleyite did not crystallize from the carbonatitic magma that led to the formation of the Bayan Obo carbonatites and related REE-Nb-Th deposit. Instead, it crystallized from hydrothermal fluids and/or a reaction involving zircon and dolomite during contact metamorphism related to the Permian granitoid emplacement. This is in agreement with the results of electron microprobe analysis that show humite inclusions in baddeleyite, since humite is a typical magnesian skarn mineral and occurs in close proximity to the intrusive contacts between carbonatites and granitoids. Our results show that baddeleyite can be used for dating hydrothermal and contact metamorphic processes.
DS202106-0933
2021
Li, Q-L.Dongre, A., Lavhale, P.,Li, Q-L.Perovskite U-Pb age and petrogenesis of the P-12 kimberlite from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: impilcations for a possible linkage at the 1110 Ma large igneous province.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol.213, 104750, 12p.pdfIndiadeposit -P12

Abstract: Petrology, bulk-rock geochemistry, and perovskite U-Pb age for the P-12 kimberlite pipe from the Wajrakarur kimberlite field, Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC) of southern India is reported. Perovskites yielded a high-precision U-Pb age of 1122 ± 7.7 Ma, taken to be an emplacement age of the host P-12 kimberlite pipe. The groundmass of coherent facies P-12 kimberlite contains monticellite, clinopyroxene, andradite, atoll spinel with titanomagnetite trend, and perovskite with an elevated REE contents. Phlogopite shows restricted Al2O3 and TiO2 contents. Furthermore, olivines with a wider and higher range of core compositions (i.e. Mg# = 84-94) and multi-granular nodules are the hallmark features of the P-12 pipe. This assorted primary mineral content and its composition indicates the transitional nature of the P-12 towards the Kaapvaal lamproites. However, concentrations of bulk-rock major and trace elements in the P-12 and other Wajrakarur kimberlites are similar to the global hypabyssal magmatic kimberlites. Large ion lithophile and high field strength elements (e.g. Ba and Nb) and their ratios (e.g. La/Nb and Th/Nb) suggest the presence of a heterogeneous and lithosphere influenced mantle source region which have been severely overprinted by metasomatizing fluids/melts emanating from the deep sourced upwelling mantle. The presence of such mixed and metasomatized mantle source regions likely to be an important factor for the transitional nature of the P-12 and other Mesoproterozoic kimberlites. Based on the availability of the newest emplacement ages, we propose a geodynamic model for the origin of kimberlites in the Indian subcontinent. The U-Pb age of 1122 ± 7.7 Ma for the P-12 pipe shows its close temporal association to the emplacement of the recently proposed 1110 Ma Large Igneous Province (LIP), with plume center beneath the NW part of the Kalahari craton. Emplacement of the P-12 and other contemporaneous Indian kimberlites, therefore, marks the impingement of mantle plume which contributed heat and triggered partial melting of metasomatized lithospheric mantle without melt input. The eruption phase of ~ 100 million years (i.e. 1050-1153 Ma), for the kimberlites and related rocks in the Indian shield, does not appear to be continuous and can be separated into several short-durational magmatic events. For this reason, small-volume, volatile-rich magmatism during the Mesoproterozoic time in India is linked to the presence of a number of LIPs and associated mantle plumes during Columbia to Rodinia supercontinent transition and assembly of cratonic blocks of the latter.
DS201608-1450
2016
Li, Q-Y.Wang, R., Collins, W.J., Weinberg, R.F., Li, J-X., Li, Q-Y., He, W-Y., Richards, J.P., Hou, Z., Zhou, Li-M., Stern, R.A.Xenoliths in ultrapotassic volcanic rocks in the Lhasa block: direct evidence for crust mantle mixing and metamorphism in the deep crust.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 19p.Asia, TibetMelting

Abstract: Felsic granulite xenoliths entrained in Miocene (~13 Ma) isotopically evolved, mantle-derived ultrapotassic volcanic (UPV) dykes in southern Tibet are refractory meta-granitoids with garnet and rutile in a near-anhydrous quartzo-feldspathic assemblage. High F-Ti (~4 wt.% TiO2 and ~3 wt.% F) phlogopite occurs as small inclusions in garnet, except for one sample where it occurs as flakes in a quartz-plagioclase-rich rock. High Si (~3.45) phengite is found as flakes in another xenolith sample. The refractory mineralogy suggests that the xenoliths underwent high-T and high-P metamorphism (800-850 °C, >15 kbar). Zircons show four main age groupings: 1.0-0.5 Ga, 50-45, 35-20, and 16-13 Ma. The oldest group is similar to common inherited zircons in the Gangdese belt, whereas the 50-45 Ma zircons match the crystallization age and juvenile character (eHfi +0.5 to +6.5) of Eocene Gangdese arc magmas. Together these two age groups indicate that a component of the xenolith was sourced from Gangdese arc rocks. The 35-20 Ma Miocene ages are derived from zircons with similar Hf-O isotopic composition as the Eocene Gangdese magmatic zircons. They also have similar steep REE curves, suggesting they grew in the absence of garnet. These zircons mark a period of early Miocene remelting of the Eocene Gangdese arc. By contrast, the youngest zircons (13.0 ± 4.9 Ma, MSWD = 1.3) are not zoned, have much lower HREE contents than the previous group, and flat HREE patterns. They also have distinctive high Th/U ratios, high zircon d18O (+8.73-8.97 ‰) values, and extremely low eHfi (-12.7 to -9.4) values. Such evolved Hf-O isotopic compositions are similar to values of zircons from the UPV lavas that host the xenolith, and the flat REE pattern suggests that the 13 Ma zircons formed in equilibrium with garnet. Garnets from a strongly peraluminous meta-tonalite xenolith are weakly zoned or unzoned and fall into four groups, three of which are almandine-pyrope solid solutions and have low d18O (+6 to 7.5 ‰), intermediate (d18O +8.5 to 9.0 ‰), and high d18O (+11.0 to 12.0 ‰). The fourth is almost pure andradite with d18O 10-12 ‰. Both the low and intermediate d18O groups show significant variation in Fe content, whereas the two high d18O groups are compositionally homogeneous. We interpret these features to indicate that the low and intermediate d18O group garnets grew in separate fractionating magmas that were brought together through magma mixing, whereas the high d18O groups formed under high-grade metamorphic conditions accompanied by metasomatic exchange. The garnets record complex, open-system magmatic and metamorphic processes in a single rock. Based on these features, we consider that ultrapotassic magmas interacted with juvenile 35-20 Ma crust after they intruded in the deep crust (>50 km) at ~13 Ma to form hybridized Miocene granitoid magmas, leaving a refractory residue. The ~13 Ma zircons retain the original, evolved isotopic character of the ultrapotassic magmas, and the garnets record successive stages of the melting and mixing process, along with subsequent high-grade metamorphism followed by low-temperature alteration and brecciation during entrainment and ascent in a late UPV dyke. This is an excellent example of in situ crust-mantle hybridization in the deep Tibetan crust.
DS201906-1362
2019
Li, Q-Y.Wang, Y., Zhang, L-F., Li, Z-H., Li, Q-Y., Bader, T.The exhumation of subducted oceanic derived eclogites: insights from phase equilibrium and thermomechanical modeling.Tectonics, in press available, 34p.Mantleeclogites

Abstract: The dynamical evolution and exhumation mechanisms of oceanic-derived eclogites are controversial conundrums of oceanic subduction zones. The previous studies indicated that density is the primary factor controlling the exhumation of oceanic rocks. To explore their density evolution, we systematically investigate the phase relations and densities of different rock types in oceanic crust, including mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB), serpentinite, and global subducting sediments (GLOSS). According to the density of eclogites, these currently exposed natural eclogites can be classified into two categories: the self-exhumation of eclogites (?MORB < ?Mantle) and the carried exhumation of eclogites (?MORB > ?Mantle). The depth limit for an exhumation of oceanic-derived eclogites solely driven by their own buoyancies is 100-110 km, and it increases with the lithospheric thickness of the overriding plate. The parameters of carried-exhumation, that is, KGLOSS and KSerp, are defined in order to quantitatively evaluate the assistance ability of GLOSS and serpentinites for carrying the denser eclogites. KGLOSS is mainly controlled by pressure, whereas KSerp is dominantly affected by temperature. Using 2-D thermomechanical models, we demonstrate that the presences of low-density, low-viscosity GLOSS and seafloor serpentinites are the prerequisites for the exhumation of oceanic-derived eclogites. Our results show that oceanic-derived eclogites should be stalled and exhumed slowly at the Moho and Conrad discontinuities (named Moho/Conrad stagnation). We propose that oceanic-derived eclogites should undergo a two-stage exhumation generally, that is, early fast exhumation driven by buoyancy at mantle levels, and final exposure to surface actuated by tectonic exhumation facilitated by divergence between upper plate and accretionary wedge or by rollback of lower plate.
DS2003-1449
2003
Li, R.Wang, Q., Li, R., Wang, D., Li, S.Eclogites preserved as pebbles in Jurassic conglomerate, Dabie Mountains, ChinaLithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 345-57.ChinaUHP, eclogites
DS200412-2082
2003
Li, R.Wang, Q., Li, R., Wang, D., Li, S.Eclogites preserved as pebbles in Jurassic conglomerate, Dabie Mountains, China.Lithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 345-57.ChinaUHP, eclogites
DS201803-0461
2017
Li, R.Li, R., Ding, M., Shi, T.Finite element design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond.Journal of Crystal Growth, 11p. Chinacubic diamonds

Abstract: The finite element method is used to simulate the steady-state temperature field in diamond synthesis cell. The 2D and 3D models of the China-type cubic press with large deformation of the synthesis cell was established successfully, which has been verified by situ measurements of synthesis cell. The assembly design, component design and process design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond based on the finite element simulation were presented one by one. The temperature field in a high-pressure synthetic cavity for diamond production is optimized by adjusting the cavity assembly. A series of analysis about the influence of the pressure media parameters on the temperature field are examined through adjusting the model parameters. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of wasteland was studied in detail. It indicates that the wasteland is inevitably exists in the synthesis sample, the distribution of growth region of the diamond with hex-octahedral is move to the center of the synthesis sample from near the heater as the power increasing, and the growth conditions of high quality diamond is locating at the center of the synthesis sample. These works can offer suggestion and advice to the development and optimization of a diamond production process.
DS202004-0536
2020
Li, R.Sun, J., Rudnick, R.L., Kostrovitsky, S., Kalashnikova, T., Kitajima, K., Li, R., Shu, Q.The origin of low-MgO eclogite xenoliths from Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 22p. Pdf.Russiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: The petrology, mineral major and trace-element concentrations, and garnet oxygen isotopic composition of low-MgO (11-16 wt%) eclogites from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton, are used to infer their petrogenesis. These eclogites contain two types of compositionally distinct garnet: granular coarse garnet, and garnet exsolution (lamellae and fine-grained garnet) in clinopyroxene. The former record higher temperatures at lower pressures than the latter, which record the last stage of equilibrium at moderate pressure-temperature conditions 2.3-3.7 GPa and 855-1095 °C in the upper mantle at the time of entrainment. Although derived from the garnet stability field, these rocks have low-pressure cumulate protoliths containing plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene as reflected by pronounced positive Eu and Sr anomalies in all eclogites, and low heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents in both minerals and reconstructed bulk rocks for a number of samples. Major elements, transition metals, and the HREE compositions of the reconstructed whole rocks are analogous to modern oceanic gabbro cumulates. Despite geochemical signatures supporting an oceanic crust origin, mantle-like d18O of the garnets (5.07-5.62‰) for most samples indicates that the protoliths either did not interact with seawater or have coincidently approximately normal igneous values. Some of the eclogite xenoliths have lower SiO2 contents and depleted light REE ((Nd/Yb)N?
DS202101-0016
2020
Li, R.Hu, L., Li, Y., Chuan, M., Li, R., Ke, C., Wu, Z.Post-magmatic fluids dominate the mineralization of dolomite carbonatitic dykes next to the giant Bayan Obo REE deposit, northern China.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1117, doi:10.3390/ min10121117 20p. PdfChinadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The Bayan Obo rare earth element (REE) deposit in Inner Mongolia, northern China, is the largest REE deposit in the world, whose mineralization process remains controversial. There are dozens of carbonatite dykes that are tightly related to the deposit. Here we report the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of a typical dolomite carbonatite dyke near the deposit. The dolomite within the dyke experienced intense post-emplacement fluids metasomatism as evidenced by the widespread hydrothermal REE-bearing minerals occurring along the carbonate mineral grains. REE contents of bulk rocks and constituent dolomite minerals (>90 vol.%) are 1407-4184 ppm and 63-152 ppm, respectively, indicating that dolomite is not the dominant mineral controlling the REE budgets of the dyke. There are three types of apatite in the dyke: Type 1 apatite is the primary apatite and contains REE2O3 at 2.35-4.20 wt.% and SrO at 1.75-2.19 wt.%; Type 2 and Type 3 apatites are the products of replacement of primary apatite. The REE2O3 (6.10-8.21 wt.%) and SrO (2.83-3.63 wt.%) contents of Type 2 apatite are significantly elevated for overprinting of REE and Sr-rich fluids derived from the carbonatite. Conversely, Type 3 apatite has decreased REE2O3 (1.17-2.35 wt.%) and SrO (1.51-1.99 wt.%) contents, resulting from infiltration of fluids with low REE and Na concentrations. Our results on the dyke suggest that post-magmatic fluids expelled from the carbonatitic melts dominated the REE mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit, and a significant fluid disturbance occurred but probably provided no extra REEs to the deposit.
DS202107-1139
2021
Li, R.Sun, W-D., Zhang, L., Li, R., Xie, G., Liu, L., Li, C-y., Zhang, L. Origin of kimberlite from the base of the upper mantle.Research Square, doi.org/10.21203/rs-532988/v1 19p. PdfMantlemagmatism
DS2003-0604
2003
Li, R.B.Hu, X.J., Dai, Y.B., Li, R.B., Shen, H.S., He, X.C.A molecular dynamics study of interstitial boron in diamondPhysica B, Vol. 327, 1, pp. 39-42.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS202008-1450
2020
Li, R.P.Sun, J., Rudnick, R.L., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Kalashnikova, T., Kitajima, K., Li, R.P., Shu, Q.The origin of low-MgO eclogite xenoliths from Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberia craton.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractRussia, Siberiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: The petrology, mineral major and trace element concentrations, and garnet oxygen isotopic composition of low-MgO (11-16 wt.%) eclogites from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton, are used to infer their petrogenesis. These eclogites equilibrated at moderate pressure-temperature conditions 2.3-3.7 GPa and 855- 1095?C at the time of entrainment. Although derived from the garnet stability field, these rocks have low-pressure cumulate protoliths containing plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene as reflected by pronounced positive Eu and Sr anomalies in all eclogites, and low heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents in both minerals and reconstructed bulk rocks for a number of samples. Major elements, transition metals, and the HREE compositions of the reconstructed whole rocks are analogous to modern oceanic gabbro cumulates. Despite geochemical signatures supporting an oceanic crust origin, mantle-like d18O of the garnets (5.07-5.62 ‰ ) for most samples indicates that the protoliths either did not interact with seawater or have coincidently approximately normal igneous values. Some of the eclogite xenoliths have lower SiO2 contents and depleted light REE ((Nd/Yb)N < 1) compared to modern oceanic gabbros, suggesting that they experienced partial melting. Positively inclined middle to heavy-REE patterns ((Dy/Yb)N <1) of the reconstructed bulk rocks mostly result from repeated partial melting in the eclogite stability field, based on melting model calculations. We therefore suggest that the Obnazhennaya low-MgO eclogites may represent the gabbroic section of subducted or foundered basaltic crust that underwent continued partial melting processes at high pressures where garnet was the main residual phase.
DS1993-0911
1993
Li, S.Li, S., et al.Collision of the North Chin a and Yangtse blocks and formation of coesite bearing eclogites: timing and processes.Chemical Geology, Vol. 109, No. 1-4, October 25, pp. 89-112.ChinaEclogites, Tectonics
DS1998-0870
1998
Li, S.Li, S., Mooney, W.D.Crustal structure of Chin a from deep seismic sounding profilesTectonophysics, Vol. 288, No. 1-4, Mar. pp. 105-114.ChinaTectonics, Geophysics - seismic
DS1999-0229
1999
Li, S.Fu, B., Zheng, Y.F., Li, S.Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of gneisses associated with ultrahigh pressure eclogites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 134, No. 1, Jan pp. 52-66.ChinaEclogites, Dabie Mountains, Shuanghe
DS2000-0340
2000
Li, S.Giorgis, D., Cosca, M., Li, S.Distribution and significance of extraneous argon in ultra high pressure (UHP) eclogite Sulu Terrain: UV laser ablation analysis.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.181, No.4, Sept.30, pp.605-15.ChinaEclogites, ultra high pressure (UHP), Dabie Shan
DS2002-1568
2002
Li, S.Sun, W., Li, S., Sun, Y., Zhang, G., Li, Q.Mid-Paleozoic collision in the north Qinling: Sm Nd, Rb, Sr and 40 Ar 39Ar ages and their tectonic implications.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, 1, pp. 69-76.ChinaTectonics, geochronology
DS2002-1569
2002
Li, S.Sun, W., Williams, I.S., Li, S.Carboniferous and Triassic eclogites in the Western Dabie Mountains east central Chin a: evidence for protracted convergence of the North and South Chin a Blocks.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 20, 9, pp. 873-886.ChinaEclogites, UHP
DS2003-0605
2003
Li, S.Huang, F., Li, S., Zhou, H.U Pb isotopic geochemistry of the post collisional mafic ultramafic rocks from the DabieScience in China Series D Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, 4, pp. 320-332.ChinaGeochemistry - UHP
DS2003-0810
2003
Li, S.Li, Q., Li, S., Zheng, Y.F., Li, H., Massone, H.J., Wang, Q.A high precision U Pb age of metamorphic rutile in coesite bearing eclogite from theChemical Geology, Vol. 200, 3-4, pp. 255-65.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS2003-1449
2003
Li, S.Wang, Q., Li, R., Wang, D., Li, S.Eclogites preserved as pebbles in Jurassic conglomerate, Dabie Mountains, ChinaLithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 345-57.ChinaUHP, eclogites
DS2003-1553
2003
Li, S.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S.Assembly, accretion and break up of the Paleo Mesoproterozoic ColumbiaGondwana Research, Vol. 6, 3, pp. 417-34.ChinaTectonics
DS200412-0854
2003
Li, S.Huang, F., Li, S., Zhou, H.U Pb isotopic geochemistry of the post collisional mafic ultramafic rocks from the Dabie Mountains - crust mantle interaction anScience China Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, 4, pp. 320-332.ChinaGeochemistry - UHP
DS200412-1128
2003
Li, S.Li, Q., Li, S., Zheng, Y.F., Li, H., Massone, H.J., Wang, Q.A high precision U Pb age of metamorphic rutile in coesite bearing eclogite from the Dabie Mountains in central China: a new conChemical Geology, Vol. 200, 3-4, pp. 255-65.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS200412-1163
2004
Li, S.Liu, X., Wei, C., Li, S., Dong, S., Liu, J.Thermobaric structure of a traverse across western Dabie Shan: implications for collision tectonics between the Sino-Korean andJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 22, 4, pp. 361-379.ChinaUHP, geothermobarometry
DS200412-2023
2004
Li, S.Unsworth, M., Wenbo, W., Jones, A.G., Li, S., Bedrosian, P., Booker, J., Sheng, J., Ming, D., Handong, T.Crustal and upper mantle structure of northern Tibet imaged with magnetotelluric data.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, B2, Feb. 13, 10.1029/2002 JB002305Asia, TibetTectonics, geophysics - seismics
DS200412-2082
2003
Li, S.Wang, Q., Li, R., Wang, D., Li, S.Eclogites preserved as pebbles in Jurassic conglomerate, Dabie Mountains, China.Lithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 345-57.ChinaUHP, eclogites
DS200412-2215
2004
Li, S.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S.A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: assembly, growth and breakup.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 67, 1-2, pp. 91-123.MantleTectonics, geodynamics, Columbia, orogen, belts
DS200412-2216
2003
Li, S.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S.Assembly, accretion and break up of the Paleo Mesoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent: records in the North Chin a craton.Gondwana Research, Vol. 6, 3, pp. 417-34.ChinaTectonics
DS200512-0242
2005
Li, S.Dong, S., Gao, R., Cong, B., Zhao, Z., Liu, X., Li, S., Huang, D.Crustal structure of the southern Dabie ultrahigh pressure orogen and Yangtze foreland from deep seismic reflection profiling.Terra Nova, Vol. 16, 6, Dec. pp. 319-324.ChinaUHP, tectonics
DS200512-0650
2004
Li, S.Liu, X., Jah, B., Liu, D., Dong, S., Li, S.SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of a metagabbro and eclogites from western Dabie Shan ( Hong'an Block) Chin a and its tectonic implications.Tectonophysics, Vol. 394, 3-4, Dec. 1-, pp. 171-192.ChinaGeochronology, UHP
DS200612-1336
2006
Li, S.Song, S., Zhang, L., Niu, Y., Li, S., Song, B., Liu, D.Evolution from oceanic subduction to continental collision: a case study from the northern Tibetan Plateau based on geochemical and geochronological data.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 47, 3, pp. 435-455.ChinaSubduction
DS200612-1554
2006
Li, S.Xiao, Y., Sun, W., Hoefs, J., Simon, K., Zhang, Z., Li, S., Hofmann, A.W.Making continental crust through slab melting: constraints from niobium tantalum fractionation in UHP metamorphic rutile.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, Sept. 15, pp. 4770-47082.ChinaDabie Sulu - eclogites - UHP
DS200612-1599
2006
Li, S.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S., Zhang, J.Some key issues in reconstructions of Proterozoic supercontinents.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 1, pp. 3-19.GondwanaTectonics
DS200812-0488
2008
li, S.Huang, F., li, S., Dong, F., He, Y., Chen, F.High mag adakitic rocks in the Dabie orogen, central China: implications for foundering mechanisms of lower continental crust.Chemical Geology, Vol. 255, 1-2, Sept. 30, pp. 1-13.ChinaUHP
DS200812-0658
2008
Li, S.Li, S., Jin, C., Dai, L., Liu, X., Zhou, X.Thermochronological constraints to two stage Indonesian extrusion of the HP UHP terranes in the Dabie Sulu orogen, central Chine.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A544.ChinaUHP
DS200912-0361
2009
Li, S.Katsube, A., Hayasaka, Y., Santosh, M., Li, S., Terada, K.SHRIMP zircon U Pb ages of eclogite and orthogneiss from Sulu ultrahigh pressure zone in Yangkou area, eastern China.Gondwana Research, Vol. 15, 2, pp. 168-177.ChinaUHP
DS200912-0437
2009
Li, S.Li, S., Kusky, T.M., Liu, X., Zhang, G., Zhao, G., Wang, L., Wang, Y.Two stage collision related extrusion of the western Dabie HP-UHP metamorphic terranes, centra China: evidence from quartz c-axis fabrics and structures.Gondwana Research, Vol. 18, 2, pp. 294-309.ChinaUHP
DS201012-0830
2010
Li, S.Wang, L., Kusky, T.M., Li, S.Structural geometry of an exhumed UHP terrane in the eastern Sulu Orogen, China: implications for continental collisional processes.Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 32, 4, pp. 423-440.ChinaUHP
DS201112-0591
2011
Li, S.Li, H., Li, S., Song, D., Gong, M., Li, X., Jia, J.Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath northwestern Chin a from seismic ambient noise tomography.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-1167
2011
Li, S.Zhao, G., Li, S., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A.Assembly, accretion and break up of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent: record in the North Chin a craton revisited.International Geology Review, Vol. 53, no. 11-12, pp. 1331-1356.ChinaTectonics
DS201502-0110
2014
Li, S.Sun, J., Zhu, X., Chen, Y., Fang, N., Li, S.Is the Bayan Obo ore deposit a micrite mound? A comparison with the Sailinhudong micrite mound.International Geology Review, Vol. 56, 14, pp. 1720-1731.ChinaCarbonatite
DS201806-1219
2018
Li, S.Dai, L., Li, S., Li, Z-H., Somerville, I., Santosh, M.Dynamics of exhumation and deformation of HP-UHP orogens in double subduction collision systems: numerical modeling and implications for the Western Dabie Orogen.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 182, pp. 68-84.ChinaUHP

Abstract: The dynamics of formation and exhumation of high-pressure (HP) and ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic orogens in double subduction-collision zones remain enigmatic. Here we employ two-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical models to gain insights on the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks, as well as their deformation during the collision of a micro-continent with pro- and retro-continental margins along two subduction zones. A three-stage collisional process with different convergence velocities is tested. In the initial collisional stage, a fold-and-thrust belt and locally rootless superimposed folds are developed in the micro-continent and subduction channel, respectively. In the second (exhumation) stage of HP-UHP rocks, a faster convergence model results in upwelling of the asthenosphere, which further leads to a detachment between the crust and lithospheric mantle of the micro-continent. A slower convergence model results in rapid exhumation of HP-UHP rocks along the north subduction channel and a typical piggy-back thrusting structure in the micro-continent. A non-convergence model produces a slab tear-off, leading to the rebound of residual lithosphere of the micro-continent. In the third and final stage, a series of back and ramp thrusts are formed in the micro-continent with the pro-continent re-subducted. Based on an analogy of our numerical results with the Western Dabie Orogen (WDO), we suggest that: (1) slab tear-off results in a rebound of residual lithosphere, which controls the two-stage syn-collisional exhumation process of HP-UHP rocks in the WDO; and (2) in contrast to the single subduction-collision system, the exhumation range of the partially molten rocks with lower viscosity and density is restricted to a specific region of the micro-continent by the Mianlue and Shangdan subduction zones, which generated the complex deformation features in the WDO.
DS202101-0044
2021
Li, S.Zhang, M., Wang, C., Zhang, Qi., Qin, Y., Shen, J., Hu, X., Zhou, G., Li, S.Temporal-spatial analysis of alkaline rocks based in GEOROC. Not specific to diamondsApplied Geochemistry, Vol. 124, 104853 8p. PdfAsia, TibetGEOROC
DS202104-0598
2021
Li, S.Pearson, D.G., Li, D., Xu, Y., Liu, S-A., Chu, Z., Chen, L-H., Li, S.Oxidation of the deep mantle wedge by recycled carbonates: constraints from highly siderophile elements and osmium isotopes.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 295, pp. 207-223.Chinanephelinites, basanites

Abstract: Widespread Cenozoic intraplate basalts from eastern China offer the opportunity to investigate the consequences of interaction between the stagnant Pacific slab and overlying asthenosphere and chemical heterogeneity within this “big mantle wedge”. We present and compile a comprehensive study of highly siderophile elements and Mg-Zn isotopes of this magmatic suite (60 samples including nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and tholeiites). The large-scale Mg-Zn isotopic anomalies documented in these basalts have been ascribed to mantle hybridization by recycled Mg-carbonates from the stagnant western Pacific plate. Our results reveal that the nephelinites and basanites are characterized by unfractionated platinum-group element (PGE) patterns normalized to primitive upper mantle (PUM) (e.g., PdN/IrN normalized to PUM?=?1.1?±?0.8, 1s), relatively high total PGE contents (e.g., Ir?=?0.25?±?0.14?ppb) and modern mantle-like 187Os/188Os (0.142?±?0.020). These characteristics are coupled with lighter Mg isotope (d26Mg?=?-0.48?±?0.07‰) and heavier Zn isotope (d66Zn = +0.46?±?0.06‰) compositions compared to the mantle values (d26Mg: -0.25?±?0.07‰; d66Zn: +0.18?±?0.05‰). Together, these data are interpreted to reflect the oxidative breakdown of low proportions of mantle sulfides in the sources of these small-degree melts, likely caused by recycled carbonates, which then release chalcophile-siderophile elements into carbonatitic melts. By contrast, the contemporaneous alkali basalts and tholeiites are characterized by highly fractionated PGE patterns (e.g., PdN/IrN?=?4.4?±?3.3; Ir?=?0.037?±?0.027?ppb) and radiogenic 187Os/188Os (0.279?±?0.115) coupled with less fractionated Mg-Zn isotope compositions (d26Mg: -0.39?±?0.05‰; d66Zn: +0.35?±?0.03‰). In combination with other isotopic (e.g., Sr-Nd) and chemical (SiO2, Ce/Pb, Ba/Th, Fe/Mn) constraints, the alkali basalts and tholeiites were derived from higher degree melting of ancient pyroxenite-bearing mantle in addition to mixing with the aforementioned nephelinitic and basanitic melts. Collectively, we suggest that deep recycled carbonates promoted melting within the "big mantle wedge" leading to the generation of Cenozoic intraplate basalts across eastern China and the "redox freezing of carbonates" may cause the oxidation of Fe0 and S2-. This process may provide an important mechanism to oxidize mantle sulfides and transfer precious metals from deep mantle to crust.
DS202108-1289
2021
Li, S.Hu, Z., Zeng, L., Foerster, M.W., Li, S., Zhao, L., Gao, L., Li, H., Yang, Y.Recycling of subducted continental crust: geochemical evidence from syn-exhumation Triassic alkaline mafic rocks of the southern Liaodong Peninsula, China.Lithos, 10.1016/j.lithos.2021.106353 13p. Chinaalkaline rocks

Abstract: Syn-exhumation mafic magmatism during continental collision provides insights into the crust-mantle reaction during deep subduction and the nature of orogenic lithospheric mantle in collisional orogens. In this study, we present a comprehensive data set of zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock major-trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of alkaline mafic rocks from the southern Liaodong Peninsula, eastern China. Zircon U-Pb analyses yield Late Triassic age of 213 ± 3 to 217 ± 3 Ma, younger than the Middle Triassic ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dabie-Sulu orogen. Thus, the alkaline mafic rocks are products of syn-exhumation magmatism during continental collision of the South and North China blocks. The rocks show shoshonitic affinities with high K2O (3.78-5.23 wt%) and K2O/Na2O (0.71-1.22). They are characterized by arc-like trace-element patterns with enriched LILE, Pb, and LREE, and depleted HFSE. They exhibit enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with high initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7058-0.7061 and negative eNd(t) values of -13.0 to -15.1. These results suggest involvement of recycled continental crust in their mantle source. The mantle source likely formed by the metasomatic reaction of subducted continental crust-derived melts with the overlying subcontinental lithospheric mantle during the Triassic continental collision. Decompressional melting of this metasomatized mantle formed syn-exhumation mafic magmas during the transition from convergent to extensional tectonics in the Late Triassic. Accordingly, mafic rocks from the southern Liaodong Peninsula provide a geochemical record of the subduction and recycling of continental crust into the mantle and melt-mantle reaction induced metasomatism within the orogen.
DS200812-1234
2008
Li, S.Baoping.Wang, D., li, H., Li, S.Baoping.The electrical conductivity of upper mantle rocks: water content in the upper mantle.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 157-162.MantleHydrous
DS2001-1267
2001
Li, S.G.Xiao, Y.L., Hoefs, J., Li, S.G.Geochemical constraints of the eclogite and granulite facies metamorphism as recognized in Raobazhai Complex.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan. pp. 3-20.ChinaGeochemistry, Dabie Shan
DS201909-2111
2019
Li, S.N.Zhu, R.Z., Ni, P., Ding, J.Y., Wang, G.G., Fan, M.S., Li, S.N.Metasomatic processes in the lithospheric mantle beneath the No. 30 kimberlite ( Wafangdian region, North China craton).canminportal.org, Vol. 57, pp. 499-517.Chinadeposit - No. 30

Abstract: This paper presents the first major and trace element compositions of mantle-derived garnet xenocrysts from the diamondiferous No. 30 kimberlite pipe in the Wafangdian region, and these are used to constrain the nature and evolution of mantle metasomatism beneath the North China Craton (NCC). The major element data were acquired using an electron probe micro-analyzer and the trace element data were obtained using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Based on Ni-in-garnet thermometry, equilibrium temperatures of 1107-1365 °C were estimated for peridotitic garnets xenocrysts from the No. 30 kimberlite, with an average temperature of 1258 °C, and pressures calculated to be between 5.0 and 7.4 GPa. In a CaO versus Cr2O3 diagram, 52% of the garnets fall in the lherzolite field and 28% in the harzburgite field; a few of the garnets are eclogitic. Based on rare earth element patterns, the lherzolitic garnets are further divided into three groups. The compositional variations in garnet xenocrysts reflect two stages of metasomatism: early carbonatite melt/fluid metasomatism and late kimberlite metasomatism. The carbonatite melt/fluids are effective at introducing Sr and the light rare earth elements, but ineffective at transporting much Zr, Ti, Y, or heavy rare earth elements. The kimberlite metasomatic agent is highly effective at element transport, introducing, e.g., Ti, Zr, Y, and the rare earth elements. Combined with compositional data for garnet inclusions in diamonds and megacrysts from the Mengyin and Wafangdian kimberlites, we suggest that these signatures reflect a two-stage evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the NCC: (1) early-stage carbonatite melt/fluid metasomatism resulting in metasomatic modification of the SCLM and likely associated with diamond crystallization; (2) late-stage kimberlite metasomatism related to the eruption of the 465 Ma kimberlite.
DS201312-0807
2014
Li, S-g.Shen, J., Wang, Y., Li, S-g.Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, central China: implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 143, pp. 115-131.ChinaUHP
DS201512-1985
2015
Li, S-G.Wang, S-J., Teng, F-Z., Rudnick, R.L., Li, S-G.Magnesium isotope evidence for a recycled origin of cratonic eclogites.Geology, Vol. 43, 12, pp. 1071-1074.Africa, Sierra LeoneDeposit - Koidu

Abstract: The Mg isotopic compositions of garnet and clinopyroxene mineral separates and whole rocks from 21 xenolithic eclogites (11 low-MgO eclogites and 10 high-MgO eclogites) from the Koidu kimberlite complex, erupted within the Archean Man Shield, Sierra Leone, West Africa, provide new evidence bearing on the origin of cratonic eclogites. Garnet and clinopyroxene in both low-MgO and high-MgO eclogites generally record equilibrium inter-mineral Mg isotope partitioning, with d26Mg varying from -2.15‰ to -0.46‰ in garnets and from -0.49‰ to +0.35‰ in clinopyroxenes. Bulk d26Mg values (-1.38‰ to +0.05‰), constructed from garnet and clinopyroxene data, are similar to results from rock powders (-1.60‰ to +0.17‰), suggesting that kimberlite infiltration has had negligible influence on the Mg isotopic compositions of the xenoliths. The d26Mg values of low-MgO eclogites (-0.80‰ to +0.05‰) exceed the range of mantle peridotite xenoliths (-0.25‰ ± 0.04‰), consistent with the eclogite’s derivation from recycled altered oceanic crust. Similarly variable d26Mg values in high-MgO eclogites (-0.95‰ to -0.13‰), together with their high MgO and low FeO contents, suggest that high-MgO eclogites were produced by Mg-Fe exchange between partially molten low-MgO eclogites and surrounding peridotites. Our study shows that cratonic xenolithic eclogites preserve a record of Mg isotopic compositions produced by low-pressure, surficial isotope fractionations. The recycling of oceanic crust therefore increases the Mg isotope heterogeneity of the mantle.
DS201804-0744
2018
Li, S-M.Stern, R.J., Li, S-M., Keller, G.R.Continental crust of China: a brief guide for the perplexed.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 179, pp. 72-94.Chinacraton

Abstract: China covers approximately 10?million?km2 and its crust has a complicated evolution of amalgamation, igneous activity, and sedimentation. Many studies address various aspects of China's crust, but few provide a simple geological and geophysical overview that is accessible to students and non-specialists; Filling this void is the objective of this review. China is characterized by thick (40-75?km) crust in the west due to Cenozoic collision with India and thin (30-40?km thick) crust in the east due to E-W Mesozoic-Cenozoic backarc extension. In contrast, overall crustal fabric trends E-W, defined by ophiolite belts and ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks. This crustal fabric indicates that China has grown like a sandwich, with crust progressively added through Phanerozoic time by closing various E-W oriented Tethys oceans and seaways. In map view, China consists of five E-W trending tiers. Tier 1 is defined by the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) along the northern margin of China, which consists of the Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt in the NE and the Tianshan Orogen in the NW. The CAOB formed during ~1000?Ma to ~250?Ma and is an accretionary orogen of mostly Paleozoic age that formed through closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and collision between the Siberian Craton and Archean-Paleoproterozoic crust to the south, which constitutes Tier 2. The CAOB has a strong aeromagnetic signature. Sediments from the Amur River show detrital U-Pb zircon age peaks at 2.8-2.3?Ga, 1.8?Ga, 450-250?Ma, and 200-100?Ma, which is expected for erosion of the Xing'an-Mongolia belt. Tier 1 igneous rocks are mainly Paleozoic except in the NE (Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt) and reflect subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and associated accretion events, whereas Paleozoic CAOB crust in the east is overprinted by Jurassic and Cretaceous igneous rocks related to subduction of ancient Pacific basin oceanic lithosphere. Tier 2 includes the North China Craton (NCC) to the east and Tarim Craton to the west. The NCC contains the oldest rocks in China and is dominated by Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages. The extent of Archean rocks in the NCC may have been overestimated, as suggested by detrital zircons from the Yellow River, which flows across the craton, showing age peaks at 2.5-2.2?Ga, ~1.9?Ga, 500-400?Ma, and 300-200?Ma. The Tarim Craton is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic- Mesoproterozoic metamorphic strata along with a significant proportion of Neoproterozoic (~0.8?Ga) rocks. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from Tarim River sediments reflect this basement geology, with strong peaks of Early and Late Paleozoic age, less abundant Neoproterozoic ages, and scattered ages back to the Archean. The NCC also was affected by abundant Mesozoic igneous activity with voluminous Early Cretaceous rocks that are associated with lithospheric thinning and decratonization. Tier 3 - also known as the Central China Orogen - is composed of the Sulu-Dabie-Qinling-Kunlun Orogen and records closing of an arm of Prototethys during the Ordovician to Silurian and Paleotethys during the Triassic. Tier 3 contains one of Earth's three giant ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes with well-documented peak metamorphism of 650-850?°C and 4?GPa, indicating that some of these rocks were deeply subducted and then exhumed from depths of over 120?km in Triassic time. Tier 3 magmatism occurred in two episodes, early-middle Paleozoic and Triassic. Tier 4 contains blocks rifted from Gondwana, which include the Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, and Lhasa terranes of Tibet in the west and the South China Block in the east. These terranes are marked by broad magnetic anomalies with a NE-SW trend along the Pacific margin, and a broad N-S trending anomaly between Tibet and South China. The South China Block is made up of Proterozoic and minor Archean crust of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks, which collided at 1.0-0.8?Ga to form the Jiangnan Orogen and the South China Block. Age spectra for detrital zircons from the Yangtze and Pearl Rivers shows major peaks at ~1.8?Ga, 900-800?Ma, ~400?Ma, and 300-150?Ma, which is consistent with the age of South China Block crust. Early-Middle Paleozoic igneous rocks are also found in South China. Mesozoic igneous rocks are widespread in both South China and Tibet and are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific and Tethyan oceanic plates, respectively. The accretion of Tibetan terranes to southern Eurasia occurred in the Mesozoic before collision with India at ~55?Ma. Tier 5 is represented by the island of Taiwan on the SE margin of China and marks where China crust continues to grow. Taiwan lies on a complex convergent boundary between the South China Block to the NW, the Philippine Sea Plate to the SE, and the Sunda Plate to the SW.
DS201212-0644
2012
Li, S-N.Sheg, Y-M., Zheng, Y-F., Li, S-N., Hu, Z.Element mobility during continental collision: insights from polymineralic metamorphic vein within UHP eclogite in the Dabie Orgoen.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, in press availableChinaUHP
DS201903-0515
2019
Li, S-S.Han, Y-S., Santosh, M., Ganguly, S., Li, S-S.Evolution of a Mesoarchean suprasubduction zone mantle wedge in the Dharwar Craton, southern India: evidence from petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, and Lu-Hf isotopes.Geological Journal, doi:10.1002/gj.3440Indiacraton

Abstract: Petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological features of Archean ultramafic-mafic complexes formed in subduction-related settings provide significant insights into mantle source and geodynamic processes associated with subduction-accretion-collision events in the early Earth. Here, we investigate a suite of serpentinized dunite, dunite, pyroxenite, and clinopyroxenite from an ultramafic complex along the collisional suture between the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) and the Central Dharwar Craton (CDC) in southern India. We present petrology, mineral chemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, rare earth element (REE), Lu-Hf isotopes, and whole-rock geochemistry including major, trace element, and platinum-group element (PGE) data with a view to investigate the magmatic and metasomatic processes in the subduction zone. Mineral chemistry data from chromite associated with the serpentinised ultramafic rocks show distinct characteristics of arc-related melt. Zircon U-Pb data from the ultramafic suite define different age populations, with the oldest ages at 2.9 Ga, and the dominant age population showing a range of 2.8-2.6 Ga. The early Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.4 Ga) metamorphic age is considered to mark the timing of collision of the two WDC and CDC. Zircon REE patterns suggest the involvement continental crust components in the magma source. Zircon Lu-Hf analysis yields both positive and negative eHf(t) values from -3.9 to 1.5 with Hf-depleted model ages (TDM) of 3,041-3,366 Ma for serpentinised dunite and -0.2-2.0 and 2,833-2,995 Ma for pyroxenite, suggesting that the magma was sourced from depleted mantle and was contaminated with the ancient continental crust. Geochemical data show low MgO/SiO2 values and elevated Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, implying subduction-related setting. The serpentinized dunites and dunites show mild LREE enrichment over HREE, with relatively higher abundance of LILE (Ba, Sr) and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Zr), suggesting fluid-rock interaction, melt impregnation, and refertilization processes. The PGE data suggest olivine, chromite, and sulphide fractionations associated with subduction processes. Our study on the Mesoarchean to Neoarchean ultramafic complex provides important insights to reconstruct the history of the crust-mantle interaction in an Archean suprasubduction zone mantle wedge.
DS202007-1168
2020
Li, S-S.Palin, R.M., Santosh, M., Cao, W., Li, S-S., Hernandez-Uribe, D.Secular change and the onset of plate tectonics on Earth.Earth Science Reviews, in press available 41p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The Earth as a planetary system has experienced significant change since its formation c. 4.54 Gyr ago. Some of these changes have been gradual, such as secular cooling of the mantle, and some have been abrupt, such as the rapid increase in free oxygen in the atmosphere at the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Many of these changes have directly affected tectonic processes on Earth and are manifest by temporal trends within the sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock record. Indeed, the timing of global onset of mobile-lid (subduction-driven) plate tectonics on our planet remains one of the fundamental points of debate within the geosciences today, and constraining the age and cause of this transition has profound implications for understanding our own planet's long-term evolution, and that for other rocky bodies in our solar system. Interpretations based on various sources of evidence have led different authors to propose a very wide range of ages for the onset of subduction-driven tectonics, which span almost all of Earth history from the Hadean to the Neoproterozoic, with this uncertainty stemming from the varying reliability of different proxies. Here, we review evidence for paleo-subduction preserved within the geological record, with a focus on metamorphic rocks and the geodynamic information that can be derived from them. First, we describe the different types of tectonic/geodynamic regimes that may occur on Earth or any other silicate body, and then review different models for the thermal evolution of the Earth and the geodynamic conditions necessary for plate tectonics to stabilize on a rocky planet. The community's current understanding of the petrology and structure of Archean and Proterozoic oceanic and continental crust is then discussed in comparison with modern-day equivalents, including how and why they differ. We then summarize evidence for the operation of subduction through time, including petrological (metamorphic), tectonic, and geochemical/isotopic data, and the results of petrological and geodynamical modeling. The styles of metamorphism in the Archean are then examined and we discuss how the secular distribution of metamorphic rock types can inform the type of geodynamic regime that operated at any point in time. In conclusion, we argue that most independent observations from the geological record and results of lithospheric-scale geodynamic modeling support a global-scale initiation of plate tectonics no later than c. 3 Ga, just preceding the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Evidence for subduction in Early Archean terranes is likely accounted for by localized occurrences of plume-induced subduction initiation, although these did not develop into a stable, globally connected network of plate boundaries until later in Earth history. Finally, we provide a discussion of major unresolved questions related to this review's theme and provide suggested directions for future research.
DS200612-1600
2006
Li, T.Zhao, R., Liou, J.G., Zhang, R.Y., Li, T.SHRIMP U Pb zircon dating of the Rongcheng eclogite and associated peridotite: new constraints for UHP metamorphism of mantle derived mafic ultramafic bodiesGeological Society of America Special Paper, No. 403, pp. 115-126.ChinaUHP - Sulu, Dabie, geochronology
DS200612-1603
2006
Li, T.Zheng, J., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Yang, J., Li, T., Zhang, M., Zhang, R., Liou, J.G.Mineral chemistry of peridotites from Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithosphere: constraints on mantle evolution beneath eastern China.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 47, 11, pp. 2233-2256.ChinaPeridotite
DS200712-1228
2007
Li, T.Zhang, R.Y., Li, T., Rumble, D., Yui, T-F., Li, L., Yang, J.S., Pan, Y., Liou, J.G.Multiple metasomatism in Sulu ultrahigh P garnet peridotite constrained by petrological geochemiscal investigations.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 25, 2, pp. 149-164..ChinaUHP
DS200812-1247
2008
Li, T.Wen, B., Zhao, J., Bucknum, M.J., Yao, P., Li, T.First principles studies of diamond polytypes.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 17, 3, pp. 356-364.TechnologyDiamond crystallography - simulation
DS200512-1248
2005
Li, T.F.Zhang, R.Y., Yang, J.S., Wooden, J.L., Liou, J.G., Li, T.F.U Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 237, 3-4, Sept. 15, pp. 729-743.Asia, ChinaUHP metamorphism, geochronology
DS200812-0659
2008
Li, T.F.Li, T.F., Yang, J.S., Zhang, R.Y.Geochemical characteristics, UHP metamorphic age, and genesis of the Huijialing garnet clinopyroxenite, Sulu terrane, China.International Geology Review, Vol. 50, 1, pp. 48-60.ChinaUHP
DS200812-1312
2008
Li, T.F.Zhang, R.Y., Pan, Y.M., Yang, Y.H., Li, T.F., Liou, J.G., Yang, J.S.Chemical composition and ultrahigh P metamorphism of garnet peridotites from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: investigation of major, trace elements and Hf isotopesChemical Geology, in press available,ChinaUHP
DS200812-1313
2008
Li, T.F.Zhang, R.Y., Pan, Y.M., Yang, Y.H., Li, T.F., Liou, J.G., Yang, J.S.Chemical composition and ultrahigh P metamorphism of garnet peridotites from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: investigation of major trace elements and Hf isotopes.Chemical Geology, Vol. 255, 1-2, Sept. 30, pp. 250-264.ChinaUHP
DS1992-1597
1992
Li, Ta M.Van Zyl, D., Koval, M., Li, Ta M.Risk assessment -management issues in the environment planning of MinesSociety Mining Engineers and Exploration Inc, 230p. approximately $ 60.00United StatesMining, Assessment, environment, audits
DS201412-0995
2014
Li, W.Xu, C., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Taylor, R.N., Kynicky, J., Li, W., Song, W., Fletcher, I.R.Origin of carbonatites in the South Qinling orogen: implications for crustal recycling and timing of collision between south and north Chin a blocks.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 143, pp. 189-206.ChinaCarbonatite
DS201412-0996
2014
Li, W.Xu, Y., Cawood, P., Du, Y., Yu, L., Yu, W., Zhu, Y., Li, W.Linking south Chin a to northern Australia and India on the margin of Gondwana: constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb isotopes in Cambrian strata.Tectonics, Vol. 32, 6, pp. 1547-1558.ChinaGeochronology
DS201703-0439
2016
Li, W.Wang, H., Li, J., Zhang, H., Xu, L., Li, W.The absolute paleoposition of the North Chin a block during the middle Ordovician.Science China Earth Sciences, Vol. 59, 3, pp. 573-582.ChinaCraton, North China

Abstract: Present-day hot spots and Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) and kimberlites mainly occur at the edges of the projections of Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) on the earth’s surface. If a plate contains accurately dated LIPs or kimberlites, it is possible to obtain the absolute paleoposition of the plate from the LIP/kimberlite and paleomagnetic data. The presence of Middle Ordovician kimberlites in the North China Block provides an opportunity to determine the absolute paleoposition of the block during the Middle Ordovician. In addition to paleobiogeographical information and the results of previous work on global plate reconstruction for the Ordovician Period, we selected published paleomagnetic data for the North China Block during the Middle Ordovician and determined the most reasonable absolute paleoposition of the North China Block during the Middle Ordovician: paleolatitude of approximately 16.6°S to 19.1°S and paleolongitude of approximately 10°W. The block was located between the Siberian Plate and Gondwana, close to the Siberian Plate. During the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, the North China Block may have moved toward the Siberian Plate and away from the Australian Plate.
DS201812-2841
2018
Li, W.Liang, J., Gong, J., Li, W.Applications and impacts of google Earth: a decadal review ( 2006-2016).ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 146, pp. 91-107.Mantleremote sensing

Abstract: Since Google Earth was first released in 2005, it has attracted hundreds of millions of users worldwide and made a profound impact on both academia and industry. It can be said that Google Earth epitomized the first-generation of Digital Earth prototypes. The functionalities and merits that have sustained Google Earth’s lasting influence are worth a retrospective review. In this paper, we take the liberty to conduct a bibliometric study of the applications of Google Earth during 2006-2016. We aim first to quantify the multifaceted impacts, and then to develop a structured understanding of the influence and contribution associated with Google Earth. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed a total of 2115 Scopus publication records using scientometric methods and then proceed to discussion with a selected set of applications. The findings and conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) the impact of Google Earth has been profound and persistent over the past decade. Google Earth was mentioned in an average of 229 publications per year since 2009. (2) Broadly, the impact of Google Earth has touched upon most scientific disciplines. Specifically, during 2006-2016, Google Earth has been mentioned in 2115 publications covering all of Scopus’s 26 subject areas; (3) the influence of Google Earth has largely concentrated in GIScience, remote sensing and geosciences. The extended influence of Google Earth has reached a wider range of audiences with a concentration in fields such as human geography, geoscience education and archaeology.
DS201909-2110
2019
Li, W.Zhang, Y., Wang, C., Zhu, L., Jin, Z., Li, W.Partial melting of mixed sediment-peridotite mantle source and its implications.Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 124, 7, pp. 6490-6503.Mantleperidotite

Abstract: Subducted sediments play an important role in the transport of incompatible elements back into the Earth's mantle. In recent years, studies of volcanic rocks from Samoan (Jackson et al., 2007, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06048), NE China (Wang, Chen, et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.02.028), and Gaussberg, Antarctica (Murphy et al., 2002, https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/43.6.981), have shown geochemical records of a sediment-influenced mantle source from the deep Earth. However, experimental studies on the partial melting behavior of mixed sediment-peridotite mantle beyond subarc depths are very rare. In this study, we conducted experiments to investigate the partial melting behavior of mixed sediment-peridotite mantle at 4-15 GPa and 1200-1800 °C. The experimental solidi of mixed sediment-peridotite and K-feldspar-peridotite systems (Mixes A and B) cross the hot mantle geotherm at depths of around the X discontinuity (seismic discontinuity, ~300-km depth). The trace element compositions of the corresponding partial melts in Mix A showed similar characteristics to those of the Samoan basaltic lavas, potassic basalts from NE China, and Gaussberg lamproites. Therefore, the experimental results provide a possible explanation for the origin of some unusual mantle-derived volcanic rocks that contain recycled sediment signatures and have very deep origins. At depths of ~300 km (X discontinuity), a mixed sediment-peridotite source was heated by a hot-upwelling mantle and produced enriched melt. The enriched melt may interact with the surrounding mantle before incorporated into the upwelling mantle plume and becoming involved in the origin of some volcanic rocks. The experiments also provide a possible link between the enriched-mantle source in the deep mantle and the X discontinuity.
DS202106-0952
2021
Li, W.Li, W., Xie, X., Song, J., Xie, R., Wang, J., Li, G.,Hou, H., Lu, J.Assessment and source identification of toxic metals in an abandoned synthetic diamond production plant from Anhui Province, China.Environmental Forensics, Vol. 22, 3-4, pp. 340-350. abstract onlyChinasynthetics

Abstract: In this study, soil and sediment samples along with groundwater samples were collected and analyzed from an abandoned synthetic diamond production plant in Anhui Province, South China. Chemical analysis, pollution characteristics analysis, and correlation analysis were conducted to assess and to determine the source(s) of the toxic metal and organic pollutions in the study sites. The Co and Ni concentrations of soil samples collected from the production area exceed the risk screening value for contaminated development land in Soil Environment Quality Standards for soil pollution risk control on construction land (Trial) of China, while the concentrations of other toxic elements such as Cr, Cu, and Zn are lower than the screening value. The PCA and HCA results are consistent with the correlation coefficient analysis and indicate that industrial activities are the main sources of Co and Ni. The chemical composition and source analysis results of soil and groundwater show that toxic metals originating from catalyst and low pH value from acid waste water should be the main point of concern in the synthetic diamond production plant.
DS200712-1134
2007
Li, W-X.Wang, X-C., Li, X-H., Li, W-X., Li, Z-X.Ca 825 Ma komatiitic basalts in south China: first evidence for > 1500 C mantle melts by a Rodinian mantle plume.Geology, Vol. 35, 12 Dec. pp. 1103-1106.ChinaMelting
DS201012-0441
2010
Li, W-Y.Li, W-Y., Teng, F-Z., Xiao, Y., Huang, J.Mantle like magnesium isotopic composition of orogenic eclogites from the Dabie Sulu UHPM belt, China.Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, abstractChinaUHP
DS201112-0596
2011
Li, W-Y.Li, W-Y., Teng, F-Z., Xaio, Y., Huang, J.High temperature inter-mineral magnesium isotope fractionation in eclogite from the Dabie orogen, China.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 304, 1-2, pp. 224-230.ChinaEclogite UHP
DS201603-0432
2016
Li, W-Y.Yang, W., Teng, F-Z., Li, W-Y., Liu, S-A., Ke, S., Liu, Y-S., Zhang, H-F., Gao, S.Magnesium isotopic composition of the deep continental crust.American Mineralogist, Vol. 101, pp. 243-252.MantleMineralogy
DS201607-1306
2016
Li, W-Y.Li, W-Y., Teng, F-Z., Xiao, Y., Gu, H-O., Zha, X-P.Empirical calibration of the clinopyroene-garnet magnesium isotope geothermometer and implications. DabieContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 171, 7, 14p.ChinaGeothermometry

Abstract: The large equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation between clinopyroxene and garnet observed in eclogites makes it a potential high-precision geothermometer, but calibration of this thermometer by natural samples is still limited. Here, we report Mg isotopic compositions of eclogite whole rocks as well as Mg and O isotopic compositions of clinopyroxene and garnet separates from 16 eclogites that formed at different temperatures from the Dabie orogen, China. The whole-rock d26Mg values vary from -1.20 to +0.10 ‰. Among them, 11 samples display limited d26Mg variations from -0.36 to -0.17 ‰, similar to those of their protoliths. The mineral separates exhibit very different d26Mg values, from -0.39 to +0.39 ‰ for clinopyroxenes and from -1.94 to -0.81 ‰ for garnets. The clinopyroxene -garnet Mg isotope fractionation (?26Mgclinopyroxene -garnet = d26Mgclinopyroxene -d26Mggarnet) varies from 1.05 to 2.15 ‰. The clinopyroxene -garnet O isotope fractionation (?18Oclinopyroxene -garnet = d18Oclinopyroxene -d18Ogarnet) varies from -1.01 to +0.98 ‰. Equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation between clinopyroxene and garnet in the investigated samples is selected based on both the d26Mgclinopyroxene versus d26Mggarnet plot and the state of O isotope equilibrium between clinopyroxene and garnet. The equilibrium ?26Mgclinopyroxene -garnet and corresponding temperature data obtained in this study, together with those available so far in literatures for natural eclogites, are used to calibrate the clinopyroxene -garnet Mg isotope thermometer. This yields a function of ?26Mgclinopyroxene -garnet = (0.99 ± 0.06) × 106/T 2, where T is temperature in Kelvin. The refined function not only provides the best empirically calibrated clinopyroxene -garnet Mg isotope thermometer for precise constraints of temperatures of clinopyroxene- and garnet-bearing rocks, but also has potential applications in high-temperature Mg isotope geochemistry.
DS201710-2239
2017
Li, W-Y.Li, W-Y., Huang, F., Yu, H-M., Xu, J., Halama, R., Teng, F-Z.Barium isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by carbonatites.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractAfrica, Tanzania, east Africa, Canada, Europe, Germany, Greenlandcarbonatite

Abstract: Deep mantle origin and ultra-reducing conditions in podiform chromitite: diamonds, moissanite, and other unusual minerals in podiform chromitites from the Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite, southern Turkey
DS201908-1786
2019
Li, W-Y.Li, W-Y., Yu, H-M., Xu, J., Halama, R., Bell, K., Nan, X-Y., Huang, F.Barium isotopic composition of the mantle: constraints from carbonatites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available doi.org/10.1016 / j.gca.2019.06.041 36p.Africa, Tanzania, Canada, East Africa, Europe, Germany, Greenlanddeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: To investigate the behaviour of Ba isotopes during carbonatite petrogenesis and to explore the possibility of using carbonatites to constrain the Ba isotopic composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Ba isotopic analyses of: (1) carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the only active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and (2) Archean to Cenozoic carbonatites from Canada, East Africa, Germany and Greenland. Carbonatites and associated phonolites and nephelinites from Oldoinyo Lengai have similar d137/134Ba values that range from +0.01 to +0.03‰, indicating that Ba isotope fractionation during carbonatite petrogenesis is negligible. The limited variation in d137/134Ba values from -0.03 to +0.09‰ for most carbonatite samples suggests that their mantle sources have a relatively homogeneous Ba isotopic composition. Based on the carbonatites investigated in this work, the average d137/134Ba value of their mantle sources is estimated to be +0.04?±?0.06‰ (2SD, n?=?16), which is similar to the average value of +0.05?±?0.06‰ for mid-ocean ridge basalts. The lower d137/134Ba value of -0.08‰ in a Canadian sample and higher d137/134Ba values of +0.14‰ and?+?0.23‰ in two Greenland samples suggest local mantle isotopic heterogeneity that may reflect the incorporation of recycled crustal materials in their sources.
DS202007-1160
2020
Li, W-Y.Li, W-Y., Yu, H-M., Xu, J., Halama, R., Bell, K., Nan, X-Y., Huang, F.Barium isotopic composition of the mantle: constraints from carbonatites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 278, pp. 235-243.Mantlecarbonatite

Abstract: To investigate the behaviour of Ba isotopes during carbonatite petrogenesis and to explore the possibility of using carbonatites to constrain the Ba isotopic composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Ba isotopic analyses of: (1) carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the only active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and (2) Archean to Cenozoic carbonatites from Canada, East Africa, Germany and Greenland. Carbonatites and associated phonolites and nephelinites from Oldoinyo Lengai have similar d137/134Ba values that range from +0.01 to +0.03‰, indicating that Ba isotope fractionation during carbonatite petrogenesis is negligible. The limited variation in d137/134Ba values from -0.03 to +0.09‰ for most carbonatite samples suggests that their mantle sources have a relatively homogeneous Ba isotopic composition. Based on the carbonatites investigated in this work, the average d137/134Ba value of their mantle sources is estimated to be +0.04?±?0.06‰ (2SD, n?=?16), which is similar to the average value of +0.05?±?0.06‰ for mid-ocean ridge basalts. The lower d137/134Ba value of -0.08‰ in a Canadian sample and higher d137/134Ba values of +0.14‰ and?+?0.23‰ in two Greenland samples suggest local mantle isotopic heterogeneity that may reflect the incorporation of recycled crustal materials in their sources.
DS202006-0931
2020
Li, W-Ye.Li, W-Ye., Yu, H-M., Xu, J., Halama, R., Bell, K., Nan, X-Y., Huang, F.Barium isotopic composition of the mantle: constraints from carbonatites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 278, pp. 235-243. pdfAfrica, Tanzania, Canada, Europe, Germany, Greenlanddeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: To investigate the behaviour of Ba isotopes during carbonatite petrogenesis and to explore the possibility of using carbonatites to constrain the Ba isotopic composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Ba isotopic analyses of: (1) carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the only active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and (2) Archean to Cenozoic carbonatites from Canada, East Africa, Germany and Greenland. Carbonatites and associated phonolites and nephelinites from Oldoinyo Lengai have similar d137/134Ba values that range from +0.01 to +0.03‰, indicating that Ba isotope fractionation during carbonatite petrogenesis is negligible. The limited variation in d137/134Ba values from -0.03 to +0.09‰ for most carbonatite samples suggests that their mantle sources have a relatively homogeneous Ba isotopic composition. Based on the carbonatites investigated in this work, the average d137/134Ba value of their mantle sources is estimated to be +0.04?±?0.06‰ (2SD, n?=?16), which is similar to the average value of +0.05?±?0.06‰ for mid-ocean ridge basalts. The lower d137/134Ba value of -0.08‰ in a Canadian sample and higher d137/134Ba values of +0.14‰ and?+?0.23‰ in two Greenland samples suggest local mantle isotopic heterogeneity that may reflect the incorporation of recycled crustal materials in their sources.
DS1996-0841
1996
Li, X.Li, X., Manga, M., Jeanloz, R.Temperature distribution in the laser heated diamond cell with externalheating, and implications perovskiteGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, No. 25, Dec. 15, pp. 3775-3778.GlobalPerovskite
DS1996-0842
1996
Li, X.Li, X., McCulloch, M.T.Secular variation in the neodymium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic sediments from southern margin YangtzePrecambrian Research, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2, Jan. 1, pp. 67-76.ChinaGeochronology, Geodynamics, tectonics
DS2001-0685
2001
Li, X.Li, X., Gotze, H.J.Ellipsoid, geoid, gravity, geodesy and geophysicsGeophysics, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 1660-68.GlobalGeophysics - not specific to diamonds, Overview
DS2001-0686
2001
Li, X.Li, X., Zhou, Liu, KinneyUranium-Lead- zircon geochronology, geochemistry Nd isotopic study Neoproterozoic bimodal volcanics Kangdian RiftTectonophysics, Vol. 342, No. 3-4, Dec. pp. 135-54.China, SouthGeochronology, Rodinia
DS2002-0942
2002
Li, X.Li, X., Li, Z.X., Zhou, H., Liu, Y., Kinny, P.D.U Pb zircon geochronology, geochemistry and Nd isotopic study of Neoproterozoic bimodal volcanic rocks...Precambrian Research, Vol. 113, No. 1-2, pp. 135-54.China, SouthTectonics, rifting Rodinia, Kangdian Rift, uranium, lead
DS2003-0811
2003
Li, X.Li, X., Kind, R., Yuan, X.Seismic study of upper mantle and transition zone beneath hotspotsPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 136, 1-2, pp. 79-82.MantleBlank
DS2003-0812
2003
Li, X.Li, X., Kind, R., Yuan, X., Sobolev, S.V., Hanka, W., Ramesh, D.S., Gu, Y.Seismic observation of narrow plumes in the oceanic upper mantleGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, 6, p. 67. DOI10.1029/2002GLO15411MantlePlumes
DS2003-0813
2003
Li, X.Li, X., Yuan, X.Receiver functions in northeast Chin a - implications for slab penetrations into the lowerEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 216, 4, pp. 679-691.ChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS2003-0834
2003
Li, X.Liu, S., Li, X., Fu, H., Wagner, G.A.The characteristics of ESR and 3-D TL spectra of diamondsNuclear Techniques, Vol. 26, 1, pp. 28-31.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS200412-1129
2003
Li, X.Li, X., Kind, R., Yuan, X.Seismic study of upper mantle and transition zone beneath hotspots.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 136, 1-2, pp. 79-82.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-1130
2003
Li, X.Li, X., Kind, R., Yuan, X., Sobolev, S.V., Hanka, W., Ramesh, D.S., Gu, Y., Dziewonski, A.M.Seismic observation of narrow plumes in the oceanic upper mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, 6, p. 67. DOI10.1029/2002 GLO15411MantleGeophysics - seismics Plumes
DS200412-1131
2003
Li, X.Li, X., Yuan, X.Receiver functions in northeast Chin a - implications for slab penetrations into the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 216, 4, pp. 679-691.ChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-1244
2005
Li, X.Zhang, L., Song, S., Liou, J.G., Ai, Y., Li, X.Relict coesite exsolution omphacite from western Tian Shan eclogites, China.American Mineralogist, Vol. 90, 1, Jan. pp. 181-186.ChinaUHP
DS200612-1573
2006
Li, X.Yongliang, A., Lifei, Z., Li, X., Qu, J.Geochemical characteristics and tectonic implications of HP UHP eclogites and blueschists in southwestern Tian Shan China.Progress in Natural Science, Vol. 16, 6, June pp. 624-632.ChinaUHP
DS200712-0623
2007
Li, X.Li, X., Yuan, X., Kind, R.The lithosphereasthenosphere boundary beneath the western United States.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 170, 2, pp. 700-710.United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS200912-0313
2009
Li, X.Hou, Z., Tian, S., Xie, Y., Yang, Z., Yuan, Z., Yin, S., Yi, L., Fei, H., Zou, T., Bai, G., Li, X.The Himalayan Mianning Dechang REE belt associated with carbonatite alkaline complexes eastern Indo Asian collision zone, SW China.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 36, 1-3, pp. 65-89.ChinaCarbonatite
DS200912-0864
2009
Li, X.Zhou, S., Zang, C., Ma, H., Li, X., Zhang, H., Jia, X.Study on growth of coarse grains of diamond with high quality under HPHT.Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 54, 1, pp. 163-167.TechnologyUHP
DS201012-0137
2010
Li, X.Das Sharma, S., Ramesh, D.S., Li, X., Yuan, B., Sreenivas, B., Kind, R.Response of mantle transition zone thickness to plume bouyancy flux.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 180, 1, pp. 49-58.MantlePlume
DS201112-0180
2011
Li, X.Cheng, H., Vervoort, J.D., Li, X., Zhang, C., Li, Q., Zheng, S.The growth interval of garnet in the UHP eclogites from the Dabie orogen, China.American Mineralogist, Vol. 96, 8-9, pp. 1300-1307.ChinaUHP
DS201112-0591
2011
Li, X.Li, H., Li, S., Song, D., Gong, M., Li, X., Jia, J.Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath northwestern Chin a from seismic ambient noise tomography.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-0597
2011
Li, X.Li, X., Bucher, K.The Lillebukt alkaline complex, northern Norway.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p. 70-72.Europe, NorwayLillebukt
DS201112-0598
2011
Li, X.Li, X., Bucher, K.The Lillebukt alkaline complex, northern Norway.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p. 70-72.Europe, NorwayLillebukt
DS201412-0492
2014
Li, X.Kusky, T.M., Li, X., Wang, Z., Fu, J., Ze, L., Zhu, P.Are Wilson cycles preserved in Archean cratons? A comparison of the North Chin and Slave cratons.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 51, 3, pp. 297-311.China, Canada, Northwest TerritoriesWilson cycle
DS201612-2316
2016
Li, X.Li, Q., Li, X., Wu, F., Liu, Y., Tang, G.Accessory minerals SIMS U-Th-Pb dating for kimberlite and lamproite. Mengin, Shandong; Dahongshan, Hubei.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, July abstract p. 74-75.ChinaPerovskite
DS201805-0981
2018
Li, X.Sun, N., Wei, W., Han, S., Song, J., Li, X., Duan, Y., Prakapenka, V.B., Mao, Z.Phase transition and thermal equations of state of (Fe, Al) -bridgmanite and post perovskite: implication for the chemical heterogeneity at the lowermost mantle.Earth Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 490, pp. 161-169.Mantleperovskite
DS201906-1364
2019
Li, X.Zeng, Z., Li, X., Liu, Y., Huang, F., Yu, H-M.High precision barium isotope measurements of carbonates by MC-ICP-MS.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 43, 2, pp. 291-300.Globalcarbonatites

Abstract: This study presents a high-precision method to measure barium (Ba) isotope compositions of international carbonate reference materials and natural carbonates. Barium was purified using chromatographic columns filled with cation exchange resin (AG50W-X12, 200-400 mesh). Barium isotopes were measured by MC-ICP-MS, using a 135Ba-136Ba double-spike to correct mass-dependent fractionation during purification and instrumental measurement. The precision and accuracy were monitored by measuring Ba isotope compositions of the reference material JCp-1 (coral) and a synthetic solution obtained by mixing NIST SRM 3104a with other matrix elements. The mean d137/134Ba values of JCp-1 and the synthetic solution relative to NIST SRM 3104a were 0.21 ± 0.03‰ (2s, n = 16) and 0.02 ± 0.03‰ (2s, n = 6), respectively. Replicate measurements of NIST SRM 915b, COQ-1, natural coral and stalagmite samples gave average d137/134Ba values of 0.10 ± 0.04‰ (2s, n = 18), 0.08 ± 0.04‰ (2s, n = 20), 0.27 ± 0.04‰ (2s, n = 16) and 0.04 ± 0.03‰ (2s, n = 20), respectively. Barium mass fractions and Ba isotopes of subsamples drilled from one stalagmite profile were also measured. Although Ba mass fractions varied significantly along the profile, Ba isotope signatures were homogeneous, indicating that Ba isotope compositions of stalagmites could be a potential tool (in addition to Ba mass fractions) to constrain the source of Ba in carbonate rocks and minerals.
DS2002-1350
2002
Li, X.C.Rogers, J., Li, X.C.Environmental impact of diamond mining on continental shelf sediments off southern Namibia.Quaternary International, Vol.92,1, pp. 101-12., Vol.92,1, pp. 101-12.NamibiaMining - environment
DS2002-1351
2002
Li, X.C.Rogers, J., Li, X.C.Environmental impact of diamond mining on continental shelf sediments off southern Namibia.Quaternary International, Vol.92,1, pp. 101-12., Vol.92,1, pp. 101-12.NamibiaMining - environment
DS201906-1366
2019
Li, X.C.Zhou, M.F., Li, X.C., Chen, W.T., Li, M.Y.H.Rare earth element deposits in China.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p.abstract p. 65.Chinadeposit - Bayan Obo
DS2002-0943
2002
Li, X.H.Li, X.H., Zhou, H., Chung, S.L., Lo, Ch., Wei, G., Liu, Y., Lee, C.Geochemical and Sr Nd isotopic characteristics of Late Paleogene ultrapotassic magmatism in southeast Tibet.International Geology Review, Vol. 44, 6, pp. 559-74.TibetGeochemistry, geochronology, magmatism
DS2003-0816
2003
Li, X.H.Li, Z.X., Cho, M., Li, X.H.Precambrian tectonics of East Asia and relevance to supercontinent evolutionPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp. 1-6.Asia, ChinaTectonics
DS2003-0817
2003
Li, X.H.Li, Z.X., Li, X.H., Kinny, P.D., Wang, J., Zhang, S., Zhou, H.Geochronology of Neoproterozoic syn-rift magmatism in the Yangtze Craton, SouthPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.85-109.China, RodiniaGeochronology, Magmatism
DS200412-1133
2003
Li, X.H.Li, Z.X., Cho, M., Li, X.H.Precambrian tectonics of East Asia and relevance to supercontinent evolution.Precambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp. 1-6.Asia, ChinaTectonics
DS200412-1134
2003
Li, X.H.Li, Z.X., Li, X.H., Kinny, P.D., Wang, J., Zhang, S., Zhou, H.Geochronology of Neoproterozoic syn-rift magmatism in the Yangtze Craton, South Chin a and correlations with other continents: evPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.85-109.China, RodiniaGeochronology Magmatism
DS200912-0436
2009
Li, X.H.Li, Q.L., Li, X.H., Wu, F.Y., Yang, J.H.SIMS U-Th-Pb dating of kimberlite perovskite.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A755 Abstract.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Wesselton
DS2003-0814
2003
Li, X.L.Li, X.L., Ebihara, M.Determination of all platinum group elements in mantle derived xenoliths by neutronJournal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 255, 1, pp. 131-35.GlobalXenoliths - not specific to diamonds
DS200512-0632
2004
Li, X.P.Li, X.P., Zheng, Y.F., Wu, Y.B., Chen, F., Gong, B., Li, Y.L.Low T eclogite in the Dabie terrane of China: petrological and isotopic constraints on fluid activity and radiometric dating.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 148, 4, pp. 443-470.ChinaGeochronology
DS201501-0034
2015
Li, X.Y.Zheng, J.P., Lee, C.T.A., Lu, J.G., Zhao, J.H., Wu, Y.B., Xia, B., Li, X.Y., Zhang, J.F., Liu, Y.S.Refertilization driven destabilization of subcontinental mantle and the importance of initial lithospheric thickness for the fate of continents. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 409, pp. 225-229.ChinaPeridotite
DS1995-1093
1995
Li, X-D.Li, X-D., Romanowicz, B.Mantle S-velocity structure from waveform inversionEos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F421. Abstract.MantleGeophysics -seismic, Veolocity structure
DS200612-1590
2006
Li, X-H.Zhang, C-L., Li, Z.X., Li, X-H., Ye, H., Wang, A., Guo, K-Y.Neoproterozoic bimodal intrusive complex in the southwestern Tarim Block, northwest China: age, geochemistry, and implications for rifting of Rodinia.International Geology Review, Vol. 48, 2, Feb. pp. 112-128.ChinaGeochronology
DS200712-1134
2007
Li, X-H.Wang, X-C., Li, X-H., Li, W-X., Li, Z-X.Ca 825 Ma komatiitic basalts in south China: first evidence for > 1500 C mantle melts by a Rodinian mantle plume.Geology, Vol. 35, 12 Dec. pp. 1103-1106.ChinaMelting
DS200912-0806
2009
Li, X-H.Wang, X-C., Li, X-H., D'Agrella-Filho, M.S., Trindade, R.I.Variable involvements of mantle plumes in the genesis of mid-Neoproterozoic basaltic rocks in South China: a review.Gondwana Research, Vol. 15, 3-4, pp. 381-395.ChinaHotspots
DS201112-0594
2011
Li, X-H.Li, Q., Wu, F-Y., Li, X-H., Qiu, Z-L., Yang, Y-H., Tang, G-Q.Precisely dating Paleozoic kimberlites in the North Chin a craton and Hf isotopic constraints on the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle.Lithos, Vol. 126, pp. 127-134.ChinaMengyin, Fuxian
DS201112-0595
2011
Li, X-H.Li, Q-L., Wu, F-Y., Li, X-H., Qiu, Z-L., Liu, Y., Yang, Y-H., Tang, G-Q.Precise age determin ation of the Paleozoic kimberlites in North Chin a craton and Hf isotopic constraint on the evolution of its subcontinental lithospheric mantle.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1316.ChinaMengyin, Fuxian
DS201112-1099
2011
Li, X-H.Wang, H., Wu, Y-B., Gao, S., Liu, X-C., Gong, H-J., Li, Q-L., Li, X-H., Yuan, H-L.Eclogite origin and timing in the North Qinling terrane, and their bearing on the amalgamation of the South and North Chin a blocks.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, in press available,ChinaCraton
DS201212-0167
2012
Li, X-H.Donnelly, C.L., Griffin, W.L., Yang, J-H., O'Reilly, Z.Y., li Li, Q., Pearson, N.J., Li, X-H.In situ U Pb dating and Sr Nd isotopic analysis of perovskite: constraints on the age and petrogenesis of the Kuruman kimberlite province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 53, 12, pp. 2407-2522.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Kuruman
DS201312-0955
2013
Li, X-H.Wang, X-C., Li, Z-X., Li, X-H., Xu, Y-G., Li, X-H.Diamond mining in Russia…. Chart of reserves.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 377-378, pp. 248-259.MantlePlume
DS201312-0955
2013
Li, X-H.Wang, X-C., Li, Z-X., Li, X-H., Xu, Y-G., Li, X-H.Diamond mining in Russia…. Chart of reserves.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 377-378, pp. 248-259.MantlePlume
DS201312-0994
2013
Li, X-H.Ye, H-M., Li, X-H., Lan, Z-W.Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O-C isotopic constraints on the origin of the Neoproterozoic Qieganbulake ultramafic carbonatite complex from the Tarim block, northwest China.Lithos, Vol. 182, pp. 150-164.ChinaCarbonatite
DS201908-1821
2019
Li, X-H.Wang, C., Song, S., Wei, C., Su, L., Allen, M.B., Niu, Y., Li, X-H., Dong, J.Paleoarchean deep mantle heterogeneity recorded by enriched plume remnants.Nature Geoscience, doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0410-y 10p pdfMantlePlumes, hotspots

Abstract: The thermal and chemical state of the early Archaean deep mantle is poorly resolved due to the rare occurrences of early Archaean magnesium-rich volcanic rocks. In particular, it is not clear whether compositional heterogeneity existed in the early Archaean deep mantle and, if it did, how deep mantle heterogeneity formed. Here we present a geochronological and geochemical study on a Palaeoarchaean ultramafic-mafic suite (3.45-Gyr-old) with mantle plume signatures in Longwan, Eastern Hebei, the North China Craton. This suite consists of metamorphosed cumulates and basalts. The meta-basalts are iron rich and show the geochemical characteristics of present-day oceanic island basalt and unusually high mantle potential temperatures (1,675?°C), which suggests a deep mantle source enriched in iron and incompatible elements. The Longwan ultramafic-mafic suite is best interpreted as the remnants of a 3.45-Gyr-old enriched mantle plume. The first emergence of mantle-plume-related rocks on the Earth 3.5-3.45?billion years ago indicates that a global mantle plume event occurred with the onset of large-scale deep mantle convection in the Palaeoarchaean. Various deep mantle sources of these Palaeoarchaean mantle-plume-related rocks imply that significant compositional heterogeneity was present in the Palaeoarchaean deep mantle, most probably introduced by recycled crustal material.
DS202102-0209
2021
Li, X-H.Melnik, A.E., Korolev,N.M., Skublov, S.G., Muller, D., LiL, Q-L., Li, X-H.Zircon in mantle eclogite xenoliths: a reviewGeological Magazine, https://doi.org/ 10.1017/ S0016756820001387Africa, Angola, Central African Republic, GabonKasai craton

Abstract: Very few zircon-bearing, kimberlite-hosted mantle eclogite xenoliths have been identified to date; however, the zircon they contain is crucial for our understanding of subcratonic lithospheric mantle evolution and eclogite genesis. In this study, we constrain the characteristics of zircon from mantle eclogite xenoliths based on existing mineralogical and geochemical data from zircons from different geological settings, and on the inferred origin of mantle eclogites. Given the likely origin and subsequent evolution of mantle eclogites, we infer that the xenoliths can contain zircons with magmatic, metamorphic and xenogenic (i.e. kimberlitic zircon) origins. Magmatic zircon can be inherited from low-pressure mafic oceanic crust precursors, or might form during direct crystallization of eclogites from primary mantle-derived melts at mantle pressures. Metamorphic zircon within mantle eclogites has a number of possible origins, ranging from low-pressure hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crustal protoliths to metasomatism related to kimberlite magmatism. This study outlines a possible approach for the identification of inherited magmatic zircon within subduction-related mantle eclogites as well as xenogenic kimberlitic zircon within all types of mantle eclogites. We demonstrate this approach using zircon grains from kimberlite-hosted eclogite xenoliths from the Kasai Craton, which reveals that most, if not all, of these zircons were most likely incorporated as a result of laboratory-based contamination.
DS1998-0871
1998
Li, Y.Li, Y., Qian, Y., Zhou, G.A reproduction pyrolysis catalysis synthesis of diamondScience, Vol. 281, No. 5374, July 10, pp. 246-7.GlobalDiamond - synthetic
DS1998-1633
1998
Li, Y.Zhao, L., Zhang, P., Huang, X., Li, Y.Deep mantle fluids and their products in kimberlites from China7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 1001-3.ChinaUltra deep fluid, Metasomatism
DS1998-1636
1998
Li, Y.Zheng, Y.F., Gong, B., Fu, B., Li, Y.Extreme 13 C depletion in ultrahigh pressure eclogites from the Dabie and Sulu terranes in China.Mineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 1698-9.ChinaEclogites, metamorphism, Deposit - Dabie Shan
DS2002-1720
2002
Li, Y.Windley, B.F., Kroner, A., Guo, J., Qu, G., Li, Y., Zhang, C.Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic geology of the Altai Orogen NW China: new zircon age dat a and tectonic evolution.Journal of Geology, Vol. 110, 6, pp. 719-738.ChinaGeochronology
DS2002-1792
2002
Li, Y.Zhou, M-F., Yan, D-P., Kennedy, A.K., Li, Y., Ding, J.SHRIMP U Pb zircon geochronology and geochemical evidence for Neoproterozoic arc magmatism along marginEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.196, 1-2, Feb.28, pp.51-67.China, SouthYangtze Block - western margin, Geochemistry, uranium, lead isotopes
DS2003-1542
2003
Li, Y.Zhai, M., Guo, J., Li, Y., Peng, P., Shi, X.Two linear granite belts in the central western North Chin a Craton and their implicationPrecambrian Research, Vol. 127, 1-2, Nov. pp.267-283.ChinaTectonics
DS200412-2200
2003
Li, Y.Zhai, M., Guo, J., Li, Y., Peng, P., Shi, X.Two linear granite belts in the central western North Chin a Craton and their implication for Late Neoarchean Paleoproterozoic coPrecambrian Research, Vol. 127, 1-2, Nov. pp.267-283.ChinaTectonics
DS200612-0085
2006
Li, Y.Barnes, C.G., Li, Y., Barnes, M., McCullock, L., Frost, C., Prestvik, T., Allen, C.Carbonate assimilation in the alkaline Hortavaer igneous complex, Norway.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1. abstract only.Europe, NorwayCarbonatite
DS200712-0736
2006
Li, Y.Mo, X., Zhao, Z., Deng, J., Flower, M., Yu, X., Luo, Z., Li, Y., Zhou, S., Deng, G., Zhu, D.Petrology and geochemistry of post collisional volcanic rocks from the Tibetan plateau: implications for lithosphere heterogeneity and collision induced mantleGeological Society of America, Special Paper, No. 409, pp. 507-530.AsiaSubduction
DS200712-0771
2007
Li, Y.Napieralski, J., Harbor, J., Li, Y.Glacial geomorphology and geographic information systems.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 85, 1-2, pp. 1-22.TechnologyGIS
DS200812-1290
2008
Li, Y.Yang, F., Liu, B., Ni, S., Zeng, X., Dai, Z., Li, Y.Lowermost mantle shear velocity anisotropy beneath Siberia.Acta Seismologica Sinica, Vol. 21, 3, pp. 213-216.RussiaGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0872
2010
Li, Y.Yang, J., Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Li, Y., Li, J., Jia, Y., Liu, Z., Ba, D.Diamond in the Purang peridotite Massif, west of the Yarlung Zangbu Suture, Tibet: a new discovery.Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, abstractAsia, TibetPurang Massif
DS201112-1131
2011
Li, Y.Yang, J., Xu, X., Li, Y., Liu, Z., Li, J., Ba, D., Robinson, P.T.Diamond discovered from six different ultramafic massifs along the Yarlung Zangbu suture between the Indian and Eurasian plates.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Oct. 9-12, abstractAsia, IndiaMantle harzburgites
DS201312-0537
2013
Li, Y.Li, Y., Wedenbeck, M., Shscheka, S., Keppler, H.Nitrogen solubility in upper mantle minerals.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 377-378, pp. 311-323.MantleMineralogy
DS201312-0572
2013
Li, Y.Manning, C., Li, Y., Eguchi, J.Fluids, subduction, and deep carbon.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleCarbon cycle
DS201412-0509
2014
Li, Y.Li, Y., Keppler, H.Nitrogen speciation in mantle and crustal fluids.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 129, pp. 13-32.MantleNitrogen chemistry
DS201412-0520
2014
Li, Y.Liu, X., Xiong, X., Audetat, A., Li, Y., Song, M., Li, L., Sun, W., Ding, X.Partitioning of copper between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, garnet, and silicate melts at upper mantle conditions.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 125, pp. 1-22.MantleMineral chemistry
DS201506-0297
2015
Li, Y.Tian, Y., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Xiong, F., Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Liu, Z., Liu, F., Niu, X.Diamond discovered in high Al chromitites of the Sartohay ophiolite, Xinjiang province China.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 89, 2, pp. 332-340.ChinaChromitite
DS201508-0382
2015
Li, Y.Xie, Y., Li, Y., Hou, Z., Cooke, D.R., Danyushevsky, L., Dominy, S.C., Yin, S.A model for carbonatite hosted REE mineralization - the Mianning-Dechang REE belt, western Sichuan Province, China.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 70, pp. 595-612.ChinaCarbonatite
DS201605-0922
2016
Li, Y.Xiong, F., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Xu, X., Ba, D., Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Rong, H.Diamonds ad other exotic minerals recovered from peridotites of the Dangqiong ophiolite, western Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, 2, pp. 425-439.Asia, TibetPeridotite

Abstract: Various combinations of diamond, moissanite, zircon, quartz, corundum, rutile, titanite, almandine garnet, kyanite, and andalusite have been recovered from the Dangqiong peridotites. More than 80 grains of diamond have been recovered, most of which are pale yellow to reddish-orange to colorless. The grains are all 100-200 µm in size and mostly anhedral, but with a range of morphologies including elongated, octahedral and subhedral varieties. Their identification was confirmed by a characteristic shift in the Raman spectra between 1325 cm-1 and 1333 cm-1, mostly at 1331.51 cm-1 or 1326.96 cm-1. Integration of the mineralogical, petrological and geochemical data for the Dongqiong peridotites suggests a multi-stage formation for this body and similar ophiolites in the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone. Chromian spinel grains and perhaps small bodies of chromitite crystallized at various depths in the upper mantle, and encapsulated the UHP, highly reduced and crustal minerals. Some oceanic crustal slabs containing the chromian spinel and their inclusion were later trapped in suprasubduction zones (SSZ), where they were modified by island arc tholeiitic and boninitic magmas, thus changing the chromian spinel compositions and depositing chromitite ores in melt channels.
DS201610-1883
2016
Li, Y.Li, Y., Dasgupta, R., Tsuno, K., Monteleone, B., Shimizu, N.Carbon and sulfur budget of the silicate Earth explained by accretion of differentiated planetary embryos.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 781-785.MantleSulfur budgets

Abstract: The abundances of volatile elements in the Earth’s mantle have been attributed to the delivery of volatile-rich material after the main phase of accretion1, 2, 3. However, no known meteorites could deliver the volatile elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, at the relative abundances observed for the silicate Earth4. Alternatively, Earth could have acquired its volatile inventory during accretion and differentiation, but the fate of volatile elements during core formation is known only for a limited set of conditions4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Here we present constraints from laboratory experiments on the partitioning of carbon and sulfur between metallic cores and silicate mantles under conditions relevant for rocky planetary bodies. We find that carbon remains more siderophile than sulfur over a range of oxygen fugacities; however, our experiments suggest that in reduced or sulfur-rich bodies, carbon is expelled from the segregating core. Combined with previous constraints9, we propose that the ratio of carbon to sulfur in the silicate Earth could have been established by differentiation of a planetary embryo that was then accreted to the proto-Earth. We suggest that the accretion of a Mercury-like (reduced) or a sulfur-rich (oxidized) differentiated body—in which carbon has been preferentially partitioned into the mantle—may explain the Earth’s carbon and sulfur budgets.
DS201802-0225
2018
Li, Y.Chen, N., Ma, H., Chen, L., Yan, B., Fang, C., Liu, X., Li, Y., Guo, L., Chen, L., Jia, X.Effects of S on the synthesis of type 1b diamond under high pressure and high temperature.International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 71, pp. 141-146.Technologysynthetic diamonds
DS201812-2840
2018
Li, Y.Li, Y., Zhang, J., Mustofa, K.M.G., Wang, Y., Yu, S., Cai, Z., Li, P., Zhou, G., Fu, C., Mao, X.Petrogenesis of carbonatites in the Luliangshan region, North Qaidam, northern Tibet, China: evidence for recycling of sedimentary carbonate and mantle metasomatism within a subduction zone.Lithos, Vol. 322, pp. 148-165.China, Tibetcarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonatitic magmatism in subduction zones provides extremely valuable information on the cycling, behavior and storage of deep carbon within the Earth. It may also shed light on insights into crust-mantle interaction and mantle metasomatism within subduction zones. Origin of carbonatite has long been debated: all hypotheses need to reflect the different mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions of carbonatites and their diverse tectonic settings. Here we present a petrological, geochronological, geochemical and isotopic study of carbonatite bodies associated with orogenic peridotites, which occur as stocks or dykes with widths of tens to hundreds of meters in the Luliangshan region, North Qaidam, northern Tibet, China. On the basis of modal olivine (Ol) content, the studied samples were subdivided into two groups: Ol-poor carbonatite and Ol-rich carbonatite. Zircon grains from the Ol-poor carbonatite show detrital features, and yield a wide age spectrum between 400?Ma and 1000?Ma with a pronounced peak at ca. 410-430?Ma. By contrast, oscillatory zoned zircons and inherited cores show two relatively small Neoproterozoic age peaks at ca. 920 and 830?Ma. Zircon grains from the Ol-rich carbonatite sample are also distributed in a wide spectrum between 400 and 1000?Ma, with a pronounced peak at ca. 440?Ma and a slightly inferior peak at ca. 410?Ma. The oscillatory zoned zircons and inherited cores exhibit a smaller Neoproterozoic age peak at ca. 740?Ma. The pronounced peaks ranging from 430 to 410?Ma are consistent with the deep subduction and mantle metasomatic events recorded in associated ultramafic rocks. Both groups of carbonatites are characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) with high (La/Yb)N values and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. They show high 87Sr/86Sr values (0.708156-0.709004), low 143Nd/144Nd values (0.511932-0.512013) and high d18OV-SMOW values (+17.9 to +21.3‰). This geochemical and isotopic evidence suggests that these carbonatites were derived from remobilized sedimentary carbonate rocks. We propose that the primary carbonatite magma was formed by partial melting of sedimentary carbonates with mantle contributions. Sedimentary carbonates were subducted into the shallow upper mantle where they melted and formed diapirs that moved upwards through the hot mantle wedge. The case presented provides a rare example of carbonatite originating from sedimentary carbonates with mantle contributions and relevant information on the mantle metasomatism within a subduction zone.
DS201904-0741
2019
Li, Y.Grewal, D.S., Dasgupta, R., Holmes, A.K., Costin, G., Li, Y., Tsuno, K.The fate of nitrogen during core-mantle seperation on Earth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 251. pp. 87-115.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen, the most dominant constituent of Earth’s atmosphere, is critical for the habitability and existence of life on our planet. However, its distribution between Earth’s major reservoirs, which must be largely influenced by the accretion and differentiation processes during its formative years, is poorly known. Sequestration into the metallic core, along with volatility related loss pre- and post-accretion, could be a critical process that can explain the depletion of nitrogen in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) relative to the primitive chondrites. However, the relative effect of different thermodynamic parameters on the alloy-silicate partitioning behavior of nitrogen is not well understood. Here we present equilibrium partitioning data of N between alloy and silicate melt () from 67 new high pressure (P?=?1-6?GPa)-temperature (T?=?1500-2200?°C) experiments under graphite saturated conditions at a wide range of oxygen fugacity (logfO2?~??IW -4.2 to -0.8), mafic to ultramafic silicate melt compositions (NBO/T?=?0.4 to 2.2), and varying chemical composition of the alloy melts (S and Si contents of 0-32.1?wt.% and 0-3.1?wt.%, respectively). Under relatively oxidizing conditions (~?IW -2.2 to -0.8) nitrogen acts as a siderophile element ( between 1.1 and 52), where decreases with decrease in fO2 and increase in T, and increases with increase in P and NBO/T. Under these conditions remains largely unaffected between S-free conditions and up to ~17?wt.% S content in the alloy melt, and then drops off at >~20?wt.% S content in the alloy melt. Under increasingly reduced conditions (<~?IW -2.2), N becomes increasingly lithophile ( between 0.003 and 0.5) with decreasing with decrease in fO2 and increase in T. At these conditions, fO2 along with Si content of the alloy under the most reduced conditions (<~?IW -3.0), is the controlling parameter with T playing a secondary role, while, P, NBO/T, and S content of the alloy have minimal effects. A multiple linear least-squares regression parametrization for based on the results of this study and previous studies suggests, in agreement with the experimental data, that fO2 (represented by Si content of the alloy melt and FeO content of the silicate melt), followed by T, has the strongest control on . Based on our modeling, to match the present-day BSE N content, impactors that brought N must have been moderately to highly oxidized. If N bearing impactors were reduced, and/or there was significant disequilibrium core formation, then the BSE would be too N-rich and another mechanism for N loss, such as atmospheric loss, would be required.
DS201905-1036
2019
Li, Y.Grewal, D.S., Dasgupta, R., Holems, A.K., Costin, G., Li, Y., Tsuno, K.The fate of nitrogen during core-mantle separation on Earth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 251, pp. 87-115.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen, the most dominant constituent of Earth’s atmosphere, is critical for the habitability and existence of life on our planet. However, its distribution between Earth’s major reservoirs, which must be largely influenced by the accretion and differentiation processes during its formative years, is poorly known. Sequestration into the metallic core, along with volatility related loss pre- and post-accretion, could be a critical process that can explain the depletion of nitrogen in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) relative to the primitive chondrites. However, the relative effect of different thermodynamic parameters on the alloy-silicate partitioning behavior of nitrogen is not well understood. Here we present equilibrium partitioning data of N between alloy and silicate melt () from 67 new high pressure (P?=?1-6?GPa)-temperature (T?=?1500-2200?°C) experiments under graphite saturated conditions at a wide range of oxygen fugacity (logfO2?~??IW -4.2 to -0.8), mafic to ultramafic silicate melt compositions (NBO/T?=?0.4 to 2.2), and varying chemical composition of the alloy melts (S and Si contents of 0-32.1?wt.% and 0-3.1?wt.%, respectively). Under relatively oxidizing conditions (~?IW -2.2 to -0.8) nitrogen acts as a siderophile element ( between 1.1 and 52), where decreases with decrease in fO2 and increase in T, and increases with increase in P and NBO/T. Under these conditions remains largely unaffected between S-free conditions and up to ~17?wt.% S content in the alloy melt, and then drops off at >~20?wt.% S content in the alloy melt. Under increasingly reduced conditions (<~?IW -2.2), N becomes increasingly lithophile ( between 0.003 and 0.5) with decreasing with decrease in fO2 and increase in T. At these conditions, fO2 along with Si content of the alloy under the most reduced conditions (<~?IW -3.0), is the controlling parameter with T playing a secondary role, while, P, NBO/T, and S content of the alloy have minimal effects. A multiple linear least-squares regression parametrization for based on the results of this study and previous studies suggests, in agreement with the experimental data, that fO2 (represented by Si content of the alloy melt and FeO content of the silicate melt), followed by T, has the strongest control on . Based on our modeling, to match the present-day BSE N content, impactors that brought N must have been moderately to highly oxidized. If N bearing impactors were reduced, and/or there was significant disequilibrium core formation, then the BSE would be too N-rich and another mechanism for N loss, such as atmospheric loss, would be required.
DS201906-1319
2018
Li, Y.Mallik, A., Li, Y., Wiedenbeck, M.Nitrogen evolution within the Earth's atmosphere-mantle system assessed by recycling in subduction zones.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 482, pp. 556-566.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Understanding the evolution of nitrogen (N) across Earth's history requires a comprehensive understanding of N's behaviour in the Earth's mantle - a massive reservoir of this volatile element. Investigation of terrestrial N systematics also requires assessment of its evolution in the Earth's atmosphere, especially to constrain the N content of the Archaean atmosphere, which potentially impacted water retention on the post-accretion Earth, potentially causing enough warming of surface temperatures for liquid water to exist. We estimated the proportion of recycled N in the Earth's mantle today, the isotopic composition of the primitive mantle, and the N content of the Archaean atmosphere based on the recycling rates of N in modern-day subduction zones. We have constrained recycling rates in modern-day subduction zones by focusing on the mechanism and efficiency of N transfer from the subducting slab to the sub-arc mantle by both aqueous fluids and slab partial melts. We also address the transfer of N by aqueous fluids as per the model of Li and Keppler (2014). For slab partial melts, we constrained the transfer of N in two ways - firstly, by an experimental study of the solubility limit of N in melt (which provides an upper estimate of N uptake by slab partial melts) and, secondly, by the partitioning of N between the slab and its partial melt. Globally, 45-74% of N introduced into the mantle by subduction enters the deep mantle past the arc magmatism filter, after taking into account the loss of N from the mantle by degassing at mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and back-arcs. Although the majority of the N in the present-day mantle remains of primordial origin, our results point to a significant, albeit minor proportion of mantle N that is of recycled origin (% or % of N in the present-day mantle has undergone recycling assuming that modern-style subduction was initiated 4 or 3 billion years ago, respectively). This proportion of recycled N is enough to cause a departure of N isotopic composition of the primitive mantle from today's N of -5‰ to ‰ or ‰. Future studies of Earth's parent bodies based on the bulk Earth N isotopic signature should take into account these revised values for the N composition of the primitive mantle. Also, the Archaean atmosphere had a N partial pressure of 1.4-1.6 times higher than today, which may have warmed the Earth's surface above freezing despite a faint young Sun.
DS201906-1340
2019
Li, Y.Qiao, X., Zhou, Z., Schwarz, D.T., Qi, L., Gao, J., Nong, P., Lai, M., Guo, K., Li, Y.Study of the differences in infrared spectra of emerald from different mining areas and the controlling factors.The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 57, pp. 65-79.Globalemerald genesis

Abstract: Natural emeralds from 11 mining areas were studied using an infrared spectrometer. The results showed different spectroscopic characteristics for emerald from different mine regions. Infrared absorption is mainly attributed to the vibration of Si-O lattice, channel water, alkaline cations, and molecules such as CO2, [Fe2(OH)4]2+, etc. Both near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra showed that the differences in band positions, intensities, and shapes are related to the mixed ratio of the two types of channel water. Accordingly, emerald and its mining regions can be divided into 3 types: H2O I, H2O II, and transition I-II. Furthermore, the study indicates that the relative amounts of the two different orientations of channel water molecules are mainly affected by the presence of (Mg + Fe)2+ in the host rock or in the mineralizing fluid. Therefore, the mineralization environment type (alkali-poor, alkali-rich, and transitional types) of emerald can be preliminarily identified from IR spectroscopy. This can be useful for determining the origin of emeralds.
DS201910-2303
2019
Li, Y.Su, B., Chen, Y., Guo, S., Chen S., Li, Y.Garnetite and pyroxenite in the mantle wedge formed by slab mantle interactions at different melt/rock ratios.Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 124, 7, pp. 6504-6522.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Mantle wedge hybridization by crust-derived melt is a crucial mechanism responsible for arc lavas. However, how the melt-rock reactions proceed in the mantle wedge and affect melt compositions is poorly understood. Garnet peridotites from Jiangzhuang in the Sulu orogen (eastern China) host garnetite and pyroxenite veins formed by slab-mantle interactions at different melt/rock ratios. The Jiangzhuang peridotites consist mainly of garnet lherzolites and minor harzburgites and represent a fragment of the mantle wedge influenced by ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (5.2-6.1 GPa) in the subduction channel. Petrography, major and trace element geochemistry, and in situ clinopyroxene Sr isotope values of the garnetite and pyroxenite veins reveal their derivation from interactions between mantle wedge peridotites and deeply subducted crust-derived melts. The two veins share a common metamorphic and metasomatic history and have similar mineral assemblages and compositions, enriched isotope signatures, and formation P-T conditions, indicating the same source for their reacting melts. The different mineral proportions and microtextures between the garnetite and pyroxenite veins are ascribed to different melt/rock ratios. The garnetite vein formed at relatively high melt/rock ratios (>1:1), which would likely produce hybrid slab melts with Mg-rich, high-silica adakitic signatures. In contrast, the pyroxenite vein formed at low melt/rock ratios (<1:1), and the expected hybrid slab melts would evolve into high-Mg andesites. Moreover, recycled heterogeneous garnetite and pyroxenite could contribute to the mantle sources of intraplate magmas. Therefore, slab-mantle interactions at different melt/rock ratios could be an important crustal input to lithological and geochemical heterogeneities in the mantle.
DS202101-0016
2020
Li, Y.Hu, L., Li, Y., Chuan, M., Li, R., Ke, C., Wu, Z.Post-magmatic fluids dominate the mineralization of dolomite carbonatitic dykes next to the giant Bayan Obo REE deposit, northern China.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1117, doi:10.3390/ min10121117 20p. PdfChinadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The Bayan Obo rare earth element (REE) deposit in Inner Mongolia, northern China, is the largest REE deposit in the world, whose mineralization process remains controversial. There are dozens of carbonatite dykes that are tightly related to the deposit. Here we report the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of a typical dolomite carbonatite dyke near the deposit. The dolomite within the dyke experienced intense post-emplacement fluids metasomatism as evidenced by the widespread hydrothermal REE-bearing minerals occurring along the carbonate mineral grains. REE contents of bulk rocks and constituent dolomite minerals (>90 vol.%) are 1407-4184 ppm and 63-152 ppm, respectively, indicating that dolomite is not the dominant mineral controlling the REE budgets of the dyke. There are three types of apatite in the dyke: Type 1 apatite is the primary apatite and contains REE2O3 at 2.35-4.20 wt.% and SrO at 1.75-2.19 wt.%; Type 2 and Type 3 apatites are the products of replacement of primary apatite. The REE2O3 (6.10-8.21 wt.%) and SrO (2.83-3.63 wt.%) contents of Type 2 apatite are significantly elevated for overprinting of REE and Sr-rich fluids derived from the carbonatite. Conversely, Type 3 apatite has decreased REE2O3 (1.17-2.35 wt.%) and SrO (1.51-1.99 wt.%) contents, resulting from infiltration of fluids with low REE and Na concentrations. Our results on the dyke suggest that post-magmatic fluids expelled from the carbonatitic melts dominated the REE mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit, and a significant fluid disturbance occurred but probably provided no extra REEs to the deposit.
DS202106-0953
2021
Li, Y.Li, Y., Sun, J., Shuling, L., Leao-Santos, M.A paradigm shift in magnetic data interpretation; increased value through magnetization inversions.Geophysics Leading Edge, Vol. 40, 2, pp. 89-98.Canada, South America, Brazilgeophysics

Abstract: Magnetic data are sensitive to both the induced magnetization in rock units caused by the present earth's magnetic field and the remanent magnetization acquired by rock units in past geologic time. Susceptibility is a direct indicator of the magnetic mineral content, whereas remanent magnetization carries information about the formation process and subsequent structural movement of geologic units. The ability to recover and use total magnetization, defined as the vectorial sum of the induced and remanent magnetization, therefore enables us to take full advantage of magnetic data. The exploration geophysics community has achieved significant advances in inverting magnetic data affected by remanent magnetization. It is now feasible to invert any magnetic data set for total magnetization. We provide an overview of the state of the art in magnetization inversion and demonstrate the informational value of inverted magnetization through a set of case studies from mineral exploration problems. We focus on the methods that recover either the magnitude of the total magnetization or the total magnetization vector itself.
DS202109-1478
2021
Li, Y.Li, Y., Levin, V., Nikulin, A., Chen, X.Systematic mapping of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath northeastern North America.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 10.1029/2021GC009710 20p. PdfUnited States, Canadageophysics- seismic

Abstract: We probe the properties of upper mantle rocks beneath northeastern North America using the observations of seismic waves from distant earthquakes. We examine signals of converted P-S waves that originate from locations of rapid vertical or directional changes in seismic velocities. These abrupt velocity boundaries are thought to originate from rock deformation, variations in composition, temperature, or melt content. The sharp transitions detectable by this method are compositionally more plausible within the cold tectonic plate than within the hot convecting asthenosphere. Previous studies in this region that analyzed the same type of seismic data report boundaries with sharp downward reduction in seismic velocities between the depths of 60 and 100 km. Their widespread distribution and local consistency with seismic velocity models was used as evidence of them marking the transition between the cold tectonic plate and the hot convecting asthenosphere. Here we expand our search to other types of boundaries and find numerous examples at much greater depths (down to ~185 km). These deeper boundaries primarily reflect changes in directional variation of seismic velocities (anisotropy). The distribution of our deep boundaries broadly agrees with lithospheric thickness estimates in global upper mantle models that consider seismic, gravity, and heat flow data.
DS2003-1558
2003
Li, Y.L.Zheng, Y.F., Gong, B., Zhao, Z.F., Fe, B., Li, Y.L.Two types of gneisses associated with eclogite at Shuanghe in the Dabie terrane:Lithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 321-343.ChinaUHP, eclogites
DS200412-2225
2003
Li, Y.L.Zheng, Y.F., Gong, B., Zhao, Z.F., Fe, B., Li, Y.L.Two types of gneisses associated with eclogite at Shuanghe in the Dabie terrane: carbon isotope, zircon Y.F. dating and oxygen iLithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 321-343.ChinaUHP, eclogites
DS200512-0632
2004
Li, Y.L.Li, X.P., Zheng, Y.F., Wu, Y.B., Chen, F., Gong, B., Li, Y.L.Low T eclogite in the Dabie terrane of China: petrological and isotopic constraints on fluid activity and radiometric dating.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 148, 4, pp. 443-470.ChinaGeochronology
DS201903-0516
2018
Li, Y-K.Hu, L., Li, Y-K., Wu, Z-J., Bai, Y., Wang, A-J.Two metasomatic events recorded in apatite from the ore hosting dolomite marble and implications for genesis of the giant Bayan Obo REE deposit, Inner Mongolia, northern China.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 172, pp. 56-65.China, Mongoliadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: In the Bayan Obo REE deposit in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, three major orebodies are hosted in dolomite marble of the Bayan Obo Group. There are carbonatite dikes in the ore district. Apatite is a common accessary mineral in the ore-hosting dolomite marble (DM apatite) and in carbonatite dikes (IC apatite). These two types of apatite are both fluorapatite, and have low SiO2, uniform P2O5, and variable CaO contents. Total REY (REEs?+?Y) contents are correlated with Na2O contents, indicating that REY of both types of apatite enter lattice via the substitution reaction: Na+ + (REY)3+ = 2Ca2+. These features, combined with high REY (6230-18,906?ppm) and Sr (9653-17,200?ppm) contents of DM apatite, indicate that DM apatite likely had a carbonatite origin. Some DM apatite grains are partially replaced by albite and quartz. Fluid inclusions crosscutting both apatite and albite or quartz indicate that they formed later than quartz and albite replacement. The back-scattered electron images show that DM apatite grains contain many micro-pores (fluid inclusions), and monazite inclusions formed from the fluid inclusions. However, no monazite inclusions are observed within quartz and albite, excluding the possibility that the monazite inclusions were precipitated directly from the fluids. The monazite inclusions were therefore formed during fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation processes, where DM apatite served as the source of LREEs. This also explains the depletion of some LREEs in DM apatite. The formation of monazite inclusions in apatite requires fluids with relatively low Na and Si concentrations, different from the fluids responsible for quartz and albite replacement. DM apatite was affected by two stages of fluid activities: the first stage of metasomatism by alkaline fluids that were likely derived from carbonatite magmas when the deposit first formed (represented by quartz and albite replacement), followed by a second stage of modification that caused LREEs depletion and the formation of new REE minerals. Thus, the Bayan Obo REE ore deposit was modified by a significant thermal event after the formation, which provided negligible or only small amounts of REEs.
DS200512-0633
2005
Li, Y-L.Li, Y-L., Zheng, Y-F., Fu, B.Mossbauer spectroscopy of omphacite and garnet pairs from eclogites: application to geothermometry.American Mineralogist, Vol.90, Jan. pp. 90-100.Eclogite
DS1993-0874
1993
Li, Z.Lambrect, W.R.L., Lee, C.H., Segall, B., Angus, J.C., Li, Z.Diamond nucleation by hydrogenation of the edges of graphitic precursorsNature, Vol. 364, No. 6438, August 12, pp. 607-610GlobalDiamond morphology, Graphite
DS2000-0602
2000
Li, Z.Ma, C., Ehlers, C., Xu, C., Li, Z., Yang, K.The roots of the Dabie Shan ultrahigh pressure metamorphic terrane: constraints from geochemistry ...Precambrian Research, Vol. 102, No. 3-4, Aug.pp. 279-301.Chinaultra high pressure (UHP), geochronology, Dabie Shan region
DS200912-0438
2009
Li, Z.Li, Z., Gerya, T.V.Polyphase formation and exhumation of high to ultrahigh pressure rocks in continental subduction zones: numerical modeling and application to the Sulu ultrahigh pressure terrane in eastern China.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114. B9, B09406ChinaSubduction - UHP
DS201112-0599
2011
Li, Z.Li, Z., Li, L., Zhang, R., Ma, J.An improved classification method for hyper spectral dat a based on spectral and morphological information.International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, 10, p. 2919-2929TechnologyHyperspectral
DS201212-0271
2012
Li, Z.Guo, X., Encarnacion, J., Deino, A., Xu, X., Li, Z., Tian, X.Collision and rotation of the South Chin a block and their role in the formation and exhumation of ultrahigh pressure rocks in the Dabie Shan orogen.Terra Nova, in press availableChinaUHP
DS201212-0272
2012
Li, Z.Guo, X., Encarnacion, J., Xu, X., Deino, A., Li, Z.,Tian, X.Collision and rotation of the South Chin a block and their role in the formation and exhumation of ultrahigh pressure rocks in the Dabie Shan orogen.Terra Nova, Vol. 24, 5, pp. 339-350.ChinaUHP
DS201212-0795
2012
Li, Z.Xiaoyu, G., Encarnacion, J., Xiao, X., Deino, A., Li, Z., Xiabo, T.Collision and rotation of the South Chin a block and their role in the formation and exhumation of ultrahigh pressure rocks in the Dabie Shan orogen.Terra Nova, Vol. 24, 5, pp. 339-350.ChinaUHP
DS201808-1763
2018
Li, Z.Li, Z., Fedortchouk, Y., Fulop, A., Chinn, I.L., Forbes, N.Positively oriented trigons - a unique resorption feature of diamonds from Snap Lake kimberlite dyke, Canada.minsocam.org/ MSA/AMMin/ special-collections, doi.org/10.2138/am-2018-6496. 48p. Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Snap Lake
DS201811-2590
2018
Li, Z.Li, Z., Fedortchouk, Y., Fulop, A., Chinn, I.L., Forbes, N.Positively oriented trigons on diamonds from the Snap Lake kimberlite dike, Canada: implications for fluids and kimberlite cooling rates.American Mineralogist, Vol. 103, pp. 1634-1648.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Snap Lake

Abstract: The role of fluid(s) in the formation of different lithological facies of kimberlites is still poorly understood. The uncertainty in the composition of kimberlite melts hampers understanding the composition of volatiles, the depth of exsolution, and the effect on magma ascent and fragmentation. Recent estimates of H2O and CO2 solubility in kimberlite-like magmas suggest very shallow exsolution of fluid, while many features of kimberlites indicate the presence of significant fluid fraction at depth. Deep magmatic fluid produces negative trigonal etch pits on natural diamonds, the characteristics of which depend on the temperature and composition of the fluid. Positively oriented trigonal etch pits are very rare on natural diamonds and are likely a feature of resorption events unique to only some kimberlite magmas. Here we present the first systematic study of positively oriented trigonal etch pits on natural diamonds from Snap Lake kimberlite dike, Northwest Territories, Canada. The study used 91 micro-diamonds selected from a population of 251 diamonds representative of all six kimberlite litho-facies identified in the Snap Lake dike. We established that unlike the majority of diamonds from kimberlite pipes in the Northwest Territories, every studied Snap Lake diamond shows positively oriented trigons. These trigons cover the whole diamond surface starting from the {111} faces and continuing over the resorbed edges. They overprint negatively oriented trigons and modify them into hexagons. Atomic force microscopy obtained detailed geometry of 154 positive trigons on 14 diamonds. Three distinct trigon morphologies dependent on the type of the crystal lattice defect were recognized. The point-bottomed shape and positive correlation between the depth and diameter of the individual pits suggest a high CO2 content in the fluid. Comparison with the existing experimental data on positive trigons implies resorption at low-pressure conditions in the 800-1000 °C temperature range by trapped magmatic fluid after the dike emplacement. The intensity of this late resorption event (and the size of the positive trigons) increases from the dike contact with the country rock into the interior of the dike. Such a late resorption event is absent in the majority of kimberlites, which form pipes, and might be a specific feature of hypabyssal kimberlite bodies (dikes). The absence of positive trigons on diamonds from the majority of kimberlites suggests very quick magma cooling below ~800 °C after the pipe emplacement, precluding the development of any late resorption features. Our study shows that for kimberlitic magmas, for which mineral chemistry is unable to provide a robust record of magmatic fluid, morphological details of dissolution features on the surface of diamond and other mantle-derived minerals can serve as a fluid proxy. Better constraints of the pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity of the reversal in the trigon orientation on diamond may help to reconstruct the emplacement path of geologically diverse kimberlite bodies.
DS201902-0325
2018
Li, Z.Su, L-X., Zhao, C-X., Lou, Q., Chun-Yao, F., Li, Z., Shen, C-L., Zang, J-H., Jia, X-P., Shan, C-X.Efficient phosphorescence from synthetic diamonds.Carbon, Vol. 130, 1, pp. 384-389.Globalsynthetics

Abstract: Synthetic diamonds have inspired much interest for their unique photophysical properties and versatile potential applications, but their phosphorescent phenomenon and mechanism have been paid much less attention. Here, phosphorescent diamonds with a lifetime of 5.4?s were synthesized by high-pressure and high-temperature method, and the diamonds exhibit an emission band at around 468?nm under the excitation wavelength of 230?nm. The quantum yield of the phosphorescent diamonds is about 4.7% at ambient temperature and atmosphere, which is the first report on the quantum yield of diamonds. The unique phosphorescence emission can be attributed to the radiative recombination from iron related donors and boron related acceptors.
DS2002-0944
2002
Li, Z. X.Li, Z. X., Zhou, H., Kinny, P.D.Grenvillian continental collision in south China: new shrimp U Pb zircon results and implications configure..Geology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Feb. pp.163-6.China, southGeochronology, orogeny, Rodinia, uranium lead geochronology
DS201112-0600
2011
Li, Z.H.Li, Z.H., Xu, Z.Q., Gerya, T.V.Flat versus steep subduction: constrasting modes for the formation and exhumation of high to ultrahigh pressure rocks in continental collision zones.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 301, 1-2, pp. 65-77.MantleSubduction
DS202106-0972
2021
Li, Z.H.Sun, J., Zhu, X-K., Belshaw, N.S., Chen, W., Doroshkevich, A.G., Luo, W.J., Song, W.L., Chen, B.B., Cheng, Z.G., Li, Z.H., Wang, Y., Kynicky, J., Henderson, G.M.Ca isotope systematics of carbonatites: insights into carbonatite source and evolution.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 17, pp. 11-15. pdfMantlecarbonatites

Abstract: Carbonatite, an unusual carbonate-rich igneous rock, is known to be sourced from the mantle which provides insights into mantle-to-crust carbon transfer. To constrain further the Ca isotopic composition of carbonatites, investigate the behaviour of Ca isotopes during their evolution, and constrain whether recycled carbonates are involved in their source regions, we report d44/42Ca for 47 worldwide carbonatite and associated silicate rocks using a refined analytical protocol. Our results show that primary carbonatite and associated silicate rocks are rather homogeneous in Ca isotope compositions that are comparable to d44/42Ca values of basalts, while non-primary carbonatites show detectable d44/42Ca variations that are correlated to d13C values. Our finding suggests that Ca isotopes fractionate during late stages of carbonatite evolution, making it a useful tool in the study of carbonatite evolution. The finding also implies that carbonatite is sourced from a mantle source without requiring the involvement of recycled carbonates.
DS1991-1786
1991
Li, Z.X.Veevers, J.J., Li, Z.X.Review of seafloor spreading around Australia II. Marine magnetic anomaly modelling.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 38, No.4 pp. 391-408.AustraliaGeosphysics - magnetics, Tectonics
DS1996-0843
1996
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X.Role of the major east Asian cratonic blocks in the assembly and breakup of supercontinent Rodinia.Geological Society of Australia 13th. Convention held Feb., No. 41, abstracts p.249.AustraliaPlate tectonics, Gondwanaland, Rodinia
DS1996-0844
1996
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Zhang, L., Powell, C. McA.Positions of the East Asian cratons in the Neoproterozoic supercontinentRodinia.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 43, pp. 593-604.China, Australia, Asia, RodiniaTectonics, Tarim, Technostratigraphy
DS1999-0412
1999
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Powell, C. McA.Paleomagnetic study of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks of the Yangzi Block:paleolatitude and configuration...Precambrian Research, Vol. 94, No. 1-2, Mar. pp. 1-6.ChinaTectonics, Geophysics
DS2001-0687
2001
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., McA PowellAn outline of the paleogeographic evolution of the Australasian region since beginning of NeproterozoicEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Apr. pp. 237-77.Australia, AsiaTectonics, 20 coloured illustrations
DS2002-0942
2002
Li, Z.X.Li, X., Li, Z.X., Zhou, H., Liu, Y., Kinny, P.D.U Pb zircon geochronology, geochemistry and Nd isotopic study of Neoproterozoic bimodal volcanic rocks...Precambrian Research, Vol. 113, No. 1-2, pp. 135-54.China, SouthTectonics, rifting Rodinia, Kangdian Rift, uranium, lead
DS2003-0815
2003
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X.South Chin a in Rodinia revisitedGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.302,3.ChinaTectonics
DS2003-0816
2003
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Cho, M., Li, X.H.Precambrian tectonics of East Asia and relevance to supercontinent evolutionPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp. 1-6.Asia, ChinaTectonics
DS2003-0817
2003
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Li, X.H., Kinny, P.D., Wang, J., Zhang, S., Zhou, H.Geochronology of Neoproterozoic syn-rift magmatism in the Yangtze Craton, SouthPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.85-109.China, RodiniaGeochronology, Magmatism
DS2003-1446
2003
Li, Z.X.Wang, J., Li, Z.X.History of neoproterozoic rift basins in South China: implications for Rodinia break upPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.141-158.China, RodiniaTectonics
DS200412-1132
2003
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X.South Chin a in Rodinia revisited.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.302,3.ChinaTectonics
DS200412-1133
2003
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Cho, M., Li, X.H.Precambrian tectonics of East Asia and relevance to supercontinent evolution.Precambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp. 1-6.Asia, ChinaTectonics
DS200412-1134
2003
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Li, X.H., Kinny, P.D., Wang, J., Zhang, S., Zhou, H.Geochronology of Neoproterozoic syn-rift magmatism in the Yangtze Craton, South Chin a and correlations with other continents: evPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.85-109.China, RodiniaGeochronology Magmatism
DS200412-2079
2003
Li, Z.X.Wang, J., Li, Z.X.History of neoproterozoic rift basins in South China: implications for Rodinia break up.Precambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.141-158.China, RodiniaTectonics
DS200612-0003
2005
Li, Z.X.Aeoluslee, C.T., Leeman, W.P., Canil, D., Li, Z.X.Similar V/Sc systematics in MORB and Arc basalts: implications for the oxygen fugacities of their mantle source regions.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 46, 11, pp. 2313-2336.MantlePetrology
DS200612-1590
2006
Li, Z.X.Zhang, C-L., Li, Z.X., Li, X-H., Ye, H., Wang, A., Guo, K-Y.Neoproterozoic bimodal intrusive complex in the southwestern Tarim Block, northwest China: age, geochemistry, and implications for rifting of Rodinia.International Geology Review, Vol. 48, 2, Feb. pp. 112-128.ChinaGeochronology
DS201606-1083
2016
Li, Z.X.Evans, D.A.D., Li, Z.X., Murphy, J.B.Four dimensional context of Earth's supercontinents.Geological Society of London Special Publication Supercontinent Cycles through Earth History., Vol. 424, pp. 1-14.MantleSupercontinents

Abstract: The supercontinent-cycle hypothesis attributes planetary-scale episodic tectonic events to an intrinsic self-organizing mode of mantle convection, governed by the buoyancy of continental lithosphere that resists subduction during closure of old ocean basins, and consequent reorganization of mantle convection cells leading to opening of new ocean basins. Characteristic timescales of the cycle are typically 500-700 myr. Proposed spatial patterns of cyclicity range from hemispheric (introversion) to antipodal (extroversion), to precisely between those end-members (orthoversion). Advances in our understanding can arise from theoretical or numerical modelling, primary data acquisition relevant to continental reconstructions, and spatiotemporal correlations between plate kinematics, geodynamic events and palaeoenvironmental history. The palaeogeographic record of supercontinental tectonics on Earth is still under development. The contributions in this special publication provide snap-shots in time of these investigations and indicate that Earth's palaeogeographic record incorporates elements of all three endmember spatial patterns.
DS201902-0290
2019
Li, Z.X.Li, Z.X., Mitchell, R.N., Spencer, C.J., Ernst, R., Pisarevsky, S., Kirscher, U., Murphy, J.B.Decoding Earth's rhythms: modulation of supercontinent cycles by longer superocean episodes.Precambrian Research, Vol. 323, pp. 1-5.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The supercontinent cycle of episodic assembly and breakup of almost all continents on Earth is commonly considered the longest period variation to affect mantle convection. However, global zircon Hf isotopic signatures and seawater Sr isotope ratios suggest the existence of a longer-term variation trend that is twice the duration of the supercontinent cycle. Here we propose that since ~2 billion years ago the superocean surrounding a supercontinent, as well as the circum-supercontinent subduction girdle, survive every second supercontinent cycle. This interpretation is in agreement with global palaeogeography and is supported by variations in passive margin, orogen, and mineral deposit records that each exhibits both ~500-700 million years periodic signal and a 1000-1500 million years variation trend. We suggest that the supercontinent cycle is modulated by an assembly that alternates between dominantly extroversion after a more complete breakup, and dominantly introversion after an incomplete breakup of the previous supercontinent.
DS202001-0017
2019
Li, Z.X.Huang, C., Zhang, N, Li, Z.X., Dang, Z.Modeling the inception of supercontinent breakup: stress state and the importance of orogens.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, in press available pdf 20p.Globalgeodynamics

Abstract: The relative significance of various geodynamic mechanisms that drive supercontinent breakup is unclear. A previous analysis of extensional stress during supercontinent breakup demonstrated the importance of the plume-push force relative to the dragging force of subduction retreat. Here, we extend the analysis to basal traction (shear stress) and cross-lithosphere integrations of both extensional and shear stresses, aiming to understand more clearly the relevant importance of these mechanisms in supercontinent breakup. More importantly, we evaluate the effect of preexisting orogens (mobile belts) in the lithosphere on supercontinent breakup process. Our analysis suggests that a homogeneous supercontinent has extensional stress of 20-50 MPa in its interior (<40° from the central point). When orogens are introduced, the extensional stress in the continents focuses on the top 80-km of the lithosphere with an average magnitude of ~160 MPa, whereas at the margin of the supercontinent the extensional stress is 5-50 MPa. In both homogeneous and orogeny-embedded cases, the subsupercontinent mantle upwellings act as the controlling factor on the normal stress field in the supercontinent interior. Compared with the extensional stress, shear stress at the bottom of the supercontinent is 1-2 order of magnitude smaller (0-5 MPa). In our two end-member models, the breakup of a supercontinent with orogens can be achieved after the first extensional stress surge, whereas for a hypothetical supercontinent without orogens it starts with more diffused local thinning of the continental lithospheric before the breakup, suggesting that weak orogens play a critical role in the dispersal of supercontinents.
DS201212-0405
2012
Li, Z-H.Li, Z-H., Ribe, N.M.Dynamics of free subduction from 3-D boundary element modeling.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B6 B06408MantleSubduction
DS201412-0510
2014
Li, Z-H.Li, Z-H., Leo, J.F., Ribe, N.M.Subduction induced mantle flow, finite strain, and seismic anisotropy: numerical modeling.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 5052-5076.MantleSubduction
DS201612-2302
2016
Li, Z-H.Huangfu, P., Wang, Y., Cawood, P.A., Li, Z-H., Fan, W., Gerya, T.V.Thermo-mechanical controls of flat subduction: insight from numerical modeling.Gondwana Research, Vol. 40, pp. 170-183.MantleSubduction

Abstract: Numerical experiments are used to investigate the thermo-mechanical controls for inducing flat subduction and why flat subduction is rare relative to normal/steep subduction. Our modeling results demonstrate that flat subduction is an end-member of a steady state subduction geometry and is characterized by a curved slab with a nearly-horizontal slab section. Intermediate cases between normal/steep and flat subduction appear to be transient in origin and evolve toward one of the stable end-members. Physical parameters inducing flat subduction can be classified into four categories: buoyancy of the subducting oceanic lithosphere (e.g., slab age, oceanic crustal thickness), viscous coupling between the overriding and downgoing plates (e.g., initial subduction angle), external kinematic conditions, and rheological properties of the subduction zone. On the basis of parameter sensitivity tests and the main characteristics of present-day flat subduction zones, positive buoyancy from either the young slab or the thickened oceanic crust is considered as the primary controlling parameter. Our results show that the possibility of flat subduction is directly proportional to oceanic crustal thickness and inversely proportional to the slab age. Furthermore, oceanic crust must be thicker than 8 km to induce flat subduction, when the slab is older than 30 Ma with an initial subduction angle of = 20° and without absolute trenchward motion of the overriding plate. The lower the initial subduction angle or the thicker the overriding continental lithosphere, the more likelihood for flat subduction. The initial subduction angle is more influential for the development of flat subduction than the overriding lithospheric thickness, and a thick overriding lithosphere induces flat subduction only under the condition of an initial subduction angle of = 25°, with a slab age of = 30 Ma and without absolute trenchward motion of the overriding plate. However, when the initial subduction angle is increased to > 25°, no flat subduction is predicted. All the parameters are evaluated within the constraints of a mechanical framework in which the slab geometry is regarded as a result of a balance between the gravitational and hydrodynamic torques. Any factor that can sufficiently reduce gravitational torque or increase hydrodynamic torque will exert a strong effect on flat subduction development. Our results are consistent with the observations of modern flat subduction zones on Earth.
DS201806-1219
2018
Li, Z-H.Dai, L., Li, S., Li, Z-H., Somerville, I., Santosh, M.Dynamics of exhumation and deformation of HP-UHP orogens in double subduction collision systems: numerical modeling and implications for the Western Dabie Orogen.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 182, pp. 68-84.ChinaUHP

Abstract: The dynamics of formation and exhumation of high-pressure (HP) and ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic orogens in double subduction-collision zones remain enigmatic. Here we employ two-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical models to gain insights on the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks, as well as their deformation during the collision of a micro-continent with pro- and retro-continental margins along two subduction zones. A three-stage collisional process with different convergence velocities is tested. In the initial collisional stage, a fold-and-thrust belt and locally rootless superimposed folds are developed in the micro-continent and subduction channel, respectively. In the second (exhumation) stage of HP-UHP rocks, a faster convergence model results in upwelling of the asthenosphere, which further leads to a detachment between the crust and lithospheric mantle of the micro-continent. A slower convergence model results in rapid exhumation of HP-UHP rocks along the north subduction channel and a typical piggy-back thrusting structure in the micro-continent. A non-convergence model produces a slab tear-off, leading to the rebound of residual lithosphere of the micro-continent. In the third and final stage, a series of back and ramp thrusts are formed in the micro-continent with the pro-continent re-subducted. Based on an analogy of our numerical results with the Western Dabie Orogen (WDO), we suggest that: (1) slab tear-off results in a rebound of residual lithosphere, which controls the two-stage syn-collisional exhumation process of HP-UHP rocks in the WDO; and (2) in contrast to the single subduction-collision system, the exhumation range of the partially molten rocks with lower viscosity and density is restricted to a specific region of the micro-continent by the Mianlue and Shangdan subduction zones, which generated the complex deformation features in the WDO.
DS201906-1362
2019
Li, Z-H.Wang, Y., Zhang, L-F., Li, Z-H., Li, Q-Y., Bader, T.The exhumation of subducted oceanic derived eclogites: insights from phase equilibrium and thermomechanical modeling.Tectonics, in press available, 34p.Mantleeclogites

Abstract: The dynamical evolution and exhumation mechanisms of oceanic-derived eclogites are controversial conundrums of oceanic subduction zones. The previous studies indicated that density is the primary factor controlling the exhumation of oceanic rocks. To explore their density evolution, we systematically investigate the phase relations and densities of different rock types in oceanic crust, including mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB), serpentinite, and global subducting sediments (GLOSS). According to the density of eclogites, these currently exposed natural eclogites can be classified into two categories: the self-exhumation of eclogites (?MORB < ?Mantle) and the carried exhumation of eclogites (?MORB > ?Mantle). The depth limit for an exhumation of oceanic-derived eclogites solely driven by their own buoyancies is 100-110 km, and it increases with the lithospheric thickness of the overriding plate. The parameters of carried-exhumation, that is, KGLOSS and KSerp, are defined in order to quantitatively evaluate the assistance ability of GLOSS and serpentinites for carrying the denser eclogites. KGLOSS is mainly controlled by pressure, whereas KSerp is dominantly affected by temperature. Using 2-D thermomechanical models, we demonstrate that the presences of low-density, low-viscosity GLOSS and seafloor serpentinites are the prerequisites for the exhumation of oceanic-derived eclogites. Our results show that oceanic-derived eclogites should be stalled and exhumed slowly at the Moho and Conrad discontinuities (named Moho/Conrad stagnation). We propose that oceanic-derived eclogites should undergo a two-stage exhumation generally, that is, early fast exhumation driven by buoyancy at mantle levels, and final exposure to surface actuated by tectonic exhumation facilitated by divergence between upper plate and accretionary wedge or by rollback of lower plate.
DS200812-0660
2008
Li, ZX.Li, ZX., Lee, C-T.A, Peslier, A.H., Lenardic, A., Mackwell, S.J.Water contents in mantle xeonoliths from the Colorado Plateau and vicinity: implications for the mantle rheology and hydration induced thinking of lithosphereJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, B9, B09210.MantleWater content
DS200712-1134
2007
Li, Z-X.Wang, X-C., Li, X-H., Li, W-X., Li, Z-X.Ca 825 Ma komatiitic basalts in south China: first evidence for > 1500 C mantle melts by a Rodinian mantle plume.Geology, Vol. 35, 12 Dec. pp. 1103-1106.ChinaMelting
DS200812-0641
2008
Li, Z-X.Lee, C-T A., Luffi, P., Hoink, T., Li, Z-X.,A., Lenardic, A.The role of serpentine in preferential craton formation in the late Archean by lithosphere underthrusting.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 269, 1-2, May 15, pp. 96-104.MantleGeochronology - cratons
DS201312-0538
2013
Li, Z-X.Li, Z-X., Evans, D.AD., Halverson, G.P.Neoproterozoic glaciations in a revised global paleogeography from the breakup of Rodinia to the assembly of Gondwanaland.Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 294, pp. 219-232.Gondwana, RodiniaReview
DS201312-0955
2013
Li, Z-X.Wang, X-C., Li, Z-X., Li, X-H., Xu, Y-G., Li, X-H.Diamond mining in Russia…. Chart of reserves.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 377-378, pp. 248-259.MantlePlume
DS201412-0511
2014
Li, Z-X.Li, Z-X., Zhong, S., Wang, X-C.Formation of mantle plumes and superplumes: driven by subduction?GAC-MAC Annual Meeting May, abstract 1p.MantlePlume
DS201607-1360
2016
Li, Z-X.Li, Z-X.The life cycles of mantle plumes and superplumes: observations, modelling, and geodynamic implications.IGC 35th., Session A Dynamic Earth 1p. AbstractMantlePlume, hot spots
DS201801-0068
2017
Li, Z-X.Stark, J.C., Wang, X-C., Denyszyn, S.W., Li, Z-X., Rasmusson, B., Zi, J-W., Sheppard, S., Liu, Y.Newly identified 1.89 Ga mafic dyke swarm in the Archean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia suggests a connection to India.Precambrian Research, in press available 47p.Australia, Indiacraton - Yilgarn

Abstract: The Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia is intruded by numerous mafic dykes of varying orientations, which are poorly exposed but discernible in aeromagnetic maps. Previous studies have identified two craton-wide dyke swarms, the 2408?Ma Widgiemooltha and the 1210?Ma Marnda Moorn Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), as well as limited occurrences of the 1075?Ma Warakurna LIP in the northern part of the craton. We report here a newly identified NW-trending mafic dyke swarm in southwestern Yilgarn Craton dated at 1888?±?9?Ma with ID-TIMS U-Pb method on baddeleyite from a single dyke and at 1858?±?54?Ma, 1881?±?37 and 1911?±?42?Ma with in situ SHRIMP U-Pb on baddeleyite from three dykes. Preliminary interpretation of aeromagnetic data indicates that the dykes form a linear swarm several hundred kilometers long, truncated by the Darling Fault in the west. This newly named Boonadgin dyke swarm is synchronous with post-orogenic extension and deposition of granular iron formations in the Earaheedy basin in the Capricorn Orogen and its emplacement may be associated with far field stresses. Emplacement of the dykes may also be related to initial stages of rifting and formation of the intracratonic Barren Basin in the Albany-Fraser Orogen, where the regional extensional setting prevailed for the following 300?million years. Recent studies and new paleomagnetic evidence raise the possibility that the dykes could be part of the coeval 1890?Ma Bastar-Cuddapah LIP in India. Globally, the Boonadgin dyke swarm is synchronous with a major orogenic episode and records of intracratonic mafic magmatism on many other Precambrian cratons.
DS201811-2609
2018
Li, Z-X.Stark, J.C., Wilde, S.A., Soderlund, U., Li, Z-X., Rasmussen, B., Zi, J-W.First evidence of Archean mafic dykes at 2.62 Ga in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: links to cratonisation and the Zimbabwe craton.Precambrian Research, Vol. 317, pp. 1-13.Australia, Africa, Zimbabwecraton

Abstract: The Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia hosts at least five generations of Proterozoic mafic dykes, the oldest previously identified dykes belonging to the ca. 2408-2401?Ma Widgiemooltha Supersuite. We report here the first known Archean mafic dyke dated at 2615?±?6?Ma by the ID-TIMS U-Pb method on baddeleyite and at 2610?±?25?Ma using in situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of baddeleyite. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the dyke is part of a series of NE-trending intrusions that potentially extend hundreds of kilometres in the southwestern part of the craton, here named the Yandinilling dyke swarm. Mafic magmatism at 2615?Ma was possibly related to delamination of the lower crust during the final stages of assembly and cratonisation, and was coeval with the formation of late-stage gold deposit at Boddington. Paleogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Yilgarn and Zimbabwe cratons may have been neighbours from ca. 2690?Ma to 2401?Ma and if the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons amalgamated at 2660-2610?Ma, the 2615?Ma mafic magmatism in the southwestern Yilgarn Craton may be associated with the same tectonic event that produced the ca. 2607-2604?Ma Stockford dykes in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Paleomagnetic evidence and a similar tectonothermal evolution, including coeval low-pressure high-temperature metamorphism, voluminous magmatism, and emplacement of mafic dykes, support a configuration where the northern part of the Zimbabwe Craton was adjacent to the western margin of the Yilgarn Craton during the Neoarchean. Worldwide, reliably dated mafic dykes of this age have so far been reported from the Yilgarn Craton, the Limpopo Belt and the São Francisco Craton.
DS201907-1579
2019
Li, Z-X.Tetley, M.G., Li, Z-X., Matthews, K.J., Williams, S.E., Muller, R.D.Decoding Earth's plate tectonic history using sparse geochemical data.Geoscience Frontiers, available 12p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Accurately mapping plate boundary types and locations through time is essential for understanding the evolution of the plate-mantle system and the exchange of material between the solid Earth and surface environments. However, the complexity of the Earth system and the cryptic nature of the geological record make it difficult to discriminate tectonic environments through deep time. Here we present a new method for identifying tectonic paleo-environments on Earth through a data mining approach using global geochemical data. We first fingerprint a variety of present-day tectonic environments utilising up to 136 geochemical data attributes in any available combination. A total of 38301 geochemical analyses from basalts aged from 5-0 Ma together with a well-established plate reconstruction model are used to construct a suite of discriminatory models for the first order tectonic environments of subduction and mid-ocean ridge as distinct from intraplate hotspot oceanic environments, identifying 41, 35, and 39 key discriminatory geochemical attributes, respectively. After training and validation, our model is applied to a global geochemical database of 1547 basalt samples of unknown tectonic origin aged between 1000-410 Ma, a relatively ill-constrained period of Earth's evolution following the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent, producing 56 unique global tectonic environment predictions throughout the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic. Predictions are used to discriminate between three alternative published Rodinia configuration models, identifying the model demonstrating the closest spatio-temporal consistency with the basalt record, and emphasizing the importance of integrating geochemical data into plate reconstructions. Our approach offers an extensible framework for constructing full-plate, deep-time reconstructions capable of assimilating a broad range of geochemical and geological observations, enabling next generation Earth system models.
DS202001-0007
2019
Li, Z-X.Doucet, L-S., Li, Z-X., Kirscher, U., El Dien, H.G.Coupled supercontinent -mantle plume events evidenced by oceanic plume record.Geology, Vol. 48, 5p. Mantleplumes, hotspots
DS202001-0010
2019
Li, Z-X.El Dien, H.G., Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X.Global geochemical fingerprinting of plume intensity suggests coupling with the supercontinent cycle.Nature Communications, Vol 10, 1, doi.org/10.1038 /s41467-019-13300 8p. PdfMantleplumes, hotspots

Abstract: Plate tectonics and mantle plumes are two of the most fundamental solid-Earth processes that have operated through much of Earth history. For the past 300 million years, mantle plumes are known to derive mostly from two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core-mantle boundary, referred to as the African and Pacific superplumes, but their possible connection with plate tectonics is debated. Here, we demonstrate that transition elements (Ni, Cr, and Fe/Mn) in basaltic rocks can be used to trace plume-related magmatism through Earth history. Our analysis indicates the presence of a direct relationship between the intensity of plume magmatism and the supercontinent cycle, suggesting a possible dynamic coupling between supercontinent and superplume events. In addition, our analysis shows a consistent sudden drop in MgO, Ni and Cr at ~3.2-3.0 billion years ago, possibly indicating an abrupt change in mantle temperature at the start of global plate tectonics.
DS202001-0051
2018
Li, Z-X.Zhang, N., Dang, Z., Huang, C., Li, Z-X.The dominant driving force for supercontinent breakup: plume push or subduction retreat?Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 9, pp. 997-1007.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Understanding the dominant force responsible for supercontinent breakup is crucial for establishing Earth's geodynamic evolution that includes supercontinent cycles and plate tectonics. Conventionally, two forces have been considered: the push by mantle plumes from the sub-continental mantle which is called the active force for breakup, and the dragging force from oceanic subduction retreat which is called the passive force for breakup. However, the relative importance of these two forces is unclear. Here we model the supercontinent breakup coupled with global mantle convection in order to address this question. Our global model features a spherical harmonic degree-2 structure, which includes a major subduction girdle and two large upwelling (superplume) systems. Based on this global mantle structure, we examine the distribution of extensional stress applied to the supercontinent by both sub-supercontinent mantle upwellings and subduction retreat at the supercontinent peripheral. Our results show that: (1) at the center half of the supercontinent, plume push stress is ~3 times larger than the stress induced by subduction retreat; (2) an average hot anomaly of no higher than 50 K beneath the supercontinent can produce a push force strong enough to cause the initialization of supercontinent breakup; (3) the extensional stress induced by subduction retreat concentrates on a ~600 km wide zone on the boundary of the supercontinent, but has far less impact to the interior of the supercontinent. We therefore conclude that although circum-supercontinent subduction retreat assists supercontinent breakup, sub-supercontinent mantle upwelling is the essential force.
DS202003-0335
2020
Li, Z-X.Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., Ernst, R.E., Kirscher, U., Gamel El Dien, H., Mitchell, R.N.Coupled supercontinent-mantle plume events evidence by oceanic plume record.Geology, Vol. 48, pp. 159-163.Mantle, Africageodynamics

Abstract: The most dominant features in the present-day lower mantle are the two antipodal African and Pacific large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs). How and when these two structures formed, and whether they are fixed and long lived through Earth history or dynamic and linked to the supercontinent cycles, remain first-order geodynamic questions. Hotspots and large igneous provinces (LIPs) are mostly generated above LLSVPs, and it is widely accepted that the African LLSVP existed by at least ca. 200 Ma beneath the supercontinent Pangea. Whereas the continental LIP record has been used to decipher the spatial and temporal variations of plume activity under the continents, plume records of the oceanic realm before ca. 170 Ma are mostly missing due to oceanic subduction. Here, we present the first compilation of an Oceanic Large Igneous Provinces database (O-LIPdb), which represents the preserved oceanic LIP and oceanic island basalt occurrences preserved in ophiolites. Using this database, we are able to reconstruct and compare the record of mantle plume activity in both the continental and oceanic realms for the past 2 b.y., spanning three supercontinent cycles. Time-series analysis reveals hints of similar cyclicity of the plume activity in the continent and oceanic realms, both exhibiting a periodicity of ~500 m.y. that is comparable to the supercontinent cycle, albeit with a slight phase delay. Our results argue for dynamic LLSVPs where the supercontinent cycle and global subduction geometry control the formation and locations of the plumes.
DS202004-0539
2020
Li, Z-X.Tetley, M.G., Li, Z-X., Matthews, K.J., Williams, S.E.Decoding Earth's plate tectonic history using sparse geochemical data. RodiniaGeoscience Frontiers, in press available 12p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Accurately mapping plate boundary types and locations through time is essential for understanding the evolution of the plate-mantle system and the exchange of material between the solid Earth and surface environments. However, the complexity of the Earth system and the cryptic nature of the geological record make it difficult to discriminate tectonic environments through deep time. Here we present a new method for identifying tectonic paleo-environments on Earth through a data mining approach using global geochemical data. We first fingerprint a variety of present-day tectonic environments utilising up to 136 geochemical data attributes in any available combination. A total of 38301 geochemical analyses from basalts aged from 5-0 Ma together with a well-established plate reconstruction model are used to construct a suite of discriminatory models for the first order tectonic environments of subduction and mid-ocean ridge as distinct from intraplate hotspot oceanic environments, identifying 41, 35, and 39 key discriminatory geochemical attributes, respectively. After training and validation, our model is applied to a global geochemical database of 1547 basalt samples of unknown tectonic origin aged between 1000-410 Ma, a relatively ill-constrained period of Earth's evolution following the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent, producing 56 unique global tectonic environment predictions throughout the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic. Predictions are used to discriminate between three alternative published Rodinia configuration models, identifying the model demonstrating the closest spatio-temporal consistency with the basalt record, and emphasizing the importance of integrating geochemical data into plate reconstructions. Our approach offers an extensible framework for constructing full-plate, deep-time reconstructions capable of assimilating a broad range of geochemical and geological observations, enabling next generation Earth system models.
DS202007-1138
2020
Li, Z-X.El Dien, H.G., Doucet, L.S., Murphy, J.B., Li, Z-X.Geochemical evidence for a widespread mantle re-enrichment 3.2 billion years ago: implications for global-scale plate tectonics.Scientific Reports, Vol. 10, 9461 8 pdfMantlemelting

Abstract: Progressive mantle melting during the Earth’s earliest evolution led to the formation of a depleted mantle and a continental crust enriched in highly incompatible elements. Re-enrichment of Earth’s mantle can occur when continental crustal materials begin to founder into the mantle by either subduction or, to a lesser degree, by delamination processes, profoundly affecting the mantle’s trace element and volatile compositions. Deciphering when mantle re-enrichment/refertilization became a global-scale process would reveal the onset of efficient mass transfer of crust to the mantle and potentially when plate tectonic processes became operative on a global-scale. Here we document the onset of mantle re-enrichment/refertilization by comparing the abundances of petrogenetically significant isotopic values and key ratios of highly incompatible elements compared to lithophile elements in Archean to Early-Proterozoic mantle-derived melts (i.e., basalts and komatiites). Basalts and komatiites both record a rapid-change in mantle chemistry around 3.2 billion years ago (Ga) signifying a fundamental change in Earth geodynamics. This rapid-change is recorded in Nd isotopes and in key trace element ratios that reflect a fundamental shift in the balance between fluid-mobile and incompatible elements (i.e., Ba/La, Ba/Nb, U/Nb, Pb/Nd and Pb/Ce) in basaltic and komatiitic rocks. These geochemical proxies display a significant increase in magnitude and variability after ~3.2 Ga. We hypothesize that rapid increases in mantle heterogeneity indicate the recycling of supracrustal materials back into Earth’s mantle via subduction. Our new observations thus point to a?=?3.2 Ga onset of global subduction processes via plate tectonics.
DS202008-1384
2020
Li, Z-X.Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., Gamel El Dien, H., Pourteau, A., Murphy, B., Collins, W.J., Mattielli, N., Olierook, H.K.H., Spencer, C.J., Mitchell, R.N.Distinct formation history for deep mantle domains reflected in geochemical differences.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, pp. 511-515. pdfMantlegeochemistry

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is currently divided into the African and Pacific domains, separated by the circum-Pacific subduction girdle, and each domain features a large low shear-wave velocity province (LLSVP) in the lower mantle. However, it remains controversial as to whether the LLSVPs have been stationary through time or dynamic, changing in response to changes in global subduction geometry. Here we compile radiogenic isotope data on plume-induced basalts from ocean islands and oceanic plateaus above the two LLSVPs that show distinct lead, neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions for the two mantle domains. The African domain shows enrichment by subducted continental material during the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, whereas no such feature is found in the Pacific domain. This deep-mantle geochemical dichotomy reflects the different evolutionary histories of the two domains during the Rodinia and Pangaea supercontinent cycles and thus supports a dynamic relationship between plate tectonics and deep-mantle structures.
DS202009-1625
2020
Li, Z-X.Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., GamelEl Dien, H., Pourteau, A., Murphy, J.B., Collins, W.J., Mattielli, N., Olierook, H.K.H., Spencer, C.J., Mitchell, R.N.Distinct formation history for deep mantle domains reflected in geochemical differences.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, July pp. 511-515. pdfMantlegeochemistry

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is currently divided into the African and Pacific domains, separated by the circum-Pacific subduction girdle, and each domain features a large low shear-wave velocity province (LLSVP) in the lower mantle. However, it remains controversial as to whether the LLSVPs have been stationary through time or dynamic, changing in response to changes in global subduction geometry. Here we compile radiogenic isotope data on plume-induced basalts from ocean islands and oceanic plateaus above the two LLSVPs that show distinct lead, neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions for the two mantle domains. The African domain shows enrichment by subducted continental material during the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, whereas no such feature is found in the Pacific domain. This deep-mantle geochemical dichotomy reflects the different evolutionary histories of the two domains during the Rodinia and Pangaea supercontinent cycles and thus supports a dynamic relationship between plate tectonics and deep-mantle structures.
DS202009-1673
2020
Li, Z-X.Volante, S., Pouteau, A., Collins, W.J., Blereau, E., Li, Z-X., Smit, M., Evans, N.J., Nordsvan, A.R., Spencer, C.J., McDonald, B.J., Li, J., Gunter, C.Multiple P-T-d-t paths reveal the evolution of the final Nuna assembly in northeast Australia. Georgetown InlierJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 38, pp. 593-627.Australiageochronology

Abstract: The final assembly of the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent Nuna was marked by the collision of Laurentia and Australia at 1.60 Ga, which is recorded in the Georgetown Inlier of NE Australia. Here, we decipher the metamorphic evolution of this final Nuna collisional event using petrostructural analysis, major and trace element compositions of key minerals, thermodynamic modelling, and multi-method geochronology. The Georgetown Inlier is characterised by deformed and metamorphosed 1.70-1.62 Ga sedimentary and mafic rocks, which were intruded by c. 1.56 Ga old S-type granites. Garnet Lu-Hf and monazite U-Pb isotopic analyses distinguish two major metamorphic events (M1 at c. 1.60 Ga and M2 at c. 1.55 Ga), which allows at least two composite fabrics to be identified at the regional scale—c. 1.60 Ga S1 (consisting in fabrics S1a and S1b) and c. 1.55 Ga S2 (including fabrics S2a and S2b). Also, three tectono-metamorphic domains are distinguished: (a) the western domain, with S1 defined by low-P (LP) greenschist facies assemblages; (b) the central domain, where S1 fabric is preserved as medium-P (MP) amphibolite facies relicts, and locally as inclusion trails in garnet wrapped by the regionally dominant low-P amphibolite facies S2 fabric; and (c) the eastern domain dominated by upper amphibolite to granulite facies S2 foliation. In the central domain, 1.60 Ga MP-medium-T (MT) metamorphism (M1) developed within the staurolite-garnet stability field, with conditions ranging from 530-550°C at 6-7 kbar (garnet cores) to 620-650°C at 8-9 kbar (garnet rims), and it is associated with S1 fabric. The onset of 1.55 Ga LP-high-T (HT) metamorphism (M2) is marked by replacement of staurolite by andalusite (M2a/D2a), which was subsequently pseudomorphed by sillimanite (M2b/D2b) where granite and migmatite are abundant. P-T conditions ranged from 600 to 680°C and 4-6 kbar for the M2b sillimanite stage. 1.60 Ga garnet relicts within the S2 foliation highlight the progressive obliteration of the S1 fabric by regional S2 in the central zone during peak M2 metamorphism. In the eastern migmatitic complex, partial melting of paragneiss and amphibolite occurred syn- to post- S2, at 730-770°C and 6-8 kbar, and at 750-790°C and 6 kbar, respectively. The pressure-temperature-deformation-time paths reconstructed for the Georgetown Inlier suggest a c. 1.60 Ga M1/D1 event recorded under greenschist facies conditions in the western domain and under medium-P and medium-T conditions in the central domain. This event was followed by the regional 1.56-1.54 Ga low-P and high-T phase (M2/D2), extensively recorded in the central and eastern domains. Decompression between these two metamorphic events is ascribed to an episode of exhumation. The two-stage evolution supports the previous hypothesis that the Georgetown Inlier preserves continental collisional and subsequent thermal perturbation associated with granite emplacement.
DS202104-0617
2021
Li, Z-X.Wu, L., Murphy, J.B., Quesada, C., Li, Z-X., Waldron, J.W.F., Williams, S., Pisarevsky, S., Collins, W.J.The amalgamation of Pangea: paleomagnetic and geological observations revisited.Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 133, 3/4, pp. 625-646. pdfGlobalPangea

Abstract: The supercontinent Pangea formed by the subduction of the Iapetus and Rheic oceans between Gondwana, Laurentia, and Baltica during mid-to-late Paleozoic times. However, there remains much debate regarding how this amalgamation was achieved. Most paleogeographic models based on paleomagnetic data argue that the juxtaposition of Gondwana and Laurussia (Laurentia-Baltica) was achieved via long-lasting highly oblique convergence in the late Paleozoic. In contrast, many geology-based reconstructions suggest that the collision between the two continents was likely initiated via a Gondwanan promontory comprising the Iberian, Armorican, and Bohemian massifs, and parts of the basement units in the Alpine orogen during the Early Devonian. To help resolve this discrepancy, we present an updated compilation of high-quality paleopoles of mid-to-late Paleozoic ages (spanning Middle Ordovician and Carboniferous times) from Gondwana, Laurentia, and Baltica. These paleopoles were evaluated with the Van der Voo selection criteria, corrected for inclination error where necessary, and were used to revise their apparent polar wander (APW) paths. The revised APW paths were constructed using an innovative approach in which age errors, A95 ovals, and Q-factors of individual paleopoles are taken into account. By combining the resulting APW paths with existing geological data and field relationships in the European Variscides, we provide mid-to-late Paleozoic paleogeographic reconstructions which indicate that the formation of Pangea was likely initiated at 400 Ma via the collision between Laurussia and a ribbon-like Gondwanan promontory that was itself formed by a scissor-like opening of the Paleotethys Ocean, and that the amalgamation culminated in the mostly orthogonal convergence between Gondwana and Laurussia.
DS202107-1092
2021
Li, Z-X.Brennan, D.T., Li, Z-X., Rankenburg, K., Evans, N., Link, P.K.Recalibrating Rodinian rifting in the northwestern United States.Geology Today, Vol. 49, pp. 617-622.United States, Washingtongeochronology

Abstract: A lack of precise age constraints for Neoproterozoic strata in the northwestern United States (Washington State), including the Buffalo Hump Formation (BHF), has resulted in conflicting interpretations of Rodinia amalgamation and breakup processes. Previous detrital zircon (DZ) studies identified a youngest ca. 1.1 Ga DZ age population in the BHF, interpreted to reflect mostly first-cycle sourcing of unidentified but proximal magmatic rocks intruded during the amalgamation of Rodinia at ca. 1.0 Ga. Alternatively, the ca. 1.1 Ga DZ population has been suggested to represent a distal source with deposition occurring during the early phases of Rodinia rifting, more than 250 m.y. after zircon crystallization. We combined conventional laser-ablation split-stream analyses of U-Pb/Lu-Hf isotopes in zircon with a method of rapid (8 s per spot) U-Pb analysis to evaluate these opposing models. Our study of ~2000 DZ grains from the BHF identified for the first time a minor (~1%) yet significant ca. 760 Ma population, which constrains the maximum depositional age. This new geochronology implies that the BHF records early rift deposition during the breakup of Rodinia and correlates with sedimentary rocks found in other late Tonian basins of southwestern Laurentia.
DS202108-1297
2021
Li, Z-X.Liu, Y., Mitchell, R.N., Li, Z-X., Kirscher, U., Pisarevsky, S.A.Archean geodynamics: ephemeral supercontinents or long-lived supercratons.Geology, Vol. 49, pp. 794-798.Australiageodynamics

Abstract: Many Archean cratons exhibit Paleoproterozoic rifted margins, implying they were pieces of some ancestral landmass(es). The idea that such an ancient continental assembly represents an Archean supercontinent has been proposed but remains to be justified. Starkly contrasting geological records between different clans of cratons have inspired an alternative hypothesis where cratons were clustered in multiple, separate "supercratons". A new ca. 2.62 Ga paleomagnetic pole from the Yilgarn craton of Australia is compatible with either two successive but ephemeral supercontinents or two long-lived supercratons across the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Neither interpretation supports the existence of a single, long-lived supercontinent, suggesting that Archean geodynamics were fundamentally different from subsequent times (Proterozoic to present), which were influenced largely by supercontinent cycles.
DS202109-1464
2021
Li, Z-X.Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., El Dien, H.GOceanic and super-deep continental diamond share a transition zone origin and mantle plume transportation.Nature Scientific Reports, Vol. 11, 16958, 11p. Open access https://www.nature .com/articles/s41598- 021-96286-8.pdf Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Rare oceanic diamonds are believed to have a mantle transition zone origin like super-deep continental diamonds. However, oceanic diamonds have a homogeneous and organic-like light carbon isotope signature (d13C - 28 to - 20‰) instead of the extremely variable organic to lithospheric mantle signature of super-deep continental diamonds (d13C - 25‰ to?+?3.5‰). Here, we show that with rare exceptions, oceanic diamonds and the isotopically lighter cores of super-deep continental diamonds share a common organic d13C composition reflecting carbon brought down to the transition zone by subduction, whereas the rims of such super-deep continental diamonds have the same d13C as peridotitic diamonds from the lithospheric mantle. Like lithospheric continental diamonds, almost all the known occurrences of oceanic diamonds are linked to plume-induced large igneous provinces or ocean islands, suggesting a common connection to mantle plumes. We argue that mantle plumes bring the transition zone diamonds to shallower levels, where only those emplaced at the base of the continental lithosphere might grow rims with lithospheric mantle carbon isotope signatures.
DS202104-0616
2021
Li, Z-Y.Wu, B., Hu, Y-Q., Bonnetti, C., Xu, C., Wang, R-C., Zhang, Z-S., Li, Z-Y., Yin, R.Hydrothermal alteration of pyrochlore group minerals from the Miaoya carbonatite complex, central China and its implications for Nb mineralization.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 132, 1040459, 16p. PdfChinadeposit - Miaoya

Abstract: Carbonatite represents a major host rock for niobium (Nb) resources worldwide. Both magmatic and post-magmatic metasomatic processes are crucial for Nb mineralization in carbonatites. However, the roles of these metasomatic processes are difficult to be evaluated due to their multiple origins and complexity of the physico-chemical conditions. In this study, we present detailed mineralogical investigations of pyrochlore group minerals and chemical U-Th-Pb geochronology of uraninite within the Miaoya carbonatite complex, aiming to better characterize the role of post-magmatic metasomatic events. The Miaoya complex (ca. 420-440?Ma) hosts the second largest carbonatite-related Nb deposit in China, mainly in the form of pyrochlore group minerals, ferrocolumbite and Nb-bearing rutile. Primary pyrochlore group minerals evolved from pyrochlore to uranpyrochlore, and ultimately reaching the betafite end-member during the magmatic stage. They have then experienced an episode of metasomatic events at 235.4?±?4.1?Ma, as determined by U-Th-Pb chemical ages of secondary uraninite. Fluids activity for uranpyrochlore alteration was concomitant with the hydrothermal reworking of REE mineralization, which was probably related to tectono-thermal events that occurred during the Triassic closure of the ancient Mianlue Ocean. During this process, hydration and decomposition of uranpyrochlore were characterized by the leaching of Na, Ca and F from its structure, the incorporation of Fe, Si, Sr and Ba from the fluids, and the final in situ replacement by secondary ferrocolumbite, uraninite and Nb-bearing rutile. In addition, parts of Nb and U liberated from uranpyrochlore by metamictization were then transported over distances of several hundreds of microns in relatively reducing (Fe, Si, S, CO2)-bearing fluids under high temperature, and were ultimately re-precipitated in amorphous Fe-Si-U-Nb-bearing oxide veins and poorly crystallized Nb-Ti-Ca-Fe-rich oxides. The relatively weak fluids activity failed to efficiently promote the Nb re-enrichment.
DS1993-0910
1993
Li JiliangLi JiliangTectonic framework and evolution of southeastern ChinaJournal of Structural Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 1-4, pp. 219-223.ChinaTectonics
DS1988-0177
1988
Li Ji-LiangDorian, J.P., Clark, A.L., Sun Yi-Ying, Zhou Zou-Xia, Li Ji-LiangMineral resources of China: apparent controls on distributionGeoJournal, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 373-388ChinaOverview of tectonic/metalogeny no ref. to diamond
DS1995-0578
1995
Li JingzhiGao Yan, Li Jingzhi, Zhang BeiliThe infrared microscope and rapid identification of gemstonesJournal of Gemology, Vol. 24, No. 6, April, pp. 411-414.GlobalMicroscopy
DS201212-0167
2012
li Li, Q.Donnelly, C.L., Griffin, W.L., Yang, J-H., O'Reilly, Z.Y., li Li, Q., Pearson, N.J., Li, X-H.In situ U Pb dating and Sr Nd isotopic analysis of perovskite: constraints on the age and petrogenesis of the Kuruman kimberlite province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 53, 12, pp. 2407-2522.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Kuruman
DS200612-1116
2006
Li NiQicheng, Fan, Sui Jianli, Ping Xu, Li Ni, Sun Qian, Wang TuanhuaSi and alkali rich melt inclusions in minerals of mantle peridotites from eastern China: implications for lithospheric evolution.Science China Earth Sciences, Vol. 49, 1, pp. 43-49.ChinaPeridotite, tectonics, melting
DS1987-0415
1987
Li ShanghuaiLi Shanghuai, Zhang Jingfang, Zhou WeiqinThe mechanism of the formation of the kimberlite pipe group in Xiyu, Shandong provinceThe Third all China conference on tectonics, held August 1987, Vol. 3, p. 118. abstractChinaKimberlite genesis
DS1980-0215
1980
Li ShiLi ShiGeochemical Features and Petrogenesis of Minoya Carbonatites,hupeh.Geochimica., No. 4, PP. 345-355.ChinaCarbonatite, Geochemistry
DS1982-0371
1982
Li ShiLi ShiGeochemical features and petrogenesis of Miaoya carbonatites ,HubeiProvinceGeochemistry, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 409-420ChinaCarbonatite
DS1992-0943
1992
Li ShuguangLi ShuguangSm/neodymium evolution of upper mantle and continental crust: constraints on growth rates of the continental crust.Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, Vol. 11, No. 4, October-December pp. 314-328.ChinaMantle, Geochronology
DS1992-0944
1992
Li ShuguangLi ShuguangSm/neodymium evolution of the upper Mantle and continental crust: constraints of growth rates of the continental crustChinese Journal of Geochemistry, Vol. 11, No. 4, October-December pp. 314-328MantleGeochemistry, Geochronology
DS1990-0512
1990
Li ZejiuGao Shan, Zhang Benren, Li ZejiuGeochemical evidence for Proterozoic continental arc and continental margin rift magmatism along the northern margin of the Yangtze craton, South ChinaPrecam. Res, Vol. 47, pp. 205-221ChinaCraton -Yangtze, Tectonics -rift
DS1995-0420
1995
Li ZhaonaiDing Yi, Li ZhaonaiAnhydrite carbonatites are indicators of magmatic iron deposits and Strontium deposits.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of, Vol. 20, p. A24 AbstractChinaCarbonatite
DS1986-0493
1986
Li Zhe, Stevens J.G.Li Zhe, Stevens J.G.Next nearest neighbour effect on tetrahedral ferrous and octahedral ferriciron in chromiteScientia Sinica Ser. B. (ENG), Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 889-896ChinaKimberlite
DS2000-1051
2000
Li. W.X.Zhou, X.M., Li. W.X.Origin of late Mesozoic igneous rocks in southeastern China: implications for lithospheric subduction....Tectonophysics, Vol. 326, No. 3-4, Nov. 15, pp. 269-88.China, southeastUnderplating mafic magmas, Subduction, ultra high pressure (UHP)
DS1988-0417
1988
Liamkin, A.I.Liamkin, A.I., Petrov, E.A., Ershov, A.P., Sakovich, G.V.Production of diamonds from explosive substances.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 302, No. 3, pp. 611-613RussiaBlank
DS201603-0395
2015
Lian, D.Lian, D., Yang, J., Dilek, Y., Robinson, P.T., Wu, W., Wang, Y., Liu, F., Ding, Yi.Diamonds and moissanite from the aladag ophiolite of the eastern Tauride belt, southern Turkey: a final report.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 47, 7, p. 163. abstractEurope, TurkeyMoissanite

Abstract: The Aladag ophiolite in the eastern Tauride belt, southern Turkey, is a well-preserved remnant of oceanic lithosphere. It consists of, in ascending order, harzburgitic to dunitic tectonites, ultramafic and mafic cumulates, isotropic gabbros, sheeted dikes and basaltic pillow lavas. Podiform chromitites are common in the mantle peridotites. Thus far, more than 200 grains of microdiamond and more than 100 grains of moissanite (SiC) have been separated from one sample of podiform chromitite. The microdiamonds occur mostly as subhedral to euhedral, colorless to pale yellow grains, about 50-300 µm in size. Moissanite grains are generally subhedral, light blue to deep blue in color and variable in size. These grains of diamond and moissanite are very similar to in-situ grains in podiform chromitites of Tibet and the Polar Urals of Russia (Yang et al., 2014; 2015), indicating that they are natural minerals, not the result of natural or anthropogenic contamination. As reported elsewhere, the diamonds and moissanite are accompanied by a range of other minerals, including rutile, zircon, quartz and sulfides. The discovery of diamond, moissanite and other unusual minerals in the podiform chromitites of the Aladag massif provide additional evidence for the widespread occurrence of these minerals in ophiolites, indicating that they are related to global mantle processes.
DS201710-2240
2017
Lian, D.Lian, D., Yang, J., Dilek, Y., Wu, W., Zhang, Z., Xiong, F., Liu, F., Zhou, W.Deep mantle origin and ultra-reducing conditions in podiform chromitite: diamonds, moissanite, and other unusual minerals in podiform chromitites from the Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite, southern Turkey.Americam Mineralogist, Vol. 103, 5p.Europe, Turkeymoissanites

Abstract: The Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite situated in the eastern Tauride belt, southern Turkey, is a well-preserved oceanic lithosphere remnant comprising, in ascending order, mantle peridotite, ultramafic and mafic cumulates, isotropic gabbros, sheeted dikes, and basaltic pillow lavas. Two types of chromitites are observed in the Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite. One type of chromitites occurs in the cumulate dunites around the Moho, and the other type of chromitites is hosted by the mantle harzburgites below the Moho. The second type of chromitites has massive, nodular, and disseminated textures. We have conducted the mineral separation work on the podiform chromitites hosted by harzburgites. So far, more than 100 grains of microdiamond and moissanite (SiC) have been recovered from the podiform chromitite. The diamonds and moissanite are accompanied by large amounts of rutile. Besides zircon, monazite and sulfide are also very common phases within the separated minerals. The discovery of diamond, moissanite, and the other unusual minerals from podiform chromitite of the Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite provides new evidences for the common occurrences of these unusual minerals in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites. This discovery also suggests that deep mantle processes and materials have been involved in the formation of podiform chromitite.
DS201710-2276
2017
Lian, D.Wiedenbeck, M., Lian, D.Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses of diamond and moissanite in ophiolite.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 91, s1, p.44 abstractEurope, Albaniamoissanites

Abstract: The Cameca 1280-HR large geometry SIMS instrument is a highly versatile analytical tool which can support a broad range of geochemical applications. Research using the Potsdam 1280 instrument focuses primarily on isotope ratio determinations in geomaterials. Optimized measurement protocols have already been established for d18O determinations in zircon, and we are also working towards routine oxygen isotope determinations for quartz, calcite, mica, apatite and titanite. The primary challenge in developing such measurement systems are the identification and characterization of suitable reference materials (RMs), and this is made particularly challenging due to the matrix dependent ion yields of the SIMS ion source. Here we wish to report our progress towards establishing new analytical protocols for the determination of d13C in both diamond and moissanite. In the case of diamond, our facility possesses three natural RMs with which we are able to produce data with a typical analytical repeatability of ~0.15 ‰ (1sd). An inter-comparison of our three diamond RMs demonstrates an overall data quality of better than 0.5‰ in terms of systematic offset between the various materials characterized using gas source mass spectrometry (Palot et al., 2012). A single such d13C determination in diamond requires 80 s of data acquisition and involves a test portion mass of ~400 pg of material. In-house diamond reference materials for d15N calibration allow us to measure this isotopic system to a total analytical uncertainty of ± 1.6 ‰ (1sd) at nitrogen concentrations reaching down to 250 µg/g. Due to the relatively low abundance of nitrogen in diamonds, such isotope ratio determinations require around 9 minutes of data collection. With respect to d13C determinations in moissanite, we use a kimberlitic SiC as calibrant (Mathez et al., 1995), on which we achieve a repeatability of ~0.2 ‰ (1sd) on a ~350 pg test portion mass. Total data acquisition time for such measurements is 80 s. We are currently in the process of developing a second moissanite RM based on a synthetic, coarse-grained powder. We will also investigate this new material for its d30Si characteristics.
DS201710-2279
2017
Lian, D.Wu, W., Yang, J., Ma, C., Milushi, I., Lian, D., Tian, Y.Discovery and significance of diamonds and moissanites in chromitites within the Skenderbeu Massif of the Mirdita zone ophiolite, west Albania.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 91, 3, pp. 882-897.Europe, Albaniamoissanites

Abstract: In recent years diamonds and other unusual minerals (carbides, nitrides, metal alloys and native elements) have been recovered from mantle peridotites and chromitites (both high-Cr chromitites and high-Al chromitites) from a number of ophiolites of different ages and tectonic settings. Here we report a similar assemblage of minerals from the Skenderbeu massif of the Mirdita zone ophiolite, west Albania. So far, more than 20 grains of microdiamonds and 30 grains of moissanites (SiC) have been separated from the podiform chromitite. The diamonds are mostly light yellow, transparent, euhedral crystals, 200-300 µm across, with a range of morphologies; some are octahedral and cuboctahedron and others are elongate and irregular. Secondary electron images show that some grains have well-developed striations. All the diamond grains have been analyzed and yielded typical Raman spectra with a shift at ~1325 cm-1. The moissanite grains recovered from the Skenderbeu chromitites are mainly light blue to dark blue, but some are yellow to light yellow. All the analyzed grains have typical Raman spectra with shifts at 766 cm-1, 787 cm-1, and 967 cm-1. The energy spectrums of the moissanites confirm that the grains are composed entirely of silicon and carbon. This investigation expands the occurrence of diamonds and moissanites to Mesozoic ophiolites in the Neo-Tethys. Our new findings suggest that diamonds and moissanites are present, and probably ubiquitous in the oceanic mantle and can provide new perspectives and avenues for research on the origin of ophiolites and podiform chromitites.
DS201809-2057
2018
Lian, D.Lian, D., Yang, J., Wiedenbeck, M., Dilek, Y., Rocholl, A., Wu, W.Carbon and nitrogen isotope, and mineral inclusion studies on the diamonds from the Pozanti-Karsanti chromitite, Turkey. MicrodiamondsContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org:10.1007/ s00410-018-1499-5 19p.Europe, Turkeydiamond inclusions

Abstract: The Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite (PKO) is one of the largest oceanic remnants in the Tauride belt, Turkey. Micro-diamonds were recovered from the podiform chromitites, and these diamonds were investigated based on morphology, color, cathodoluminescence, nitrogen content, carbon and nitrogen isotopes, internal structure and inclusions. The diamonds recovered from the PKO are mainly mixed-habit diamonds with sectors of different brightness under the cathodoluminescence images. The total d13C range of the PKO diamonds varies between - 18.8 and - 28.4‰, with a principle d13C mode at - 25‰. Nitrogen contents of the diamonds range from 7 to 541 ppm with a mean value of 171 ppm, and the d15N values range from - 19.1 to 16.6‰, with a d15N mode of - 9‰. Stacking faults and partial dislocations are commonly observed in the Transmission Electron Microscopy foils whereas inclusions are rather rare. Combinations of ( Ca0.81Mn0.19)SiO3, NiMnCo-alloy and nanosized, quenched fluid phases were observed as inclusions in the PKO diamonds. We believe that the 13C-depleted carbon signature of the PKO diamonds derived from previously subducted crustal matter. These diamonds may have crystallized from C-saturated fluids in the asthenospheric mantle at depth below 250 km which were subsequently carried rapidly upward by asthenospheric melts.
DS201905-1086
2019
Lian, D.Wu, W., Yang, J., Wirth, R., X=Zheng, J., Lian, D., Qiu, T., Milushi, I.Carbon and nitrogen isotopes and mineral inclusions in diamonds from chromitites of the Mirdita ophiolite ( Albania) demonstrate recycling of oceanic crust into the mantle.American Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 485-500.Europe, Albaniadiamond inclusions

Abstract: Geophysical investigations and laboratory experiments provide strong evidence for subduction of ancient oceanic crust, and geological and mineralogical observations suggest that subducted oceanic crust is recycled into the upper mantle. This model is supported by some direct petrologic and miner-alogical evidence, principally the recovery of super-deep diamonds from kimberlites and the presence of crustal materials in ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites, but many details are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of ophiolite-hosted diamonds in the podiform chromitites of the Skenderbeu massif of the Mirdita ophiolite in the western part of Neo-Tethys. The diamonds are characterized by exceedingly light C isotopes (d13CPDB ~ -25‰), which we interpret as evidence for subduction of organic carbon from Earth's surface. They are also characterized by an exceptionally large range in d 15Nair (-12.9‰ to +25.5‰), accompanied by a low N aggregation state. Materials sparsely included in diamonds include amorphous material, Ni-Mn-Co alloy, nanocrystals (20 × 20 nm) of calcium silicate with an orthorhombic perovskite structure (Ca-Pv), and fluids. The fluids coexisting with the alloy and Ca-Pv provide clear evidence that the diamonds are natural rather than synthetic. We suggest that the Skenderbeu diamonds nucleated and grew from a C-saturated, NiMnCo-rich melt derived from a subducted slab of ocean crust and lithosphere in the deep mantle, at least in the diamond stability field, perhaps near the top of the mantle transition zone. The subsequent rapid upward transport in channeled networks related to slab rollback during subduction initiation may explain the formation and preservation of Skenderbeu diamonds. The discovery of diamonds from the Mirdita ophiolite not only provides new evidence of diamonds in these settings but also provides a valuable opportunity to understand deep cycling of subducted oceanic crust and mantle composition.
DS201907-1587
2019
Lian, D.Yang, J., Robinson, P., Xu, X., Xiong, F., Lian, D.Diamond in oceanic peridotites and chromitites: evidence for deep recycled mantle in the global ophiolite record.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 93, 2, p.42.Europe, Turkey, Albania, Russia, Chinamicrodiamonds

Abstract: Diamonds have been discovered in mantle peridotites and chromitites of six ophiolitic massifs along the 1300 km-long Yarlung-Zangbo suture (Bai et al., 1993; Yang et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2015), and in the Dongqiao and Dingqing mantle peridotites of the Bangong-Nujiang suture in the eastern Tethyan zone (Robinson et al., 2004; Xiong et al., 2018). Recently, in-situ diamond, coesite and other UHP mineral have also been reported in the Nidar ophiolite of the western Yarlung-Zangbo suture (Das et al., 2015, 2017). The above-mentioned diamond-bearing ophiolites represent remnants of the eastern Mesozoic Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. New publications show that diamonds also occur in chromitites in the Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite of Turkey, and in the Mirdita ophiolite of Albania in the western Tethyan zone (Lian et al., 2017; Xiong et al., 2017; Wu et al., 2018). Similar diamonds and associated minerals have also reported from Paleozoic ophiolitic chromitites of Central Asian Orogenic Belt of China and the Ray-Iz ophiolite in the Polar Urals, Russia (Yang et al., 2015a, b; Tian et al., 2015; Huang et al, 2015). Importantly, in-situ diamonds have been recovered in chromitites of both the Luobusa ophiolite in Tbet and the Ray-Iz ophiolite in Russia (Yang et al., 2014, 2015a). The extensive occurrences of such ultra-high pressure (UHP) minerals in many ophiolites suggest formation by similar geological events in different oceans and orogenic belts of different ages. Compared to diamonds from kimberlites and UHP metamorphic belts, micro-diamonds from ophiolites present a new occurrence of diamond that requires significantly different physical and chemical conditions of formation in Earth's mantle. The forms of chromite and qingsongites (BN) indicate that ophiolitic chromitite may form at depths of >150-380 km or even deeper in the mantle (Yang et al., 2007; Dobrthinetskaya et al., 2009). The very light C isotope composition (d13C -18 to -28‰) of these ophiolitic diamonds and their Mn-bearing mineral inclusions, as well as coesite and clinopyroxene lamallae in chromite grains all indicate recycling of ancient continental or oceanic crustal materials into the deep mantle (>300 km) or down to the mantle transition zone via subduction (Yang et al., 2014, 2015a; Robinson et al., 2015; Moe et al., 2018). These new observations and new data strongly suggest that micro-diamonds and their host podiform chromitite may have formed near the transition zone in the deep mantle, and that they were then transported upward into shallow mantle depths by convection processes. The in-situ occurrence of micro-diamonds has been well-demonstrated by different groups of international researchers, along with other UHP minerals in podiform chromitites and ophiolitic peridotites clearly indicate their deep mantle origin and effectively address questions of possible contamination during sample processing and analytical work. The widespread occurrence of ophiolite-hosted diamonds and associated UHP mineral groups suggests that they may be a common feature of in-situ oceanic mantle. The fundamental scientific question to address here is how and where these micro-diamonds and UHP minerals first crystallized, how they were incorporated into ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites and how they were preserved during transport to the surface. Thus, diamonds and UHP minerals in ophiolites have raised new scientific problems and opened a new window for geologists to study recycling from crust to deep mantle and back to the surface.
DS201908-1827
2018
Lian, D.Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Xu, X., Xiong, F., Lian, D.Diamond in oceanic peridotites and chromitites: evidence for deep recycled mantle in the global ophiolite record.International Symposium on Deep Earth Exploration and Practices, Beijing Oct. 24-26. 1 p. abstractChinadiamond genesis

Abstract: Diamonds have been discovered in mantle peridotites and chromitites of six ophiolitic massifs along the 1300 km-long Yarlung-Zangbo suture (Bai et al., 1993; Yang et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2015), and in the Dongqiao and Dingqing mantle peridotites of the Bangong-Nujiang suture in the eastern Tethyan zone (Robinson et al., 2004; Xiong et al., 2018). Recently, in-situ diamond, coesite and other UHP mineral have also been reported in the Nidar ophiolite of the western Yarlung-Zangbo suture (Das et al., 2015, 2017). The above-mentioned diamond-bearing ophiolites represent remnants of the eastern Mesozoic Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. New publications show that diamonds also occur in chromitites in the Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite of Turkey, and in the Mirdita ophiolite of Albania in the western Tethyan zone (Lian et al., 2017; Xiong et al., 2017; Wu et al., 2018). Similar diamonds and associated minerals have also reported from Paleozoic ophiolitic chromitites of Central Asian Orogenic Belt of China and the Ray-Iz ophiolite in the Polar Urals, Russia (Yang et al., 2015a, b; Tian et al., 2015; Huang et al, 2015). Importantly, in-situ diamonds have been recovered in chromitites of both the Luobusa ophiolite in Tbet and the Ray-Iz ophiolite in Russia (Yang et al., 2014, 2015a). The extensive occurrences of such ultra-high pressure (UHP) minerals in many ophiolites suggest formation by similar geological events in different oceans and orogenic belts of different ages. Compared to diamonds from kimberlites and UHP metamorphic belts, micro-diamonds from ophiolites present a new occurrence of diamond that requires significantly different physical and chemical conditions of formation in Earth's mantle. The forms of chromite and qingsongites (BN) indicate that ophiolitic chromitite may form at depths of >150-380 km or even deeper in the mantle (Yang et al., 2007; Dobrthinetskaya et al., 2009). The very light C isotope composition (d13C -18 to -28‰) of these ophiolitic diamonds and their Mn-bearing mineral inclusions, as well as coesite and clinopyroxene lamallae in chromite grains all indicate recycling of ancient continental or oceanic crustal materials into the deep mantle (>300 km) or down to the mantle transition zone via subduction (Yang et al., 2014, 2015a; Robinson et al., 2015; Moe et al., 2018). These new observations and new data strongly suggest that micro-diamonds and their host podiform chromitite may have formed near the transition zone in the deep mantle, and that they were then transported upward into shallow mantle depths by convection processes. The in-situ occurrence of micro-diamonds has been well-demonstrated by different groups of international researchers, along with other UHP minerals in podiform chromitites and ophiolitic peridotites clearly indicate their deep mantle origin and effectively address questions of possible contamination during sample processing and analytical work. The widespread occurrence of ophiolite-hosted diamonds and associated UHP mineral groups suggests that they may be a common feature of in-situ oceanic mantle. The fundamental scientific question to address here is how and where these micro-diamonds and UHP minerals first crystallized, how they were incorporated into ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites and how they were preserved during transport to the surface. Thus, diamonds and UHP minerals in ophiolites have raised new scientific problems and opened a new window for geologists to study recycling from crust to deep mantle and back to the surface.
DS201909-2109
2019
Lian, D.Yang, J., Lian, D., Robinson, P.T., Qiu, T., Xiong, F., Wu, W.A shallow origin for diamonds in ophiolitic chromitites. Geology, Vol. 47, pp. e475.North America, Mexicomicrodiamonds
DS201910-2280
2019
Lian, D.Lian, D., Yang, J.Ophiolite hosted diamond: a new window for probing carbon cycling in the deep mantle.Engineering, in press available, 23p. PdfMantlecoesite

Abstract: As reported in our prior work, we have recovered microdiamonds and other unusual minerals, including pseudomorph stishovite, moissanite, qingsongite, native elements, metallic alloys, and some crustal minerals (i.e., zircon, quartz, amphibole, and rutile) from ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites. These ophiolite-hosted microdiamonds display different features than kimberlitic, metamorphic, and meteoritic diamonds in terms of isotopic values and mineral inclusions. The characteristic of their light carbon isotopic composition implies that the material source of ophiolite-hosted diamonds is surface-derived organic matter. Coesite inclusions coexisting with kyanite rimming an FeTi alloy from the Luobusa ophiolite show a polycrystalline nature and a prismatic habit, indicating their origin as a replacement of stishovite. The occurrence in kyanite and coesite with inclusions of qingsongite, a cubic boron nitride mineral, and a high-pressure polymorph of rutile (TiO2 II) point to formation pressures of 10-15?GPa at temperatures ~1300?°C, consistent with depths greater than 380?km, near the mantle transition zone (MTZ). Minerals such as moissanite, native elements, and metallic alloys in chromite grains indicate a highly reduced environment for ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites. Widespread occurrence of diamonds in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites suggests that the oceanic mantle may be a more significant carbon reservoir than previously thought. These ophiolite-hosted diamonds have proved that surface carbon can be subducted into the deep mantle, and have provided us with a new window for probing deep carbon cycling.
DS202003-0372
2020
Lian, D.Yang, J., Simakov, S.K., Moe, K., Scribano, V., Lian, D., Wu, W.Comment on the Comparison of enigmatic diamonds from Tolbachik arc volcano ( Litasov 2019) also Litasov responseGondwana Research, in press availableRussiaKamchatka
DS202105-0799
2020
Lian, D.Wu, W., Yang, J., Zheng, J., Lian, D., Qiu, T.Origin of the diamonds within chromitite from the Mirdita ophiolite ( Albania) and its geological significance. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 94, 1, pp. 64-65.Europe, Albaniadeposit - Mirdita

Abstract: Geophysical investigations and laboratory experiments show evidence for possible subduction of ancient oceanic crust. Geological and mineralogical observations suggest that subducted oceanic crust is recycled into the upper mantle. The subduction is supported by the recovery of super-deep diamonds from kimberlites and the presence of crustal materials in ophiolitic chromitites and their host peridotites. What is the mechanism? Here we report the new discovery of ophiolite-hosted diamonds in the podiform chromitites within the Skenderbeu massif from the Mirdita ophiolite in the western part of Neo-Tethys (Fig. 1). The diamonds are characterized by exceedingly light C isotopes (d13CPDB ~ -25‰), which can be interpreted as evidence for subduction of organic carbon from Earth's surface. The diamonds are also characterized by an exceptionally large range in d15Nair (-12.9‰ to +25.5‰), accompanied by a low N aggregation state (Fig. 2). On the other hand, materials sparsely included in diamonds include amorphous material, Ni-Mn-Co alloy, nanocrystals (20 nm×20 nm) of calcium silicate with an orthorhombic perovskite structure (Ca-Pv), and fluids (Fig. 3). We consider that the Skenderbeu diamonds nucleated and grew from a C-saturated, NiMnCo-rich melt derived from a subducted slab of ocean crust and lithosphere in the deep mantle environment. The environment is in the diamond stability field or near the top of the mantle transition zone. The new discovery of diamonds from the Mirdita ophiolite provides a valuable opportunity to understand deep cycling of subducted oceanic crust and mantle (i.e., composition and process).
DS201810-2390
2018
Lian, D.Y.Yang, J.S., Trumball, R.B., Robinson, P.T., Xiong, F.H., Lian, D.Y.Comment: Ultra high pressure and ultra reduced minerals in ophiolites may form by lightning strikes. Super Reduced Minerals SURGeochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 8, pp. 6-7.Mantlemoissanite
DS201906-1299
2019
Lian, O.Hagedorn, G., Ross, M., Paulen, R., Smith, R., Neudorf, C., Gingerich, T., Lian, O.Ice-flow and deglacial history of the Laurentide Ice sheet in the southwestern Great Slave Lake area.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 102.Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeomorphology

Abstract: Limited field studies and sparse chronological constraints in the southwestern Great Slave Lake area creates uncertainties about the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) flow history and deglacial chronology. Improved understanding of the western LIS ice-margin morphology and retreat history is required to refine larger ice-sheet interpretations and timing for northwest drainage of glacial Lake McConnell. Using new field observations and geochronology we establish ice-flow history and better constrain regional deglaciation. Paleo-ice flow indicators (n = 66) show an oldest southwestern flow (230°), an intermediate northwesterly flow (305°), and a youngest westerly flow (250°). Till samples bulk sediment and matrix properties (n = 160) allowed identification of two till units. A lower grey till sourced mainly from local Paleozoic sediments produced clast fabrics indicating a southwesterly flow direction, overlain by a brown till that contained an increased Canadian Shield content with lodged elongate boulders a-axes and boulder-top striation orientations indicating a west to northwest ice-flow direction. Ice-flow results show a clockwise shift in direction interpreted as evidence for ice-divide migration followed by topographically controlled deglacial westward flow influenced by the Mackenzie River valley. Minimum deglacial timing estimates were constrained through optical dating of fine-sand deposits in a well-developed strandline (n = 2) and seven aeolian dunes; ages range from 9.9 ± 0.6 to 10.8 ± 0.7 ka BP. These ages are from dunes located below glacial Lake McConnell maximum water level and may thus provide new local lake level age constraints. Ice retreat is informed by a newly-mapped segment of the Snake River moraine, which is an understudied feature in the region. New ice-flow history and ice-margin retreat interpretations will be integrated into the larger body of work on the western LIS providing more confident conclusions on ice-sheet evolution and meltwater drainage pathways, specifically in the southwestern Great Slave Lake area.
DS1990-0940
1990
Lian DaweiLiu Guangliang, Lian Dawei, Gao Shanji, Wang XiongwuMineralogy of Dahongshan lamproite in Hubei provinceInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 2, extended abstract p. 832-833ChinaLamproite, Dahongshan
DS200612-0815
2006
LiangLiang, X-Q, Fan, W-M., Wang, Y-J., Xian, H.Early Mesozoic post collisional shoshonitic lamprophyres along the western margin of the South Chin a orogen; geochemical characteristics and tectonicInternational Geology Review, Vol. 48, 4, pp. 311-328.ChinaGeochemistry - shoshonites
DS200612-1560
2006
LiangXu, Z., Wang, Q., Ji, S., Chen, J., Zeng, Yang, Chen, Liang, WenkPetrofabrics and seismic properties of garnet peridotite from the UHP Sulu terrane: implications for olivine deformation mechanism in subducting slab.Tectonophysics, Vol. 421, 1-2, pp. 111-127.MantleSubduction - cold, dry continental slab
DS201212-0827
2012
LiangZheng, T., Zhu, R., Liang, Ai, Y.Intralithospheric mantle structures recorded continental subduction.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B3, B03308MantleSubduction
DS201412-0512
2014
Liang, F.Liang, F., Xu, Z., Zhao, J.In-situ moissanite in dunite: deep mantle Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 88, 2, pp. 517-529.Asia, TibetMoissanite
DS200612-0827
2006
Liang, F.H.Liu, F.L., Gerdes, A., Liou, J.G., Xue, H.M., Liang, F.H.SHRIMP U Pb zircon dating from Sulu Dabie dolomitic marble, eastern China: constraints on prograde, ultrahigh pressure and retrograde metamorphic ages.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 24, 7, Sept. pp. 569-589.ChinaGeochronology UHP
DS201012-0463
2010
Liang, H.Mahadevan, L., Bendick, R., Liang, H.Why subduction zones are curved.Tectonics, Vol. 29, 6, TC6002MantleSubduction
DS201412-0092
2014
Liang, H-Y.Campbell, I., Stepanov, A., Liang, H-Y., Allen, C., Norman, M., Zhang, Y-Q, Xie, Y-W.The origin of shoshonites: new insights from the Tertiary high-potassium intrusions of eastern Tibet.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 167, 3, pp. 1-22.Asia, TibetShoshonite
DS201812-2841
2018
Liang, J.Liang, J., Gong, J., Li, W.Applications and impacts of google Earth: a decadal review ( 2006-2016).ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 146, pp. 91-107.Mantleremote sensing

Abstract: Since Google Earth was first released in 2005, it has attracted hundreds of millions of users worldwide and made a profound impact on both academia and industry. It can be said that Google Earth epitomized the first-generation of Digital Earth prototypes. The functionalities and merits that have sustained Google Earth’s lasting influence are worth a retrospective review. In this paper, we take the liberty to conduct a bibliometric study of the applications of Google Earth during 2006-2016. We aim first to quantify the multifaceted impacts, and then to develop a structured understanding of the influence and contribution associated with Google Earth. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed a total of 2115 Scopus publication records using scientometric methods and then proceed to discussion with a selected set of applications. The findings and conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) the impact of Google Earth has been profound and persistent over the past decade. Google Earth was mentioned in an average of 229 publications per year since 2009. (2) Broadly, the impact of Google Earth has touched upon most scientific disciplines. Specifically, during 2006-2016, Google Earth has been mentioned in 2115 publications covering all of Scopus’s 26 subject areas; (3) the influence of Google Earth has largely concentrated in GIScience, remote sensing and geosciences. The extended influence of Google Earth has reached a wider range of audiences with a concentration in fields such as human geography, geoscience education and archaeology.
DS202009-1610
2020
Liang, P.Bassoo, R., Befus, K.S., Liang, P., Forman, S.L., Sharman, G.Deciphering the enigmatic origin of Guyana's diamonds.The American Mineralogist, in press available 59p. PdfSouth America, Guyanadiamond crystallography

Abstract: Diamonds have long been mined from alluvial terrace deposits within the rainforest of Guyana, South America. No primary kimberlite deposits have been discovered in Guyana, nor has there been previous studies on the mineralogy and origin of the diamonds. Paleoproterozoic terranes in Guyana are prospective to diamond occurrences because the most productive deposits are associated spatially with the eastern escarpment of the Paleoproterozoic Roraima Supergroup. Geographic proximity suggests that the diamonds are detrital grains eroding from the <1.98 Ga conglomerates, metamorphosed to zeolite and greenschist facies. The provenance and paragenesis of the alluvial diamonds are described using a suite of placer diamonds from different locations across the Guiana Shield. Guyanese diamonds are typically small, and those in our collection range from 0.3 to 2.7 mm in diameter; octahedral and dodecahedral, with lesser cubic and minor macle forms. The diamonds are further subdivided into those with abraded and non-abraded surfaces. Abraded diamonds show various colors in cathodoluminescence whereas most non-abraded diamonds appear blue. In all populations, diamonds are predominantly colorless, with lesser brown to yellow and very rare white. Diamonds are predominantly Type IaAB and preserve moderate nitrogen aggregation and total nitrogen concentrations ranging from trace to ~1971 ppm. The kinetics of nitrogen aggregation indicate mantle-derived residence temperatures of 1124 ± 100 ºC, assuming residence times of 1.3 Ga and 2.6 Ga for abraded and non-abraded diamonds respectively. The diamonds are largely sourced from the peridotitic to eclogitic lithospheric upper mantle based on both d13C values of -5.82 ± 2.45‰ (VPDB-LSVEC) and inclusion suites predominantly comprised of forsterite, enstatite, Cr-pyrope, chromite, rutile, clinopyroxene, coesite, and almandine garnet. Detrital, accessory minerals are non-kimberlitic. Detrital zircon geochronology indicates diamondiferous deposits are predominantly sourced from Paleoproterozoic rocks of 2079 ± 88 Ma.
DS2003-0249
2003
Liang, Q.Cheng, X., Zhilong, H.,Congqiang, L., Liang, Q., Wenbo, L., Tao, G.PGE geochemistry of carbonatites in Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan ProvinceGeochemical Journal, Vol. 37, 391-399.ChinaBlank
DS200412-0321
2003
Liang, Q.Cheng, X., Zhilong, H.,Congqiang, L., Liang, Q., Wenbo, L., Tao, G.PGE geochemistry of carbonatites in Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China: preliminary study.Geochemical Journal, Vol. 37, 391-399.ChinaCarbonatite, geochemistry
DS201312-0539
2013
Liang, Q.Liang, Q., Meng, Y., Yan, C., Krasnicki, S., Lai, J., Hemawan, K., Shu,H., Popov, D., Yu,T., Yang, W., Mao, H., Hemley, R.Developments in synthesis, characterization, and application of large high-quality CVD single crystal diamond.Journal of Superhard Materials, Vol. 35, 4, pp. 195-213.TechnologyDiamond synthetics
DS201312-0992
2013
Liang, R.Yang, Z-j., Liang, R., Zeng, X-q., Ge, T-y., Al Qun, Zhenh, Y-l., Peng, M-s.Study on the micro-infrared spectra and origin of polycrystalline diamonds from Mengyin kimberlite pipes.Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, Vol. 32, 8, pp. 1512-1518.ChinaDeposit - Mengyin
DS201602-0217
2016
Liang, R.Lan, Y., Liang, R., Lu, T.Identification of a CVD synthetic diamond with a tree ring growth pattern.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 34, 8, pp. 702-710.TechnologySynthetics
DS1989-0712
1989
Liang, W.Jing, Y., Pan, G., Xia, M., Liang, W., Liou, J.G.Occurrences of abundant eclogites in the DabieMountains, Central SOURCE[ EOSEos, Vol. 70, No. 15, April 11, p. 505. (abstract.)ChinaEclogite
DS1990-1537
1990
Liang, W.Wang Xiaomin, Jing, Y., Liou, J.G., Pan, G., Liang, W., Xia, M.Field occurrences and petrology of eclogites from the Dabie Mountains, Anhui, central ChinaLithos, Vol. 25, No. 1-3, November pp. 119-130ChinaEclogites, Dabie Mountains
DS201906-1317
2019
Liang, W.Liu, J., Wang, W., Yang, H., Wu, Z., Hu, M.Y., Zhao, J., Bi, W., Alp. E.E., Dauphas, N., Liang, W., Chen, B., Lin, J-F.Carbon isotopic signatures of super-deep diamonds mediated by iron redox chemistry.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 10, pp. 51-55.Mantleredox

Abstract: Among redox sensitive elements, carbon is particularly important because it may have been a driver rather than a passive recorder of Earth’s redox evolution. The extent to which the isotopic composition of carbon records the redox processes that shaped the Earth is still debated. In particular, the highly reduced deep mantle may be metal-saturated, however, it is still unclear how the presence of metallic phases in?uences the carbon isotopic compositions of super-deep diamonds. Here we report ab initio results for the vibrational properties of carbon in carbonates, diamond, and Fe3C under pressure and temperature conditions relevant to super-deep diamond formation. Previous work on this question neglected the effect of pressure on the equilibrium carbon isotopic fractionation between diamond and Fe3C but our calculations show that this assumption overestimates the fractionation by a factor of ~1.3. Our calculated probability density functions for the carbon isotopic compositions of super-deep diamonds derived from metallic melt can readily explain the very light carbon isotopic compo- sitions observed in some super-deep diamonds. Our results therefore support the view that metallic phases are present during the formation of super-deep diamonds in the mantle below ~250 km.
DS1990-0929
1990
Liang, Y.Liang, Y., Elthon, D.Evidence from chromium abundances in mantle rocks for extraction of picrite and komatiite meltsNature, Vol. 343, February 8, pp. 551-553GlobalKomatiite, Mantle -chromite
DS1990-0930
1990
Liang, Y.Liang, Y., Elthon, D.Evidence from chromium abundances for extraction of picrite and komatiitemeltsNature, Vol. 343, February 8, pp. 551-553GlobalMantle, Chromium/picrite
DS200412-1135
2004
Liang, Y.Liang, Y.On the thermal kinetic consequences of slab melting.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, 24, Dec. 15, 10.1029/2003 GLO18969MantleSubduction, slab
DS200712-0624
2007
Liang, Y.Liang, Y.Effects of source heterogeneity and upwelling rate on trace element distribution during mantle melting.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A578.MantleMelting
DS201112-0923
2011
Liang, Y.Schiemenz, A., Liang, Y., Parmentier, E.M.A high order numerical study of reactive dissolution in an upwelling heterogeneous mantle: 1. channelization, channel lithology and channel geometry.Geophysical Journal International, In press availableMantleChemistry
DS201312-0894
2013
Liang, Y.Sun, C., Liang, Y.The importance of crystal chemistry on REE partitioning between mantle minerals ( garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and olivine) and basaltic melts.Chemical Geology, Vol. 358, pp. 23-36.MantleSubduction - slabs
DS201412-0895
2014
Liang, Y.Sun, C., Liang, Y.An assessment of subsolidus re-equilibrium on REE distribution among mantle minerals olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and garnet in peridotites.Chemical Geology, Vol. 372, pp. 80-91.MantleMineral chemistry
DS201412-0896
2014
Liang, Y.Sun, C., Liang, Y.A REE in garnet clinopyroxene thermobarometer for eclogites, granulites and garnet peridotites.Chemical Geology, Vol. 372, pp. 80-91.TechnologyGeobarometry
DS202105-0773
2021
Liang, Y.Liang, Y., Ji, Z., Liu, B.What can we learn from REE abundances in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in residual mantle peridotites?Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 176, 19p. PdfMantleREE

Abstract: Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are the two major repositories of rare earth elements (REE) in spinel peridotites. Most geochemical studies of REE in mantle samples focus on clinopyroxene. Recent advances in in situ trace element analysis has made it possible to measure REE abundance in orthopyroxene. The purpose of this study is to determine what additional information one can learn about mantle processes from REE abundances in orthopyroxene coexisting with clinopyroxene in residual spinel peridotites. To address this question, we select a group of spinel peridotite xenoliths (9 samples) and a group of abyssal peridotites (12 samples) that are considered residues of mantle melting and that have major element and REE compositions in the two pyroxenes reported in the literature. We use a disequilibrium double-porosity melting model and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to invert melting parameters from REE abundance in the bulk sample. We then use a subsolidus reequilibration model to calculate REE redistribution between cpx and opx at the extent of melting inferred from the bulk REE data and at the closure temperature of REE in the two pyroxenes. We compare the calculated results with those observed in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in the selected peridotitic samples. Results from our two-step melting followed by subsolidus reequilibration modeling show that it is more reliable to deduce melting parameters from REE abundance in the bulk peridotite than in clinopyroxene. We do not recommend the use of REE in clinopyroxene alone to infer the degree of melting experienced by the mantle xenolith, as HREE in clinopyroxene in the xenolith are reset by subsolidus reequilibration. In general, LREE in orthopyroxene and HREE in clinopyroxene are more susceptible to subsolidus redistribution. The extent of redistribution depends on the modes of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in the sample and thermal history experienced by the peridotite. By modeling subsolidus redistribution of REE between orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene after melting, we show that it is possible to discriminate mineral mode of the starting mantle and cooling rate experienced by the peridotitic sample. We conclude that endmembers of the depleted MORB mantle and the primitive mantle are not homogeneous in mineral mode. A modally heterogeneous peridotitic starting mantle provides a simple explanation for the large variations of mineral mode observed in mantle xenoliths and abyssal peridotites. Finally, by using different starting mantle compositions in our simulations, we show that composition of the primitive mantle is more suitable for modeling REE depletion in cratonic mantle xenoliths than the composition of the depleted MORB mantle.
DS1985-0749
1985
LIANG RIXUANYan binggang, LIANG RIXUAN, Yang fengying, FANG QINGSONG.Some characters of diamond and diamond bearing ultramafic rocks in Xizang(Tibet).*CHI27th. International Geological Congress Held China**chi, pp. 341-350ChinaUltramafics, Diamond Genesis
DS1997-0972
1997
LiangshiRongfu, P., Liangshi, Wu, Qunyao, X.Metallogenic preferentiality and exceptional metallotect convergence ( site) giant ore depositsGlobal Tectonics and Metallogeny, Vol. 6, No. 2, March pp. 103-106ChinaMetallogeny, Deposits
DS1993-1816
1993
Lian-SheZhao, Lian-SheLateral variations and azimuthal isotropy of Pn velocities beneath Basin and Range ProvinceJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. B 12, Dec. 10, pp. 22, 109-122Basin and RangeGeophyics -seismics
DS2002-0945
2002
Lianxing, G.Lianxing, G.,Jianguo, D., et al.Composition of phengites in eclogites and their retrogressive derivatives of Dabie shan region: implication for the applicability of phengite geobarometre....Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, Vol. 21, 1, pp.52-56.ChinaGeochemistry
DS1995-2047
1995
LianxiongWen, Lianxiong, Andrews, D.L.Mantle convection constrained by subduction, geoid, topography andseismology.Eos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F633. Abstract.MantleGeophysics -seismics, Subduction
DS1995-1094
1995
Lianzing, G.Lianzing, G., et al.Geology and genesis of the mafic ultramafic complexes in the Huangshan Jingerquan HJ belt, East Xinjang.Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 97-116.ChinaMafics
DS201906-1346
2019
Liao, A.C.-Y.Shellnut, J.G., Hari, K.R., Liao, A.C.-Y., Denyszyn, S.W., Vishwakarama, N., Deshmukh, S.D.Petrogenesis of the 1.85 ga Sonakhan mafic dyke swrm, Bastar Craton.Lithos, Vol.334-335, pp. 88-101.Indiacraton

Abstract: The NNW trending tholeiitic Sonakhan mafic dyke swarm of the Northern Bastar Craton is comprised of basalt to basaltic andesite (SiO2?=?46.3?wt% to 55.3?wt%; Mg#?=?37 to 70) dykes. A single basaltic dyke yielded a weighted-mean 207Pb/206Pb baddeleyite age of 1851.1?±?2.6?Ma. The Sr and Nd isotopes (87Sr/86Sri?=?0.70396 to 0.70855; eNd(t)?=?-5.7 to +2.0) are variable which is a consequence of crustal contamination. Trace element modeling suggests the dykes were likely derived by partial melting of a spinel-bearing mantle source. The Sonakhan dykes are 30 million years younger than the 1.88?Ga Bastar-Cuddapah dykes (Bastanar-Hampi swarm) of the southern and central Bastar Craton indicating they represent a distinct period of magmatism. However, much like the 1.88?Ga dykes, the Sonakhan dykes appear to be correlative with dykes from the Yilgarn Craton (Yalgoo dyke?=?1854?±?5?Ma) of Western Australia. The temporal and compositional similarity of the Sonakhan dykes with the Yalgoo dyke is evidence that they are petrologically related and may represent different branches of the same dyke swarm. The existence of two distinct Paleoproterozoic dyke swarms in the Bastar Craton that each have a correlative unit in the Yilgarn Craton is supportive of a link between India and Australia before 1.9?Ga. Moreover, it suggests that the break-up of India and Western Australia was protracted and lasted for at least 30 million years.
DS201903-0527
2019
Liao, A.C-Y.Liao, A.C-Y., Shellnutt, J.G., Hari, K.R., Denyszyn, S.W., Vishwakarma, N., Verma, C.B.A petrogenetic relationship between 2.37 Ga boninitic dyke swarms of the Indian Shield: evidence from the Central Bastar Craton and NE Dharwar Craton.Gondwana Research, Vol. 69, pp. 193-211.Indiacraton

Abstract: The Indian Shield is cross-cut by a number of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms. The density of dykes in the Dharwar and Bastar Cratons is amongst the highest on Earth. Globally, boninitic dyke swarms are rare compared to tholeiitic dyke swarms and yet they are common within the Southern Indian Shield. Geochronology and geochemistry are used to constrain the petrogenesis and relationship of the boninitic dykes (SiO2?=?51.5 to 55.7?wt%, MgO?=?5.8 to 18.7?wt%, and TiO2?=?0.30?wt% to 0.77?wt%) from the central Bastar Craton (Bhanupratappur) and the NE Dharwar Craton (Karimnagar). A single U-Pb baddeleyite age from a boninitic dyke near Bhanupratappur yielded a weighted-mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2365.6?±?0.9?Ma that is within error of boninitic dykes from the Dharwar Craton near Karimnagar (2368.5?±?2.6?Ma) and farther south near Bangalore (2365.4?±?1.0?Ma to 2368.6?±?1.3?Ma). Rhyolite-MELTS modeling indicates that fractional crystallization is the likely cause of major element variability of the boninitic dykes from Bhanupratappur whereas trace element modeling indicates that the primary melt may be derived from a pyroxenite mantle source near the spinel-garnet transition zone. The Nd isotopes (eNd(t)?=?-6.4 to +4.5) of the Bhanupratappur dykes are more variable than the Karimnagar dykes (eNd(t)?=?-0.7 to +0.6) but they overlap. The variability of Sr-Nd isotopes may be related to crustal contamination during emplacement or is indicative of an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source. The chemical and temporal similarities of the Bhanupratappur dykes with the dykes of the Dharwar Craton (Karimnagar, Penukonda, Chennekottapalle) indicate they are members of the same giant radiating dyke swarm. Moreover, our results suggest that the Bastar and Dharwar Cratons were adjacent but likely had a different configuration at 2.37?Ga than the present day. It is possible that the 2.37Ga dyke swarm was related to a mantle plume that assisted in the break-up of an unknown or poorly constrained supercontinent.
DS201412-0513
2013
Liao, J.Liao, J., Gerya, T., Wang, Q.Layered structure of the lithospheric mantle changes dynamics of craton extension.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, 22, pp. 5861-5866.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS202106-0927
2021
Liao, R-q.Chen, Q., Liu, S-g., Qiu L., Liao, R-q., Xie, G-Z., Sun, W-d.Enhanced deep carbon cycle marked by the upsurge of silica-undersaturated nephelinitic magmatism at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 214, 104772, 8p. PdfMantlecarbon

Abstract: The temperature of the upper mantle was a principal factor controlling the style of plate tectonics and influencing magmatism and metamorphism on Earth over geological history. Recent studies emphasized that Earth’s tectonic style has transited into the modern plate tectonics since the late Neoproterozoic, which is characterized by a global network of plate boundaries with deep and cold oceanic plate subduction. However, the consequence of the establishment of modern plate tectonics to Earth’s mantle temperature and deep carbon cycle has not been fully understood. Here we apply statistical analysis on the geochemical data of continental igneous rocks and identify an increased magnitude of nephelinitic volcanism at the end of the Ediacaran. Nephelinitic rocks, a silica-undersaturated high-alkaline rock group, are mostly formed by low-degree melting of carbonated mantle sources. We link their widespread emergence with an enhanced mantle cooling event and a dramatically increased flux of crustal carbonates transporting to the mantle. The rapid cooling of the mantle was ascribed to the onset of modern-style plate tectonics with global-scale cold oceanic and continental subduction since the late Neoproterozoic. The declined upper-mantle temperature could not only favor the low-degree melting but also allow the subduction of carbonates into the deep mantle without decarbonation at shallow depth. Considering the high oxygen fugacity feature of the nephelinitic rocks and some other high-alkaline volcanism, the establishment of modern plate tectonics and thereafter enhanced mantle cooling and deep carbon cycle might contribute to the high-level atmospheric oxygen content during the Phanerozoic.
DS2002-0941
2002
Liao, X.Li, L., Liao, X., Fu, R.Slab break odd depth: a slowdown subduction modelGeophysical Research Letters, Vol.29,3,Feb.1,pp.11-1-3.MantleSubduction
DS200612-1589
2006
Liao, X.Zhan, X., Zhu, R., Liao, X.On thermal interaction between the Earth's core and mantle: an annular channel Model.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 159, 1-2, pp. 96-108.MantleGeothermometry, core convection, geodynamics
DS200512-1225
2003
Liao, Z.Yu, X., Mo, X., Liao, Z., Zhao, X., Su, Q.The petrological and mineralogical characteristics of Cenozoic kamafugite and carbonatite association from west Qinling area ( China).Periodico di Mineralogia, (in english), Vol. LXX11, 1. April, pp. 161-179.China, GansuTectonics
DS200612-1618
2005
Liao, Z.Zhou, Z., Liao, Z.The model for the subduction and collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate implications for tectonic evolution of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.Sedimentary Geology , Vol. 25, 4, pp. 27-32. Ingenta 1055513214Asia, IndiaSubduction
DS202101-0006
2020
Liao, Z.Cui, D., Liao, Z., Qi, L., Zhong, Q., Zhou, Z.A study of emeralds from Davdar, north-western China.Journal of Gemology, Vol. 37, 4, pp. 374-392Chinaemerald

Abstract: At the Davdar mine in Xinjiang, north-western China, emeralds are hosted mainly by carbonate, quartz-carbonate and quartz veins cutting metasedimentary rocks, and are associated with minerals such as hematite, dolomite, quartz, orthoclase and albite. Sixteen rough emeralds obtained during the authors’ visit to the mining area in 2019 were studied by standard gemmolog-ical techniques and various spectroscopic methods (FTIR, Raman, UV-Vis-NIR and EPR), as well as LA-ICP-MS chemical analysis. The analysed samples were mostly coloured by Cr, and showed a wide range of Fe, V, Mg and alkali contents, along with relatively low Cs, Rb and Sc. UV-Vis-NIR spectra showed features at 370 nm (Fe3+), 430 nm (Cr3+ with contributions from V3+ and possibly Fe3+), 580-630 nm (Cr3+ and V3+), 638 and 683 nm (Cr3+), and 850 nm (Fe2+ and possibly Fe2+-Fe3+interactions). In addition, the more V-rich emeralds displayed a distinct V3+ absorption band at about 385-395 nm. Notably, the chemical composition of Davdar emeralds shows significant overlap with those from Panjshir, Afghanistan.
DS1988-0028
1988
Liapunov, S.M.Bagdasarov, I.A., Liapunov, S.M.Main geochemical pecularities of carbonatites of the linear fissureformation type. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 298, No. 3, pp. 702-706RussiaCarbonatite
DS1991-1756
1991
Liard, J.O.Tushingham, A.M., Lambert, A., Liard, J.O., Peltier, W.R.Secular gravity changes: measurements and predictions for selected CanadiansitesCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 4, April pp. 557-560CanadaGeophysics -gravity, General
DS200512-0634
2004
Liati, A.Liati, A., Franz, L., Gebauer, D., Fanning, C.M.The timing of mantle and crustal events in South Namibia, as defined by SHRIMP dating of zircon domains from a garnet peridotite xenolith of the Gideon Kimberlite province.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 39, 3-5, pp. 147-157.Africa, NamibiaGeochronology
DS200512-0635
2004
Liati, A.Liati, A., Franz, L., Gebauer, D., Fanning, C.M.The timing of mantle and crustal events in South Namibia as defined by SHRIMP dating of zircon domains from a garnet peridotite xenolith of the Gibeon kimberlite province.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 39, 3-5, June pp. 147-157.Africa, NamibiaGeochronology, Pipe Hanaus 1, crustal events
DS200912-0156
2009
Liaugaudas, G.Davies, G., Liaugaudas, G., Collins, A.T., Suhling, K.Luminescence life time mapping in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, in press ( August)TechnologyDiamond - luminescence
DS201012-0442
2010
Liaugaudas, G.Liaugaudas, G., Collins, A.T., Suhling, K., Davies, G., Heintzman, R.Luminescence - life time mapping in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, 36, pp. 364210-216.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS2000-0572
2000
Libarkin, J.C.Libarkin, J.C.Evaluation of proposed mechanisms for Colorado Plateau Uplift - constraints on Pre-orogenic crust, mantle...Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 32, No. 7, p.A-42.Colorado PlateauTectonics, Lithosphere thickness
DS1960-0860
1967
Libby, F.Libby, F., Horton, E.How to Carry Out an Efficient Program for Sampling Offshoreminerals.Engineering and Mining Journal SPECIAL REPRINT., PP. 32-35.Southwest Africa, NamibiaSubmarine Placers, Gold, Tin, Mining Methods
DS1960-0980
1968
Libby, F.Libby, F.How to Carry Out an Efficient Program for Sampling Off Shore Minerals.Engineering and Mining Journal SPECIAL PUBLICATION "PORTFOLIO of SUCCESSFUL, PP. 32-35.South AfricaMarine Placers, Diamond Mining Recovery
DS1991-0988
1991
Libby, J.Libby, J., Groves, D.I., Vearncombe, J.R.The nature and tectonic significance of the crustal scale Koolyanobbing shear zone, Yilgarn Craton, Western AustraliaAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 38, pp. 229-245AustraliaTectonics, Shear zone
DS1992-1477
1992
Libby, J.W.Stewart, A.J., Libby, J.W.Discussion and reply on the nature and tectonic significance of the crustal scale Koolyanobbing shear zone, Yilgarn Craton, Western AustraliaAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 4, September pp. 561-565AustraliaTectonics, Yilgarn
DS1992-1577
1992
Libby, W.G.Tyler, I.M., Fletcher, I.R., Williams, I.R., Libby, W.G.Isotope and rare earth element evidence for a late Archean terrane boundary in the southeastern Pilbara craton, western AustraliaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 54, No. 2-4, January pp. 211-230AustraliaGeochronology, Archean
DS1991-0096
1991
Libchaber, A.Berge, B., Faucheux, L., Schwab, K., Libchaber, A.Faceted crystal growth in two dimensionsNature, Vol. 350, No. 6316, March 28, pp. 322-324GlobalMineralogy, Crystallography - general not specific to diamonds
DS200812-0274
2007
Liber, K.De Rosemond, S., Irving, E., Liber, K.Benthic invertebrate colonization of kimberlite tailings from the Ekati diamond mine.Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 2746, p.27, Ingenta art1075288601Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Ekati environmental
DS200812-0662
2007
Liber, K.Liber, K., Weber, L.P., Levesque, C.Sublethal toxicity of two wastewater treatment polymers used at Ekati diamond mine to lake trout fry.Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 2746, p.25 Ingenta art1075288604Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Ekati environmental
DS1990-0216
1990
Liborio, G.Bocchio, R., De Capitani, L., Liborio, G., Maresch, W.V., MottanaThe eclogite bearing series of Isla Margarita, Venezuela: geochemistry of metabasic lithologies in the la Rinconada and Juan Griego GroupsLithos, Vol. 25, No. 1-3, November pp. 55-70VenezuelaEclogites, Geochemistry
DS1999-0413
1999
Libourel, G.Libourel, G.Systematics of calcium partioning between olivine and silicate melts:implications for melt structure...Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 136, No. 1-2, pp. 63-80.GlobalMagmatic olivines, Mineralogy
DS1999-0414
1999
Libourel, G.Libourel, G.Systematics of calcium partitioning between olivine and silicate melt:implications for melt structure...Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 136, No. 1-2, July pp. 63-80.GlobalMagmatism - olivines, calcium content
DS2003-0818
2003
Libourel, G.Libourel, G., Marty, B., Humbert, F.Nitrogen solubility in basaltic melt. Part 1. Effect of oxygen fugacityGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 67, 21, Nov. 1, pp. 4123-35.GlobalPetrology - magma
DS200412-1136
2003
Libourel, G.Libourel, G., Marty, B., Humbert, F.Nitrogen solubility in basaltic melt. Part 1. Effect of oxygen fugacity.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 67, 21, Nov. 1, pp. 4123-35.TechnologyPetrology - magma
DS1996-0116
1996
Libowitzky, E.Beran, A., Libowitzky, E., Armbruster, T.A single crystal infrared spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction study of untwinned San Benito perovskite.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 34, pt. 4, August, pp. 803-809.CaliforniaPerovskite, Mineralogy
DS200612-0126
2006
Libowitzky, E.Beran, A., Libowitzky, E.Water in natural mantle minerals II: olivine, garnet and accessory minerals.Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 62, pp. 169-191.MantleWater - chemistry
DS201112-0185
2010
Liccardo, A.Chieregati, L.A., Svisero, D.P., Liccardo, A.Aspectos geologicos e genetico do diamante da regiao de Tibagi, Parana.5th Brasilian Symposium on Diamond Geology, Nov. 6-12, abstract p. 54-55.South America, Brazil, ParanaDiamond genesis
DS201112-0601
2010
Liccardo, A.Liccardo, A.Historia da extracao de diamantes na bacia do Rio Tibagi. Ancient map 17555th Brasilian Symposium on Diamond Geology, Nov. 6-12, abstract p. 22-24.South America, BrazilBrief - history
DS201112-0602
2010
Liccardo, A.Liccardo, A.Extracao de diamante no Rio Tibagi (PR)em lavra experimental nos an Os 1980.5th Brasilian Symposium on Diamond Geology, Nov. 6-12, abstract p. 27-29.South America, BrazilRo Tibagi project
DS1996-0845
1996
Licht, O.A.B.Licht, O.A.B., Tarvainen, T.Multipurpose geochemical maps produced by integration of geochemical exploration dat a sets Parana ShieldJournal of Geochem. Explor, Vol. 56, No. 3, Nov. pp. 167-182BrazilGeochemistry - maps, Sulphides
DS201212-0823
2012
Lidberg, M.Zhao, S., Lambeck, K., Lidberg, M.Lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity inverted from GPS - derived deformation rates in Fennoscandia.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 190, 1, pp. 278-292.Europe, Finland, SwedenGeophysics - seismics
DS201711-2524
2017
Liddell, M.V.Liddell, M.V., Bastow, I., Darbyshire, F., Gilligan, A., Pugh, S.The formation of Laurentia: evidence from shear wave splitting.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 479, pp. 170-178.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin Islandgeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The northern Hudson Bay region in Canada comprises several Archean cratonic nuclei, assembled by a number of Paleoproterozoic orogenies including the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) and the Rinkian-Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Recent debate has focused on the extent to which these orogens have modern analogues such as the Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen. Further, the structure of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Hudson Strait and southern Baffin Island is potentially indicative of Paleoproterozoic underthrusting of the Superior plate beneath the Churchill collage. Also in question is whether the Laurentian cratonic root is stratified, with a fast, depleted, Archean core underlain by a slower, younger, thermally-accreted layer. Plate-scale process that create structures such as these are expected to manifest as measurable fossil seismic anisotropic fabrics. We investigate these problems via shear wave splitting, and present the most comprehensive study to date of mantle seismic anisotropy in northern Laurentia. Strong evidence is presented for multiple layers of anisotropy beneath Archean zones, consistent with the episodic development model of stratified cratonic keels. We also show that southern Baffin Island is underlain by dipping anisotropic fabric, where underthrusting of the Superior plate beneath the Churchill has previously been interpreted. This provides direct evidence of subduction-related deformation at 1.8 Ga, implying that the THO developed with modern plate-tectonic style interactions.
DS201809-2058
2018
Liddell, M.V.Liddell, M.V., Bastow, I., Rawlinson, N., Darbyshire, F., Gilligan, A., Watson, E.Precambrian plate tectonics in northern Hudson Bay: evidence from P and S Wave Seismic tomography and analysis of source side effects in relative arrival-time dat a sets.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 123, 7, pp. 5690-5709.Canada, NunavutGeophysics - seismic

Abstract: The geology of northern Hudson Bay, Canada, documents more than 2 billion years of history including the assembly of Precambrian and Archean terranes during several Paleoproterozoic orogenies, culminating in the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) ~1.8 Ga. The THO has been hypothesized to be similar in scale and nature to the ongoing Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibetan orogen, but the nature of lithospheric terrane boundaries, including potential plate-scale underthrusting, is poorly understood. To address this problem, we present new P and S wave tomographic models of the mantle seismic structure using data from recent seismograph networks stretching from northern Ontario to Nunavut (60-100°W and 50-80°N). The large size of our network requires careful mitigation of the influence of source side structure that contaminates our relative arrival time residuals. Our tomographic models reveal a complicated internal structure in the Archean Churchill plate. However, no seismic wave speed distinction is observed across the Snowbird Tectonic Zone, which bisects the Churchill. The mantle lithosphere in the central region of Hudson Bay is distinct from the THO, indicating potential boundaries of microcontinents and lithospheric blocks between the principal colliders. Slow wave speeds underlie southern Baffin Island, the leading edge of the generally high wave speed Churchill plate. This is interpreted to be Paleoproterozoic material underthrust beneath Baffin Island in a modern-style subduction zone setting.
DS202007-1137
2020
Liddell, M.V.Dube, J-M., Darbyshire, F.A., Liddell, M.V., Stephenson, R.Seismic anisotropy of the Canadian High Arctic: evidence from shear wave splitting.Tectonophysics, Vol. 789, 228524, 13p. PdfCanada, Arcticgeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The Canadian High Arctic preserves a long and complex tectonic history, including craton formation, multiple periods of orogenesis, extension and basin formation, and the development of a passive continental margin. We investigate the possible preservation of deformational structures throughout the High Arctic subcontinental lithosphere using measurements of seismic anisotropy from shear wave splitting at 11 seismograph stations across the region, including a N-S transect along Ellesmere Island. The majority of measurements indicate a fast-polarisation orientation that parallels tectonic trends and boundaries, suggesting that lithospheric deformation is the dominant source of seismic anisotropy in the High Arctic; however, a sub-lithospheric contribution cannot be ruled out. Beneath Resolute in the central Canadian Arctic, distinct back-azimuthal variations in splitting parameters can be explained by two anisotropic layers. The upper layer is oriented E-W and correlates with tectonic trends and the inferred lithospheric deformation history of the region. The lower layer has a ~NNE-SSW orientation and may arise from present-day convective mantle flow beneath locally-thinned continental lithosphere. In addition to inferences of anisotropic structure beneath the Canadian High Arctic, measurements from the far north of our study region suggest the presence of an anisotropic zone in the lowermost mantle beneath northwest Alaska.
DS1940-0155
1947
Liddicoat, R.T.Liddicoat, R.T.Handbook of Gem IdentificationGemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, CA, 440P. 10TH. EDITION.GlobalKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Gemology
DS1981-0266
1981
Liddicoat, R.T. JR.Liddicoat, R.T. JR.The Quest for Objectivity in Diamond GradingJournal of GEMMOLOGICAL SOCIETY of JAPAN., Vol. 8, No. 1-8, PP.GlobalBlank
DS1990-0417
1990
LidiakDonovan, R.N., Busbey, A.B., Morgan, K.M., Denison, R.E., LidiakSouthern midcontinent-Texas transect overviewGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A192GlobalGeochronology, Geophysics
DS1980-0074
1980
Lidiak, E.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Sexton, J.L., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.An Integrated Geophysical and Geological Study of the TectonNational Technical Information Service NUREG CR 0977, PP. 17-28.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0114
1982
Lidiak, E.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Sexton, J.L., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.Seismicity and Tectonics of the Midcontinent United StatesU.s. Nat. Science Foundation Proceedings of The Third International, Vol. 1, PP. 25-38.GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-0669
1966
Lidiak, E.G.Goldich, S.S., Lidiak, E.G., Hedge, C.E., Wathall, F.G.Geochronology of the Midcontinent Region, United States. Pt. 2. Northern Area.Journal of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, Vol. 71, No. 22, PP. 5389-5408.GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-0702
1966
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Marvin, R.F., Thomas, H.H., Bass, M.N.Geochronology of the Mid-continent Region, United States. Pt. 1. Scope, Methods and Principles.Journal of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, Vol. 71, PP. 5427-5438.GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-0866
1967
Lidiak, E.G.Muehlberger, W.R., Denison, R.E., Lidiak, E.G.Basement Rocks in the Continental Interior of the United States.American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin., Vol. 51, PP. 2351-2380.GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-1153
1969
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Buried Precambrian Rocks of Eastern KansasGeological Society of America (GSA), PT. 2, PP. 17-18, (abstract.).KansasKimberlite, Central States, Woodson, Wilson
DS1970-0341
1971
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Buried Precambrian Rocks of South DakotaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 82, PP. 1411-1420.GlobalBif, Mid-continent
DS1975-0325
1976
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Zietz, I.Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Anomalies between Latitudes 37 and 38 N in the Eastern and Central United States.Geological Society of America (GSA) SPECIAL PAPER., No. 167, 37P.GlobalCincinnati, Arch, Ozark, Uplift, Lineaments, Mid-continent
DS1975-0529
1977
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.A Tectonic Overview of the Central MidcontinentNational Technical Information Service NUREG 0382, 63P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0556
1977
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J.Rifting in the Midcontinent #1Eos, Vol. 59, No. 4, PP. 227-228. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0762
1978
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Regional Tectonics of the Central Midcontinent, United StateGeological Association of Canada (GAC); Geological Society of America (GSA); MINERAL. Association CAN., Vol. 10, No. 7, P. 422. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0778
1978
Lidiak, E.G.Keller, G.R., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Lidiak, E.G.A Tectonic Overview of the Central Mid-continentEos, Vol. 59, No. 4, P. 230. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0798
1978
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J.Rifting in the Midcontinent #2Los Alamos Sci. Lab. Conference Proceedings, No. 7487, PP. 51-53. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0961
1979
Lidiak, E.G.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.The Northeastern Extension of the New Madrid Seismic ZoneNational Technical Information Service NUREG CR/1014, PP. 74-99.GlobalMid-continent
DS1980-0175
1980
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Models for Mid-continent TectonismIn: Continental Tectonics, Nat. Acad. Sciences Wash., PP. 73-83.GlobalMid-continent
DS1981-0235
1981
Lidiak, E.G.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.The Crustal Structure and Tectonics of South AmericaNasa Cr-168898, 4P.South AmericaBlank
DS1981-0236
1981
Lidiak, E.G.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W.The Role of Rifting in the Tectonic Development of the Midcontinent #1Lpi Contrib., No. 457, PP. 51-52.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0116
1982
Lidiak, E.G.Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Hinze, W.J., Lidiak, E.G.An Ancient Rift Complex and its Relation to Contempory Seismicity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone.Tectonics, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 225-237.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0321
1982
Lidiak, E.G.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure Dat a AnalysisNational Technical Information Service NASA CR 169510, 1P.GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1982-0322
1982
Lidiak, E.G.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Application of Magsat to Lithospheric Modeling in South America.National Technical Information Service, NASA CR-169760, E83-10132, 1P.South AmericaTectonics, Magsat
DS1982-0372
1982
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Basement Rocks and Their Bearing on the Origin of the Main Interior Basins of the Midcontinent.Nasa Fourth Annual Conference On The Geodynamics Program: Cr, P. 105. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0373
1982
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Basement Rocks of the Main Interior Basins of the Midcontinent.U.m.r. Journal, Vol. 3, PP. 5-24.GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0305
1983
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Geophysical Geological Studies of Possible Extensions of The New Madrid Fault Zone.National Technical Information Service NUREG/CR 3174-V1, 101P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0306
1983
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Lidiak, E.G., Keller, G.R.Models for Midcontinent Tectonism: the Last 1600 Million Years.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 15, No. 6, P. 596. (abstract.).GlobalMid Continent
DS1983-0307
1983
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Lidiak, E.G., Reed, J.E., Keller, E.G., Braile, L.W.Geologic Significance of Regional Gravity and Magnetic Anomalies in the East Central Midcontinent.Geophysics, Vol. 48, No. 4, P. 449. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0350
1983
Lidiak, E.G.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W.The Role of Rifting in the Tectonic Development of the Midcontinent, Usa #2Tectonophysics, Vol. 94, PP. 391-412.GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0404
1983
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J.Relation between Drill Hole Basement Lithology and Magnetic and Gravity Anomalies in the East Central Midcontinent.Geophysics, Vol. 48, No. 4, P. 448. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0405
1983
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J., Mcphee, J.P.Tectonic Framework of Basement Rocks in the Eastern Midcontinent.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 15, No. 6, P. 627. (abstract.).GlobalMid Continent
DS1984-0455
1984
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J.Speculations on Rift Zones and Basaltic Magmatism in the Precambrian of the East Central Midcontinent.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 16, No. 3, P. 152. (abstract.).MichiganMid-continent
DS1986-0100
1986
Lidiak, E.G.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G., Sexton, J.L.Tectonic development of the new Madrid rift complex Mississippi North AmericaTectonophysics, Vol. 131, No. 1/2, November 15, pp. 1-22MidcontinentTectonics
DS1988-0307
1988
Lidiak, E.G.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Models for midcontinent tectonism: an updateReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 26, No. 4, November pp. 699-717Arkansas, MidcontinentGeophysics, Tectonics
DS1989-0882
1989
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G., Maniar, P.A model for the tectonic evolution of the southern midcontinent in early middle Proterozoic timeGeological Society of America Abstract Volume, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 33. (Abstract only)Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, MidcontinentTectonics
DS1990-0931
1990
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Basement rocks along the southern midcontinent -Texas craton transectGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts with programs, South-Central, Vol. 22, No. 1, p. 13GlobalMidcontinent, Tectonics
DS1991-0805
1991
Lidiak, E.G.Jolly, W.T., Lidiak, E.G.Origin of Puerto Rican Mesozoic shoshonites: evidence from incompatible lithophile element geochemistryGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract Volume, Vol. 23, No. 5, San Diego, p. A 442GlobalShoshonite, Geochemistry
DS1992-0945
1992
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Geology and geophysics of Proterozoic basement rocks in the eastern mid continent of the United StatesGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts with programs, 1992 Annual, Vol. 24, No. 7, abstract p. A328MidcontinentGeophysics -gravity, Proterozoic
DS1996-0846
1996
Lidiak, E.G.Lidiak, E.G.Geochemistry of subsurface Proterozoic rocks in the eastern Midcontinent:evidence for within-plate settingGeological Society of America (GSA) Special Paper, No. 308, pp. 45-66.MidcontinentTectonics
DS1982-0115
1982
Lidiak.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Sexton, J.L., Keller, G.R., Lidiak.A Tectonic Study of the Extension of the New Madrid Fault Zone Near its intersection with the 38th Parallel Lineament.National Technical Information Service NUREG CR/2741, 84P.GlobalMid-continent
DS200612-0150
2006
Lidmar Bergstrom, K.Bonow, J.M., Lidmar Bergstrom, K., Japsen, P.Paleosurfaces in central West Greenland as reference for identification of tectonic movements and estimation of erosion.Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 50, 3-4, pp. 161-183.Europe, GreenlandTectonics
DS1986-0494
1986
Lidstone, B.Lidstone, B.Diamond lifeCanadian Jeweller, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 32-36GlobalEconomics, Prices
DS201612-2341
2016
Lie, C-Z.Tappe, S., Brand, N.B., Strackc, A., van Acken, D., Lie, C-Z., Strausf, H., Wu, F-Y., Luguet, A., Mitchell, R.H.Plates or plumes in the origin of kimberlites: U/PB perovskite and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os-C-O isotope constraints from the Superior craton ( Canada).Chemical Geology, on line August 27p.Canada, QuebecDeposit - Renard, Wemindji

Abstract: Neoproterozoic kimberlite, ultramafic lamprophyre, and carbonatite magmatic activity was widespread across the Canadian-Greenland Shield. Models to explain the preponderance of this deeply-derived CO2-rich magmatism between 680-540 Ma range from impingement of multiple mantle plumes to rifting activity linked to the breakout of the Laurentian plate from the Rodinia supercontinent configuration. We add to the debate about the origin of kimberlite magmas and evaluate possible mantle sources of the 655 Ma ‘diamond-rich’ Renard (new SIMS U/Pb perovskite ages) and 629 Ma ‘barren’ Wemindji kimberlites on the eastern Superior craton in Quebec, Canada. Our Sr-Nd-Hf and carbon isotope data (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70241-0.70442; eNdi = + 0.2 to + 4.8; eHfi = + 0.3 to + 6.5; d13C = - 5.6 to - 3.9‰) suggest a common and moderately depleted convecting upper mantle source region for both the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites, which occur 400 km apart in the interior of the Superior craton. In contrast, the low Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Osi = 0.11078-0.12620; ?Osi = - 13.7 to - 1.6) and unfractionated chondritic relative HSE abundances (Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) indicate significant involvement of ancient refractory cratonic mantle material in kimberlite magma formation. Our model calculations suggest that for both the diamond-rich Renard and the barren Wemindji kimberlite magmas up to 30% of the Os was derived from refractory cratonic peridotites. This material might have been assimilated by originally more CO2-rich carbonated silicate melts derived from the asthenosphere. We also show that the geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic compositions of the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites do not require significant input from melts derived from olivine-poor cratonic mantle lithologies such as MARID-type veins and pyroxenites/eclogites. This contrasts with the petrogenesis of deeply-derived volatile-rich potassic magmas found along the peripheries of cratons (e.g., ultramafic lamprophyres, kamafugites, and olivine lamproites), a setting where abundant non-peridotitic components have been added to the lithospheric mantle over the course of continent evolution. Provided that CO2-rich melts, such as proto-kimberlites, occur near the solidus of volatile-fluxed peridotites, no excess mantle heat is required in their formation. This important but often overlooked constraint, together with the observation that there exist no spatial or temporal relationships between the Superior craton kimberlites and Large Igneous Provinces during the Late Neoproterozoic, suggests that kimberlite magmatic activity was tectonically controlled. In our preferred model, ubiquitous CO2-rich proto-kimberlite melts form during volatile-controlled redox melting processes at ambient mantle temperatures in a thermal boundary layer directly beneath thick cratonic lithosphere. The success rate of ‘evolving’ hybrid kimberlite magmas reaching Earth’s surface increases when tensile stresses propagate into the > 200 km thick keels of continental lithosphere. These conditions are frequently met during fast and changing plate motions associated with the assembly and breakup of supercontinents.
DS1996-0452
1996
Lie, Z.Fengziang, L., Jianping, Z., Lie, Z.Geochemistry of kimberlite in North Chin a PlatformInternational Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 1, p. 115.ChinaGeochemistry, Kimberlite
DS200812-0918
2007
Liebenberg, B.Preece, C.A., Liebenberg, B.Cave management at Finsch mine.Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 107, 12, pp. 775-781.Africa, South AfricaMining
DS1982-0374
1982
Liebenberg, L.Liebenberg, L.The Coastal and Fluvial Diamond Deposits the West Coast. No. 8.Geological Society of South Africa Quarterly NEWS Bulletin., Vol. 25, No. 4, PP. 54-56.South Africa, Namaqualand, Southwest Africa, NamibiaGuide Pamphlet
DS1859-0134
1859
Lieber, O.M.Lieber, O.M.The Itacolumite and its Associates Comprising Observations On Their Geological Importance and Their Connection with The occurrences of Gold...Columbia: State Printer., PP. 75-220.United States, South Carolina, AppalachiaGeology
DS1859-0135
1859
Lieber, O.M.Lieber, O.M.A Contribution to the Geologic Chronology of the Southern AlleghaniesAmerican Association Proceedings, Vol. 12, PP. 227-230.United States, South Carolina, North Carolina, Appalachia, Brazil, RussiaGeology
DS1975-1117
1979
Lieber, W.Lieber, W.Diamanten: Bruchstucke der EwigkeitLapis, Vol. 4, No. 3, PP. 4-10.South AfricaDiamonds
DS2003-0935
2003
Lieberknecht, A.M.P.Melluso, L., Morra, V., Brotzu, P., Franciosi, L., Lieberknecht, A.M.P., BennioGeochemical provinciality in the Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of northernJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 160, 3, pp. 477-488.MadagascarBlank
DS200412-1295
2003
Lieberknecht, A.M.P.Melluso, L., Morra, V., Brotzu, P., Franciosi, L., Lieberknecht, A.M.P., Bennio, L.Geochemical provinciality in the Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of northern Madagascar: mantle source immplications.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 160, 3, pp. 477-488.Africa, MadagascarGeochemistry - not specific to diamonds
DS1992-0946
1992
Lieberman, J.E.Lieberman, J.E.GresEnd: a GeoRef to EndNote bibliography translator written in AWKComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 18, No. 9, pp. 1271-1275GlobalGeoref, Program -EndNote
DS1983-0406
1983
Lieberman, J.L.Lieberman, J.L., Rice, J.M.Prograde Metamorphism of Marble and Peridotite in the Seiadultramafic Complex, California.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 15, N0. 4, P. 436. (abstract.).California, West CoastHarzburgite, Enstatite
DS200812-0390
2008
Lieberman, R.Gefen, S., Lieberman, R.An interview with newly elected president of the WFDB. World Federation of Diamond Bourses.The Israeli Diamond Industry, July 8, 3p.GlobalNews item - WFDB
DS200812-0455
2008
Lieberman, R.Haviv, U.,Lieberman, R.Mergers and acquisitions in the world diamond industry.israelidiamond.co, Sept. 4, 4p.GlobalNews item - BHP and Rio
DS200812-0663
2008
Lieberman, R.Lieberman, R.Remininesces about the joint history of Israeli diamond industry and the State of Israel.israelidiamond.co, May 12, 6p.Europe, IsraelHistory
DS200812-0664
2008
Lieberman, R.Lieberman, R.The new exhibit at the Harry Oppenheimer Diamond Museum: a meeting of past, present and future. Ancient jewelry from archeological excavations in Israel.israelidiamond.co, Sept. 4, 3p.Europe, IsraelNews item - exhibit jewelry
DS200812-0665
2008
Lieberman, R.Lieberman, R.The unchartered diamond territory called Latin America.The Israeli Diamond Industry, July 8, 2p.South AmericaNews item - markets
DS1999-0127
1999
LiebermannChen, G., Cooke, J.A., Gwanmesia, LiebermannElastic wave velocities of Mg3Al2Si3O12 pyrope garnet to 10 GPaAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 84, pp. 384-88.GlobalPetrology - experimental, Garnet
DS1983-0556
1983
Liebermann, R.C.Sasaki, S., Prewitt, C.T., Liebermann, R.C.The Crystal Structure of Cageo3 Perovskite and the Crystal Chemistry of the Gdfeo3 Type Perovskites.American Mineralogist., Vol. 68, PP. 1189-1198.GlobalMineralogy
DS1990-0932
1990
Liebermann, R.C.Liebermann, R.C., Dingwell, D.B.Silicate melts and mantle petrogenesis: a collection of papers in memory of Christopher M. ScarfeAmerican Geophysical Union (AGU) ( reprint of papers appearing in JGR), 300p. $ 25.00GlobalMantle petrogenesis, Silicate melts
DS1990-0933
1990
Liebermann, R.C.Liebermann, R.C., Wang, Y., Liu, Xing, Guyot, F.What is the stable phase of MgSiO3 in the lower mantleV.m. Goldschmidt Conference Held May 2-4, 1990, Program And Abstract, p. 61. Abstract onlyGlobalMantle, Experimental petrology
DS1992-1714
1992
Liebermann, R.C.Yanbin Wang, Guyot, F., Liebermann, R.C.Electron microcopy of (magnesium, iron) SiO3 perovskite: evidence for structural phase transitions and implications for the lower mantleJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B9, August 10, pp. 12, 327-12, 347MantlePerovksite
DS1995-2028
1995
Liebermann, R.C.Wang, Y., Martinez, I., Guyot, F., Liebermann, R.C.The breakdown of olivine to perovskite and magnesiowustiteEos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F618. Abstract.MantleSubduction, Perovskite
DS1998-0872
1998
Liebermann, R.C.Liebermann, R.C., Li, B.Elasticity at high pressures and temperaturesReviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 37, pp. 459-524.MantleMineralogy, Petrology - experimental
DS1998-1171
1998
Liebermann, R.C.Plomerova, J., Liebermann, R.C., Babuska, V.Geodynamics of lithosphere and earth's mantle: seismic anisotropy as arecord of the past and present dynamicsPure and Applied Geophys., Vol. 151, No. 2-4, Mar. 1, pp. 213-222.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Geodynamics
DS2001-0081
2001
Liebermann, R.C.Baosheng, Li, Liebermann, R.C., Weidner, D.J.P V V V T measurements on wadsleyite to 7 GPa and 873 K: implications for the 410 km seismic discontinuity.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106, No. 12, pp. 30,579-92.MantleBoundary zone
DS2002-0809
2002
Liebermann, R.C.Karato, S., Forte, A.M.,Liebermann, R.C., Masters, G., Stixrude, L.Earth's deep interior: mineral physics and tomography from the atomic to the global scale.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph Series, 117,289p., 289p.MantleBook - geodynamics, seismic tomography, core, boundary, Discontinuities, mantle minerals, mantle structure
DS2003-0092
2003
Liebermann, R.C.Bejina, F., Jaoul, O., Liebermann, R.C.Diffusion in minerals at high pressure: a reviewPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 139, 1-2, Sept. 30, pp. 3-20.GlobalPetrology, experimental, UHP
DS200412-0126
2003
Liebermann, R.C.Bejina, F., Jaoul, O., Liebermann, R.C.Diffusion in minerals at high pressure: a review.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 139, 1-2, Sept. 30, pp. 3-20.TechnologyPetrology, experimental, UHP
DS200612-0816
2006
Liebermann, R.C.Liebermann, R.C., Kung, J., Li, B., Jackson, I.Elastic properties of pyroxene polymorphs of MgSiO3 and implications for seismic models and discontinuities in the Earth's upper mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 18, abstract only.MantleGeophysics - seismic
DS201412-0507
2014
Liebermann, R.C.Li, B., Liebermann, R.C.Study of the Earth's interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 233, pp. 135-153.MantleSpectroscopy
DS201502-0051
2015
Liebermann, R.C.Chen, T., Gwanmesia, G.D., Wang, X., Zou, Y., Liebermann, R.C., Michaut, C., Li, B.Anomalous elastic properties of coesite at high pressure and implications for the upper mantle X-discontinuity.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 412, pp. 42-51.MantleCoesite

Abstract: Compressional and shear wave velocities of coesite have been measured using ultrasonic interferometry in a multi-anvil apparatus up to 12.6 GPa at room temperature for the first time. While the P wave velocity increases continuously with pressure, the S wave exhibits an anomalous softening and the velocity decreases continuously with pressure. Finite strain analysis of the data yielded KS0=103.6(4) GPaKS0=103.6(4) GPa, G0=61.6(2) GPaG0=61.6(2) GPa and View the MathML sourceK0'=2.9(1), View the MathML sourceG0'=0.3(1) for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives, respectively. The anomalous elastic behavior of coesite results in large velocity and impedance contrasts across the coesite–stishovite transition, reaching ~39% and ~48% for P and S wave velocity contrasts, and ~70% and 78% for P and S wave impedance contrasts, respectively, at pressure ~8 GPa, with P and S wave velocity perturbations showing no apparent dependence on depths (i.e., View the MathML sourcedln?V(PorS)/dh~0) within 8–12 GPa. These unusually large contrasts and depth independent characteristics render the transition between the two silica polymorphs one of the most plausible candidates for the cause of the seismically observed X-discontinuity. The current P and S wave velocity perturbation dependences on the SiO2 content, d(ln?VP)/d(SiO2)~0.43 (wt%)-1d(ln?VP)/d(SiO2)~0.43 (wt%)-1 and d(ln?VS)/d(SiO2)~0.60 (wt%)-1d(ln?VS)/d(SiO2)~0.60 (wt%)-1, can serve as a geophysical probe to track ancient subducted eclogite materials to gain insights on the geodynamics of the mantle.
DS1995-1095
1995
Liebsch, H.Liebsch, H., et al.The evolution of the Laacher See carbonatitesTerra Nova, Abstract Vol., p. 296.GermanyCarbonatite
DS200412-0585
2004
Liebske, C.Frost, D.J., Liebske, C., Langenhorst, F., McCammon, C.A., Tronnes, R.G., Rubie, D.C.Experimental evidence for the existence of iron rich metal in the Earth's lower mantle.Nature, No. 6981, March 25, pp. 409-411.MantleSulphides
DS200412-0586
2004
Liebske, C.Frost, D.J., Liebske, C., McCammon, C.A., Langenhorst, F., Tronnes, R., Rubie,D.C.Experimental evidence for the existence of a metallic iron rich phase in the Earth's mantle.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S38. abstractMantleRedox conditions
DS200512-0188
2005
Liebske, C.Corgne, A., Liebske, C., Wood, B.J., Rubie, D.C., Frost, D.J.Silicate perovskite melt partitioning of trace elements and geochemical signature of a deep perovskitic reservoir.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 69, 2, Jan. 15, pp. 485-496.MantleGeochemistry
DS200512-0636
2005
Liebske, C.Liebske, C., Corgne, A., Frost, D.I., Rubie, D.C., Wood, B.J.Compositional effects in element partitioning between Mg silicate perovskite and silicate melts.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 149, 1, pp. 113-128.MantleGeochemistry
DS201212-0406
2012
Liebske, C.Liebske, C., Frost, D.J.Melting phase relations in the MgO MgSiO3 system between 16 and 26 Gpa: implications for melting in Earth's deep interior.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 345-348, pp. 159-170.MantleMelting
DS201312-0281
2013
Liebske, C.Frost, D.J., Novella, D., Myhill, R., Liebske, C., Tronnes, R.G.Experimental efforts to understand deep mantle melting.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleMelting
DS201809-2020
2018
Liebske, C.Fedortchouk, Y., Chinn, I., Liebske, C., McCammon, C.Mantle metasomatism as recorded in diamond dissolution features.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractAfrica, Botswanadeposit - Orapa

Abstract: Roots of continental cratons keep a long record of multiple metasomatic events, but their trace is complicated due to the mixed signals left by these events in the composition of mantle silicate minerals. Simple composition helps diamonds to provide a more robust record of the latest metasomatic events which they witnessed. Growth and dissolution features on the diamond surface are sensitive to the composition of the reacting media. In this study we use mantle-derived resorption features on natural diamonds to examine the nature of metasomatic events in diamondiferous mantle lithologies. We use experiments at mantle conditions to examine how the composition of fluids and melts affect diamond resorption. We then compare these results to the features of natural diamonds to determine which of the tested compositions could have acted as metasomatic agents in Earth’s cratonic roots. Diamond dissolution experiments conducted at 6 GPa, 1200 - 1500oC using synthetic MgO-CaO-SiO2-CO2-H2O system examined the effect of CHO fluid, silica-saturated CHO fluid, aqueous and “dry” silica-carbonate and carbonate melts. Results show that the main control of diamond resorption morphology is the state of the reacting media: fluid vs. melt. We compared the experimental results to diamonds with mantle-derived resorption features from two kimberlites from the Orapa kimberlite cluster (Botswana). We identified twelve mantle-derived resorption types, none of which resembled the products of resorption in fluids. Most of the observed resorption types could be produced by dissolution in mantle melts with variable proportions of carbonate and silicate components and in the range of temperatures. The most abundant resorption type resembles the product of diamond dissolution in carbonate melts at temperatures above 1450oC. Our results suggest that fluid-metasomatism is not destructive for diamonds while melt-metasomatism is. The lower hydrous carbonated solidus of lherzolite compared to harzburgite can result in the shift the process from diamond growth in fluids to diamond dissolution in melts due to metasomatic transformation of harzburgite into lherzolite.
DS201810-2378
2018
Liebske, C.Speelmanns, I.M., Schmidt, M.W., Liebske, C.Nitrogen solubility in core materials.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, 15, pp. 7434-7443. doi.org/10.1029/ 2018GLO79130Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: On the early Earth nitrogen was redistributed between three prevailing reservoirs: the core forming metal, the silicate magma ocean, and the atmosphere. To shed light on the behavior of N during core segregation, we have experimentally determined N solubilities in Fe-dominated metal melts at high temperatures and pressures (1200-1800 °C, 0.4-9.0 GPa) using high-pressure devices. Based on our experimental results a model has been developed to describe N solubility into metal melts as a function of pressure and temperature. The model suggests that core-forming metal melts can dissolve N quantities that are as high as the Earth's core density deficit. However, the N concentrations in the core-forming metal are dependent on the accretionary scenario and its partitioning with silicate magma ocean; our solubilities provide an upper limit for possible N concentrations within the Earth's core. Nevertheless, this study shows that N in the modern mantle will largely dissolve in its small metal fraction and not in the dominating silicates.
DS201901-0032
2018
Liebske, C.Fedortchouk, Y., Liebske, C., McCammon, C.Diamond destruction and growth during mantle metasomatism: an experimental study of diamond resorption features.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 506, pp. 493-506.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Most diamonds found in kimberlites show complex patterns of growth and dissolution (resorption) surface features. Populations of diamonds from within single kimberlite bodies commonly contain a large diversity of diamond surface forms, some of which are a result of dissolution in kimberlite magma and others are inherited from the mantle. Morphological studies of natural diamonds differentiated features produced during dissolution in kimberlite magma and during mantle metasomatism. The former features were experimentally reproduced at 1 3 GPa and used to infer the presence and composition of magmatic fluid in different kimberlites. However, the mantle-derived resorption features have not been reproduced experimentally and the composition and origins of their formative solvents are unknown. Here we report the results of diamond dissolution experiments conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus at 6 GPa and 1200 to 1500 °C in synthetic CaO MgO SiO2 CO2 H2O system. The experiments produced very different diamond resorption morphologies in COH fluid, in silicate-saturated fluid, and in silicate and carbonate melts. Dissolution in SiO2-free COH fluid developed rounded crystal forms with shallow negative trigons, striations and hillocks, which are commonly observed on natural diamonds and are similar in 6 GPa and in 1 3 GPa experiments. However, silicate-saturated fluid produced very different resorption features that are rarely observed on natural diamonds. This result confirms that natural, SiO2-poor fluid-induced resorption develops under the comparatively low-pressures of kimberlite ascent, because at mantle pressures the high content of SiO2 in fluids would produce features like those from the silicate-saturated experiments. Comparison of the experimental products from this study to natural diamond resorption features from the literature suggests that natural diamonds show no record of dissolution by fluids during mantle metasomatism. Diamond resorption morphologies developed in experiments with silicate carbonate melts closely resemble many of the mantle-derived resorption features of natural diamonds, whose diversity can result from variable SiO2 concentration in carbonatitic melts and temperature variation. The experimental results imply that metasomatism by fluids does not dissolve diamond, whereas metasomatism by melts is diamond-destructive. The repetitive growth-dissolution patterns of natural diamonds could be due to diamond growth from fluids in harzburgitic lithologies followed by its dissolution in partial melts.
DS201902-0291
2019
Liebske, C.Liebske, C., Khan, A.On the principal building blocks of Mars and Earth.Icarus, Vol. 322, pp. 121-134.Mantlechondrites

Abstract: The terrestrial planets are believed to have been formed from primitive material sampling a broad region of the inner solar system. Several meteoritic mixing models attempting to reconcile isotopic characteristics of Mars and Earth have been proposed, but, because of the inherent non-uniqueness of these solutions, additional independent observations are required to resolve the question of the primary building blocks of the terrestrial planets. Here, we consider existing isotopic measurements of O, ?48Ca, ?50Ti, ?54Cr, ?62Ni, and ?84Sr for primitive chondrites and differentiated achondrites and mix these stochastically to reproduce the isotopic signatures of Mars and Earth. For both planets we observe ~ 105 unique mixing solutions out of 108 random meteoritic mixtures, which are categorised into distinct clusters of mixtures using principal component analysis. The large number of solutions implies that isotopic data alone are insufficient to resolve the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. To further discriminate between isotopically valid mixtures, each mixture is converted into a core and mantle component via mass balance for which geophysical properties are computed and compared to observations. For Mars, the geophysical parameters include mean density, mean moment of inertia, and tidal response, whereas for Earth upper mantle Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio and core size are employed. The results show that Mars requires an oxidised, FeO-rich differentiated object next to chondritic material as main building blocks. In contrast, Earth's origin remains enigmatic. From a redox perspective, it appears inescapable that enstatite chondrite-like matter constitutes a dominant proportion of the building blocks from which Earth is made. The apparent need for compositionally distinct building blocks for Mars and Earth suggests that dissimilar planetesimal reservoirs were maintained in the inner Solar System during accretion.
DS201903-0547
2019
Liebske, C.Speelmanns, I.M., Schmidt, M.W., Liebske, C.The almost lithophile character of nitrogen during core formation.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 510, pp. 186-197.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen is a key constituent of our atmosphere and forms the basis of life, but its early distribution between Earth reservoirs is not well constrained. We investigate nitrogen partitioning between metal and silicate melts over a wide range of conditions relevant for core segregation during Earth accretion, i.e. 1250-2000 °C, 1.5-5.5 GPa and oxygen fugacities of ?IW-5.9 to ?IW-1.4 (in log units relative to the iron-wüstite buffer). At 1250 °C, 1.5 GPa, ranges from 14 ± 0.1 at ?IW-1.4 to 2.0 ± 0.2 at ?IW-5, N partitioning into the core forming metal. Increasing pressure has no effect on , while increasing temperature dramatically lowers to 0.5 ± 0.15 at ?IW-4. During early core formation N was hence mildly incompatible in the metal. The partitioning data are then parameterised as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity and used to model the evolution of N within the two early prevailing reservoirs: the silicate magma ocean and the core. Depending on the oxidation state during accretion, N either behaves lithophile or siderophile. For the most widely favoured initially reduced Earth accretion scenario, N behaves lithophile with a bulk partition coefficient of 0.17 to 1.4, leading to 500-700 ppm N in closed-system core formation models. However, core formation from a magma ocean is very likely accompanied by magma ocean degassing, the core would thus contain =100 ppm of N, and hence, does not constitute the missing N reservoir. Bulk Earth N would thus be 34-180 ppm in the absence of other suitable reservoirs, >98% N of the chondritic N have hence been lost during accretion.
DS202102-0187
2021
Liebske, C.Fichtner, C.E., Schmidt, M.W., Liebske, C., Bouvier, A-S., Baumgartner, L.P.Carbon partitioning between metal and silicate melts during Earth accretion.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 554, doi.org/10.1016/ j.epsl.2020. 116659 12p . PdfMantlecarbon

Abstract: In the accreting Earth and planetesimals, carbon was distributed between a core forming metallic melt, a silicate melt, and a hot, potentially dense atmosphere. Metal melt droplets segregating gravitationally from the magma ocean equilibrated near its base. To understand the distribution of carbon, its partitioning between the two melts is experimentally investigated at 1.5-6.0 GPa, 1300-2000 °C at oxygen fugacities of -0.9 to -1.9 log units below the iron-wuestite reference buffer (IW). One set of experiments was performed in San Carlos olivine capsules to investigate the effect of melt depolymerization (NBO/T), a second set in graphite capsules to expand the data set to higher pressures and temperatures. Carbon concentrations were analyzed by secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Raman spectra were collected to identify C-species in the silicate melt. Partition coefficients are governed by the solubility of C in the silicate melt, which varies from 0.01 to 0.6 wt%, while metal melts contain ~7 wt% C in most samples. C solubility in the silicate melt correlates strongly with NBO/T, which, in olivine capsules, is mostly a function of temperature. Carbon partition coefficients DCmetal/silicate at 1.5 GPa, 1300-1750 °C decrease from 640(49) to 14(3) with NBO/T increasing from 1.04 to 3.11. For the NBO/T of the silicate Earth of 2.6, DCmetal/silicate is 34(9). Pressure and oxygen fugacity show no clear effect on carbon partitioning. The present results differ from those of most previous studies in that carbon concentrations in the silicate melt are comparatively higher, rendering C to be about an order of magnitude less siderophile, and the discrepancies may be attributed to differences in the experimental protocols. Applying the new data to a magma ocean scenario, and assuming present day mantle carbon mantle concentrations from 120 to 795 ppm, implies that the core may contain 0.4-2.6 wt% carbon, resulting in 0.14-0.9 wt% of this element for the bulk Earth. These values are upper limits, considering that some of the carbon in the modern silicate Earth has very likely been delivered by the late veneer.
DS200812-1116
2008
Liechtenstein, V.K.Steier, P., Liechtenstein, V.K., Djokic, D., Golser, R., Wallner, A., Alexeev, A.G., Khrunov, V.S., KutscheraCharacterization and improvement of thin natural diamond detectors for spectrometry of heavy ions below 1 MeV/amu.Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A., Vol. 590, 1-3, pp. 221-226.TechnologySpectrometry
DS2001-1146
2001
LiegeoisTack, L., Wingate, Liegeois, FernandesAlonzo, DeblondEarly Neoproterozoic magmatism ( 1000-910 Ma) of Zadinian and Mayumbian Groups.. onset Rodinia riftingPrecambrian Research, Vol. 110, No. ER1-4, pp. 277-306.East AfricaCraton - Congo, Magmatism
DS1983-0407
1983
Liegeois, J.P.Liegeois, J.P., et al.Permian Alkaline Undersaturated and Carbonatite Province And Rifting Along the West African Craton.Nature., Vol. 305, No. 5929, SEPT. 1, P. 42.West Africa, GuineaStructure, Tectonics
DS1985-0391
1985
Liegeois, J.P.Liegeois, J.P., Black, R.Alkaline Magmatism Subsequent to Collision in the Pan African Belt of the Adar des Iforas (mali).Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 3, P. 165. (abstract.).West Africa, MaliOccurrences
DS1989-0855
1989
Liegeois, J.P.Lavreau, J., Buyagu, S., Liegeois, J.P., Navez, J.Geochemical evidence for a non-alkalic origin for the carbonatitic bodies of Kibuye, RwandaJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 335-340GlobalCarbonatite, Geochemistry
DS1990-0906
1990
Liegeois, J.P.Lavreau, J., Poidebin, J.L., Lendent, D., Liegeois, J.P., Weis, D.Contribution to the geochronology of the basement of the Central AfricanRepublicJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 1/2, pp. 69-82Central African RepublicGeochronology, Tectonics
DS1998-0873
1998
Liegeois, J.P.Liegeois, J.P., Navez, J., Hertogen, J., Black, R.Contrasting origin of post collisional high Potassium calc-alkaline and shoshonitic versus alkaline granitesLithos, Vol. 45, pp. 1-28.GlobalGeochemistry - sliding normalization, Shoshonites
DS2002-0006
2002
Liegeois, J.P.Abdelsalam, M.G., Liegeois, J.P., Stern R.J.The Saharan metacratonJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol.34, No.3-4,April-May pp. 119-36.AfricaTectonics, Craton
DS2003-0057
2003
Liegeois, J.P.Auwera, J.V., Bogaerts, M., Liegeois, J.P., De Maiffe, D., Wilmart, E., Bolle, O.Derivation of the 1.0 0.9 Ga ferro potassic A type granitoids of southern Norway byPrecambrian Research, Vol. 124, 2-4, pp. 107-148..NorwayBlank
DS200412-0077
2003
Liegeois, J.P.Auwera, J.V., Bogaerts, M., Liegeois, J.P., De Maiffe, D., Wilmart, E., Bolle, O., Duchesne, J.C.Derivation of the 1.0 0.9 Ga ferro potassic A type granitoids of southern Norway by extreme differentiation from basic magmas.Precambrian Research, Vol. 124, 2-4, pp. 107-148..Europe, NorwayAlkalic
DS200512-0137
2005
Liegeois, J.P.Carlier, G., Lorand, J.P., Liegeois, J.P., Fornari, M., Soler, P., Carlotto, V., Cardenas, J.Potassic ultrapotassic mafic rocks delineate two lithospheric mantle blocks beneath southern Peruvian Altiplano.Geology, Vol. 33, 7, July, pp. 601-604.South America, PeruLamproite
DS200812-0319
2008
Liegeois, J.P.Ennih, N., Liegeois, J.P.The boundaries of the West African Craton.Geological Society of London Special Paper, 297, 536p.$200.AfricaBook - craton and orogeny
DS1993-0126
1993
Liegeois, J-P.Black, R., Liegeois, J-P.Cratons, mobile belts, alkaline rocks and continental lithospheric mantle:the Pan-African testimonyJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 150, pt. 1, January pp. 89-98AfricaOrogeny, Tectonics
DS1996-1247
1996
Liegeois, J-P.Salah Ama, I., Liegeois, J-P., Pouclet, A.Evolution d'un arc insulaire oceanique birimien precoce au Liptako nigerien(Sirba) geologie, geochronologieJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 235-254Nigeria, West Africa, Burkina FasoBirimian Domain, Magma
DS201112-0001
2011
Liegeois, J-P.Abdelsalam, M.G., Gao, S.S., Liegeois, J-P.Upper mantle structure of the Sahara metacraton.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 60, 5, pp. 328-336.AfricaUpper mantle structure, convection
DS201212-0407
2013
Liegeois, J-P.Liegeois, J-P., Abdelsalam, M.G., Ennih, N., Ouabadi, A.Metacraton: nature, genesis and behaviour.Gondwana Research, Vol. 23, 1, pp. 220-237.TechnologySubduction
DS201807-1519
2018
Liegeois, J-P.Nkono, C., Liegeois, J-P., Demaiffe, D.Relationships between structural lineaments and Cenozoic volcanism, Tibesti swell, Saharan metacraton.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 145, pp. 274-283.Africa, Chadlineaments

Abstract: This work reports an analysis of the relationships existing between the structural lineaments and the Cenozoic volcanism of the Tibesti area (northern Chad). Shield volcanoes, cinder cones, structural lineaments, intersection points of lineaments and faults are mapped using the combination of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and Landsat satellite images of the Tibesti Volcanic Province. The interpretation of the distribution of these structural and morphological features allows constraining the structural/tectonic setting of the Tibesti. We show that the relationships between the lineaments and the volcanic centres of the Tibesti province can locally be explained as the result of the combination of two Riedel dextral tectonic systems, respectively oriented at N120°E and N30-35°E. Taking into account the geological features of the area, a geodynamical model is proposed: the emplacement of the Tibesti Volcanic Province results from the reactivation of inherited structures of the Saharan metacraton, characterized by relict rigid cratonic nuclei and metacratonic areas reworked during the Pan-African orogeny, among which is located the Tibesti. The contrasted behaviour of these rheologically different zones can explain the location and the evolution of the Tibesti swell and volcanism. The new data presented in this paper and their interpretation in terms of the emplacement of the Tibesti volcanic province in the Saharan metacraton bring a new and major information about the behaviour of the African plate within its collisional context with Europe.
DS1992-0034
1992
Liemieux, J.Annan, P., Liemieux, J., Pederson, R.Geotem as applied to the search for kimberlitesNorthwest Territories Geoscience Forum held November 25, 26th. 1992, Poster, AbstractNorthwest TerritoriesGeophysics - GeoteM.
DS1991-0147
1991
Lienkaemper, J.J.Bonilla, M.G., Lienkaemper, J.J.Factors affecting the recognition of faults exposed in exploratorytrenchesUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin, No. 1947, 54p. $ 3.25GlobalStructure, Faults
DS201112-0823
2011
Lierman, R.T.Prejeant-Dickerson, K., Perez, M., White, J.C., Lierman, R.T., Ren, M.Mineral geochemistry of the Elliot County kimberlite, Kentucky.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Oct. 9-12, abstractUnited States, KentuckyKimberlite dikes
DS201312-0247
2013
Liermann, H-P.Ernok, A., Boffa Ballaran, T., Caracas, R., Miyajima, N., Bykova, E., Prakapenka, V., Liermann, H-P., Dubrovinsky, L.Pressure induced phase transitions in coesite.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractTechnologyCarbonatite
DS1950-0181
1954
Liesegang, C.Liesegang, C.Ausgedehnte Bergbauliche Sperrgebiete in SuedwestafrikaZeitschr. Bergr., Vol. 95, PP. 172-174.Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamond Mining, Law
DS1990-0934
1990
Lifante, G.Lifante, G., Jaque, F., Hoyos, M.A., Leguey, S.Testing of colourless natural diamonds by room temperature opticalabsorptionJournal of Gemology, Vol. 22, No. 3, July, pp. 142-146GlobalNatural diamonds, Absorption
DS200612-1573
2006
Lifei, Z.Yongliang, A., Lifei, Z., Li, X., Qu, J.Geochemical characteristics and tectonic implications of HP UHP eclogites and blueschists in southwestern Tian Shan China.Progress in Natural Science, Vol. 16, 6, June pp. 624-632.ChinaUHP
DS2000-1036
2000
LiferovichYakubovich, O.V., Massa, W., Liferovich, PakhomovskyThe crystal structure of bakhchisaraitsevite: hydrothermal origin from Kovdor phoscorite carbonatiteCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 38, 4, Aug. pp. 831-8.RussiaCarbonatite, Deposit - Kovdor
DS200512-0247
2005
Liferovich, R.Downes, H., Balaganskaya, E., Beard, A., Liferovich, R., Demaiffe, D.Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola alkaline province: a review.Lithos, Advanced in press,Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, kimberlites
DS200612-0348
2005
Liferovich, R.Downes, H., Balaganskaya, E., Beard, A., Liferovich, R., Demaiffe, D.Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola alkaline province: a review.Lithos, Vol. 85, 1-4, Nov-Dec. pp. 48-75.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS1998-0874
1998
Liferovich, R.P.Liferovich, R.P., Subbotin, V.V., Pakhomovsky, LyalinaA new type of scandium mineralization in phoscorites and carbonatites Of the Kovdor Massif, Russia.Can. Min., Vol. 36, No. 4, Aug. pp. 971-80.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, mineralogy, Deposit - Kovdor Massif
DS2002-1147
2002
Liferovich, R.P.Nivin, V.A., Ikorsky, S.V., Balaganskaya, E.G., Liferovich, R.P., Subbotin, V.V.Helium and argon isotopes in minerals of ore deposits associated with the Kovdor and18th. International Mineralogical Association Sept. 1-6, Edinburgh, abstract p.250.Russia, Kola Peninsulacarbonatite - mineralogy
DS200512-0637
2005
Liferovich, R.P.Liferovich, R.P., Mitchell, R.H.Solid solution of rare earth elements in synthetic titanite: a reconnaissance study.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 83, 3-4, pp. 271-282.REE
DS200512-0787
2003
Liferovich, R.P.Nivin, V.A., Liferovich, R.P., Ikorsky, S.V., Balaganskaya, E.G., Subbotin, V.V.Noble gas isotopes in minerals from phoscorites and carbonatites in Kovdor and Seblyavr ultramafic alkaline complexes ( Kola alkaline province NW Russia).Periodico di Mineralogia, (in english), Vol. LXX11, 1. April, pp. 135-146.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochronology
DS200612-0817
2006
Liferovich, R.P.Liferovich, R.P., Mitchell, R.H., Zozulya, D.R., Shpachenko, A.K.Paragenesis and composition of banalsite, stronalsite and their solid solution nepheline syenite and ultramafic alkaline rocks,Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 44, 4, August pp. 929-942.Russia, Kola Peninsula, Archangel, Canada, OntarioPrairie Lake, Turiy, Khabina
DS200612-0934
2006
Liferovich, R.P.Mitchell, R.H., Liferovich, R.P.Subsolidus deuteric hydrothermal alteration of eudialyte in lujavrite from the Pilansberg alkaline complex, South Africa.Lithos, In press available,Africa, South AfricaAlkalic
DS200612-0935
2006
Liferovich, R.P.Mitchell, R.H., Liferovich, R.P.Subsolidus deuteric/hydrothermal alteration of eudialyte in lujavrite from the Pilansberg alkaline complex, South Africa.Lithos, in press availableAfrica, South AfricaAlteration, autometasomatic, metasomatism
DS200712-0625
2006
Liferovich, R.P.Liferovich, R.P., Mitchell, R.H.Apatite group minerals from nepheline syenite, Pilansberg alkaline complex, South Africa.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 70, 5, Oct. pp. 463-384.Africa, South AfricaAlkaline rocks, mineralogy
DS2001-0688
2001
Lifrovich, R.P.Lifrovich, R.P., Pakhomovsky, Bogdanova, BalaganskayaCollinsite in hydrothermal assemblages related to carbonatites in the Kovdor Complex, northwestern RussiaCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 39, No. 4, Aug. pp.1081-94.RussiaCarbonatite, mineralogy, Deposit - Kovdor
DS1989-0883
1989
Lifshitz, Y.Lifshitz, Y., Kasi, S.R., Rabalais, J.W.Subplantation model for film growth from hypersthermal species-application to diamondPhys. Rev. L., Vol. 62, No. 11, March 13, pp. 1290-1293GlobalDiamond morphology
DS2003-0787
2003
Lifshitz, Y.Lee, S.T., Lifshitz, Y.The road to diamond wafersNature, No. 6948, July 31, p. 500.GlobalDiamond - materials, synthesis
DS200412-1105
2003
Lifshitz, Y.Lee, S.T., Lifshitz, Y.The road to diamond wafers.Nature, No. 6948, July 31, p. 500.TechnologyDiamond - materials, synthesis
DS2001-1147
2001
LigeoisTack, L., Wingate, Ligeois, Fernandez-Alonzo, De BlondEarly Neoproterozoic magmatism 1000-910 Ma of the Zadinia and Mayumbian groups: onset of Rodinia riftingPrecambrian Research, Vol. 110, pp. 277-306.GlobalMagmatism, Craton - Congo
DS1991-0989
1991
Ligeois, J.P.Ligeois, J.P., Sauvage, J.F., Black, R.The Permo-Jurassic alkaline province of Tadhak, Mali: geology, geochronology and tectonic significanceLithos, Vol. 27, pp. 95-105GlobalAlkaline rocks, Craton
DS2001-0298
2001
Ligeois, J.P.Ennih, N., Ligeois, J.P.The Moroccan anti-atlas: the West Africam craton passive margin with limited Pan-African activity...Precambrian Research, Vol. 112, No. 3-4, Dec. 10, pp.289-302.West Africa, Africa, MoroccoImplications for northern limit of craton
DS200512-0963
2004
Ligeois, J.P.Shang, C.K., Satir, M., Siebel, W., Nsifa, E.N., Taubald, H., Ligeois, J.P., Tchoua, F.M.TTG Magmatism in the Congo Craton: a view from major and trace element geochemistry, Rb Sr Sm Nd systematics: case of the Sangmelima region, Ntem ComplexJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 39, 3-5, pp. 61-79.Africa, CameroonMagmatism
DS200812-0320
2008
Ligeois, J.P.Ennih, N., Ligeois, J.P.The boundaries of the West African craton, with special reference to the basement of the Moroccan metacratonic Anti-Atlas belt.Special Publication - Geological Society of London, No. 297, pp. 1-18.Africa, MoroccoMagmatism
DS201012-0037
2010
Ligeois, J-P.Bardintzeff, J-M., Ligeois, J-P., Bonin, B., Bellon, H., Rasamimana, G.Madagascar volcanic provinces linked to the Gondwana break-up: geochemical isotopic evidences for contrasting mantle sources.Gondwana Research, Vol. 18, 2-3, pp. 295-314.Africa, MadagascarGeochronology
DS201809-2000
2018
Ligeois, J-P.Brahimi, S., Ligeois, J-P., Ghienne, J-F., Munschy, M., Bourmatte, A.The Tuareg shield terranes revisited and extended towards the northern Gondwana margin: magnetic and gravimetric constraints.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 185, Doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev. 2018.07.002Africa, AlgeriaGondwanaland

Abstract: Kimberlite is the host rock of diamonds and varies widely in geological and mineralogical features as well as color, processing capability, and dewatering characteristics. This study investigated the dewatering behavior of problematic Angolan kimberlites. The presence of clay minerals in kimberlite causes difficulties in dewatering due to high flocculant demand, poor supernatant clarity, and low settling rates. Identifying critical parameters governing the settling behavior will assist in managing the settling behavior of different kimberlite slurries. The influence of particle size, pH of the kimberlite slurry, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percentage, and smectite content of the kimberlite on the settling rate were investigated for 18 different African kimberlite samples. The settling rate and slurry bed compaction during natural settling were also measured for the kimberlite slurries. Seventeen different Angolan clay-rich kimberlites and one South African clay-rich kimberlite were tested, and, except for two kimberlites, colloidal stability was experienced during natural settling. The pH values of the kimberlite slurries ranged between 9 and 11, which is similar to the pH band where colloidal stability was found during earlier research. The results indicate that colloidal stable slurries were experienced with kimberlites that had exchangeable sodium percentages as low as 0.7%. The cation exchange capacity of the various kimberlites differentiated more distinctly between colloidal stability and instability. A new model is proposed whereby clay-rich kimberlites with a cation exchange capacity of more than 10cmol/kg will experience colloidal stability if the pH of the solvent solution is within the prescribed pH range of 9-11.The Trans-Saharan Belt is one of the most important orogenic systems constitutive of the Pan-African cycle, which, at the end of the Neoproterozoic, led to the formation of the Gondwana Supercontinent. It is marked by the opening and closing of oceanic domains, collision of continental blocks and the deformation of thick synorogenic sedimentary basins. It extends from north to south over a distance of 3000?km in Africa, including the Nigerian Shield and the Tuareg Shield as well as their counterparts beneath the Phanerozoic oil-rich North- and South-Saharan sedimentary basins. In this study, we take advantage of potential field methods (magnetism and gravity) to analyze the crustal-scale structures of the Tuareg Shield terranes and to track these Pan-African structures below the sedimentary basins, offering a new, >1000?km extent. The map interpretations are based on the classical potential field transforms and two-dimensional forward modeling. We have identified geophysical units and first-order bounding lineaments essentially defined owing to magnetic and gravimetric anomaly signatures. In particular, we are able to highlight curved terminations, which in the Trans-Saharan context have been still poorly documented. We provide for the first time a rheological map showing a categorization of contrasted basement units from the south of the Tuareg Shield up to the Atlas Belt. These units highlight the contrasted rheological behavior of the Tuareg tectonostratigraphic terranes during (i) the northerly Pan-African tectonic escape characteristic of the Trans-Saharan Belt and (ii) the North Sahara basin development, especially during intraplate reworking tied to the Variscan event. The discovery of a relatively rigid E-W oriented unit to the south of the Atlas system, and on which the escaping Pan-African terranes were blocked, offers a new perspective on the structural framework of the north-Gondwana margin. It will help to understand how occurred the rendezvous of the N-S oriented Pan-African terranes and the E-W oriented Cadomian peri-Gondwanan terranes.
DS201012-0196
2010
Liggins, S.Felton, S., Cann, B.J., Edmonds, A.M., Liggins, S., Cruddace, R.J., Newton, M.E., Fisher, D., Baker, J.M.Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of nitrogen interstital defects in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, 36, pp. 364212-219.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS2001-0495
2001
Light, M.E.Hutchison, M.T., Hursthouse, M.B., Light, M.E.Mineral inclusions in diamonds: associations and chemical distinctions around the 670 km discontinuity.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 142, No. 1, Oct. pp.119-126.MantleDiamond - inclusions, Core mantle boundary
DS1992-0947
1992
Light, M.P.R.Light, M.P.R., Maslanyj, M.P., Banks, N.L.New geophysical evidence for extensional tectonics on the divergent margin offshore NamibiaGeological Society Special Publication, Magmatism and the Causes of Continental, No. 68, pp. 257-270NamibiaTectonics, Geophysics -offshore
DS1993-1818
1993
Lightfoot, P.Zharikov, V., Gorbachev, N., Lightfoot, P., Khodorevsky, L.Temperature and pressure dependence of partitioning of the rare earth elements (REE) and Ybetween fluid and lamproitic melt.Terra Abstracts, IAGOD International Symposium on mineralization related to mafic, Vol. 5, No. 3, abstract supplement p. 57.GlobalExperimental petrology, Lamproite
DS1997-0448
1997
Lightfoot, P.Grinenko, L.N., Lightfoot, P., Krouse, R.Unusual isotopic composition and concentration of carbon in West Greenland mafic volcanicsGeochemistry International, Vol. 34, No. 11, Nov. pp. 958-967GreenlandVolcanics, Geochronology
DS1987-0416
1987
Lightfoot, P.C.Lightfoot, P.C., Naldrett, A.J., Hawkesworth, C.J.Re-evaluation of chemical variation in the Insizwa complex, TranskeiCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 25, pt. 1, pp. 79-90South AfricaPetrology, Picrite
DS1990-0935
1990
Lightfoot, P.C.Lightfoot, P.C., Riddle, C.An introductory guide to sampling for geoanalysisOntario Geological Survey, Geoscience Laboratories, 18pOntarioSampling, Geoanalysis
DS1991-0990
1991
Lightfoot, P.C.Lightfoot, P.C., Sutcliffe, R.H., Doherty, W.Crustal contamination identified in Keweenawan Osler Group tholeiites, Ontario: a trace element perspectiveJournal of Geology, Vol. 99, pp. 739-760OntarioTholeiites, Crustal contamination, mantle magmas
DS1995-0774
1995
Lightfoot, P.C.Hawkesworth, C.J., Lightfoot, P.C., Fedorenko, V.A.Magma differentiation and mineralization in the Siberian continental floodbasaltsLithos, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, Jan. pp. 61-88Russia, SiberiaMagmatism, Flood basalts
DS1996-1244
1996
Lightfoot, P.C.Sage, R.P., Lightfoot, P.C., Doherty, W.Bimodal cyclical Archean basalts and rhyolites from the Michipicoten Wawa greenstone belt: geochemical evidencePrecambrian Research, Vol. 76, No. 3-4, Feb. 1, pp. 119-154OntarioMantle, magma lithosphere, Superior Province
DS1996-1245
1996
Lightfoot, P.C.Sage, R.P., Lightfoot, P.C., Doherty, W.Geochemical characteristics of granitoid rocks from within the Archean Michipicoten greenstone belt...WawaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 76, No. 3-4, Feb. 1, pp. 155-190OntarioSource regions, Tectonic evolution
DS1997-0680
1997
Lightfoot, P.C.Lightfoot, P.C., Hawkesworth, C.J., Keays, R.R.Geochemistry of Tertiary tholeiites and picrites from Qeqertarssuaq(Diskoisland) and Nuussuaq..Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 128, No. 2/3, pp. 139-163GreenlandComagmatic layered intrusions, Metallogeny
DS1997-0681
1997
Lightning NewsLightning NewsGoldtex announces Venezuela diamond projectThe Lightning News, Feb. 25, 1p.VenezuelaNews item - press release, Goldtex Resources Ltd.
DS2001-0121
2001
LigiBonatti, E., Brunelli, Fabretti, Ligi, Portara, SeylerSteady state creation of crust free lithosphere at cold spots in mid-ocean ridgesGeology, Vol. 29, No. 11, Nov. pp. 979-82.MantlePeridotites, flow
DS2003-0132
2003
Ligi, M.Bonatti, E., Ligi, M., Brunelli, D., Cipriani, A., Fabretti, P., Ferrante, V., Gasperini, L.Mantle thermal pulses below the mid Atlantic Ridge and temporal variations in theNature, No. 6939, pp. 499-505.MantleGeothermometry
DS200412-0182
2003
Ligi, M.Bonatti, E., Ligi, M., Brunelli, D., Cipriani, A., Fabretti, P., Ferrante, V., Gasperini, L., Ottolini, L.Mantle thermal pulses below the mid Atlantic Ridge and temporal variations in the formation of oceanic lithosphere.Nature, No. 6939, pp. 499-505.MantleGeothermometry
DS201608-1419
2016
Ligi, M.Maia, M., Sichel, S., Briais, A., Brunelli, D., Ligi, M., Ferreira, N., Campos, T., Mougel, B., Brehme, I., Hemond, C., Motoki, A., Moura, D., Scalabrin, C., Pessanha, I., Alves, E., Ayres, A., Oliveira, P.Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, 8, pp. 619-623.MantleRidges

Abstract: Mantle exhumation at slow-spreading ridges is favoured by extensional tectonics through low-angle detachment faults1, 2, 3, 4, and, along transforms, by transtension due to changes in ridge/transform geometry5, 6. Less common, exhumation by compressive stresses has been proposed for the large-offset transforms of the equatorial Atlantic7, 8. Here we show, using high-resolution bathymetry, seismic and gravity data, that the northern transform fault of the St Paul system has been controlled by compressive deformation since ~10?million years ago. The long-lived transpression resulted from ridge overlap due to the propagation of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment into the transform domain, which induced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault creating restraining stepovers. An anticlockwise change in plate motion at ~11?million years ago5 initially favoured extension in the left-stepping transform, triggering the formation of a transverse ridge, later uplifted through transpression, forming the St Peter and St Paul islets. Enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis due to the nearby Sierra Leone thermo chemical anomaly9 is responsible for the robust response of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment to the kinematic change. The long-lived process at the origin of the compressive stresses is directly linked to the nature of the underlying mantle and not to a change in the far-field stress regime.
DS1993-0912
1993
Liguori, R.A.Liguori, R.A.Geochemical and mineralogical evolution of the carbonatite alkaline CatalaoI complex, Goias Brasil.University of Sao Paulo, (in Portugese)., MSc. thesisBrazilCarbonatite, Thesis
DS1994-1982
1994
Lihe, G.Zhang Andi, Dehuan, X., Xiling, X., Lihe, G., Jianzong Z., Wuyi W.The status and future of diamond exploration in ChinaProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 268-284.ChinaDiamond exploration, Review
DS1991-0013
1991
Lihe GuoAlian Wang, Dhamelincourt, P., Lihe Guo, Wuyi Wang, Andi ZhangMicro-structural variations in mantle derived garnetsProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 448-450ChinaRaman spectroscopy, Garnets
DS1991-0991
1991
Lihe GuoLihe Guo, Wuyi Wang, Alian Wang, Andi ZhangIR spectroscopic characters of garnets and spinels - a potential discriminative tool for diamond explorationProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 154-156China, Australia, South AfricaSpectroscopy, Chromites
DS201908-1776
2019
Liikane, D.A.Ernst, R.E., Liikane, D.A., Jowitt, S.M., Buchan, K.L., Blanchard, J.A.A new plumbing system framework for mantle plume related continental large igneous provinces and their mafic ultramafic intrusions.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, in press available 34p. PdfGlobalmantle plumes, hotspots

Abstract: The magmatic components of continental Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) include flood basalts and their plumbing system of giant mafic dyke swarms (radiating, linear, and the recently discovered circumferential type), mafic sill provinces, a lower crustal magmatic underplate, mafic-ultramafic (M-UM) intrusions, associated silicic magmatism, and associated carbonatites and kimberlites. This paper proposes a new plumbing system framework for mantle plume-related continental LIPs that incorporates all of these components, and provides a context for addressing key thematic aspects such as tracking magma batches "upstream" and "downstream" and their geochemical evolution, assessing the setting of M-UM intrusions and their economic potential, interpreting deep magmatic component identified by geophysical signatures, and estimating magnitudes of extrusive and intrusive components with climate change implications. This plumbing system model, and its associated implications, needs to be tested against the rapidly improving LIP record.
DS1994-1034
1994
Liipo, J.P.Liipo, J.P., et al.Geikielite from the Naataniemi serpentine massif, Kuhmo greenstone belt, Finland.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 32, No. 2, June pp. 327-332.FinlandMineralogy, Geikielite
DS1988-0418
1988
Likachev, A.P.Likachev, A.P.Genetic models of sulfide nickel containing formations in relation to other endogenic formations.(Russian)Vses. Soveshch. Novosibirsk, (Russian), pp. 158-166RussiaKimberlite mentioned
DS2001-0400
2001
LikhachevaGoryainov, S.V., Belitski, I.A., Likhacheva, FursenkoRaman spectroscopy of high p