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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - M-Maq


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
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Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - M-Maq
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS201906-1298
2019
MGuzmics, T., Berkesi, M, Bodnar, R.J., Fall, A., Bali, E., Milke, R., Vetlenyi, E., Szabo, C.Natrocarbonatites: a hidden product of three phase immiscibility.Geology, Vol. 47, 6, pp. 527-530.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Earth’s only active natrocarbonatite volcanism, occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), Tanzania, suggests that natrocarbonatite melts are formed through a unique geological process. In the East African Rift, the extinct Kerimasi (KER) volcano is a neighbor of OL and also contains nephelinites hosting melt and fluid inclusions that preserve the igneous processes associated with formation of natrocarbonatite melts. Here, we present evidence for the presence of coexisting nephelinite melt, fluorine-rich carbonate melt, and alkali carbonate fluid. The compositions of these phases differ from the composition of OL natrocarbonatites; therefore, it is unlikely that natrocarbonatites formed directly from one of these phases. Instead, mixing of the outgassing alkali carbonate fluid and the fluorine-rich carbonate melt can yield natrocarbonatite compositions at temperatures close to subsolidus temperatures of nephelinite (<630-650 °C). Moreover, the high halogen content (6-16 wt%) in the carbonate melt precludes saturation of calcite (i.e., formation of calciocarbonatite) and maintains the carbonate melt in the liquid state with 28-41 wt% CaO at temperatures =600 °C. Our study suggests that alkali carbonate fluids and melts could have commonly formed in the geological past, but it is unlikely they precipitated calcite that facilitates fossilization. Instead, alkali carbonates likely precipitated that were not preserved in the fossil nephelinite rocks. Thus, alkali carbonate fluids and melts have been so far overlooked in the geological record because of the lack of previous detailed inclusion studies.
DS201908-1806
2019
M, E.A.Ramiz, M.M., Mondal, M,E.A., Farooq, S.H.Geochemistry of ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Madawara ultramafic complex in the southern part of the Bundelkhand craton, Central Indian Shield: implications for mantle sources and geodynamic setting.Geological Journal, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 2185-2207.Indiacraton

Abstract: Detailed field, petrography and whole-rock geochemical study was carried out in order to constrain the mantle sources and geodynamic setting of the Madawara Ultramafic Complex (MUC) of the Bundelkhand Craton. Studies reveal that there are two types of ultramafic rocks: (a) high-Mg ultrabasic/basic rocks and (b) undeformed ultramafic-mafic plutonic rocks. The high-Mg ultrabasic/basic rocks have undergone severe low-grade (greenschist) metamorphism and are characterized by stringer and veinlet structures of talc-tremolite-actinolite schists with alternate layers of serpentinites showing comparatively higher SiO2 (46.1-49.4 wt%), lower MgO (24.6-26.2 wt%), and higher Al2O3 (4.58-7.06 wt%) and CaO (2.72-6.77 wt%) compared to the undeformed ultramafic rocks. The undeformed ultramafic rocks (mainly harzburgite, lherzolite, and olivine websterite) are characterized by globular structures and have lower SiO2 (40-44.1 wt%), higher MgO (30.4-38 wt%) and lower Al2O3 (1.84-4.03 wt%) and CaO (0.16-3.14 wt%). The undeformed mafic rocks (mainly gabbro) occur as small pockets within the undeformed ultramafic rocks as well as independent outcrops. Limited variation in Nb/Th against Nb/Yb along with negative Nb-Ti anomalies of all the rock types in the multi-element diagram reveals the significant role of the metasomatized mantle in their genesis. All the rocks show enrichment in light rare earth element and large-ion lithophile elements compared to heavy rare earth elements and high-field strength elements. The geochemical characteristics coupled with Ce/Yb versus Ce variation of the rocks of MUC point towards two different sources for their genesis. The high-Mg ultrabasic/basic rocks are derived from partial melting of metasomatized mantle at shallow depth, while the undeformed ultramafic rocks were formed as a result of asthenospheric upwelling from a greater depth that induced the melting in the overlying lithosphere. Gabbro rocks represent the last and most evolved phase of the complex. Geochemical signatures suggest that the rocks of MUC were formed in a continental arc setting.
DS202103-0370
2021
m Couper, S.Brennan, M.C., Fischer, R.A,m Couper, S., Miyagi, L., Antonangeli, D., Morard, G.High-pressure deformation of iron-nickel-silicon alloys and implications for Earth's inner core.Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth, https://eartharxiv.org /repository/ view/1694/ 21p. PdfMantleGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The inner core is a Moon-sized ball of solid metal at the very center of the Earth. Vibrations from earthquakes move faster through the inner core if they travel parallel to Earth's axis (the line between the North and South Poles) than if they travel parallel to the Equator. This probably means that the grains of metal in the inner core are themselves aligned with Earth's axis. Previous studies determined that this alignment likely happened after the inner core had formed, but those experiments were done on pure iron, whereas the inner core is mostly iron but also contains other elements. We did experiments at high pressures and temperatures on a more realistic core metal containing iron, nickel, and silicon. We found that this metal would be much stronger than pure iron at inner core pressures and temperatures; it is still possible for it to produce a north-south alignment, but it is much more difficult for it to do so. This could mean that the alignment occurred while the inner core was forming (rather than afterward), which might change how we think about the forces present in the deep Earth today.
DS201904-0804
2017
m Gu, Y-C.Zhou, Z., Wang, G., Di, Y-J,m Gu, Y-C., Zhang, D., Zhu, W-p., Liu, C., Wu, C., Li, H., Chen, L.-z.Discovery of Mesoproterozoic kimberlite from Dorbed Benner, Inner Mongolia and its tectonic significance.Geochemistry International, doi:10.1002/gi.2939 14p.China, Mongoliadeposit - Longtou Shan

Abstract: Porphyritic olivine kimberlitic breccia, discovered in the Dörbed Banner of Inner Mongolia, Western China, is referred to as Longtou Shan Kimberlite in our study. This kimberlite occurs as a pipe in the Halahuogete Formation of Bayan Obo Group. Zircon U-Pb ages of Longtou Shan Kimberlite reveals a Mesoproterozoic age of ~1,552 Ma, constraining the deposition age of Halahuogete Formation to the Mesoproterozoic. Compared with Mesoproterozoic kimberlite of the ancient landmass, it can be inferred that the North China Craton is a member of the Ur ancient continent of the Columbia supercontinent. Furthermore, according to the tectonic background of the Bayan Obo Group, we raise this possibility that “Bayan Obo Aulacogen” should be renamed the “Bayan Obo Continental Rift.”
DS201905-1059
2019
m Hubik, P.Mortet, V., Vickova Zicova, Z., Taylor, A., Davydova, M., Frank, O,m Hubik, P., Lorincik, J., Aleshin, M.Determination of atomic boron concentration in heavily boron-doped diamond by Raman spectroscopy.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 93, pp. 54-58.Globalspectroscopy

Abstract: Raman spectroscopy has been foreseen as a simple and non-destructive characterization method to determine the boron concentration in heavily boron-doped diamond with metallic conductivity. However, currently available empirical studies are not fully satisfactory for enabling accurate determination of the boron concentration in diamond. Here, we study Raman spectra of epitaxial boron-doped diamond as a function of the boron concentration and the excitation wavelength. The zone center phonon and the phonon density of state maximum (at ca. 1200?cm-1) lines are analyzed using a decoupled double Fano-function. This analysis method accurately describes the observed variation of the asymmetric parameters with atomic boron concentration and the photon excitation energy and enables the determination of the atomic boron concentration from the parameters of the examined Raman lines.
DS201907-1532
2019
m Jiang, S-Y.Chen, W., Liu, H-Y,m Jiang, S-Y., Simonetti, A., Xu, C., Zhang, W.The formation of the ore-bearing dolomite marble from the giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, Inner Mongolia: insights from micron-scale geochemical data.Mineralium Deposita, in press available, 16p.Asia, Mongoliadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The genesis of Earth’s largest rare earth element (REE) deposit, Bayan Obo (China), has been intensely debated, in particular whether the host dolomite marble is of sedimentary or igneous origin. The protracted (Mesoproterozoic to Paleozoic) and intricate (magmatic to metasomatic) geological processes complicate geochemical interpretations. In this study, we present a comprehensive petrographic and in situ, high-spatial resolution Sr-Pb isotopic and geochemical investigation of the host dolomite from the Bayan Obo marble. Based on petrographic evidence, the dolomite marble is divided into three facies including coarse-grained (CM), fine-grained (FM), and heterogeneous marble (HM). All carbonates are ferroan dolomite with high SrO and MnO contents (>?0.15 wt.%), consistent with an igneous origin. Trace element compositions of these dolomites are highly variable both among and within individual samples, with CM dolomite displaying the strongest LREE enrichment. In situ 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb ratios of the dolomite are generally consistent with mantle values. However, initial 208Pb/204Pb ratios define a large range from 35.45 to 39.75, which may result from the incorporation of radiogenic Pb released from decomposition of monazite and/or bastnäsite during Early Paleozoic metasomatism. Moreover, in situ Sr isotope compositions of dolomite indicate a large range (87Sr/86Sr?=?0.70292-0.71363). CM dolomite is characterized by a relatively consistent, unradiogenic Sr isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr?=?0.70295-0.70314), which is typical for Mesoproterozoic mantle. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios together with radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb signatures for dolomite within FM and HM possibly represents recrystallization during Early Paleozoic metasomatism with the contribution of radiogenic Sr and Pb from surrounding host rocks. Therefore, our in situ geochemical data support a Mesoproterozoic igneous origin for the ore-bearing dolomite marble in the Bayan Obo deposit, which subsequently underwent intensive metasomatism during the Early Paleozoic.
DS202003-0348
2020
m Kong, T.Lee, C.W.Y., Cheng, J., Yium Y.C., Chan, K., Lau, D., Tang, W.C., Cheng, K.W,m Kong, T., Hui, T.K.C., Jelezko, F.Correlation between EPR spectra and coloration of natural diamonds.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 103, 13p. PdfGlobaldiamond colour

Abstract: White diamonds color grading is one of the basic diamond evaluations. The color value based on a scale that ranges from D to Z, with D being the more colorless and more valuable, among other qualifications. As the diamond grade moves on this scale, its color appears more yellow progressively. This yellowish color, present only in Type I diamonds, is mainly due to the nitrogen related defects such as N3 center and C-center. The current color grading system is based on a visual method, where gemologist compares the sample with a Master Color set. However, this method is very subjective. Several defects responsible for light absorption in diamond are carrying electron spin and appear in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrum. In this study, we developed a new EPR based technique for a quantitative measurement of N3 center and C-center in diamond through quantitative EPR spectroscopy. The correlation between EPR spectra and color grades of diamond was established.
DS202007-1178
2020
m Phillips, D.Soltys, A., Giuliani, A,m Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S.Kimberlite metasomatism of the lithosphere and the evolution of olivine in carbonate rich melts evidence from the Kimberley kimberlites ( South Africa).Journal of Petrology, 10.1093/petrology /egaa062/5857610 90p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: Olivine is the most abundant phase in kimberlites and is stable throughout most of the crystallisation sequence, thus providing an extensive record of kimberlite petrogenesis. To better constrain the composition, evolution, and source of kimberlites we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of olivine from multiple dyke, sill, and root zone kimberlites in the Kimberley cluster (South Africa). Olivine grains in these kimberlites are zoned, with a central core, a rim overgrowth, and occasionally an external rind. Additional ‘internal’ and ‘transitional’ zones may occur between the core and rim, and some samples of root zone kimberlites contain a late generation of high-Mg olivine in cross-cutting veins. Olivine records widespread pre-ascent (proto-)kimberlite metasomatism in the mantle including: (a) Relatively Fe-rich (Mg# <89) olivine cores interpreted to derive from the disaggregation of kimberlite-related megacrysts (20% of cores); (b) Mg-Ca-rich olivine cores (Mg# >89; >0.05?wt.% CaO) suggested to be sourced from neoblasts in sheared peridotites (25% of cores); (c) transitional zones between cores and rims probably formed by partial re-equilibration of xenocrysts (now cores) with a previous pulse of kimberlite melt (i.e., compositionally heterogeneous xenocrysts); and (d) olivine from the Wesselton water tunnel sills, internal zones (I), and low-Mg# rims, that crystallised from a kimberlite melt that underwent olivine fractionation within the shallow lithospheric mantle. Magmatic crystallisation begins with internal olivine zones (II), which are common but not ubiquitous in the Kimberley olivine. These zones are euhedral, contain rare inclusions of chromite, and have a higher Mg# (90.0 ± 0.5), NiO, and Cr2O3 contents, but are depleted in CaO compared to the rims. Internal olivine zones (II) are interpreted to crystallise from a primitive kimberlite melt during its ascent and transport of olivine toward the surface. Their compositions suggest assimilation of peridotitic material (particularly orthopyroxene) and potentially sulfides prior to or during crystallisation. Comparison of internal zones (II) with liquidus olivine from other mantle-derived carbonate-bearing magmas (i.e., orangeites, ultramafic lamprophyres, melilitites) show that low (100×) Mn/Fe (~1.2), very low Ca/Fe (~0.6), and moderate Ni/Mg ratios (~1.1) appear to be the hallmarks of olivine in melts derived from carbonate-bearing garnet-peridotite sources. Olivine rims display features indicative of magmatic crystallisation, which are typical of olivine rims in kimberlites worldwide - i.e. primary inclusions of chromite, Mg-ilmenite and rutile, homogeneous Mg# (88.8 ± 0.3), decreasing Ni and Cr, increasing Ca and Mn. Rinds and high-Mg olivine are characterised by extreme Mg-Ca-Mn enrichment and Ni depletion, and textural relationships indicate these zones represent replacement of pre-existing olivine, with some new crystallisation of rinds. These zones likely precipitated from evolved, oxidised, and relatively low-temperature kimberlite fluids after crustal emplacement. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of combined petrography and olivine geochemistry to trace the evolution of kimberlite magmatic systems from early metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by (proto-)kimberlite melts, to crystallisation at different depths en route to surface, and finally late-stage deuteric/hydrothermal fluid alteration processes after crustal emplacement.
DS202104-0580
2019
m Seitz, H-M.Grass, C., Woodland, A., Hoferm H,m Seitz, H-M., Pearson, G., Kjarsgaard, B.Metasomatism and oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae Craton, Canada as revealed by xenoliths from Somerset Island and Pelly Bay. ***note dateGeophysical Research abstracts, EGU, EGU2019-9348, 1p. PdfCanadageodynamics

Abstract: We present the first oxidation state measurements for the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Rae craton, northern Canada, one of the largest components of the Canadian shield. In combination with major and trace element compositions for garnet and clinopyroxene, we assess the relationship between oxidation state and metasomatic overprinting. The sample suite comprises peridotite xenoliths from the central part (Pelly Bay) and the craton margin (Somerset Island) providing insights into lateral and vertical variations in lithospheric character. Our suite contains spinel, garnet-spinel and garnet peridotites, with most samples originating from 100 to 140 km depth. Within this narrow depth range we observe strong chemical gradients, including variations in oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) of over 4 log units. Both Pelly Bay and Somerset Island peridotites reveal a change in metasomatic type with depth. Observed geochemical systematics and textural evidence support the notion that Rae SCLM developed through amalgamation of different local domains, establishing chemical gradients from the start. These gradients were subsequently modified by migrating melts that drove further development of different types of metasomatic overprinting and variable oxidation at a range of length scales. This oxidation already apparent at ~?100 km depth could have locally destabilised any pre-existing diamond or graphite.
DS202010-1845
2020
m Simakin, A.Gordeychik, B., Churikova, T., Shea, T., Kronz, A,m Simakin, A., Worner, G.Fo and Ni relations in olivine differentiate between crystallization and diffusion trends.Journal of Petrology, 10.1093/petrology/egaa083Mantleolivine

Abstract: Nickel is a strongly compatible element in olivine, and thus fractional crystallization of olivine typically results in a concave-up trend on a Fo-Ni diagram. "Ni-enriched" olivine compositions are considered those that fall above such a crystallization trend. To explain Ni-enriched olivine crystals, we develop a set of theoretical and computational models to describe how primitive olivine phenocrysts from a parent (high-Mg, high-Ni) basalt re-equilibrate with an evolved (low-Mg, low-Ni) melt through diffusion. These models describe the progressive loss of Fo and Ni in olivine cores during protracted diffusion for various crystal shapes and different relative diffusivities for Ni and Fe-Mg. In the case when the diffusivity of Ni is lower than that for Fe-Mg interdiffusion, then olivine phenocrysts affected by protracted diffusion form a concave-down trend that contrasts with the concave-up crystallization trend. Models for different simple geometries show that the concavity of the diffusion trend does not depend on the size of the crystals and only weakly depends on their shape. We also find that the effect of diffusion anisotropy on trend concavity is in the same magnitude as the effect of crystal shape. Thus, both diffusion anisotropy and crystal shape do not significantly change the concave-down diffusion trend. Three-dimensional numerical diffusion models using a range of more complex, realistic olivine morphologies with anisotropy corroborate this conclusion. Thus, the curvature of the concave-down diffusion trend is mainly determined by the ratio of Ni and Fe-Mg diffusion coefficients. The initial and final points of the diffusion trend are in turn determined by the compositional contrast between mafic and more evolved melts that have mixed to cause disequilibrium between olivine cores and surrounding melt. We present several examples of measurements on olivine from arc basalts from Kamchatka, and several published olivine datasets from mafic magmas from non-subduction settings (lamproites and kimberlites) that are consistent with diffusion-controlled Fo-Ni behaviour. In each case the ratio of Ni and Fe-Mg diffusion coefficients is indicated to be?
DS202004-0545
2020
M.Wright, L.J., M., Muirhead, J.D., Scholz, C.ASpatio-temporal variations in upper crustal extension across the different basement terranes of the Lake Tanganyika Rift, East Africa.Tectonics, Vol. 39, 3, doi:e2019TC006019Africacraton

Abstract: Preexisting crustal heterogeneities are shown to influence rift process at a variety of scales. However, our understanding of how crustal inheritance influences rift-scale spatiotemporal kinematics of faulting in magma-poor rift environments is still very limited. Studies of active continental rifts can provide high-fidelity assessments of extensional processes and structures that are not possible through examination of ancient rifts that have undergone subsequent deformation events or are buried deeply beneath passive margins. We examine the influence of crustal inheritance on active rifting through balancing and restoring a series of regional cross sections across the Lake Tanganyika Rift in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. The cross sections are produced using legacy seismic reflection data, reprocessed through prestack depth migration. This type example of a young, magma-poor continental rift transects several different basement terranes, including an Archean/Paleoproterozoic craton, and Proterozoic mobile belts. The Lake Tanganyika Rift exhibits two classic bell-shaped profiles of extension along strike, reaching a maximum of 7.15 km. A spatiotemporal integration of the extension data, and comparison with the various basement terranes the rift transects, reveals that extension in cratonic blocks is more widely distributed compared to mobile belt terranes, where strain rapidly localizes onto border faults by later rift stages. These results reveal how crustal inheritance exerts a fundamental control on the evolution of extension localization, ultimately impacting the geometry and structural architecture of rift basins.
DS202106-0922
2021
M.Ashchepkov, I.,Medvedev, N.,Ivanov, A., Vladykin, N., Ntafos,T.,Downes, H.,Saprykin, A.,Tolstov, A.Vavilov, M., Shmarov, G.Deep mantle roots of the Zarnitsa kimberlite pipe, Siberian craton, Russia: evidence for multistage polybaric interaction with mantle melts.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 213, 104756, 22p.pdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Zarnitsa

Abstract: Zarnitsa kimberlite pipe in Central Yakutia contains pyrope garnets with Cr2O3 ranging from 9 to 19.3 wt% derived from the asthenospheric mantle. They show mostly S-shaped, inflected rare earth element (REE) patterns for dunitic and harzburgitic, lherzolitic and harzburgitic varieties and all are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE) due to reaction with protokimberlite melts. Lithospheric garnets (<9 wt% Cr2O3) show a similar division into four groups but have more symmetric trace element patterns. Cr-diopsides suggest reactions with hydrous alkaline, protokimberlitic and primary (hydrous) partial melts. Cr-diopsides of metasomatic origin have inclined REE patterns and high LILE, U, Th and Zr concentrations. Four groups in REE of Ti-rich Cr-diopsides, and augites have asymmetric bell-like REE patterns and are HFSE-rich. Mg-ilmenites low in REE were formed within dunite conduits. Ilmenite derived from differentiated melts have inclined REE patterns with LREE ~ 100 × chondrite levels. Thermobarometry for dunites shows a 34 mWm-2 geotherm with a HT branch (>50 mWm-2) at 6-9 GPa, and a stepped HT geotherm with heated pyroxenite lenses at four levels from 6.5 to 3.5 GPa. Parental melts calculated with KDs suggest that augites and high-Cr garnets in the lithosphere base reacted with essentially carbonatitic melts while garnets from lower pressure show subduction peaks in U, Ba and Pb. The roots of the Zarnitsa pipe served to transfer large portions of deep (>9 GPa) protokimberlite melts to the lithosphere. Smaller diamonds were dissolved due to the elevated oxidation state but in peripheral zones large diamonds could grow.
DS202106-0960
2021
M.Mohammed, A. Al Deep, M.Depth to the bottom of the magnetic layer, crustal thickness, and heat flow in Africa: inferences from gravity and magnetic data.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 179, 104204, 17p. PdfAfricaEMAG2

Abstract: Data from the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) and the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) were used to develop a continental scale crustal thickness model for Africa, and to estimate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic layer (DBML) and the geothermal gradient and heat flow. The results are: (1) the estimated DBML from the magnetic data varies from ~23.0 to ~37.2 km. The shallowest DBML values are located in the northern, eastern, and western parts of the continent, whereas the deepest values are observed in the central and southern regions. (2) The estimated crustal thickness based on gravity data varies from ~29.9 km in the northern and western parts of Africa to ~48.0 km in its southern regions, with an average thickness of 35.1 km for the whole continent. (3) The estimated heat flow varies between high values of 46-59 mW/m2, observed in the northern, eastern, and western regions to low values of ~< 41 mW/m2, observed in the central and southern parts of the continent. (4) The geothermal gradient values vary between 14.5 and 23.6 °C/km (5) The East African rift zone is underlain by shallow DBML characterized by high heat flow values that vary between 42 and 59 mW/m2 (6) The heat flow anomalies in Egypt and Libya may be associated with the zone of the Pelusium megashear system, and it shows heat flow values that vary between 36.3 and 59.0 mW/m2. The current study has taken advantage of the availability of the EGM2008 and EMAG2 datasets to map crustal thickness variations and DBML beneath the continental landmass of Africa.
DS202109-1490
2021
M.C.J.Spaggiari, R.I. de Wit, M.C.J.Diamondiferous alluvial deposits of the Longatshimo Valley, Kasai Province, southern DRC: a sedimentary and economic model of a central African diamond placer.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 124, pp. 499-518.Africa, Democratic Republic of Congodeposit - Kasai

Abstract: The Kasai alluvial field in southern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is part of central Africa’s largest diamond placer that has produced more than 200 million carats, mainly derived from Quaternary deposits. A small part of these deposits, along and within the Longatshimo River, is the subject of this study providing a glimpse into the alluvial history of the Kasai diamond placer. This work documents their sedimentological and diamond mineralization attributes, as well as their emplacement processes, which can inform future exploration models. The key controls of this placer formation, notably Quaternary climatic variations, fluvial landscape evolution and bedrock conditions are also evaluated. A consequence of the interplay among these processes is that diamond supply (from Cretaceous alluvial sources), recycling and concentration were most pronounced and consistent, in the Late Quaternary. Alluvial diamond mineralization in this central African region thus evolved differently to those in southern Africa. Based on exploration results in the Longatshimo Valley, diamond concentration improves but diamond size diminishes with decreasing deposit age, and thus the modern river sediments contain the highest abundance but smallest diamonds. This is opposite to the grade and diamond size trend that characterises southern African fluvial diamond placers. The Longatshimo River study offers insight into the Kasai alluvial field, and its placer model is expected to be applicable to the exploration of other central African diamond placers.
DS1860-0249
1875
M.E.M.E.Life on the Diamond Fields KimberleyLondon: Wertheimer., 54P.Africa, South Africa, Griqualand WestBiography
DS1859-0094
1848
M.M.F.M.M.F.Scripture, Natural History, Being an Account of Animals, Trees, Plants and Precious Stones.London: Soc. For Promoting Christian Knowledge Royal Exchang, 2ND. EDITION, 452P.GlobalTravelogue
DS200912-0861
2009
MaZheng, J.P., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Zhao, J.H., Wu, Liu, Pearson, Zhang, Ma, Zhang, Yu, Su, TangNeoarchean ( 2.7-2.8 Ga) accretion beneath the North Chin a Craton: U Pb age, trace elements and Hf isotopes of zircons in Diamondiferous kimberlites.Lithos, Vol. 117, pp. 188-202.ChinaGeochronology
DS201012-0765
2010
MaSu, B-X., Zhang, H-F., Sakyi, P.A., Yang, Y-H., Ying, J-F., Tang, Y-J., Qin, K-Z., Xiao, Y., Zhao, Mao, MaThe origin of spongy texture in minerals of mantle xenoliths from the western Qinling, central China.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 18p.ChinaXenoliths
DS2000-0601
2000
Ma, C.Ma, C., Ehlers, C., et al.The roots of the Dabie Shan ultrahigh pressure metamorphic terrane: constraints from geochemistry NdSrPrec. Research, Vol. 102, No. 3-4, Aug. pp. 303-Chinaultra high pressure (UHP), Dabie Shan
DS2000-0602
2000
Ma, C.Ma, C., Ehlers, C., Xu, C., Li, Z., Yang, K.The roots of the Dabie Shan ultrahigh pressure metamorphic terrane: constraints from geochemistry ...Precambrian Research, Vol. 102, No. 3-4, Aug.pp. 279-301.Chinaultra high pressure (UHP), geochronology, Dabie Shan region
DS200512-0664
2005
Ma, C.Ma, C., She, Z., Ai, X.An Early Cretaceous intrusive complex in the Dabie Shan ultrahigh pressure metamorphic terrane, East China. Evidence for the beginning of post orogenic collapse.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.ChinaUHP, crustal root
DS201710-2279
2017
Ma, C.Wu, W., Yang, J., Ma, C., Milushi, I., Lian, D., Tian, Y.Discovery and significance of diamonds and moissanites in chromitites within the Skenderbeu Massif of the Mirdita zone ophiolite, west Albania.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 91, 3, pp. 882-897.Europe, Albaniamoissanites

Abstract: In recent years diamonds and other unusual minerals (carbides, nitrides, metal alloys and native elements) have been recovered from mantle peridotites and chromitites (both high-Cr chromitites and high-Al chromitites) from a number of ophiolites of different ages and tectonic settings. Here we report a similar assemblage of minerals from the Skenderbeu massif of the Mirdita zone ophiolite, west Albania. So far, more than 20 grains of microdiamonds and 30 grains of moissanites (SiC) have been separated from the podiform chromitite. The diamonds are mostly light yellow, transparent, euhedral crystals, 200-300 µm across, with a range of morphologies; some are octahedral and cuboctahedron and others are elongate and irregular. Secondary electron images show that some grains have well-developed striations. All the diamond grains have been analyzed and yielded typical Raman spectra with a shift at ~1325 cm-1. The moissanite grains recovered from the Skenderbeu chromitites are mainly light blue to dark blue, but some are yellow to light yellow. All the analyzed grains have typical Raman spectra with shifts at 766 cm-1, 787 cm-1, and 967 cm-1. The energy spectrums of the moissanites confirm that the grains are composed entirely of silicon and carbon. This investigation expands the occurrence of diamonds and moissanites to Mesozoic ophiolites in the Neo-Tethys. Our new findings suggest that diamonds and moissanites are present, and probably ubiquitous in the oceanic mantle and can provide new perspectives and avenues for research on the origin of ophiolites and podiform chromitites.
DS201803-0472
2017
Ma, C.Rubin, A.E., Ma, C.Meteoritic minerals and their origins. Review Chemie der Erde, Vol. 77, pp. 325-385.Globalmeteorites

Abstract: About 435 mineral species have been identified in meteorites including native elements, metals and metallic alloys, carbides, nitrides and oxynitrides, phosphides, silicides, sulfides and hydroxysulfides, tellurides, arsenides and sulfarsenides, halides, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulfates, molybdates, tungstates, phosphates and silico phosphates, oxalates, and silicates from all six structural groups. The minerals in meteorites can be categorized as having formed by a myriad of processes that are not all mutually distinct: (1) condensation in gaseous envelopes around evolved stars (presolar grains), (2) condensation in the solar nebula, (3) crystallization in CAI and AOI melts, (4) crystallization in chondrule melts, (5) exsolution during the cooling of CAIs, (6) exsolution during the cooling of chondrules and opaque assemblages, (7) annealing of amorphous material, (8) thermal metamorphism and exsolution, (9) aqueous alteration, hydrothermal alteration and metasomatism, (10) shock metamorphism, (11) condensation within impact plumes, (12) crystallization from melts in differentiated or partially differentiated bodies, (13) condensation from late-stage vapors in differentiated bodies, (14) exsolution, inversion and subsolidus redox effects within cooling igneous materials, (15) solar heating near perihelion, (16) atmospheric passage, and (17) terrestrial weathering.
DS201805-0984
2018
Ma, C.Tschauner, O., Huang, S., Greenberg, E., Prakapenka, V.B., Ma, C., Rossman, G.R., Shen, A.H., Zhang, D., Newville, M., Lanzirotti, A., Tait, K.Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: evidence for aqueous fluid in the Earth's deep mantle. Orapa, ShandongScience, Vol. 359, pp. 1136-1139.Africa, South Africa, Botswana, Congo, Sierra Leone, Chinadiamond inclusions
DS201909-2105
2019
Ma, C-Q.Wang, L-X., Ma, C-Q., Salih, M-A., Abdallisamed, M-I-M., Zhu, Y-X.The syenite-carbonatite-fluorite association in Jebel Dumbier complex ( Sudan): magma origin and evolution.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. Poster abstractAfrica, Sudancarbonatite

Abstract: Jebel Dumbier is the first-identified carbonatite-bearing alkaline complex in Sudan. It is located on the northeastern margin of the Nuba Mountains in the south part of Sudan. The complex exposed as small elliptical hills with outcrops of around 8 km2. It is composed of dominant orthoclasite and ditroite and subdominant carbonatite and fluorite dykes. The fluorite dykes are mined and together with the carbonatite dykes are controlled by a NNE strike-slip fault system. Orthoclasite is the dominant rock type, comprising of orthoclase, kalsilite, few interstitial biotite and calcium carbonate and accesserary minerals of fluorite, apatite and zircon. Ditroite consists of perthite, aegirine-augite, nepheline, sodalite, and minor annite-phlogopite and richterite, with common accessories of fluorite, titanite, apatite and zircon. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that both orthoclasite and ditroite emplaced at around 600 Ma. Relative to orthoclasites, ditroites display higher FeOtotal and MgO and lower Al2O3 contents, contain higher volatiles (F, Cl, Br, S), and are more depleted in LILEs (Rb, Sr, Ba) and enriched in HFSEs (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U) and REEs. Isotopic data imply that the ditoite, orthoclasite, fluorite and carbonatite dyke originated from a common source of depleted mantle affinities, with identical low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7033-0.7037) and high eNd (t) values (1.6-2.7). The carbonatites display d13C(V-PDB) of -5.8 to -6.7‰ and d18O(SMOW) of 9.1 to 11.3‰, typical of primary igneous carbonatite worldwide. We propose that the orthoclasite, ditroite, carbonatite, and fluorite association in Jebel Dumbier is product of variable degrees of fractional crystallization of mantlederived volatile-rich magma. Magma immiscibility among silicates, carbonates and fluorates may proceed. The Jebel Dumbier alkaline-carbonatite complex represents the postorogenic alkaline magmatism during the end evolution of Pan-African orogen (650-550 Ma) at Arabian-Nubian Shield.
DS201906-1305
2019
Ma, F.Kopylova, M., Tso, E., Ma, F., Liu, J., Pearson, D.G.From regional to local metasomatism in the peridotitic mantle of the Chidliak kimberlite province ( Southern Baffin Island).GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 124.Canada, Baffin Islanddeposit - Chidliak

Abstract: We studied the petrography, mineralogy, thermobarometry and whole rock chemistry of 120 peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths collected from the 156 - 138 Ma Chidliak kimberlites CH-1, -6, -7 and -44. The xenoliths have higher CaO contents relative to Al2O3, and high Al for a given Mg/Si ratio compared to other cratonic peridotites. We assign the complex Ca-Al systematics of the Chidliak peridotites to repeated episodes of Ca-rich, Si-poor metasomatism, which introduced clinopyroxene and garnet, and later replaced orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with secondary clinopyroxene and monticellite. This carbonatitic metasomatism, manifest in formation of wehrlites, acted upon the entire sampled mantle depth on a regional scale, including the proximal blocks of the North Atlantic Craton and the Chidliak mantle, where clinopyroxene and garnet modes are uniformly and heterogeneously high in the ~ 110 km deep mantle segment. Another, more recent type of mantle metasomatism, is expressed as elevated Ti in clinopyroxene and elevated Na and Ti in garnet, typical of sheared peridotites from CH-1, -7, and -44, but absent from CH-6 xenolith suite. The Ti-Na imprint is most intense in xenoliths derived from depths equivalent to 5.5 to 6.5 GPa, where it is associated with higher strain, the presence of sheared peridotites and higher temperatures varying isobarically by up to 200 °C. The horizontal scale of the thermal-metasomatic imprint is more ambiguous and could be as regional as 10's of kilometers or as local as < 1 km. The latter is constrained by the varied abundance of Ti-enriched garnets within a single kimberlite. The time-scale of this metasomatism relates to a conductive length-scale and could be as short as 100's ka, shortly predating the kimberlite formation. The Ti-Na, megacryst-like metasomatism may have resulted from a highly localized influx of hot hydrous proto-kimberlite fluids that weakened the mantle and triggered the formation of sheared peridotites.
DS200912-0864
2009
Ma, H.Zhou, S., Zang, C., Ma, H., Li, X., Zhang, H., Jia, X.Study on growth of coarse grains of diamond with high quality under HPHT.Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 54, 1, pp. 163-167.TechnologyUHP
DS201802-0225
2018
Ma, H.Chen, N., Ma, H., Chen, L., Yan, B., Fang, C., Liu, X., Li, Y., Guo, L., Chen, L., Jia, X.Effects of S on the synthesis of type 1b diamond under high pressure and high temperature.International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Vol. 71, pp. 141-146.Technologysynthetic diamonds
DS200512-1231
2005
Ma, H.A.Zang, C.Y., Jia, X.P., Ma, H.A., Tian, Y., Xiao, H.Y.Effect of regrown graphite on the growth of large gem diamonds by temperature gradient method.Chinese Physics Letters , Vol. 22, 9, pp. 2415-2417.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS200712-1133
2007
Ma, J.Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Xu, J., Jian, P., Zhao, Z., Li, C., Xu, W., Ma, J., He, B.Early Cretaceous adakitic granites in the northern Dabie Complex, central China: implications for partial melting and delamination of thickened lower crust.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 71, 10, May 15, pp. 2609-2636.ChinaUHP - Dabie Shon
DS201112-0599
2011
Ma, J.Li, Z., Li, L., Zhang, R., Ma, J.An improved classification method for hyper spectral dat a based on spectral and morphological information.International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, 10, p. 2919-2929TechnologyHyperspectral
DS202010-1831
2020
Ma, J.Cao, Y., Jung, H., Ma, J.Seismic properties of a unique olivine-rich eclogite in the western Gneiss region, Norway.Minerals ( MDPI), 10.339/min10090774 22p. PdfEurope, Norwayeclogites

Abstract: Investigating the seismic properties of natural eclogite is crucial for identifying the composition, density, and mechanical structure of the Earth’s deep crust and mantle. For this purpose, numerous studies have addressed the seismic properties of various types of eclogite, except for a rare eclogite type that contains abundant olivine and orthopyroxene. In this contribution, we calculated the ambient-condition seismic velocities and seismic anisotropies of this eclogite type using an olivine-rich eclogite from northwestern Flemsøya in the Nordøyane ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) domain of the Western Gneiss Region in Norway. Detailed analyses of the seismic properties data suggest that patterns of seismic anisotropy of the Flem eclogite were largely controlled by the strength of the crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) and characterized by significant destructive effects of the CPO interactions, which together, resulted in very weak bulk rock seismic anisotropies (AVp = 1.0-2.5%, max. AVs = 0.6-2.0%). The magnitudes of the seismic anisotropies of the Flem eclogite were similar to those of dry eclogite but much lower than those of gabbro, peridotite, hydrous-phase-bearing eclogite, and blueschist. Furthermore, we found that amphibole CPOs were the main contributors to the higher seismic anisotropies in some amphibole-rich samples. The average seismic velocities of Flem eclogite were greatly affected by the relative volume proportions of omphacite and amphibole. The Vp (8.00-8.33 km/s) and Vs (4.55-4.72 km/s) were remarkably larger than the hydrous-phase-bearing eclogite, blueschist, and gabbro, but lower than dry eclogite and peridotite. The Vp/Vs ratio was almost constant (avg. ˜ 1.765) among Flem eclogite, slightly larger than olivine-free dry eclogite, but similar to peridotite, indicating that an abundance of olivine is the source of their high Vp/Vs ratios. The Vp/Vs ratios of Flem eclogite were also higher than other (non-)retrograded eclogite and significantly lower than those of gabbro. The seismic features derived from the Flem eclogite can thus be used to distinguish olivine-rich eclogite from other common rock types (especially gabbro) in the deep continental crust or subduction channel when high-resolution seismic wave data are available.
DS200612-1558
2005
Ma, J.LXu, Y.G., Ma, J.L, Frey, F.A., Feigenson, M.D., Liu, J.F.Role of lithosphere asthenosphere interaction in the genesis of Quaternary alkali and tholeitic basalts from Datong, western North Chin a Craton.Chemical Geology, Vol. 224, 4, pp. 247-271.ChinaAlkalic
DS200612-1557
2006
Ma, J.L.Xu, Y.G., Blusztajn, J., Ma, J.L., Hart, S.R.In searching for old lithospheric relict beneath North Chin a Craton: Sr Nd Os isotopic composition of peridotite xenoliths from Yangyuan.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 3. abstract only.ChinaGeochronology
DS200812-1284
2008
Ma, J-L.Xu, Y-G., Blusztajn, J., Ma, J-L., Suzuki, K., Liu, J.F., Hart, S.R.Late Archean to Early Proterozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the western North Chin a craton: Sr Nd Os isotopes of peridotite xenoliths from Yangyuan and FansiLithos, Vol. 102, 3-4, pp.25-42.ChinaGeochronology
DS202105-0802
2021
Ma, J-L.Yu, Y., Huang, X-L., Sun, M., Ma, J-L.B isotopic constraints on the role of H2O in mantle wedge melting.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 303, pp. 92-109, pdfMantlemelting

Abstract: The role of water on melting in the mantle wedge is still debated due to large uncertainty on the estimates of H2O flux beneath arcs. B has been proven as an effective proxy for water flux because B and H2O show similar chemical behaviors during subduction. The Habahe mafic dikes from the Chinese Altai were emplaced within a narrow area (<20?km from south to north) during the northward subduction of the Junggar Ocean in the middle Paleozoic. These dikes have been classified into four types with distinct geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions, which originated from mantle sources metasomatized by different subduction components, including melts from subducted sediments (Type-I, Type-IV), fluids from subducted sediments (Type-II), and melts from subducted oceanic crust (Type-III). We present B content and isotope data for the Habahe mafic dikes to investigate the influence of subduction components on melting in the mantle wedge. Type-I and -III mafic dikes all have negative d11B values (-7.7‰ to -5.0‰) with variable B contents (3.65-13.4?ppm) and B/Nb ratios (2.10-7.39), indicating B isotopically light features for the subducted sediments and oceanic crust. Type-II mafic dikes have lower B contents (3.97-9.90?ppm) and higher B/Nb ratios (7.07-14.4) than Type-I mafic dikes, with a wide range of d11B values from -7.8‰ to -2.7‰. This suggests that their mantle source may have been metasomatized by fluids from subducted serpentinite besides fluids from subducted sediments. Type-IV mafic dikes have higher B contents (17.0-27.5?ppm) and B/Nb ratios (25.0-40.8), and heavier B isotopic compositions (d11B?=?-2.9‰ to +3.5‰) than Type-I mafic dikes. This indicates involvement of fluids from the slab serpentinite in metasomatism of their mantle source in addition to melts from the subducted sediments. The Habahe mafic dikes show wide range of B/Nb ratios, suggesting that different amounts of water were added into their mantle sources. These dikes exhibit variable Zr/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios, and constantly low TiO2/Yb, indicating their formation through different degrees melting of depleted mantle sources. Their Zr/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios are negatively correlated with B/Nb, which reflects elevation of the melting degree of their mantle sources as increasing water input. Similar trends are also observed in basalts from global arcs and their major and trace elements correlate well with B/Nb ratios. Thus, water flux should play an important role on melting in the mantle wedge and control magma compositions of the arcs.
DS200712-0659
2006
Ma, L.Ma, L.Developments and challenges of the Chin a diamond market.Gems & Gemology, 4th International Symposium abstracts, Fall 2006, p.25 abstract onlyChinaEconomics
DS201312-0561
2014
Ma, L.Ma, L., Jiang, S-Y., Hofman, A.W., Dai, B-Z., Hou, M-L., Zhao, K-D, Chen, L-H., Jiang, Y.H.Lithospheric and asthenospheric sources of lamprophyres in the Jiadong Peninsula: a consequence of rapid lithospheric thinning beneath the North Chin a craton?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 124, pp. 250-271.ChinaLamprophyre
DS201605-0863
2016
Ma, L.Ma, L., Jiang, S-Y., Hofmann, A.W., Xu, Y-G, Dai, B-Z., Hou, M-L.Rapid lithospheric thinning of North Chin a craton: new evidence from Cretaceous mafic dikes in the Jiaodong Peninsula.Chemical Geology, Vol. 432, pp. 1-15.ChinaDikes

Abstract: The North China Craton is a classic case for the destruction of an ancient craton, in that it records the loss of more than 100 km of ancient refractory lithospheric mantle during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. However, the mechanisms for this lithospheric thinning remain controversial in large part due to the lack of any systematic investigations of the Mesozoic asthenospheric mantle via its derived mafic rocks, which are key to understand the thinning processes. In this paper, we present detailed zircon U-Pb geochronology, elemental geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for lamprophyres and diabase-porphyries of the Jiaodong Peninsula, in the eastern North China Craton in order to place constraints on models for lithospheric thinning. Our results show that the lamprophyres and diabase-porphyries are derived from the convective asthenospheric mantle via different degrees of partial melting, and that this mantle source was previously modified by carbonatitic liquids. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating suggests an emplacement age for these rocks of 123-121 Ma, the earliest evidence for asthenospherically-derived melts in the Jiaodong Peninsula so far. This emplacement age indicates that the thickness of the lithosphere in the Jiaodong Peninsula was relatively thin at that time. Co-occurrence of the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle-derived mafic rocks as well as high-Mg adakites record a rapid transition from lithospheric to asthenospheric mantle sources, indicating that the lithosphere beneath the Jiaodong Peninsula was rapidly detached just prior to ca. 120 Ma. Lithospheric thinning of the North China Craton may have been initiated from the Jiaodong Peninsula and Bohai Sea and then propagated towards the interior of the craton.
DS201012-0831
2010
Ma, L.J.Wang, L., Zhao, Y., Ding, J., Hao, J.,Ma, L.J., Zhang, L.X.Macrocrystal garnet and its inclusions in kimberlite pipes from the Mengyin area, Shandong Province, China.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 84, 1, pp. 167-177.ChinaDeposit - Mengyin
DS201508-0351
2015
Ma, M.Dongre, A.N., Viljoen, K.S., Ma, M.The Pipe-15 kimberlite: a new addition to the Wajrakarur cluster of the Wajrakarur kimberlite field, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 86, 1, pp. 71-79.IndiaDeposit - Pipe-15
DS200712-0660
2007
Ma, P.Ma, P., Wang, P., Tenorio, L., de Hoop, M.V., Van der Hilst, R.D.Imaging of structure at and near the core mantle boundary using a generalized radon transform2. inference of singularities.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, B8, B08403.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201212-0826
2012
Ma, Q.Zheng, J.P., Griffin, W.L., Ma, Q., O'Reilly, S.Y., Xiong, Q., Tang, H.Y., Zhao, J.H., Yu, C.M., Su, Y.P.Accretion and reworking beneath the North Chin a craton.Lithos, Vol. 149, pp. 61-78.ChinaAccretion
DS201803-0488
2018
Ma, Q.Yang, Y-H., Wu, F-Y., Yang, J-H., Mitchell, R.H., Zhao, Z-F., Xie, L-W., Huang, C., Ma, Q., Yang, M., Zhao, H.U-Pb age determination of schorlomite garnet by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Magnet Cove, Fanshan, Ozernaya, Alno, Prairie LakeJournal of Analytical At. Spectrometry, Vol. 33, pp. 231-239.United States, Arkansas, China, Hebei, Russia, Kola Peninsula, Europe, Sweden, Canada, Ontariogeochronology

Abstract: We report the first U-Pb geochronological investigation of schorlomite garnet from carbonatite and alkaline complexes and demonstrate its applicability for U-Pb age determination using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) due to its relatively high U and Th abundances and negligible common Pb content. The comparative matrix effects of laser ablation of zircon and schorlomite are investigated and demonstrate the necessity of a suitable matrix-matched reference material for schorlomite geochronology. Laser-induced elemental fractional and instrumental mass discrimination were externally-corrected using an in house schorlomite reference material (WS20) for U-Pb geochronology. In order to validate the effectiveness and robustness of our analytical protocol, we demonstrate the veracity of U-Pb age determination for five schorlomite samples from: the Magnet Cove complex, Arkansas (USA); the Fanshan ultrapotassic complex, Hebei (China); the Ozernaya alkaline ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia); the Alnö alkaline-rock carbonatite complex (Sweden); and the Prairie Lake carbonatite complex, Ontario (Canada). The schorlomite U-Pb ages range from 96 Ma to 1160 Ma, and are almost identical to ages determined from other accessory minerals in these complexes and support the reliability of our analytical protocol. Schorlomite garnet U-Pb geochronology is considered to be a promising new technique for understanding the genesis of carbonatites, alkaline rocks, and related rare-metal deposits.
DS201812-2844
2018
Ma, Q.Ma, Q., Xu, Y-G., Deng, Y,m Zhengm J-P., Sur, M., Griffin, W.L., Xia, B., Yan Wang, C.Similar crust beneath disrupted and intact cratons: arguments against lower crust delamination as a decratonization trigger. North China cratonTectonophysics, in press available 31p.Chinacraton

Abstract: The continental lithosphere is not forever; some cratons have lost their original roots during the course of their evolution. Yet, it is not clear whether gravitational instability of dense lower crust is the primary driver of decratonization. This is addressed here with emphasis being placed on the North China Craton (NCC), because it represents one of the best examples of craton-root disruption in the world, and a place where models can be tested. If lower-crustal delamination was the trigger for decratonization, we would expect a clear contrast in crustal structure and composition between disturbed (rootless) and intact cratons. However, the eastern (disturbed) and western (intact) parts of the NCC show virtually identical physical structure and composition (a thin mafic lower crust and a predominantly intermediate composition overall) although the crust in the disturbed part is thinner than in the intact craton. This suggests that delamination of the lower crust was not a viable mechanism of craton-root disruption in the NCC case. Indeed, the crust beneath the NCC largely resembles those of stable Archean cratons worldwide. Therefore the delamination, if it occurred, may have taken place much earlier (Archean) than previously thought, rather than in the Mesozoic. Delamination may have been a common phenomenon in the early evolution of cratons, probably due to relatively higher mantle temperatures in the Archean Eon.
DS201912-2835
2019
Ma, Q.Yang, Y-H., Wu, F-Y., Qiu-Li, L., Rojas-Agramonte, Y., Yang, J-H., Yang, L., Ma, Q., Xie, L-W., Huang, C., Fan, H-R., Zhao, Z-F., Xu, C.In situ U-Th-Pb dating and Sr-Nd isotope analysis of bastnasite by LA-(MC)-ICP-MS.Geostandards and Geoanalltical Research, Vol. 43, 3, pp. 543-565.China, Europe, Sweden, Asia, Mongolia, United States, Africa, Malawi, MadagascarREE

Abstract: Bastnäsite is the end member of a large group of carbonate-fluoride minerals with the common formula (REE) CO3F•CaCO3. This group is generally widespread and, despite never occurring in large quantities, represents the major economic light rare earth element (LREE) mineral in deposits related to carbonatite and alkaline intrusions. Since bastnäsite is easily altered and commonly contains inclusions of earlier-crystallised minerals, in situ analysis is considered the most suitable method to measure its U-Th-Pb and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. Electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation (multi-collector) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry of forty-six bastnäsite samples from LREE deposits in China, Pakistan, Sweden, Mongolia, USA, Malawi and Madagascar indicate that this mineral typically has high Th and LREE and moderate U and Sr contents. Analysis of an in-house bastnäsite reference material (K-9) demonstrated that precise and accurate U-Th-Pb ages could be obtained after common Pb correction. Moreover, the Th-Pb age with its high precision is preferable to the U-Pb age because most bastnäsites have relatively high Th rather than U contents. These results will have significant implications for understanding the genesis of endogenous ore deposits and formation processes related to metallogenic geochronology research.
DS200712-0661
2007
Ma, S.Ma, S., Eaton, D.W.Western Quebec seismic zone ( Canada): clustered, midcrustal seismicity along a Mesozoic hot spot track.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, B6, B06305.Canada, QuebecGeophysics - seismics
DS201512-1937
2015
Ma, W.Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J.,Ma, W., Gravel, J., Redfearn, M.Indicator minerals in exploration for speciality metal deposits: a QEMSCAN approach.Symposium on critical and strategic materials, British Columbia Geological Survey Paper 2015-3, held Nov. 13-14, pp. 211-218.TechnologyRare earths

Abstract: Quantitative Evaluation of Materials by Scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN®) was used to assess carbonatite indicator minerals in fl uvial sediments from the drainage area of the Aley carbonatite, in north-central British Columbia. QEMSCAN® is a viable method for rapid detection and characterization of carbonatite indicator minerals with minimal processing other than dry sieving. Stream sediments from directly above, and up to 11 km downstream, of the carbonatite deposit were selected for this indicator mineral study. The geology of the Aley carbonatite is described by Mäder (1986), Kressal et al. (2010), McLeish (2013), Mackay and Simandl (2014), and Chakhmouradian et al. (2015). Traditional indicator mineral exploration methods use the 0.25-2.0 mm size fraction of unconsolidated sediments (Averill, 2001, 2014; McCurdy, 2006, 2009; McClenaghan, 2011, 2014). Indicator minerals are detectable by QEMSCAN® at particle sizes smaller than those used for hand picking (<0.25 mm). Pre-concentration (typically by shaker table) is used before heavy liquid separation, isodynamic magnetic separation, optical identifi cation using a binocular microscope, and hand picking (McClenaghan, 2011). Following additional sieving, the 0.5-1 and 1-2 mm fractions are hand picked for indicator minerals while the 0.25-0.5 mm fraction is subjected to paramagnetic separation before hand picking (Averill, 2001; McClenaghan, 2011). Hand picking indicator minerals focuses on monomineralic grains, and composite grains may be lost during processing. Composite grains are diffi cult and time consuming to hand pick and characterize using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. A single grain mount can take 6-12 hours to chemically analyse (Layton- Matthews et al., 2014). Detailed sample analysis using the QEMSCAN® Particle Mineral Analysis routine allows for 5-6 samples to be analyzed per day. When only mineral identifi cation and mineral concentrations and counts are required, the use of a Bulk Mineral Analysis routine reduces the analysis time from ~4 hours to ~30 minutes per sample.
DS201605-0864
2016
Ma, W.Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J., Ma, W., Redfearn, M., Gravel, J.Indicator mineral-based exploration for carbonatites and related specialty metal deposits - a QEMSCAN orientation survey, British Columbia. Aley, Lonnie, WicheedaJournal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 165, pp. 159-173.Canada, British ColumbiaGeochemistry - carbonatites

Abstract: This orientation survey indicates that Quantitative Evaluation of Materials by Scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN®) is a viable alternative to traditional indicator mineral exploration approaches which involve complex processing followed by visual indicator mineral hand-picking with a binocular microscope. Representative polished smear sections of the 125-250 µm fraction (dry sieved and otherwise unprocessed) and corresponding Mozley C800 table concentrates from the drainages of three carbonatites (Aley, Lonnie, and Wicheeda) in the British Columbia Alkaline Province of the Canadian Cordillera were studied. Polished smear sections (26 × 46 mm slide size) contained an average of 20,000 exposed particles. A single section can be analyzed in detail using the Particle Mineral Analysis routine in approximately 3.5-4.5 h. If only mineral identification and mineral concentrations are required, the Bulk Mineral Analysis routine reduces the analytical time to 30 min. The most useful carbonatite indicator minerals are niobates (pyrochlore and columbite), REE-fluorocarbonates, monazite, and apatite. Niobate minerals were identified in the 125-250 µm fraction of stream sediment samples more than 11 km downstream from the Aley carbonatite (their source) without the need for pre-concentration. With minimal processing by Mozley C800, carbonatite indicator minerals were detected downstream of the Lonnie and Wicheeda carbonatites. The main advantages of QEMSCAN® over the traditional indicator mineral exploration techniques are its ability to: 1) analyze very small minerals, 2) quickly determine quantitative sediment composition and mineralogy by both weight percent and mineral count, 3) establish mineral size distribution within the analyzed size fraction, and 4) determine the proportions of monomineralic (liberated) grains to compound grains and statistically assess mineral associations in compound grains. One of the key advantages is that this method permits the use of indicator minerals based on their chemical properties. This is impossible to accomplish using visual identification.
DS1983-0423
1983
Ma, WENYUN.Ma, WENYUN.A Tentative Model for the Formation of Quaternary Valley Placer Diamond Deposits.Geological Review., Vol. 29, No. 6, PP. 545-552.ChinaAlluvial Diamond Placers
DS1998-0909
1998
Ma, X.Ma, X., Bai, J.Precambrian crustal evolution of China. revised by A.C. CadmanSpringer, 336p. $ 160.00ChinaBook - ad, Precambrian geology
DS201801-0063
2017
Ma, X.Simandl, G.J., Mackay, D.A.R., Ma, X., Luck, P., Gravel, J., Akam, C.The direct indicator mineral concept and QEMSCAN applied to exploration for carbonatite and carbonatite related ore deposits.in: Ferbey, T. Plouffe, A., Hickein, A.S. eds. Indicator minerals in tills and stream sediments of the Canadian Cordillera. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper,, Vol. 50, pp. 175-190.Canada, British Columbiacarbonatite - Aley, Lonnie, Wicheeda

Abstract: This volume consists of a series of papers of importance to indicator minerals in the Canadian Cordillera. Topics include the glacial history of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, drift prospecting methods, the evolution of survey sampling strategies, new analytical methods, and recent advances in applying indicators minerals to mineral exploration. This volume fills a notable knowledge gap on the use of indicator minerals in the Canadian Cordillera. We hope that the volume serves as a user guide, encouraging the wider application of indicator minerals by the exploration community.
DS200812-0812
2008
Ma, Y.Oganov, A.R., Ono, S., Ma, Y., Glass, C.W., Garcia, A.Novel high pressure structures of MgCo3, CaCo3 and CO2 and their role in Earth's lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 273, pp. 38-47.MantleUHP, Carbon storage
DS200912-0554
2008
Ma, Y.Organoc, A.R., Ono, S., Ma, Y.Where is the mantle's carbon?American Geological Union, Fall meeting Dec. 15-19, Eos Trans. Vol. 89, no. 53, meeting supplement, 1p. abstractMantleReduction
DS201112-1100
2011
Ma, Y.Wang, K., Fan, H., Yang, K., Hu, F., Ma, Y.Bayan Obo carbonatites: texture evidence from polyphase intrusive and extrusive carbonatites.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 84, 6, pp. 1365-1376.Asia, ChinaCarbonatite
DS201312-0347
2012
Ma, Y.Guo, S., Ye, K., Wu, Y., Chen, Y., Yang, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, J., Mao, Q., Ma, Y.A potential method to confirm the previous existence of lawsonite in eclogite: the mass imbalance of Sr and LREEs in multi stage epidote ( Ganghe, Dabie UHP terrane).Journal of Metamorphic Gology, Vol. 31, 4, pp. 415-435.ChinaUHP
DS201412-0383
2014
Ma, Y.Huang, Q., Yu, D., Xu, B., Hu, W., Ma, Y., Wang, Y., Zhao, Z., Wen, B., He, J., Liu, Z., Tian, Y.Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability.Nature, Vol. 510, June 12, pp. 250-253.TechnologyDiamond synthetic
DS201804-0747
2017
Ma, Y.Tang, S., Song, Z., Lu, T., Su, J., Ma, Y.Two natural type IIa diamonds with strong phosphorescence and Ni related defects.Gems & Gemology Lab Notes, Vol. 53, 4, pp. 476-478.Technologyfluoresecence

Abstract: Strong phosphorescence under UV excitation is rarely seen in natural diamond and normally limited to hydrogen-rich type Ia or type IaA/Ib chameleons and type IIb diamonds (T. Hainschwang et al., "A gemological study of a collection of chameleon diamonds," Spring 2005 G&G, pp. 20-35; S. Eaton-Magaña and R. Lu, "Phosphorescence in type IIb diamonds," Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2011, pp. 983-989). When seen in other diamond types, an even rarer occurrence, it is shorter and less intense. Recently, the National Gemstone Testing Center (NGTC) in Beijing encountered two natural diamonds that showed extraordinarily strong blue phosphorescence and uncommon fluorescence colors under the DiamondView.
DS201808-1792
2018
Ma, Y.Tang, S., Su, J., Lu, T., Ma, Y., Ke, J., Song, Z., Zhang, S., Liu, H.A thick overgrowth of CVD synthetic diamond on a natural diamond.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, 2, pp. 134-141.Technologysynthetics

Abstract: In October 2017, a natural diamond overgrown by a thick layer of CVD synthetic diamond was identified at the Beijing laboratory of the National Gemstone Testing Center (NGTC). The round-brilliant-cut sample was near-colourless and weighed 0.11 ct. No sign of the overgrowth was observed with magnification. However, DiamondView images showed a distinct boundary in the pavilion separating layers of different luminescence: The upper layer displayed red fluorescence with greenish blue phosphorescence, while the lower portion showed deep blue fluorescence and no phosphorescence. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the upper layer was type IIa and the lower portion was type Ia. Ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy recorded an unusual co-existence of the N3 centre at 415 nm together with absorption due to [Si-V]-defects at 737 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum confirmed a high level of [Si-V]-defects. The approximate thickness of the CVD synthetic layer was ~740 µm, which is much thicker than previously reported for such overgrowths. The presence of the N3 centre in the natural diamond layer caused this sample to be passed as natural by various screening instruments. Luminescence imaging is key to identifying such overgrowths, and should be relied upon more heavily in the screening procedures used by gemmological laboratories in the future.
DS202001-0047
2020
Ma, Y.Wang, X., Xiao, Y., Sun, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, J., Yang, K., Gu, H., Hou, Z., Tian, Y., Wu, W., Ma, Y.Initiation of the North China craton destruction: constraints from the diamond bearing alkaline basalts from Langan, China.Gondwana Research, Vol. 80, pp. 228-243.Chinacraton

Abstract: The North China Craton (NCC) is an atypical ancient landmass that suffered lithospheric destruction. Previous studies suggest that the eastern part of the lithospheric mantle of the NCC has been thinned and modified in the Mesozoic. However, the initiation time and mechanism of the destruction remain controversial. Mafic magmatismcould provide a unique windowinto deciphering the lithospheric mantle composition and its evolution. Here we present geochemical and geochronological data of the diamond-bearing alkaline basalts from Lan'gan, located in the southeastern margin of the NCC. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded an average age of 174 ± 14 Ma, representing the first reported Jurassic basalts in the eastern NCC. The Lan'gan basalts are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithosphile elements (LILE). Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70646-0.70925, eNd(t) = -2.1 to -4.9, 206Pb/204Pb(t) = 17.14-18.12, 207Pb/204Pb(t) = 15.28-15.61, 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 37.82-38.67, and zircon eHf(t) = -17 to -21) are enriched compared to depleted mantle. The presence of primary amphibole indicates that the magma source of the basalts was water enriched. These observations suggest that, the lithospheric mantle of the eastern NCC were significantly refertilized, likely by slab derived fluids/melts fromthe Paleo-Pacific subduction. Owing to the Paleo-Pacific subduction, the lithosphericmantle of the eastern NCCwere reduced in viscosity and intensity, and finally promoted partialmelting in a limited scale to generate the investigated alkaline basalts. Hence, the discovery of diamond in the Lan'gan basalts demonstrates that the lithosphere of the NCC remained thick, and that large-scale destruction had not initiated in the early Jurassic beneath this region.
DS202004-0542
2020
Ma, Y.Wang, X., Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, J., Yang, K., Gu, H., Hou, Z., Tian, Y., Wu, W., Ma, Y.Initiation of the North China Craton destruction: constraints from the diamond bearing alkaline basalts from Langan China.Gondwana Research, Vol. 80, pp. 228-243.Chinadeposit - Langan

Abstract: The North China Craton (NCC) is an atypical ancient landmass that suffered lithospheric destruction. Previous studies suggest that the eastern part of the lithospheric mantle of the NCC has been thinned and refertilized in the Mesozoic. However, the initiation time and mechanism of the destruction remain controversial. Mafic magmatism could provide a unique window into deciphering the lithospheric mantle composition and its evolution. Here we present geochemical and geochronological data of the diamond-bearing alkaline basalts from Lan'gan, located in the southeastern margin of the NCC. Zircon UPb dating yielded an average age of 174?±?14?Ma, representing the first reported Jurassic basalts in the eastern NCC. The Lan'gan basalts are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithosphile elements (LILE). Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t)?=?0.70646-0.70925, eNd(t)?=?-2.1 to -4.9, 206Pb/204Pb(t)?=?17.14-18.12, 207Pb/204Pb(t)?=?15.28-15.61, 208Pb/204Pb(t)?=?37.82-38.67, and zircon eHf(t)?=?-17 to -21) are slightly enriched compared to depleted mantle. The presence of primary amphibole indicates that the magma source of the basalts was water enriched. These observations suggest that, the lithospheric mantle of the eastern NCC were significantly refertilized, likely by slab derived fluids/melts from the Paleo-Pacific subduction. Owing to the Paleo-Pacific subduction, the lithospheric mantle of the eastern NCC were reduced in viscosity and intensity, and finally promoted partial melting in a limited scale to generate the investigated alkaline basalts. Hence, the discovery of diamond in the Lan'gan basalts demonstrates that the lithosphere of the NCC remained thick, and that large-scale destruction had not initiated in the early Jurassic beneath this region.
DS200512-0665
2004
Ma, Z.Ma, Z., Gao, X.Some thoughts on the research on continental tectonics, oceanic tectonics and earth tectonics.Earth Science Frontiers, Vol. 11, 4, pp. 9-14. Ingenta 1045384804ChinaTectonics
DS1980-0221
1980
Ma DaquanMa DaquanComparative Study of Pyropes in Kimberlites from Eastern Chin a and Discussion on Their Genetic Conditions.Chi. Acad. Geol. Sci. Bulletin., SER. 8, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 26-38. 18 REFS.China, Guizhou, Songhe, Hubei, Henan, Shandong, LiaoningMineral Chemistry, Garnet, Pyrope
DS1983-0420
1983
Ma daquanMa daquan, ZHAO ZIJIE, Xu tao, LU DENGGRONG.On the Petrological Characteristics of Micaceous Kimberlite and Accompanied Meta-alkaline Ultrabasic Rocks at Maping, Quizhou Province.Bulletin. Institute GEOL. GEOL. (CHINESE ACAD. GEOL. SCI.), No. 7, PP. 65-75.China, QuizhouMineralogy, Petrology, Micaceous
DS1983-0421
1983
Ma daquanMa daquan, ZHAO ZIJIE, Xu tao, LU DENGRONG.The petrological characteristics of micaceous kimberlite and accompanied meta alkaline ultrabasic rocks at Maping, Guizhou.*CHIBulletin. Yichang Institute Geol. and Min. Res.*CHI, Vol. 7, pp. 65-75ChinaPetrology, Kimberlite
DS1991-0797
1991
Ma KaiyiJiang Mei, Ma KaiyiThe magnetic lineament map of Chin a and adjacent sea areasGlobal tectonics and Metallogeny, Vol. 3, No. 4, July, pp. 193-211ChinaStructure -lineament, Geophysics -magnetics
DS1983-0422
1983
Ma WenyumMa WenyumModel Experiment for the Formation of Quaternary Diamond Placers.*chiDizhi Lunping, *CHI, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 545-552ChinaPlacer, Diamond
DS1981-0275
1981
Ma xingyuan, WU ZHENGWEN.Ma xingyuan, WU ZHENGWEN.Early Tectonic Evolution of ChinaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 14, PP. 185-202.ChinaRegional Structure, Geotectonics
DS202106-0965
2021
Maacha, L.Pujol-Sola, N., Dominguez-Carretero, D., Proenza, J.A., Haissen, F., Ikenne, M., Gonzales-Jiminez, J.M., Colas, V., Maacha, L., Garcia-Casco, A.The chromitites of the Neoproterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite ( central Anti-Atlas, Morocco) revisited.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 134, 104166, 24p. PdfAfrica, Moroccomoissanite

Abstract: The Neoproterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas Panafrican belt hosts numerous chromitite orebodies within the peridotite section of the oceanic mantle. The chromitites are strongly affected by serpentinization and metamorphism, although they still preserve igneous relicts amenable for petrogenetic interpretation. The major, minor and trace element composition of unaltered chromite cores reveal two compositional groups: intermediate-Cr (Cr# = 0.60 - 0.74) and high-Cr (Cr# = 0.79 - 0.84) and estimates of parental melt compositions suggest crystallization from pulses of fore-arc basalts (FAB) and boninitic melts, respectively, that infiltrated the oceanic supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle. A platinum group elements (PGE) mineralization dominated by Ir-Ru-Os is recognized in the chromitites, which has its mineralogical expression in abundant inclusions of Os-Ir alloys and coexisting magmatic laurite (RuS2) and their products of metamorphic alteration. Unusual mineral phases in chromite, not previously reported in this ophiolite, include super-reduced and/or nominally ultra-high pressure minerals moissanite (SiC), native Cu and silicates (oriented clinopyroxene lamellae), but “exotic” zircon and diaspore have also been identified. We interpret that clinopyroxene lamellae have a magmatic origin, whereas super-reduced phases originated during serpentinization processes and diaspore is linked to late circulation of low-silica fluids related to rodingitization. Zircon grains, on the other hand, with apatite and serpentine inclusions, could either have formed after the interaction of chromitite with mantle-derived melts or could represent subducted detrital sediments later incorporated into the chromitites. We offer a comparison of the Bou Azzer chromitites with other Precambrian ophiolitic chromitites worldwide, which are rather scarce in the geological record. The studied chromitites are very similar to the Neoproterozoic chromitites reported in the Arabian-Nubian shield, which are also related to the Panafrican orogeny. Thus, we conclude that the Bou Azzer chromitites formed in a subduction-initiation geodynamic setting with two-stages of evolution, with formation of FAB-derived intermediate-Cr chromitites in the early stage and formation of boninite-derived high-Cr chromitites in the late stage.
DS1950-0110
1952
Maack, R.Maack, R.Die Entwicklung der Gondwana Schichten Sued brasiliens und Ihre Beziehungen zur Karru-formation Suedafrikas.International GEOL. CONGRRESS 19TH. SYMPOSIUM SUR LES SERIES DE GO, PP. 341-372.South AfricaGeomorphology
DS200812-0231
2007
Maake, L.Compton, J.S., Maake, L.Source of the suspended load of the upper Orange River, South Africa.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 110, 2-3, Sept. pp. 339-348.Africa, South AfricaGeomorphology
DS1987-0230
1987
Maaloe, S.Furnes, H., Pedersen, R.B., Maaloe, S.Petrology and geochemistry of spinel peridotite nodules and host basalt, VestspitsbergenNorsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 66, pp. 53-68NorwayMineral Chemistry
DS1987-0429
1987
Maaloe, S.Maaloe, S.The generation and shape of feeder dykes from mantle sourcesContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 47-55GlobalMantle, Dike
DS1995-1132
1995
Maaloe, S.Maaloe, S.Geochemical aspects of primary magma accumulation from extended sourceregionsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 59, No. 24, Dec. 1, pp. 5091-5102MantleMagma, Geochemistry
DS1998-0910
1998
Maaloe, S.Maaloe, S.Extraction of primary abyssal tholeiite from a stratified plumeJournal of Geology, Vol. 106, No. 2, March pp. 163-179.MantleHarzburgite, Melt layers, plumes
DS1998-0911
1998
Maaloe, S.Maaloe, S.Melt dynamics of a layered mantle plume sourceContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 133, No. 1-2, pp. 83-95.MantlePlume, Geodynamics
DS2002-1012
2002
MaasMatteini, M., Mazzuoli, R., Omarini, R., Cas, R., MaasThe geochemical variations of the upper Cenozoic volcanism along Calama Olacapato El Toro transversalTectonophysics, Vol.345,1-4,Feb.15, pp. 211-27.AndesGeodynamics - tectonics, fault system, Petrogenetic
DS1996-0463
1996
Maas, R.Foster, J.G., Lambert, D.D., Maas, R.Rhenium- Osmium (Re-Os) isotopic evidence for genesis of Archean nickel ores from uncontaminated komatiitesNature, Vol. 382, No. 6593, Aug. 22, pp. 703-705AustraliaNickel, komatiites, Geochronology
DS1997-0706
1997
Maas, R.Maas, R., Nicholls, I.A., Legg, C.Igneous and metamorphic enclaves in the S type Deddick granodiorite Lach lanfold belt, petrographic, geochem.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 38, No. 7, July pp. 815-842AustraliaGeochronology, crustal melting, Magma mixing
DS1998-1558
1998
Maas, R.Waight, T.E., Weaver, S.D., Maas, R., Eby, G.N.French Creek granite and Hohanu Dyke swarm: Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatism and opening of Tasman SeaAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 6, Dec. pp. 823-36.GlobalAlkaline rocks
DS2002-0804
2002
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R.Mantle melt evolution (dynamic source) in the origin of single MORB suite: a perspective from magnesian glasses of MacQuarie Island.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 10, Oct.pp. 1909-22.Australia, MacQuarie IslandMelt - chemistry
DS200512-0495
2004
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Danyushevsky, L.V., Thomas, R., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Kimberlite melts rich in alkali chlorides and carbonates: a potent metasomatic agent in the mantle.Geology, Vol. 32, 10, Oct. pp. 845-848.Russia, Siberia, YakutiaUdachnaya, Group I, volatiles, metasomatism, inclusions
DS200512-0666
2005
Maas, R.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sobolev, N.V.Sr Nd Pb isotope evidence for a mantle origin of alkali chlorides and carbonates in the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia.Geology, Vol. 33, 7, July, pp. 549-552.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology - Udachnaya
DS200612-0660
2006
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Maas, R., Faure, K., Sobolev, A.V.Why are Udachnaya East pipe kimberlites enriched in Cl and alkalis but poor in H2O?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 3. abstract only.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya mineral chemistry
DS200712-0662
2007
Maas, R.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sharygin, V.V.Recycled oceanic crust as a possible source of kimberlites - isotopic evidence from perovskite, Udachnaya-East pipe, Siberia.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A608.Russia, SiberiaUdachnaya-East
DS200812-0539
2008
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V., Maas, R., Sharygin, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya East pipe ( Yakutia, Russia): a petrological oddity, victim of contamination or a new magma type?9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya - taste!
DS200812-0542
2008
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R.The merits of 'recycled oceanic crust - eclogite' lineage in the mantle source of group I kimberlite melts.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A446.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya-East
DS200812-0694
2008
Maas, R.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, V., Paton, C., Sharygin, V.Low 87Sr 86 Sr in kimberlitic perovskite - further evidence for recycled oceanic crust as a possible source of kimberlites.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200912-0113
2008
Maas, R.Chesler, R., Hergt, J., Phillips, D., Maas, R.The geochemistry of the West Australian, West Kimberley province lamproites.Geological Society of Australia Abstracts, Vol. 90, p. 35. abs.AustraliaLamproite
DS201212-0347
2012
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V., Shaygin, V.V., Maas, R.Ultrafresh salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya-East pipe ( Yakutia, Russia): a petrological oddity or fortuitous discovery?Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 173-186.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya-East
DS201312-0313
2013
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Phillips, D., Wyatt, B.A., Maas, R.Oxide, sulphide and carbonate minerals in a mantle polymict breccia: metasomatism by proto-kimberlite magmas, and relationship to the kimberlite megacrystic suite.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 4-18.Africa, South AfricaKimberley district
DS201312-0314
2013
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M.K., Maas, R., Greig, A., Armstrong, R., Felgate, M.R., Kamenetsky, V.S.Dating mantle metasomatism: a new tool ( U/PB LIMA Titanate) and an imposter ( 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite).Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleMetasomatism
DS201312-0344
2013
Maas, R.Guiliani, A., Phillips, D., Fiorentini, M.L., Kendrick, M.A., Maas, R., Wing, B.A., Woodhead, J.D., Bui, T.H., Kamenetsky, V.S.Mantle oddities: a sulphate fluid preserved in a MARID xenolith from the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley South Africa).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 376, pp. 74-86.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein
DS201412-0296
2014
Maas, R.Giuliani, G., Phillips, D., Maas, R., Woodhead, J.D., Kendrick, M.A., Greig, A., Armstrong, R.A., Chew, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Fiorentini, M.I.LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 401, pp. 132-147.Africa, South AfricaKimberlite
DS201412-0439
2014
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Golovin, A.V., Maas, R., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y.Towards a new model for kimberlite petrogenesis: evidence from unaltered kimberlites and mantle minerals. Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 139, pp. 145-151.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201412-1006
2013
Maas, R.Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Nichols, G.T., Maas, R., Belousova, E., Rosenthal, A., Norman, M.The discovery of kimberlites in Antarctica extends the vast Gondwanan Cretaceous province.Nature Communications, Dec. 17, 7p.AntarcticaPrince Charles Mountains
DS201509-0405
2015
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Mitchell, R.H., Maas, R., Giuliani, A., Gaboury, D., Zhitova, L.Chlorine in mantle derived carbonatite melts revealed by halite in the St. Honore intrusion ( Quebec, Canada).Geology, Vol. 43, 8, pp. 687-690.Canada, QuebecCarbonatite

Abstract: Mantle-derived carbonatites are igneous rocks dominated by carbonate minerals. Intrusive carbonatites typically contain calcite and, less commonly, dolomite and siderite as the only carbonate minerals. In contrast, lavas erupted by the only active carbonatite volcano on Earth, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, are enriched in Na-rich carbonate phenocrysts (nyerereite and gregoryite) and Na-K halides in the groundmass. The apparent paradox between the compositions of intrusive and extrusive carbonatites has not been satisfactorily resolved. This study records the fortuitous preservation of halite in the intrusive dolomitic carbonatite of the St.-Honoré carbonatite complex (Québec, Canada), more than 490 m below the present surface. Halite occurs intergrown with, and included in, magmatic minerals typical of intrusive carbonatites; i.e., dolomite, calcite, apatite, rare earth element fluorocarbonates, pyrochlore, fluorite, and phlogopite. Halite is also a major daughter phase of melt inclusions hosted in early magmatic minerals, apatite and pyrochlore. The carbon isotope composition of dolomite (d13C = –5.2‰) and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of individual minerals (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70287 in apatite, to 0.70443 in halite; eNd = +3.2 to +4.0) indicate a mantle origin for the St.-Honoré carbonatite parental melt. More radiogenic Sr compositions of dolomite and dolomite-hosted halite and heavy oxygen isotope composition of dolomite (d18O = +23‰) suggest their formation at some time after magma emplacement by recrystallization of original magmatic components in the presence of ambient fluids. Our observations indicate that water-soluble chloride minerals, common in the modern natrocarbonatite lavas, can be significant but ephemeral components of intrusive carbonatite complexes. We therefore infer that the parental magmas that produce primary carbonatite melts might be enriched in Na and Cl. This conclusion affects existing models for mantle source compositions, melting scenarios, temperature, rheological properties, and crystallization path of carbonatite melts.
DS201606-1119
2016
Maas, R.Soltys, A., Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Woodhead, J., Rodemann, T.In-situ assimilation of mantle minerals by kimberlitic magmas - direct evidence from a garnet wehrlite xenolith entrained in the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley, South Africa).Lithos, Vol. 256-257, pp. 182-196.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The lack of consensus on the possible range of initial kimberlite melt compositions and their evolution as they ascend through and interact with mantle and crustal wall rocks, hampers a complete understanding of kimberlite petrogenesis. Attempts to resolve these issues are complicated by the fact that kimberlite rocks are mixtures of magmatic, xenocrystic and antecrystic components and, hence, are not directly representative of their parental melt composition. Furthermore, there is a lack of direct evidence of the assimilation processes that may characterise kimberlitic melts during ascent, which makes understanding their melt evolution difficult. In this contribution we provide novel constraints on the interaction between precursor kimberlite melts and lithospheric mantle wall rocks. We present detailed textural and geochemical data for a carbonate-rich vein assemblage that traverses a garnet wehrlite xenolith [equilibrated at ~ 1060 °C and 43 kbar (~ 140-145 km)] from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). This vein assemblage is dominated by Ca-Mg carbonates, with subordinate oxide minerals, olivine, sulphides, and apatite. Vein phases have highly variable compositions indicating formation under disequilibrium conditions. Primary inclusions in the vein minerals and secondary inclusion trails in host wehrlite minerals contain abundant alkali-bearing phases (e.g., Na-K bearing carbonates, Mg-freudenbergite, Na-bearing apatite and phlogopite). The Sr-isotope composition of vein carbonates overlaps those of groundmass calcite from the Bultfontein kimberlite, as well as perovskite from the other kimberlites in the Kimberley area. Clinopyroxene and garnet in the host wehrlite are resorbed and have Si-rich reaction mantles where in contact with the carbonate-rich veins. Within some veins, the carbonates occur as droplet-like, globular segregations, separated from a similarly shaped Si-rich phase by a thin meniscus of Mg-magnetite. These textures are interpreted to represent immiscibility between carbonate and silicate melts. The preservation of reaction mantles, immiscibility textures and disequilibrium in the vein assemblage, suggests quenching, probably triggered by entrainment and rapid transport toward the Earth's surface in the host kimberlite magma. Based on the Sr-isotope systematics of vein carbonate minerals, and the close temporal relationship between carbonate-rich metasomatism and kimberlite magmatism, we suggest that the carbonate-rich vein assemblage was produced by the interaction between a melt genetically related to the Bultfontein kimberlite and wehrlitic mantle wall rock. If correct, this unique xenolith sample provides a rare snapshot of the assimilation processes that might characterise parental kimberlite melts during their ascent through the lithospheric mantle.
DS201610-1877
2016
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M., Ehrig, K., Zellmer, G.F., Bindeman, I.N., Sobolev, A.V., Kuzmin, D.V., Ivanov, A.V., Woodhead, J., Schilling, J-G.Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from "high-Ti" picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces.Chemical Geology, in press available 10p.Africa, South AfricaLIP magmatism

Abstract: Magmas forming large igneous provinces (LIP) on continents are generated by extensive melting in the deep crust and underlying mantle and associated with break-up of ancient supercontinents, followed by formation of a new basaltic crust in the mid-oceanic rifts. A lack of the unifying model in understanding the sources of LIP magmatism is justified by lithological and geochemical complexity of erupted magmas on local (e.g. a cross-section) and regional (a single and different LIP) scales. Moreover, the majority of LIP rocks do not fit general criteria for recognizing primary/primitive melts (i.e. < 8 wt% MgO and absence of high-Fo olivine phenocrysts). This study presents the mineralogical (olivine, Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene), geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositional characteristics of a single primitive (16 wt% MgO), high-Ti (2.5 wt% TiO2) picrite with high-Mg olivine (up to 91 mol% Fo) from the Letaba Formation in the ~ 180 Ma Karoo LIP (south Africa). The olivine compositions (unusually high d18O (6.17‰), high NiO (0.36-0.56 wt%) and low MnO and CaO (0.12-0.20 and 0.12-0.22 wt%, respectively)) are used to argue for a non-peridotitic mantle source. This is supported by the enrichment of the rock and melts in most incompatible trace elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements (e.g. high Gd/Yb) that reflects residual garnet in the source of melting. The radiogenic isotopes resemble those of the model enriched mantle (EM-1) and further argue for a long-term enrichment of the source in incompatible trace elements. The enriched high-Ti compositions, strongly fractionated incompatible trace elements, presence of primitive olivine and high-Cr spinel in the Letaba picrites are closely matched by olivine-phyric rocks from the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan (Yongsheng area, SW China) and ~ 250 Ma Siberian (Maimecha-Kotuy region, N Siberia) LIPs. However, many other compositional parameters (e.g. trace element and d18O compositions of olivine phenocrysts, Fe2 +/Fe3 + in Cr-spinel, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios) only partially overlap or even diverge. We thus imply that parental melts of enriched picritic rocks with forsteritic olivine from three major continental igneous provinces - Karoo, Emeishan and Siberia cannot be assigned to a common mantle source and similar melting conditions. The Karoo picrites also exhibit some mineralogical and geochemical similarities with rocks and glasses in the south Atlantic Ridge and adjacent fracture zones. The geodynamic reconstructions of the continental plate motions since break-up of the Gondwanaland in the Jurassic support the current position of the source of the Karoo magmatism in the southernmost Atlantic. Co-occurrence of modern and recent anomalous rocks with normal mid-ocean ridge basalts in this region can be related to blocks/rafts of the ancient lithosphere, stranded in the ambient upper mantle and occasionally sampled by rifting-related decompressional melting.
DS201611-2110
2016
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsly, V.S., Maas, R., Geomann, K., Woodhead, J.D., Drysdale, R.N., Griffin, W.L.The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-C-O isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley, South Africa).Chemical Geology, in press available 15p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The petrogenesis of kimberlites commonly is obscured by interaction with hydrothermal fluids, including deuteric (late-magmatic) and/or groundwater components. To provide new constraints on the modification of kimberlite rocks during overprinting by such fluids and on the fractionation of kimberlite magmas during crystallisation, we have undertaken a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of a hypabyssal sample (BK) from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa).
DS201707-1327
2017
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., Woodhead, J.D., Drysdale, R.N., Griffin, W.L.The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-C-O isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley, South Africa.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 342-256.Africa, South Africadeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The petrogenesis of kimberlites is commonly obscured by interaction with hydrothermal fluids, including deuteric (late-magmatic) and/or groundwater components. To provide new constraints on the modification of kimberlite rocks during fluid interaction and the fractionation of kimberlite magmas during crystallisation, we have undertaken a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of a hypabyssal sample (BK) from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Sample BK consists of abundant macrocrysts (> 1 mm) and (micro-) phenocrysts of olivine and lesser phlogopite, smaller grains of apatite, serpentinised monticellite, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite and ilmenite in a matrix of calcite, serpentine and dolomite. As in kimberlites worldwide, BK olivine grains consist of cores with variable Mg/Fe ratios, overgrown by rims that host inclusions of groundmass phases (spinel, perovskite, phlogopite) and have constant Mg/Fe, but variable Ni, Mn and Ca concentrations. Primary multiphase inclusions in the outer rims of olivine and in Fe-Ti-rich (‘MUM’) spinel are dominated by dolomite, calcite and alkali carbonates with lesser silicate and oxide minerals. Secondary inclusions in olivine host an assemblage of Na-K carbonates and chlorides. The primary inclusions are interpreted as crystallised alkali-Si-bearing Ca-Mg-rich carbonate melts, whereas secondary inclusions host Na-K-rich C-O-H-Cl fluids. In situ Sr-isotope analyses of groundmass calcite and perovskite reveal similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios to perovskite in the Bultfontein and the other Kimberley kimberlites, i.e. magmatic values. The d18O composition of the BK bulk carbonate fraction is above the mantle range, whereas the d13C values are similar to those of mantle-derived magmas. The occurrence of different generations of serpentine and occasional groundmass calcite with high 87Sr/86Sr, and elevated bulk carbonate d18O values indicate that the kimberlite was overprinted by hydrothermal fluids, which probably included a significant groundwater component. Before this alteration the groundmass included calcite, monticellite, apatite and minor dolomite, phlogopite, spinel, perovskite and ilmenite. Inclusions of groundmass minerals in olivine rims and phlogopite phenocrysts show that olivine and phlogopite also belong to the magmatic assemblage. We therefore suggest that the crystallised kimberlite was produced by an alkali-bearing, phosphorus-rich, silica-dolomitic melt. The alkali-Si-bearing Ca-Mg-rich carbonate compositions of primary melt inclusions in the outer rims of olivine and in spinel grains with evolved compositions (MUM spinel) support formation of these melts after fractionation of abundant olivine, and probably other phases (e.g., ilmenite and chromite). Finally, the similarity between secondary inclusions in kimberlite olivine of this and other worldwide kimberlites and secondary inclusions in minerals of carbonatitic, mafic and felsic magmatic rocks, suggests trapping of residual Na-K-rich C-O-H-Cl fluids after groundmass crystallisation. These residual fluids may have persisted in pore spaces within the largely crystalline BK groundmass and subsequently mixed with larger volumes of external fluids, which triggered serpentine formation and localised carbonate recrystallisation.
DS201707-1337
2017
Maas, R.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M., Ehrig, K., Zellmer, G.F., Bindeman, I.N., Sobolev, A.V., Kuzmin, D.V., Ivanov, A.V., Woodhead, J., Schilling, J-G.Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from high Ti picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 22-31.Africa, South Africamagmatism

Abstract: Magmas forming large igneous provinces (LIP) on continents are generated by extensive melting in the deep crust and underlying mantle and associated with break-up of ancient supercontinents, followed by formation of a new basaltic crust in the mid-oceanic rifts. A lack of the unifying model in understanding the sources of LIP magmatism is justified by lithological and geochemical complexity of erupted magmas on local (e.g. a cross-section) and regional (a single and different LIP) scales. Moreover, the majority of LIP rocks do not fit general criteria for recognizing primary/primitive melts (i.e. < 8 wt% MgO and absence of high-Fo olivine phenocrysts). This study presents the mineralogical (olivine, Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene), geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositional characteristics of a single primitive (16 wt% MgO), high-Ti (2.5 wt% TiO2) picrite with high-Mg olivine (up to 91 mol% Fo) from the Letaba Formation in the ~ 180 Ma Karoo LIP (south Africa). The olivine compositions (unusually high d18O (6.17‰), high NiO (0.36–0.56 wt%) and low MnO and CaO (0.12–0.20 and 0.12–0.22 wt%, respectively)) are used to argue for a non-peridotitic mantle source. This is supported by the enrichment of the rock and melts in most incompatible trace elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements (e.g. high Gd/Yb) that reflects residual garnet in the source of melting. The radiogenic isotopes resemble those of the model enriched mantle (EM-1) and further argue for a long-term enrichment of the source in incompatible trace elements. The enriched high-Ti compositions, strongly fractionated incompatible trace elements, presence of primitive olivine and high-Cr spinel in the Letaba picrites are closely matched by olivine-phyric rocks from the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan (Yongsheng area, SW China) and ~ 250 Ma Siberian (Maimecha-Kotuy region, N Siberia) LIPs. However, many other compositional parameters (e.g. trace element and d18O compositions of olivine phenocrysts, Fe2 +/Fe3 + in Cr-spinel, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios) only partially overlap or even diverge. We thus imply that parental melts of enriched picritic rocks with forsteritic olivine from three major continental igneous provinces – Karoo, Emeishan and Siberia cannot be assigned to a common mantle source and similar melting conditions. The Karoo picrites also exhibit some mineralogical and geochemical similarities with rocks and glasses in the south Atlantic Ridge and adjacent fracture zones. The geodynamic reconstructions of the continental plate motions since break-up of the Gondwanaland in the Jurassic support the current position of the source of the Karoo magmatism in the southernmost Atlantic. Co-occurrence of modern and recent anomalous rocks with normal mid-ocean ridge basalts in this region can be related to blocks/rafts of the ancient lithosphere, stranded in the ambient upper mantle and occasionally sampled by rifting-related decompressional melting.
DS201708-1583
2017
Maas, R.Woodhead, J., Hergt, J., Guiliani, A., Phillips, D., Maas, R.Tracking continental style scale modification of the Earth's mantle using zircon megacrysts. KimberlitesGeochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 4, pp. 1-6.Africa, South Africa, Zimbabwemetasomatism, geochronology

Abstract: Metasomatism, the chemical alteration of rocks by a variety of melts and fluids, has formed a key concept in studies of the Earth’s mantle for decades. Metasomatic effects are often inferred to be far-reaching and yet the evidence for their occurrence is usually based upon individual hand specimens or suites of rocks that display considerable heterogeneity. In rare cases, however, we are offered insights into larger-scale chemical modifications that occur in the mantle. Here we utilise the Lu–Hf systematics of zircon megacrysts erupted in kimberlite magmas to discern two temporally and compositionally discrete metasomatic events in the mantle beneath southern Africa, each having an influence extending over an area exceeding one million km2. These data provide unambiguous evidence for metasomatic processes operating at continental scales and seemingly unperturbed by the age and composition of the local lithospheric mantle. The most recent of these events may be associated with the major Jurassic-Karoo magmatism in southern Africa.
DS201801-0017
2017
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Afonso, J.C., Maas, R., Melgarejo, J.C., Kohn, B.P., Matchen, E.L., Mangas, J., Goncalves, A.O., Manuel, J.Southwestern Africa on the burner: Pleistocene carbonatite volcanism linked to deep mantle upwelling in Angola.Geology, Vol. 45, 11, pp. 971=974.Africa, Angolacarbonatite - Catanda

Abstract: The origin of intraplate carbonatitic to alkaline volcanism in Africa is controversial. A tectonic control, i.e., decompression melting associated with far-field stress, is suggested by correlation with lithospheric sutures, repeated magmatic cycles in the same areas over several million years, synchronicity across the plate, and lack of clear age progression patterns. Conversely, a dominant role for mantle convection is supported by the coincidence of Cenozoic volcanism with regions of lithospheric uplift, positive free-air gravity anomalies, and slow seismic velocities. To improve constraints on the genesis of African volcanism, here we report the first radiometric and isotopic results for the Catanda complex, which hosts the only extrusive carbonatites in Angola. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages of Catanda aillikite lavas indicate eruption at ca. 500-800 ka, more than 100 m.y. after emplacement of abundant kimberlites and carbonatites in this region. The lavas share similar high-µ (HIMU)-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope compositions with other young mantle-derived volcanics from Africa (e.g., Northern Kenya Rift; Cameroon Line). The position of the Catanda complex in the Lucapa corridor, a long-lived extensional structure, suggests a possible tectonic control for the volcanism. The complex is also located on the Bié Dome, a broad region of fast Pleistocene uplift attributed to mantle upwelling. Seismic tomography models indicate convection of deep hot material beneath regions of active volcanism in Africa, including a large area encompassing Angola and northern Namibia. This is strong evidence that intraplate late Cenozoic volcanism, including the Catanda complex, resulted from the interplay between mantle convection and preexisting lithospheric heterogeneities.
DS201803-0450
2014
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Maas, R., Woodhead, J.D., Kendrick, M.A., Greig, A., Armstrong, R.A., Chew, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Fiorentini, M.L.LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 401, pp. 132-147.Africa, South Africametasomatism

Abstract: The Karoo igneous rocks (174-185 Ma) of southern Africa represent one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces on Earth. Available evidence indicates that Karoo magmas either originated in the asthenosphere and were extensively modified by interaction with the lithospheric mantle prior to emplacement in the upper crust; or were produced by partial melting of enriched mantle lithosphere. However, no direct evidence of interaction by Karoo melts (or their precursors) with lithospheric mantle rocks has yet been identified in the suites of mantle xenoliths sampled by post-Karoo kimberlites in southern Africa. Here we report U-Pb ages for lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) titanate minerals (crichtonite series) from three metasomatised, phlogopite and clinopyroxene-rich peridotite xenoliths from the ~84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa), located in the southern part of the Karoo magmatic province. The LIMA minerals appear to have formed during metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by fluids enriched in HFSE (Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb), LILE (K, Ba, Ca, Sr) and LREE. LIMA U-Pb elemental and isotopic compositions were measured in situ by LA-ICP-MS methods, and potential matrix effects were evaluated by solution-mode analysis of mineral separates. LIMA minerals from the three samples yielded apparent U-Pb ages of , and (). A single zircon grain extracted from the ~190 Ma LIMA-bearing sample produced a similar U-Pb age of , within uncertainty of the LIMA ages. These data provide the first robust evidence of fluid enrichment in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley region at ~180-190 Ma, and suggest causation of mantle metasomatism by Karoo melts or their precursor(s). The results further indicate that U-Pb dating of LIMA minerals provides a new, accurate tool for dating metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle.
DS201803-0451
2018
Maas, R.Giuliani, A., Woodhead, J.D., Phillips, D., Maas, R., Davies, G.R.Titanates of the lindsleyite mathiasite ( LIMA) group reveal isotope disequilibrium associated with metasomatism in the mantle beneath Kimberley ( South Africa).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 482, pp. 253-264.Africa, South Africametasomatism

Abstract: Radiogenic isotope variations unrelated to radiogenic ingrowth are common between minerals found in metasomatised mantle xenoliths entrained in kimberlite, basalts and related magmas. As the metasomatic minerals are assumed to have been in isotopic equilibrium originally, such variations are typically attributed to contamination by the magma host and/or interaction with mantle fluids during or before xenolith transport to surface. However, the increasing evidence of metasomatism by multiple, compositionally distinct fluids permeating the lithospheric mantle, coeval with specific magmatic events, suggests that isotopic disequilibrium might be a consequence of discrete, though complex, metasomatic events. Here we provide clear evidence of elemental and Sr isotope heterogeneity between coeval Ti-rich LIMA (lindsleyite–mathiasite) minerals at the time of their formation in the mantle. LIMA minerals occur in close textural association with clinopyroxene and phlogopite in low-temperature (~800–900?°C), strongly metasomatised mantle xenoliths from the ~84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (South Africa). Previous U/Pb dating of the LIMA phases was used to argue that each xenolith recorded a single event of LIMA crystallisation at ~180–190 Ma, coeval with the emplacement of Karoo magmas. SEM imaging reveals that up to four types of LIMA phases coexist in each xenolith, and occasionally in a single LIMA grain. Major element and in situ Sr isotope analyses of the different LIMA types show that each phase has a distinct elemental composition and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (e.g., 0.7068–0.7086 and 0.7115–0.7129 for two LIMA types in a single xenolith; 0.7053-0.7131 across the entire sample suite). These combined age and isotopic constraints require that multiple fluids metasomatised these rocks at broadly the same time (i.e. within a few thousands to millions of years), and produced similar mineralogical features. Elemental and isotopic variations between different LIMA types could be due to interaction between one (or more) Karoo-related Ti-rich silicate melts and previously metasomatised, phlogopite-rich lithospheric mantle. This study demonstrates that mantle metasomatic assemblages seemingly generated in a single event may instead result from the infiltration of broadly coeval fluids with variable compositions. This in turn implies that the isotopic variations recorded in mantle rocks may be an inherent feature of metasomatism, and that hot fluids infiltrating a rock do not necessarily cause equilibration at the cm scale, as has been assumed previously. Simple modelling of solid-state diffusion in mantle minerals shows that isotopic disequilibrium may be preserved for up to hundreds of Myr at mantle lithosphere temperatures (=1100–1200?°C), unless subsequently affected by transient heating and/or fluid infiltration events. Radiogenic isotope disequilibrium associated with mantle metasomatism may therefore be a common feature of mantle xenoliths.
DS201807-1489
2018
Maas, R.Farr, H., Phillips, D., Maas, R., de Wit, M.Petrography, Sr isotope geochemistry and geochronology of the Nxau-Nxau kimberlites, north west Botswana.Mineralogy and Petrology, June 14, DOI:10.1007/ s00710-018- 0593-8, 14p.Africa, Botswanadeposit - Nxau

Abstract: The Nxau Nxau kimberlites in northwest Botswana belong to the Xaudum kimberlite province that also includes the Sikereti, Kaudom and Gura kimberlite clusters in north-east Namibia. The Nxau Nxau kimberlites lie on the southernmost extension of the Congo Craton, which incorporates part of the Damara Orogenic Belt on its margin. The Xaudum kimberlite province is geographically isolated from other known clusters but occurs within the limits of the NW-SE oriented, Karoo-aged Okavango Dyke Swarm and near NE-SW faults interpreted as the early stages of the East African Rift System. Petrographic, geochronological and isotopic studies were undertaken to characterise the nature of these kimberlites and the timing of their emplacement. The Nxau Nxau kimberlites exhibit groundmass textures, mineral phases and Sr-isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sri of 0.7036?±?0.0002; 2s) that are characteristic of archetypal (Group I) kimberlites. U-Pb perovskite, 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite and Rb-Sr phlogopite ages indicate that the kimberlites were emplaced in the Cretaceous, with perovskite from four samples yielding a preferred weighted average U-Pb age of 84?±?4 Ma (2s). This age is typical of many kimberlites in southern Africa, indicating that the Xaudum occurrences form part of this widespread Late Cretaceous kimberlite magmatic province. This time marks a significant period of tectonic stress reorganisation that could have provided the trigger for kimberlite magmatism. In this regard, the Nxau Nxau kimberlites may form part of a NE-SW oriented trend such as the Lucapa corridor, with implications for further undiscovered kimberlites along this corridor.
DS201812-2797
2018
Maas, R.Das, H., Kobussen, A.F., Webb, K.J., Phillips, D., Maas, R., Soltys, A., Rayner, M.J., Howell, D.Bunder deposit: The Bunder diamond project, India: geology, geochemistry, and age of Saptarshi lamproite pipes.Society of Economic Geology Geoscience and Exploration of the Argyle, Bunder, Diavik, and Murowa Diamond Deposits, Special Publication no. 20, pp. 201-222.Indiadeposit - Bunder
DS201902-0271
2019
Maas, R.Fitzpayne, A., Giuliani, A., Maas, R., Hergt, J., Janney, P., Phillips, D.Progressive metasomatism of the mantle by kimberlite melts: Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions of MARID and PIC minerals.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 506, pp. 15-26.Africa, South Africadeposit - Newlands, Kimberley, Bultfontein

Abstract: MARID (Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside) and PIC (Phlogopite-Ilmenite-Clinopyroxene) rocks occur as mantle-derived xenoliths in kimberlites and other alkaline volcanic rocks. Both rock types are alkaline and ultramafic in composition. The H2O and alkali metal enrichments in MARID and PIC rocks, reflected in abundant phlogopite, have been suggested to be caused by extreme mantle metasomatism. Radiogenic (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) isotope and trace element compositions for mineral separates from MARID (clinopyroxene and amphibole) and PIC (clinopyroxene only) samples derived from Cretaceous kimberlites (Kimberley) and orangeites (Newlands) from South Africa are used here to examine the source(s) of mantle metasomatism. PIC clinopyroxene is relatively homogeneous, with narrow ranges in initial isotopic composition (calculated to the emplacement age of the host Bultfontein kimberlite; 87Sr/86Sri: 0.7037-0.7041; eNdi: +3.0 to +3.6; eHfi: +2.2 to +2.5; 206Pb/204Pbi: 19.72-19.94) similar to kimberlite values. This is consistent with PIC rocks representing peridotites modified by intense metasomatic interaction with kimberlite melts. The MARID clinopyroxene and amphibole separates () studied here display broader ranges in isotope composition (e.g., 87Sr/86Sri: 0.705-0.711; eNdi: -11.0 to -1.0; eHfi: -17.9 to -8.5; 206Pb/204Pbi: 17.33-18.72) than observed in previous studies of MARID rocks. The Nd-Hf isotope compositions of kimberlite-derived MARID samples fall below the mantle array (?eHfi between -13.0 and -2.4), a feature reported widely for kimberlites and other alkaline magmas. We propose that such displacements in MARID minerals result from metasomatic alteration of an initial “enriched mantle” MARID composition (i.e., 87Sr/86Sri = 0.711; eNdi = -11.0; eHfi = -17.9; and 206Pb/204Pbi = 17.3) by the entraining kimberlite magma (87Sr/86Sr; eNd; eHf; 206Pb/204Pb). A model simulating the flow of kimberlite magma through a mantle column, thereby gradually equilibrating the isotopic and chemical compositions of the MARID wall-rock with those of the kimberlite magma, broadly reproduces the Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions of the MARID minerals analysed here. This model also suggests that assimilation of MARID components could be responsible for negative ?eHfi values in kimberlites. The isotopic composition of the inferred initial MARID end-member, with high 87Sr/86Sr and low eNd, eHf, and 206Pb/204Pb, resembles those found in orangeites, supporting previous inferences of a genetic link between MARID-veined mantle and orangeites. The metasomatic agent that produced such compositions in MARID rocks must be more extreme than the EM-II mantle component and may relate to recycled material that experienced long-term storage in the lithospheric mantle.
DS201905-1017
2019
Maas, R.Boger, S.D., Maas, R., Pastuhov, M., Macey, P.H., Hirdes, W., Schulte, B., Fanning, C.M., Ferreira, C.A.M., Jenett, T., Dallwig, R.The tectonic domains of southern and western Madagascar.Precambrian Research, Vol. 327, pp. 144-175.Africa, Madagascarplate tectonics

Abstract: Southern and western Madagascar is comprised of five tectonic provinces that, from northeast to southwest, are defined by the: (i) Ikalamavony, (ii) Anosyen, (iii) Androyen, (iv) Graphite and (v) Vohibory Domains. The Ikalamavony, Graphite and Vohibory Domains all have intermediate and felsic igneous protoliths of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-granite composition, with positive eNd, and low Sr and Pb isotopic ratios. All three domains are interpreted to be the products of intra-oceanic island arc magmatism. The protoliths of the Ikalamavony and Graphite Domains formed repectively between c. 1080-980?Ma and 1000-920?Ma, whereas those of the Vohibory Domain are younger and date to between c. 670-630?Ma. Different post-formation geologic histories tie the Vohibory-Graphite and Ikalamavony Domains to opposite sides of the pre-Gondwana Mozambique Ocean. By contrast, the Androyen and Anosyen Domains record long crustal histories. Intermediate to felsic igneous protoliths in the Androyen Domain are of Palaeoproterozoic age (c. 2200-1800?Ma), of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-granite composition, and show negative eNd, moderate to high 87Sr/86Sr and variable Pb isotopic compositions. The felsic igneous protoliths of the Anosyen Domain are of granitic composition and, when compared to felsic gneisses of the Androyen Domain, show consistently lower Sr/Y and markedly higher Sr and Pb isotope ratios. Like the Vohibory and Graphite Domains, the Androyen Domain can be linked to the western side of the Mozambique Ocean, while the Anosyen Domain shares magmatic and detrital zircon commonalities with the Ikalamavony Domain. It is consequently linked to the opposing eastern side of this ocean. The first common event observed in all domains dates to c. 580-520?Ma and marks the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The trace of this suture lies along the boundary between the Androyen and Anosyen Domains and is defined by the Beraketa high-strain zone.
DS201910-2257
2019
Maas, R.Fitzpayne, A., Giuliani, A., Maas, R., Hergt, J., Janney, P., Phillips, D.Progressive metasomatism of the mantle by kimberliitic melts: Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic composition of MARID and PIC minerals.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractMantlemetasomatism

Abstract: MARID (Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside) and PIC (Phlogopite-Ilmenite-Clinopyroxene) rocks occur as mantle-derived xenoliths in kimberlites and other alkaline volcanic rocks. Both rock types are alkaline and ultramafic in composition. The H2O and alkali metal enrichments in MARID and PIC rocks, reflected in abundant phlogopite, have been suggested to be caused by extreme mantle metasomatism. Radiogenic (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) isotope and trace element compositions for mineral separates from MARID (clinopyroxene and amphibole) and PIC (clinopyroxene only) samples derived from Cretaceous kimberlites (Kimberley) and orangeites (Newlands) from South Africa are used here to examine the source(s) of mantle metasomatism. PIC clinopyroxene ( n = 4 ) is relatively homogeneous, with narrow ranges in initial isotopic composition (calculated to the emplacement age of the host Bultfontein kimberlite; 87Sr/86Sri: 0.7037-0.7041; eNdi: +3.0 to +3.6; eHfi: +2.2 to +2.5; 206Pb/204Pbi: 19.72-19.94) similar to kimberlite values. This is consistent with PIC rocks representing peridotites modified by intense metasomatic interaction with kimberlite melts. The MARID clinopyroxene ( n = 9 ) and amphibole separates ( n = 11 ) studied here display broader ranges in isotope composition (e.g., 87Sr/86Sri: 0.705-0.711; eNdi: -11.0 to -1.0; eHfi: -17.9 to -8.5; 206Pb/204Pbi: 17.33-18.72) than observed in previous studies of MARID rocks. The Nd-Hf isotope compositions of kimberlite-derived MARID samples fall below the mantle array (?eHfi between -13.0 and -2.4), a feature reported widely for kimberlites and other alkaline magmas. We propose that such displacements in MARID minerals result from metasomatic alteration of an initial “enriched mantle” MARID composition (i.e., 87Sr/86Sri = 0.711; eNdi = -11.0; eHfi = -17.9; and 206Pb/204Pbi = 17.3) by the entraining kimberlite magma (87Sr/86Sr ~ i 0.704 ; eNd ~ i + 3.3 ; eHf ~ i + 2.3 ; 206Pb/204Pb ~ i 19.7 ). A model simulating the flow of kimberlite magma through a mantle column, thereby gradually equilibrating the isotopic and chemical compositions of the MARID wall-rock with those of the kimberlite magma, broadly reproduces the Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions of the MARID minerals analysed here. This model also suggests that assimilation of MARID components could be responsible for negative ?eHfi values in kimberlites. The isotopic composition of the inferred initial MARID end-member, with high 87Sr/86Sr and low eNd, eHf, and 206Pb/204Pb, resembles those found in orangeites, supporting previous inferences of a genetic link between MARID-veined mantle and orangeites. The metasomatic agent that produced such compositions in MARID rocks must be more extreme than the EM-II mantle component and may relate to recycled material that experienced long-term storage in the lithospheric mantle.
DS201910-2308
2019
Maas, R.Woodhead, J., Hergt, J., Giuliani, A., Maas, R., Philips, D., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.Kimberlites reveal 2.5-nillion year evolution of a deep, isolated mantle reservoir.Nature, Vol. 573, pp. 578-581.Mantlemelting

Abstract: The widely accepted paradigm of Earth's geochemical evolution states that the successive extraction of melts from the mantle over the past 4.5 billion years formed the continental crust, and produced at least one complementary melt-depleted reservoir that is now recognized as the upper-mantle source of mid-ocean-ridge basalts1. However, geochemical modelling and the occurrence of high 3He/4He (that is, primordial) signatures in some volcanic rocks suggest that volumes of relatively undifferentiated mantle may reside in deeper, isolated regions2. Some basalts from large igneous provinces may provide temporally restricted glimpses of the most primitive parts of the mantle3,4, but key questions regarding the longevity of such sources on planetary timescales—and whether any survive today—remain unresolved. Kimberlites, small-volume volcanic rocks that are the source of most diamonds, offer rare insights into aspects of the composition of the Earth’s deep mantle. The radiogenic isotope ratios of kimberlites of different ages enable us to map the evolution of this domain through time. Here we show that globally distributed kimberlites originate from a single homogeneous reservoir with an isotopic composition that is indicative of a uniform and pristine mantle source, which evolved in isolation over at least 2.5 billion years of Earth history—to our knowledge, the only such reservoir that has been identified to date. Around 200 million years ago, extensive volumes of the same source were perturbed, probably as a result of contamination by exogenic material. The distribution of affected kimberlites suggests that this event may be related to subduction along the margin of the Pangaea supercontinent. These results reveal a long-lived and globally extensive mantle reservoir that underwent subsequent disruption, possibly heralding a marked change to large-scale mantle-mixing regimes. These processes may explain why uncontaminated primordial mantle is so difficult to identify in recent mantle-derived melts.
DS201911-2575
2019
Maas, R.Woodhead, J., Hergt, J., Giuliani, A., Maas, R., Phillips, D., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.Kimberlites reveal 2.5 billion year evolution of a deep, isolated mantle reservoir.Nature , Vol. 573, pp. 578-581.Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: The widely accepted paradigm of Earth's geochemical evolution states that the successive extraction of melts from the mantle over the past 4.5 billion years formed the continental crust, and produced at least one complementary melt-depleted reservoir that is now recognized as the upper-mantle source of mid-ocean-ridge basalts1. However, geochemical modelling and the occurrence of high 3He/4He (that is, primordial) signatures in some volcanic rocks suggest that volumes of relatively undifferentiated mantle may reside in deeper, isolated regions2. Some basalts from large igneous provinces may provide temporally restricted glimpses of the most primitive parts of the mantle3,4, but key questions regarding the longevity of such sources on planetary timescales—and whether any survive today—remain unresolved. Kimberlites, small-volume volcanic rocks that are the source of most diamonds, offer rare insights into aspects of the composition of the Earth’s deep mantle. The radiogenic isotope ratios of kimberlites of different ages enable us to map the evolution of this domain through time. Here we show that globally distributed kimberlites originate from a single homogeneous reservoir with an isotopic composition that is indicative of a uniform and pristine mantle source, which evolved in isolation over at least 2.5 billion years of Earth history—to our knowledge, the only such reservoir that has been identified to date. Around 200 million years ago, extensive volumes of the same source were perturbed, probably as a result of contamination by exogenic material. The distribution of affected kimberlites suggests that this event may be related to subduction along the margin of the Pangaea supercontinent. These results reveal a long-lived and globally extensive mantle reservoir that underwent subsequent disruption, possibly heralding a marked change to large-scale mantle-mixing regimes. These processes may explain why uncontaminated primordial mantle is so difficult to identify in recent mantle-derived melts.
DS202002-0174
2019
Maas, R.Dalton, H., Giuliani, A., O'Brien, H., Phillips, D., Maas, R. Petrogenesis of a hybrid cluster of evolved kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in the Kuusamo area, Finland. Kasma 45, Kasma 45 south, Kasma 47, Kalettomanpuro, Kattaisenvaara, Dike 15 and LampiJournal of Petrology, in press available, 79p. PdfEurope, Finlanddeposit - Kuusamo

Abstract: Kimberlites are often closely associated, both in time and space, with a wide variety of alkaline ultramafic rock types; yet the question of a genetic relationship between these rock types remains uncertain. One locality where these relationships can be studied within the same cluster is the Karelian craton in Finland. In this study we present the first petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical results for the most recently discovered kimberlite cluster on this craton, which represents an example of the close spatial overlap of kimberlites with ultramafic lamprophyres. The Kuusamo cluster incorporates seven bodies (Kasma 45, Kasma 45 south, Kasma 47, Kalettomanpuro (KP), Kattaisenvaara (KV), Dike 15 and Lampi) distributed along a 60?km NE-SW corridor. Hypabyssal samples from KV, KP, Kasma 45 and Kasma 47 consist of altered olivine macrocrysts and microcrysts and phlogopite phenocrysts in a groundmass of perovskite, apatite, spinel, ilmenite, serpentine, and calcite. These petrographic features combined with mineral (e.g., Mg-rich ilmenite, Al-Ba-rich, Ti-Fe-poor mica) and whole-rock incompatible trace element compositions (La/Nb = 0.8 ± 0.1; Th/Nb = 0.07 ± 0.01; Nb/U = 66 ± 9) are consistent with these rocks being classified as archetypal kimberlites. These Kuusamo kimberlites are enriched in CaO and poor in MgO, which combined with the absence of chromite and paucity of olivine macrocrysts and mantle-derived xenocrysts (including diamonds), suggest derivation from differentiated magmas after crystal fractionation. Samples from Lampi share similar petrographic features, but contain mica with compositions ranging from kimberlitic (Ba-Al-rich cores) to those more typical of orangeites/lamproites (increasing Si-Fe, decreasing Al-Ti-Ba), and have higher bulk-rock SiO2 contents than the Kuusamo kimberlites. These features, combined with the occurrence of quartz and titanite in the groundmass, indicate derivation from a kimberlite magma that underwent considerable crustal contamination. This study shows that crustal contamination can modify kimberlites by introducing features typical of alkaline ultramafic rock types. Dike 15 represents a distinct carbonate-rich lithology dominated by phlogopite over olivine, with lesser amounts of titaniferous clinopyroxene and manganoan ilmenite. Phlogopite (Fe-Ti-rich) and spinel (high Fe2+/Fe2++Mg) compositions are also distinct from the other Kuusamo intrusions. The petrographic and geochemical features of Dike 15 are typical of ultramafic lamprophyres, specifically, aillikites. Rb-Sr dating of phlogopite in Dike 15 yields an age of 1178.8 ± 4.1?Ma (2s), which is considerably older than the ~750?Ma emplacement age of the Kuusamo kimberlites. This new age indicates significant temporal overlap with the Lentiira-Kuhmo-Kostomuksha olivine lamproites emplaced ~100?km to the southeast. It is suggested that asthenospheric aillikite magmas similar to Dike 15 evolved to compositions akin to the Karelian orangeites and olivine lamproites through interaction with and assimilation of MARID-like, enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. We conclude that the spatial coincidence of the Kuusamo kimberlites and Dike 15 is likely the result of exploitation of similar trans-lithospheric corridors.
DS202007-1132
2020
Maas, R.Choi, F.M., Fiorentini, M.L., Giuliani, A., Foley, S.F., Maas, R., Taylor, W.R.Subduction related tetrogenesis of late Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres in the Yilgarn craton ( Western Australia).Precambrian Research, Vol. 338, 105550Australialamprophyres

Abstract: We present a comprehensive petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical study of calc-alkaline lamprophyres (CAL) from the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Previous studies have shown that the emplacement age of CAL from the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton is ~2684 to ~2640 Ma. A new Rb/Sr mica age for a CAL sample in the Western Yilgarn is ~2070 Ma. Both Archean and Proterozoic CAL analysed in this study display porphyritic textures and contain phenocrysts of amphibole, minor clinopyroxene and biotite in a fine-grained groundmass dominated by feldspar. High MgO, Ni and Cr abundances (up to 11.9 wt%, 373 and 993 ppm. respectively) are consistent with derivation of primitive magmas from a mantle source. Enrichment in H2O, reflected in the abundance of magmatic amphibole and mica, combined with high whole-rock LILE, Th/Yb ratios and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in trace element patterns are consistent with a source that was metasomatised by hydrous fluids analogous to those generated by Phanerozoic subduction-related processes. Chondritic ?Nd and ?Hf signatures and Archean mantle-like Sr isotope signatures of the Late Archean CAL indicate that the fluid metasomatism required to explain their volatile and trace-element enriched composition shortly preceded partial melting (i.e. there was insufficient time to develop enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures). The concurrence of apparently juvenile radiogenic isotopes and fluid-related trace element compositions requires a geodynamic scenario whereby dehydration of a subducted slab triggered metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge. Our findings therefore support a subduction setting at ~2.6-2.7 Ga along the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton. The CAL from the Western Yilgarn have similar compositions but enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes compared to those in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane. This signature is consistent with melting of lithospheric mantle domains previously enriched by subduction-related metasomatism. Hence, our study suggests the presence of a subduction setting in the Western Yilgarn during the Archean, which is consistent with previous geodynamic reconstructions. However, the geodynamic trigger for the early Proterozoic event that generated CAL magmatism in the Western Yilgarn is currently unclear.
DS202007-1140
2020
Maas, R.Fitzpayne, A., Giuliani, A., Hergt, J., Woodhead, J.D., Maas, R.Isotopic analyses of clinopyroxene demonstrate the effects of mantle metasomatism upon the lithospheric mantle.Lithos, in press available, 77p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: The trace element and radiogenic isotope systematics of clinopyroxene have frequently been used to characterise mantle metasomatic processes, because it is the main host of most lithophile elements in the lithospheric mantle. To further our understanding of mantle metasomatism, both solution-mode Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb and in situ trace element and Sr isotopic data have been acquired for clinopyroxene grains from a suite of peridotite (lherzolites and wehrlites), MARID (Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside), and PIC (Phlogopite-Ilmenite-Clinopyroxene) rocks from the Kimberley kimberlites (South Africa). The studied mantle samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their clinopyroxene trace element compositions, and this subdivision is reinforced by their isotopic ratios. Type 1 clinopyroxene, which comprises PIC, wehrlite, and some sheared lherzolite samples, is characterised by low Sr (~100-200 ppm) and LREE concentrations, moderate HFSE contents (e.g., ~40-75 ppm Zr; La/Zr < 0.04), and restricted isotopic compositions (e.g., 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70369-0.70383; eNdi = +3.1 to +3.6) resembling those of their host kimberlite magmas. Available trace element partition coefficients can be used to show that Type 1 clinopyroxenes are close to being in equilibrium with kimberlite melt compositions, supporting a genetic link between kimberlites and these metasomatised lithologies. Thermobarometric estimates for Type 1 samples in this study indicate equilibration depths of 135-160 km within the lithosphere, thus showing that kimberlite melt metasomatism is prevalent in the deeper part of the lithosphere beneath Kimberley. In contrast, Type 2 clinopyroxenes occur in MARID rocks and coarse granular lherzolites in this study, which derive from shallower depths (<135 km), and have higher Sr (~350-1000 ppm) and LREE contents, corresponding to higher La/Zr of > ~ 0.05. The isotopic compositions of Type 2 clinopyroxenes are more variable and extend from compositions resembling the “enriched mantle” towards those of Type 1 rocks (e.g., eNdi = -12.7 to -4.4). To constrain the source of these variations, in situ Sr isotope analyses of clinopyroxene were undertaken, including zoned grains in Type 2 samples. MARID and lherzolite clinopyroxene cores display generally radiogenic but variable 87Sr/86Sri values (0.70526-0.71177), which are correlated with Sr contents and La/Zr ratios, and which might be explained by the interaction between peridotite and melts from different enriched sources within the lithospheric mantle. Most notably, the rims of these Type 2 clinopyroxenes trend towards compositions similar to those of the host kimberlite and Type 1 clinopyroxene from PIC and wehrlites. These results are interpreted to represent clinopyroxene overgrowth during late-stage (shortly before/during entrainment) metasomatism by kimberlite magmas. Our study shows that a pervasive, alkaline metasomatic event caused MARID to be generated and harzburgites to be converted to lherzolite in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley area, which was followed by kimberlite metasomatism during Cretaceous magmatism. This latter event is the time at which discrete PIC, wehrlite, and sheared lherzolite lithologies were formed, and MARID and granular lherzolites were partly modified.
DS202008-1380
2020
Maas, R.Choi, E., Fiorentini, M.L., Giuliani, A., Foley, S.F., Maas, R., Taylor, W.R.Subduction related petrogenesis of late Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres in the Yilgarn craton, western Australia.Precambrian Research, Vol. 338, 105550, 18p. PdfAustralialamprophyres

Abstract: We present a comprehensive petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical study of calc-alkaline lamprophyres (CAL) from the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Previous studies have shown that the emplacement age of CAL from the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton is ~2684 to ~2640 Ma. A new Rb/Sr mica age for a CAL sample in the Western Yilgarn is ~2070 Ma. Both Archean and Proterozoic CAL analysed in this study display porphyritic textures and contain phenocrysts of amphibole, minor clinopyroxene and biotite in a fine-grained groundmass dominated by feldspar. High MgO, Ni and Cr abundances (up to 11.9 wt%, 373 and 993 ppm. respectively) are consistent with derivation of primitive magmas from a mantle source. Enrichment in H2O, reflected in the abundance of magmatic amphibole and mica, combined with high whole-rock LILE, Th/Yb ratios and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in trace element patterns are consistent with a source that was metasomatised by hydrous fluids analogous to those generated by Phanerozoic subduction-related processes. Chondritic ?Nd and ?Hf signatures and Archean mantle-like Sr isotope signatures of the Late Archean CAL indicate that the fluid metasomatism required to explain their volatile and trace-element enriched composition shortly preceded partial melting (i.e. there was insufficient time to develop enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures). The concurrence of apparently juvenile radiogenic isotopes and fluid-related trace element compositions requires a geodynamic scenario whereby dehydration of a subducted slab triggered metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge. Our findings therefore support a subduction setting at ~2.6-2.7 Ga along the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton. The CAL from the Western Yilgarn have similar compositions but enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes compared to those in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane. This signature is consistent with melting of lithospheric mantle domains previously enriched by subduction-related metasomatism. Hence, our study suggests the presence of a subduction setting in the Western Yilgarn during the Archean, which is consistent with previous geodynamic reconstructions. However, the geodynamic trigger for the early Proterozoic event that generated CAL magmatism in the Western Yilgarn is currently unclear.
DS202008-1383
2020
Maas, R.Dalton, H., Giuiani, A., Phillips, D., Hergt, J., Maas, R., Woodhead, J., Matchan, E., O'Brien, H.Kimberlite magmatism in Finland: distinct sources and links to the breakup of Rodinia.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractEurope, Finlanddeposit - Kuusamo

Abstract: The Karelian Craton in Finland is host to (at least) two distinct pulses of kimberlite magmatism. Twenty kimberlite occurrences have so far been discovered on the southwest margin of the craton at Kaavi-Kuopio and seven kimberlites are located in the Kuusamo area within the core of the craton. Comprehensive radiometric age determinations (U-Pb, Ar- Ar and Rb-Sr) reveal that all kimberlite activity was restricted to the Proterozoic. The Kaavi-Kuopio field was emplaced over a protracted period from ~610 to 550 Ma and is predated by the Kuusamo cluster that represents a relatively short pulse of magmatism at ~750 to 730 Ma. The emplacement of kimberlites globally has recently been linked to supercontinent reorganisation and we propose a similar scenario for these Finnish occurrences which, at the time of kimberlite emplacement, were situated on the Baltica paleo-continent. This land mass was contiguous with Laurentia in the Proterozoic and together formed part of Rodinia. The breakup of Rodinia is considered to have commenced at ~750 Ma and initiation of the opening of the Iapetus ocean at ~615 Ma. Contemporaneous with Kaavi-Kuopio magmatism, this latter period of Neoproterozoic crustal extension also includes the emplacement of kimberlites and related rocks in areas that were linked with Baltica as part of Rodinia - West Greenland and eastern North America. Both the initial and final periods of Rodinia’s breakup have been linked to mantle upwellings from the core-mantle boundary. We suggest that kimberlite magmatism in Finland was promoted by the influx of heat from mantle upwellings and lithospheric extension associated with the demise of Rodinia. Although both magmatic episodes are potentially linked to the breakup of Rodinia, whole-rock and perovskite radiogenic isotope compositions for the Kuusamo kimberlites (eNd(i) +2.6 to +3.3, eHf(i) +3.1 to +5.6) are distinct from the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites (eNd(i) -0.7 to +1.8, eHf(i) -6.1 to +5.2). The spread in Hf isotope compositions for the Kaavi-Kuopio magmas may be linked to variable assimilation of diverse mantle lithologies.
DS202102-0188
2020
Maas, R.Fiorentini, M.L., O'Neill, C., Giuliani, A., Choi, E., Maas, R., Pirajno, F., Foley, S.Bushveld superplume drove Proterozoic magmatism and metallogenesis in Australia. Nature Scientific Reports, doi.org/10.1038/ s41598-020-76800-0 10p. PdfAustralia, Africa, South Africaalkaline magmatism

Abstract: Large-scale mantle convective processes are commonly reflected in the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). These are high-volume, short-duration magmatic events consisting mainly of extensive flood basalts and their associated plumbing systems. One of the most voluminous LIPs in the geological record is the ~?2.06 billion-year-old Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa (BIC), one of the most mineralised magmatic complexes on Earth. Surprisingly, the known geographic envelope of magmatism related to the BIC is limited to a series of satellite intrusions in southern Africa and has not been traced further afield. This appears inconsistent with the inferred large size of the BIC event. Here, we present new radiometric ages for alkaline magmatism in the Archean Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia), which overlap the emplacement age of the BIC and indicate a much more extensive geographic footprint of the BIC magmatic event. To assess plume involvement at this distance, we present numerical simulations of mantle plume impingement at the base of the lithosphere, and constrain a relationship between the radial extent of volcanism versus time, excess temperature and plume size. These simulations suggest that the thermal influence of large plume events could extend for thousands of km within a few million years, and produce widespread alkaline magmatism, crustal extension potentially leading to continental break-up, and large ore deposits in distal sectors. Our results imply that superplumes may produce very extensive and diverse magmatic and metallogenic provinces, which may now be preserved in widely-dispersed continental blocks.
DS202106-0929
2021
Maas, R.Choi, E., Fiorentini, M.L., Giuliani, A., Foley, S.F., Maas, R., Graham, S.Petrogenesis of Proterozoic alkaline ultramafic rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, western Australia.Gondwana Research, Vol. 93, pp. 197-217. pdfAustraliacarbonatites

Abstract: The Yilgarn Craton and its northern margin contain a variety of petrogenetically poorly defined small-volume alkaline ultramafic rocks of Proterozoic age. This study documents the petrography, mineral and bulk-rock geochemistry and Nd-Hf-Sr-Pb isotope compositions of a selected suite of these rocks. They comprise ~2.03-2.06 Ga ultramafic lamprophyres (UML) and carbonatites from the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane (EGS), ~0.86 Ga UML from Norseman, and orangeites from the Earaheedy Basin, including samples from Jewill (~1.3 Ga), Bulljah (~1.4 Ga) and Nabberu (~1.8-1.9 Ga). The Proterozoic UML and carbonatites from the EGS and Norseman display very consistent chondritic to superchondritic Nd-Hf isotope compositions and trace-element ratios similar to modern OIBs, which are indicative of a common mantle source across this wide alkaline province. These Nd-Hf isotope compositions overlap with the evolution trends of global kimberlites through time, thus suggesting that this mantle source could be deep and ancient as that proposed for kimberlites. Conversely, the orangeites located in the Earaheedy Basin along the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton display trace element signatures similar to subduction-related calc-alkaline magmas. Taken together with their highly enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, these characteristics indicate an ancient lithospheric mantle source, which was probably metasomatised by subduction-related fluids. As the ages of the Bulljah and Jewill orangeites overlap with the breakup of the Columbia supercontinent, it is proposed that orangeite magmatism was triggered by changes in plate stress conditions associated with this event. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the genesis of Proterozoic alkaline magmatism in the Yilgarn Craton, highlighting the complex tectono-magmatic evolution of this lithospheric block after its assembly in the Archean.
DS1996-0124
1996
Maasch, K.A.Berner, R.A., Maasch, K.A.Chemical weathering and controls on atmospheric O2 and CO2: fundamental principles were enunciated... 1845Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 60, No. 9, May, pp. 1633-37GlobalChemical weather, supergene, laterites
DS1983-0424
1983
Maass, R.S.Maass, R.S.Early Proterozoic Tectonic Style in Central WisconsinGeological Society of America (GSA) MEMOIR., No. 160, PP. 85-96.WisconsinMid-continent
DS1996-0866
1996
Mabako, M.A.H.Mabako, M.A.H., Nakamura, E.neodymium and Strontium isotopic mapping of Archean Prot. boundary in southeast Tanzania using granites probes crustal growth.Precambrian Rseaerch, Vol.l 77, pp. 105-115.TanzaniaGeochronology, Tanzanian Craton
DS1975-0126
1975
Mabarak, C.D.Mabarak, C.D.Heavy Minerals in Late Tertiary Gravel and Recent Alluvial-colluvial Deposits in the Prairie Divide Region of Northern Larimer County, Colorado.Msc. Thesis, Colorado State University, 90P.Colorado, State Line, Rocky Mountains, United StatesProspecting, Kimberlite
DS1975-0337
1976
Mabarak, C.D.Mccallum, M.E., Mabarak, C.D.Diamond in Kimberlitic Diatremes of Northern ColoradoGeology, Vol. 4, PP. 467-469.United States, Colorado, State Line, Rocky MountainsKimberlite, State Line, Rocky Mountains
DS1975-0338
1976
Mabarak, C.D.Mccallum, M.E., Mabarak, C.D.Diamond in State Line Kimberlite Diatremes Albany County, Wyoming and Larimer County, Colorado.Wyoming Geological Survey Report Inv., No. 12, 36P.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsProspecting, Genesis, Distribution, Petrography, Mineralogy
DS1975-0339
1976
Mabarak, C.D.Mccallum, M.E., Mabarak, C.D.Diamond from Kimberlite Diatremes in Northern Colorado and Southern Wyoming.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 8, No. 5, P. 609. (abstract.).United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1975-0565
1977
Mabarak, C.D.Mccallum, M.E., Mabarak, C.D., Coopersmith, H.G.Diamonds from Kimberlite in the Colorado Wyoming State Linedistrict.International Kimberlite Conference SECOND EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME., United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1975-1137
1979
Mabarak, C.D.Mccallum, M.E., Mabarak, C.D., Coopersmith, H.G.Diamonds from Kimberlites in the Colorado Wyoming State Line District.International Kimberlite Conference SECOND Proceedings, Vol. 1, PP. 42-53.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1950-0225
1955
Mabbutt, J.A.Mabbutt, J.A.Erosion Surfaces of Namaqualand and the Ages of Surface Deposits in the South Western Kalahari.Geological Survey of South Africa Transactions, Vol. 58, PP. 13-30.South AfricaGeomorphology
DS1989-0911
1989
Mabee, S.B.Mabee, S.B., Hardcastle, K.C., Wise, D.U.Ground truth?-relationship between lineaments and bedrock fabricGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. A68. AbstractGlobalTectonics, General - interest
DS200712-0663
2007
Mabidi, T.Mabidi, T., Thiart, C., De Wit, M.J.Secular changes recorded in mineralization in African crust.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 2, Feb. pp. 88-94.AfricaMetallogeny - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-0711
2003
Maboko, M.Grantham, G.H., Maboko, M., Eglington, B.M.A review of the evolution of the Mozambique belt and implications for the amalgamation and dispersal of Rodinia and Gondwana.Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent assembly and Breakup. Ed. Yoshida , Geological Society of London Spe, No. 206, pp. 401-426.Gondwana, RodiniaPlume, tectonics
DS200612-0861
2006
Maboko, M.A.Manya, S., Kobayashi, K., Maboko, M.A., Nakamura, E.Ion microprobe zircon U Pb dating of the late Archean metavolcanics and associated granites of the Musoma Mara greenstone belt, northeast Tanzania: implicationsJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 45, 3, pp. 355-366.Africa, TanzaniaCraton, geochronology, not specific to diamonds
DS1995-1133
1995
Maboko, M.A.H.Maboko, M.A.H.Neodynium isotope constraints on the protolith ages of rocks involved in Pan African tectonism Mozambique BeltJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 152, No. 6, Nov. pp. 911-916TanzaniaGeochronology, Tectonics
DS1996-0867
1996
Maboko, M.A.H.Maboko, M.A.H., Nakamura, E.neodymium and Strontium isotopic mapping of the Archean Proterozoic boundary in southeastern Tanzania using granites ..Precambrian Research, Vol. 77, No. 1-2, March 1, pp. 105-116TanzaniaCrust, Geochronology
DS1997-0707
1997
Maboko, M.A.H.Maboko, M.A.H.P-T conditions of metamorphism in Wami River granulite complex, central coastal Tanzania: implicationsJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 1-2, Jan. 1, pp. 51-64TanzaniaGeotectonics, Mozambique Belt
DS2000-0603
2000
Maboko, M.A.H.Maboko, M.A.H.neodymium and Strontium isotopic investigation of the Archean - Proterozoic boundary in northeastern Tanzania:Precambrian Research, Vol. 102, No. 1-2, July 1, pp.87-98.TanzaniaTectonism - Neoproterozoic, Mozambique Belt
DS201212-0426
2012
Mabolani, S.Mabolani, S., Cawthorn, R.G., Reimold, W.U.Benfontein -02 kimberlite, northern Cape Province, South Africa.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - Benfontein-02
DS2001-0710
2001
Mabolia, Y.Mabolia, Y.Congo ( Democratic Republic OF)Mining Annual Review, 3p.GlobalCountry - overview, economics, mining, Overview - brief
DS1998-0912
1998
Mabuza, M.Mabuza, M., Viljoen, K.S., Majola, S.New diamond bearing xenoliths from the Orapa mine, Botswana7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 521-23.BotswanaXenoliths, Deposit - Orapa
DS2003-0924
2003
Mabuza, M.B.Mdludlu, S., Mabuza, M.B., Tainton, K.M., Sweeney, R.J.A clinopyroxene thermobarometry traverse across Coromandel area, Brazil8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 9, POSTER abstractBrazilGeothermometry
DS200412-1285
2003
Mabuza, M.B.Mdludlu, S., Mabuza, M.B., Tainton, K.M., Sweeney, R.J.A clinopyroxene thermobarometry traverse across Coromandel area, Brazil.8 IKC Program, Session 9, POSTER abstractSouth America, BrazilCraton studies Geothermometry
DS200512-0667
2004
Mabuza, N.T.Mabuza, N.T., Pocock, J., Loveday, B.K.The use of surface active chemicals in heavy medium viscosity reduction.Minerals Engineering, Vol. 18, pp. 25-31.Africa, South AfricaDMS, magnetite, viscosity
DS201212-0091
2012
Mac Niocaill, C.Brown, R.J., Buisman, M.I., Fontana, G., Field, M., Mac Niocaill, C., Sparks, R.S.J., Stuart, F.M.Eruption of kimberlite magmas: physical volcanology, geomorphology and age of the youngest kimberlitic volcanoes known on Earth ( the Upper Pleistocene/Holocene Igwisi Hills volcanoes, Tanzania).Bulletin Volcanology, in press availableAfrica, TanzaniaDeposit - Igwisi
DS1920-0111
1922
Macadam, P.Macadam, P.Diamond Washing MachineryMining Engineering Journal of South Africa, Vol. 33, PT. 1, JUNE 3RD. P. 1325.South AfricaMining Engineering
DS1995-1693
1995
Macahdo, N.Scott, D.J., Macahdo, N.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) geochronology of the northern Torngat Orogen, Labrador: a record of Paleoproterozoic magmatismPrecambrian Research, Vol. 70, No. 3-4, Jan. pp. 169-190LabradorTectonics, Geochronology, Orogeny- Torngat
DS2000-0457
2000
Macambira, M.Jordt-Evangelista, H., Macambira, M., Peres. G.G., Limalead/lead single zircon dating of Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline /alkaline magmatism in Sao Francisco...Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, Minas GeraisCraton - southeastern border, Geochronology
DS1994-0367
1994
Macambira, M.J.B.Dall'Agnol, R., Lafon, J-M., Macambira, M.J.B.Proterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton: geochronological, petrological and geochemical aspectsMineralogy and Petrology, Vo. 50, No. 1-3, pp. 113-138South AmericaGeochemistry, Petrology
DS200612-0845
2006
Macambira, M.J.B.Macambira, M.J.B., Armstrong, R.A., Silva, D.C.C., Camelo, J.F.The Archean Paleoproterozoic boundary in Amazonian Craton: new isotope evidence for crustal growth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 2, abstract only.South America, BrazilGeochronology, craton
DS200712-0912
2007
Macambira, M.J.B.Rosset, A., De Min, A., Marques, L.S., Macambira, M.J.B., Ernesto, M., Renne, P.R., Piccrillo, E.M.Genesis and geodynamic significance of Mesoproterozoic and Early Cretaceous tholeiitic dyke swarms from the Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 24, 1, June pp. 69-92.South America, BrazilDyke swarms
DS200812-0023
2008
Macambira, M.J.B.Almeida, M.E., Macambira, M.J.B., Valente, S.de C.New geological and single zircon Pb evaporation dat a from the central Guyana Domain, southeastern Roraima, Brazil: tectonic implications for the central shield.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, 3, Nov. pp. 318-328.South America, Brazil, GuyanaTectonics, Roraima
DS1993-0973
1993
MacArthur, B.T.Mars, P.J., MacArthur, B.T., Pirie, J.Canadian diamond exploration.. high risk.. high reward. Background-historical and overview of current northwest Territories play to date June 11, 1993.Bunting Warburg Inc. Research Report, June 11, 23p.Northwest TerritoriesNews item, Promotional overview
DS200812-0695
2008
MacauHubMacauHubAngola: industrial diamond mining continues to gain ground over the traditional sector.MacauHub, Dec. 1, 1p.Africa, AngolaNews item - production
DS200512-0151
2005
MacBride, L.Chakhmouradian, A.R., McCammon, C.A., MacBride, L., Cahill, C.L.Titaniferous garnets in carbonatites: their significance and place in the evolutionary history of host rocks.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.Classification - mineralogy
DS200812-0696
2008
MacBride, L.M.MacBride, L.M., Chakhmouradian, A.R.The petrology and geochemistry of kimberlite like rocks from the Konozero diatreme, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussia, Kola Peninsula, Baltic ShieldCarbonatite
DS201012-0042
2009
Macc, R.A.Bauer, R., Macc, R.A.Laser inscription on diamonds.Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 23, 12, p.TechnologyDiamond Dias
DS201112-0628
2011
Maccaferri, F.Maccaferri, F., Bonafede, M., Rivalta, E.A quantitative study of the mechanisms governing dike propogation, dike arrest and sill formation.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 208, 1-2, Nov. pp. 39-50.TechnologyGeodynamics of dikes and sills
DS200612-1182
2005
MacCarthy, J.K.Roy, M., MacCarthy, J.K., Selverstone, J.Upper mantle structure beneath eastern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande rift revealed by Bouguer gravity, seismic velocities and xenolith data.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 6, 10.1029/2005 GC001008United States, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics
DS2001-1152
2001
Macchiato, M.Telesca, L., Cuomo, V., Lapenna, V., Macchiato, M.Statistical analysis of fractal properties of point processes modeling seismic sequencesPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 125, No. 1-4, pp. 65-83.GlobalGeophysics - seismics, Experimental
DS1900-0204
1903
Macco, A.Macco, A.Review of Schmeisser's Vortrag " die Nutzbaren Bodenschaetze der Deutschen Schutzgebiete".Zeitschr. F. Prakt. Geol., Vol. 11, PP. 28-33; PP. 193-194.Africa, Namibia, ChinaMineral Resources, Diamond
DS1900-0340
1905
Macco, A.Macco, A.Sued afrikanische Diamanten #2Zeitschr. F. Prakt. Geol., Vol. 13, PP. 146-147.Africa, South AfricaGeology, Mineralogy, Premier
DS1900-0580
1907
Macco, A.Macco, A.Ueber die Sued afrikanischen Diamantlagerstatten: die Blau Ground Vorkommen in Suedafrika.Zeitschr. Deut. Geol. Ges., MONATSBER. Vol. 59, PP. 76-81. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD.Africa, South AfricaGeology, Kimberlite Mines And Deposits
DS1990-1171
1990
MacDadyen, D.A.Pegg, C.C., Brummer, J.J., MacDadyen, D.A.Discovery of kimberlite diatremes in the Kirkland Lake area, Ontario #1The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Vol.89, No. 935, April p. 90. AbstractOntarioDiatremes -five, Diamondiferous tests
DS1920-0342
1927
Macdill, M.Macdill, M.American Diamonds. #5Literature Digest., Vol. 92, No. 9, PP. 23-24.United StatesBlank
DS1987-0761
1987
MacdonaldVan Schmus, W.R., Bickford, M.E., Lewry, Macdonalduranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology in the Trans Hudson Orogen, northern SaskatchewanProg. in Phys. Geography, Vol. 24, pp. 407=24.SaskatchewanGeochronology
DS1910-0365
1913
Macdonald, A.Macdonald, A.In the Land of Pearl and GoldLondon: Fisher Unwin, 2nd. Edition., 319P.AustraliaKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Travelogue
DS201212-0427
2012
Macdonald, A.Macdonald, A., Napier, S.Chemical and textural characterisation of non-kimberlitic chromian spinel populations from diamond exploration programs.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, South Africa, Botswana, GabonDeposit - Malopo Farms
DS1989-0912
1989
MacDonald, A.J.MacDonald, A.J.The effect of the Canadian Exploration Incentive program on flow through share financingProspectors and Developers Association of Canada, 57th. Meeting, No. M-2, 15p. Database # 17922CanadaEconomics, Flow through
DS1996-1319
1996
MacDonald, D.Sinding, K., Poulin, R., MacDonald, D.Property rights for mineral resourcesJournal of Mineral Policy, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 24-29GlobalLegal, Mineral resources - property rights
DS1996-1320
1996
MacDonald, D.Sinding, K., Poulin, R., MacDonald, D.Property rights for mineral resources.... not specific to diamonds but ofinterest.Journal of Mineral Policy, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 24-29.GlobalLegal, Property rights
DS201602-0235
2015
Macdonald, D.I.M.Schiffer, C., Stephenson, R.A., Petersen, K.D., Nielsen, S.B., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Macdonald, D.I.M.A sub crustal piercing point for North Atlantic reconstructions and tectonic implications.Geology, Vol. 43, 12, pp. 1087-1090.Europe, GreenlandPlate Tectonics

Abstract: Plate tectonic reconstructions are usually constrained by the correlation of lineaments of surface geology and crustal structures. This procedure is, however, largely dependent on and complicated by assumptions on crustal structure and thinning and the identification of the continent-ocean transition. We identify two geophysically and geometrically similar upper mantle structures in the North Atlantic and suggest that these represent remnants of the same Caledonian collision event. The identification of this structural lineament provides a sub-crustal piercing point and hence a novel opportunity to tie plate tectonic reconstructions. Further, this structure coincides with the location of some major tectonic events of the North Atlantic post-orogenic evolution such as the occurrence of the Iceland Melt Anomaly and the separation of the Jan Mayen microcontinent. We suggest that this inherited orogenic structure played a major role in the control of North Atlantic tectonic processes.
DS1983-0425
1983
Macdonald, E.H.Macdonald, E.H.Alluvial Mining. #2London: Chapman And Hall, PP. 1, 25, 104-106, 115, 181, 135, 196, 320-321, 326-327, 339-340, 34GlobalAlluvial Mining Methods, Diamonds, Kimberlite
DS1983-0426
1983
Macdonald, E.H.Macdonald, E.H.Alluvial Mining. #1Methuen., 580P.GlobalKimberlite
DS201112-0629
2009
MacDonald, F.MacDonald, F.Control of rock strength on the initiation of kimberlite eruptions.Thesis, BASC University of British Columbia, MantleThesis - note availability based on request to author
DS2003-0855
2003
Macdonald, F.A.Macdonald, F.A., Bunting, J.A., Cina, S.E.Yarrabubba - a large deeply eroded impact structure in the Yilgarn Craton, WesternEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 213, No. 3-4, pp. 225-247.AustraliaImpact structure - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-1188
2003
Macdonald, F.A.Macdonald, F.A., Bunting, J.A., Cina, S.E.Yarrabubba - a large deeply eroded impact structure in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 213, no. 3-4, pp. 225-247.AustraliaImpact structure - not specific to diamonds
DS201201-0848
2011
Macdonald, F.A.Hoffman, P., Macdonald, F.A., Halverson, G.P.Chemical sediments association with Neoproterozoic glaciation: iron formation cap carbonate, barite and phosphorite.The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic glaciations, Memoirs 2011; Vol. 36, pp. 67-80GlobalGeomorphology - geochemistry
DS202006-0919
2020
Macdonald, F.A.Flowers, R.M., Macdonald, F.A., Siddoway, C.S., Havranek, R.Diachronous development of Great Unconformities before Neoproterozoic Snowlball Earth. Proceedinds of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 117, 19, 9p. PdfUnited States, Coloradogeothermometry

Abstract: The Great Unconformity marks a major gap in the continental geological record, separating Precambrian basement from Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. However, the timing, magnitude, spatial heterogeneity, and causes of the erosional event(s) and/or depositional hiatus that lead to its development are unknown. We present field relationships from the 1.07-Ga Pikes Peak batholith in Colorado that constrain the position of Cryogenian and Cambrian paleosurfaces below the Great Unconformity. Tavakaiv sandstone injectites with an age of =676 ± 26 Ma cut Pikes Peak granite. Injection of quartzose sediment in bulbous bodies indicates near-surface conditions during emplacement. Fractured, weathered wall rock around Tavakaiv bodies and intensely altered basement fragments within unweathered injectites imply still earlier regolith development. These observations provide evidence that the granite was exhumed and resided at the surface prior to sand injection, likely before the 717-Ma Sturtian glaciation for the climate appropriate for regolith formation over an extensive region of the paleolandscape. The 510-Ma Sawatch sandstone directly overlies Tavakaiv-injected Pikes granite and drapes over core stones in Pikes regolith, consistent with limited erosion between 717 and 510 Ma. Zircon (U-Th)/He dates for basement below the Great Unconformity are 975 to 46 Ma and are consistent with exhumation by 717 Ma. Our results provide evidence that most erosion below the Great Unconformity in Colorado occurred before the first Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth and therefore cannot be a product of glacial erosion. We propose that multiple Great Unconformities developed diachronously and represent regional tectonic features rather than a synchronous global phenomenon.
DS202107-1138
2021
Macdonald, F.A.Sturrock, C.P., Flowers, R.M., Macdonald, F.A.The late great unconformity of the central Canadian shield.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosytems, 49p. PdfCanada, Ontariogeochronology

Abstract: The Great Unconformity is a distinctive feature in the geologic record that separates more ancient rocks from younger (<540 Ma) sedimentary rocks. It commonly marks a substantial time gap in the rock record. When and why the Great Unconformity developed is much debated. We present new thermochronologic data that constrain when ancient rocks across the central Canadian Shield last cooled during exhumation to the surface before deposition of overlying sedimentary rocks that mark the Great Unconformity. These data and the geologic context indicate that the basement below the Great Unconformity erosion here was last exhumed after 650 Ma, in contrast to the pre-650 Ma timing inferred elsewhere in North America. This result is inconsistent with the notion that the Great Unconformity formed worldwide in a single erosion event.
DS202109-1472
2021
Macdonald, F.A.Hoffman, P.F., Halverson, G.P., Schrag, D.P., Higgins, J.A., Domack, E.W., Macdonald, F.A., Pruss, S.B., Blattler, C.L., Crockford, P.W., Hodgin, E.B., Bellefroid, E.J., Johnson, B.W., Hodgskiss, M.S.W., Lamothe, K.G., LoBianco, S.J.C., Busch, J.F., HowesSnowballs in Africa: sectioning a long-lived Neoproterozoic carbonate platform and its bathyal foreslope ( NW Namibia). (Octavi Group)Earth Science Reviews , Vol. 219, 103616 231p. PdfAfrica, NamibiaCraton - Congo

Abstract: Otavi Group is a 1.5-3.5-km-thick epicontinental marine carbonate succession of Neoproterozoic age, exposed in an 800-km-long Ediacaran-Cambrian fold belt that rims the SW cape of Congo craton in northern Namibia. Along its southern margin, a contiguous distally tapered foreslope carbonate wedge of the same age is called Swakop Group. Swakop Group also occurs on the western cratonic margin, where a crustal-scale thrust cuts out the facies transition to the platformal Otavi Group. Subsidence accommodating Otavi Group resulted from S-N crustal stretching (770-655?Ma), followed by post-rift thermal subsidence (655-600?Ma). Rifting under southern Swakop Group continued until 650-635?Ma, culminating with breakup and a S-facing continental margin. No hint of a western margin is evident in Otavi Group, suggesting a transform margin to the west, kinematically consistent with S-N plate divergence. Rift-related peralkaline igneous activity in southern Swakop Group occurred around 760 and 746?Ma, with several rift-related igneous centres undated. By comparison, western Swakop Group is impoverished in rift-related igneous rocks. Despite low paleoelevation and paleolatitude, Otavi and Swakop groups are everywhere imprinted by early and late Cryogenian glaciations, enabling unequivocal stratigraphic division into five epochs (period divisions): (1) non-glacial late Tonian, 770-717?Ma; (2) glacial early Cryogenian/Sturtian, 717-661?Ma; (3) non-glacial middle Cryogenian, 661-646?±?5?Ma; (4) glacial late Cryogenian/Marinoan, 646?±?5-635?Ma; and (5) non-glacial early Ediacaran, 635-600?±?5?Ma. Odd numbered epochs lack evident glacioeustatic fluctuation; even numbered ones were the Sturtian and Marinoan snowball Earths. This study aimed to deconstruct the carbonate succession for insights on the nature of Cryogenian glaciations. It focuses on the well-exposed southwestern apex of the arcuate fold belt, incorporating 585?measured sections (totaling >190?km of strata) and?>?8764 pairs of d13C/d18Ocarb analyses (tabulated in Supplementary On-line Information). Each glaciation began and ended abruptly, and each was followed by anomalously thick ‘catch-up’ depositional sequences that filled accommodation space created by synglacial tectonic subsidence accompanied by very low average rates of sediment accumulation. Net subsidence was 38% larger on average for the younger glaciation, despite its 3.5-9.3-times shorter duration. Average accumulation rates were subequal, 4.0 vs 3.3-8.8?m Myr-1, despite syn-rift tectonics and topography during Sturtian glaciation, versus passive-margin subsidence during Marinoan. Sturtian deposits everywhere overlie an erosional disconformity or unconformity, with depocenters =1.6?km thick localized in subglacial rift basins, glacially carved bedrock troughs and moraine-like buildups. Sturtian deposits are dominated by massive diamictite, and the associated fine-grained laminated sediments appear to be local subglacial meltwater deposits, including a deep subglacial rift basin. No marine ice-grounding line is required in the 110 Sturtian measured sections in our survey. In contrast, the newly-opened southern foreslope was occupied by a Marinoan marine ice grounding zone, which became the dominant repository for glacial debris eroded from the upper foreslope and broad shallow troughs on the Otavi Group platform, which was glaciated but left nearly devoid of glacial deposits. On the distal foreslope, a distinct glacioeustatic falling-stand carbonate wedge is truncated upslope by a glacial disconformity that underlies the main lowstand grounding-zone wedge, which includes a proximal 0.60-km-high grounding-line moraine. Marinoan deposits are recessional overall, since all but the most distal overlie a glacial disconformity. The Marinoan glacial record is that of an early ice maximum and subsequent slow recession and aggradation, due to tectonic subsidence. Terminal deglaciation is recorded by a ferruginous drape of stratified diamictite, choked with ice-rafted debris, abruptly followed by a syndeglacial-postglacial cap-carbonate depositional sequence. Unlike its Sturtian counterpart, the post-Marinoan sequence has a well-developed basal transgressive (i.e., deepening-upward) cap dolomite (16.9?m regional average thickness, n?=?140) with idiosyncratic sedimentary features including sheet-crack marine cements, tubestone stromatolites and giant wave ripples. The overlying deeper-water calci-rhythmite includes crystal-fans of former aragonite benthic cement =90?m thick, localized in areas of steep sea-floor topography. Marinoan sequence stratigraphy is laid out over =0.6?km of paleobathymetric relief. Late Tonian shallow-neritic d13Ccarb records were obtained from the 0.4-km-thick Devede Fm (~770-760?Ma) in Otavi Group and the 0.7-km-thick Ugab Subgroup (~737-717?Ma) in Swakop Group. Devede Fm is isotopically heavy, +4-8‰ VPDB, and could be correlative with Backlundtoppen Fm (NE Svalbard). Ugab Subgroup post-dates 746?Ma volcanics and shows two negative excursions bridged by heavy d13C values. The negative excursions could be correlative with Russøya and Garvellach CIEs (carbon isotope excursions) in NE Laurentia. Middle Cryogenian neritic d13C records from Otavi Group inner platform feature two heavy plateaus bracketed by three negative excursions, correlated with Twitya (NW Canada), Taishir (Mongolia) and Trezona (South Australia) CIEs. The same pattern is observed in carbonate turbidites in distal Swakop Group, with the sub-Marinoan falling-stand wedge hosting the Trezona CIE recovery. Proximal Swakop Group strata equivalent to Taishir CIE and its subsequent heavy plateau are shifted bidirectionally to uniform values of +3.0-3.5‰. Early Ediacaran neritic d13C records from Otavi Group inner platform display a deep negative excursion associated with the post-Marinoan depositional sequence and heavy values (=?+?11‰) with extreme point-to-point variability (=10‰) in the youngest Otavi Group formation. Distal Swakop Group mimics older parts of the early Ediacaran inner platform d13C records, but after the post-Marinoan negative excursion, proximal Swakop Group values are shifted bidirectionally to +0.9?±?1.5‰. Destruction of positive and negative CIEs in proximal Swakop Group is tentatively attributed to early seawater-buffered diagenesis (dolomitization), driven by geothermal porewater convection that sucks seawater into the proximal foreslope of the platform. This hypothesis provocatively implies that CIEs originating in epi-platform waters and shed far downslope as turbidites are decoupled from open-ocean DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon), which is recorded by the altered proximal Swakop Group values closer to DIC of modern seawater. Carbonate sedimentation ended when the cratonic margins collided with and were overridden by the Atlantic coast-normal Northern Damara and coast-parallel Kaoko orogens at 0.60-0.58?Ga. A forebulge disconformity separates Otavi/Swakop Group from overlying foredeep clastics. In the cratonic cusp, where the orogens meet at a right angle, the forebulge disconformity has an astounding =1.85?km of megakarstic relief, and km-thick mass slides were displaced gravitationally toward both trenches, prior to orogenic shortening responsible for the craton-rimming fold belt.
DS202109-1491
2021
Macdonald, F.A.Sturrock, C.P., Flowers, R.M., Macdonald, F.A.The Late unconformity of the central Canadian Shield.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 22, e2020GC009567Canada, Saskatchewancraton

Abstract: The Great Unconformity is a distinctive feature in the geologic record that separates more ancient rocks from younger (<540 Ma) sedimentary rocks. It commonly marks a substantial time gap in the rock record. When and why the Great Unconformity developed is much debated. We present new thermochronologic data that constrain when ancient rocks across the central Canadian Shield last cooled during exhumation to the surface before deposition of overlying sedimentary rocks that mark the Great Unconformity. These data and the geologic context indicate that the basement below the Great Unconformity erosion here was last exhumed after 650 Ma, in contrast to the pre-650 Ma timing inferred elsewhere in North America. This result is inconsistent with the notion that the Great Unconformity formed worldwide in a single erosion event.
DS2001-0711
2001
Macdonald, G.Macdonald, G., Wytrychowski, S., Baker, Madsen, E.Environmental management and monitoring - Diavik 2001 dike contruction29th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 21-23, abstract p. 55-6.Northwest TerritoriesLegal - environment, Deposit - Diavik
DS1994-0166
1994
Macdonald, I.Bizzi, L.A., Smith, C.B., De Wit, M., Macdonald, I., Armstrong, R.A.Isotopic characteristics of the lithospheric mantle underlying the southwest Sao Francisco craton margin, Brasil.International Symposium Upper Mantle, Aug. 14-19, 1994, pp. 227-255.BrazilGeochronology, Craton
DS201812-2885
2018
Macdonald, I.Smith, C.B., Atkinson, W.J., Tyler, E.W.J., Hall, A.E., Macdonald, I.Argyle deposit: The discovery of the Argyle pipe, western Australia: the world's first lamproite-hosted diamond mine.Society of Economic Geology Geoscience and Exploration of the Argyle, Bunder, Diavik, and Murowa Diamond Deposits, Special Publication no. 20, pp. 49-64.Australia, western Australiadeposit - Argyle
DS201312-0562
2013
Macdonald, J.Macdonald, J.Zircon - Earth's timekeeper.Geology Today, Vol. 29, 3, 2p.TechnologyGeochronology
DS1910-0366
1913
Macdonald, J.A.Macdonald, J.A.Diamonds in British Columbia; February, 1913Min. Sci. Press, Feb. 8TH. P. 247. FEBRUARYCanada, British ColumbiaHistory
DS1987-0615
1987
Macdonald, K.A.Rockwell, M.C., Macdonald, K.A.Processing technology for the recovery of placer mineralsMarine Mining, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 161-175GlobalGravity Seperation techniques, placer mining, Mining Methods
DS1989-0913
1989
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C.Propagating rifts exposedNature, Vol. 342, Dec. 14, pp. 640-741GlobalTectonics, Rifts
DS1989-0914
1989
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C.Propogating rifts exposedNature, Vol. 342, Dec. 14, pp. 740-1.GlobalTectonics, sea floor spreading
DS1990-0965
1990
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C.A slow but restless ridgeNature, Vol. 348, Nov. 8, pp. 108-9.MantleTectonics, sea floor spreading
DS1990-0966
1990
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C., Fox, P.J.The mid-ocean ridgeOcean Resources NL., Trans Hex International Ltd., Vol. 262, No. 6, June pp. 72-95Ocean RidgeTectonics, Plate tectonics
DS1991-1028
1991
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C., Scheirer, D.S., Carbote, S.M.Mid-ocean ridges: discontinuities, segments and giant cracksScience, Vol. 253, August 30, pp. 986-994GlobalTectonics, Mid-ocean ridges
DS1993-0944
1993
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C., Fox, P.J.It's only topography: part 2Gsa Today, Vol. 3, No. 2, February pp. 29, 30, 31, 34, 35GlobalOverview, Topography -computers
DS1993-0945
1993
Macdonald, K.C.Macdonald, K.C., Scheirer, D.S., Carbotte, S.It's only topography: part 1Gsa Today, Vol. 3, No. 1, January p. 1, 24, 25GlobalSonar mapping systems, Ridges, offsets, tectonics, structure
DS1960-0814
1967
Macdonald, R.Cox, K.G., Macdonald, R., Hornung, G.Geochemical and Petrographic Provinces in the Karroo Basalts of Southern Africa.American MINERALOGIST., Vol. 52, PP. 1451-1474.South AfricaPetrography, Geochemistry, Related Rocks
DS1985-0403
1985
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R.Quaternary Peralkaline Silicic Rocks and Caldera Volcanoes Of Kenya.Conference Report of A Meeting of The Volcanic Studies Group, 1P. ABSTRACT.Central Africa, KenyaGeochemistry
DS1985-0404
1985
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R., Thorpe, R.S., Gaskarth, J.W., Grinrod, A.R.Multi-component Origin of Caledonian Lamprophyres of Northern England.Mineralogical Magazine., Vol. 49, No. 353 PT. 4 SEPTEMBER PP. 485-494.GlobalLamprophyres
DS1990-0552
1990
Macdonald, R.Gent, M.R., Harper, C.T., Guliov, P., Macdonald, R.Saskatchewan diamonds: a new realityThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 83, No. 939, July p. 115. Abstract (PDA)SaskatchewanBrief overview, Diamond activities
DS1992-0970
1992
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R., Upton, B.G.J., Collerson, K.D., Hearn, B.C.Potassic mafic lavas of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana-mineralogy, chemistry and origin ( review)Journal of Petrology, Vol. 33, No. 2, April pp. 305-346MontanaPotassic magmatism, Bearpaw Mountains
DS1993-0272
1993
MacDonald, R.Collerson, K.D., Scherer, E.E., MacDonald, R.The evolution of Wyoming craton lower crust: uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) shrimp and neodymium-Sr isotopic evidence for middle Archean and Early Proterozoic events.The Xenolith window into the lower crust, abstract volume and workshop, p. 4.MontanaCraton
DS1994-1076
1994
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R., Williams, L.A., Gass, I.G.Tectonomagmatic evolution of Kenya rift valley -some geologicalperspectives.Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 151, No. 5, Sept. pp. 879-888.KenyaTectonics, Rifting
DS1998-0130
1998
Macdonald, R.Black, S., Macdonald, R., Barreiro, Dunkley, SmithOpen system alkaline magmatism in northern Kenya: evidence from U seriesdisequilibration temperatures and radiogenic...Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 131, No. 4, May pp. 364-378.KenyaGeochronology - isotopes, Alkaline rocks
DS2001-0712
2001
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R., Rogers, N., Fitton, J.G., Black, SmithPlume lithosphere interactions in the generation of the basalts of the Kenya rift, east Africa.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 877-900.East Africa, KenyaTectonics - plume, mantle
DS200412-0477
2004
Macdonald, R.Downes, H., Macdonald, R., Upton, B.G.J., Cox, K.G., Bodinier, J-L., Mason, P.R.D., James, D., Hill, P.G., HeaUltramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana: USA: evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantJournal of Petrology, Vol. 45, 8, pp. 1631-1662.United States, MontanaMetasomatism
DS200612-0846
2006
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R., Scaillet, B.The central Kenya peralkaline province: insights into the evolution of peralkaline salic magmas.Lithos, in press availableAfrica, KenyaMagmatism - not specific to alkaline rocks
DS201112-0630
2011
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R.Evolution of peralkaline silicic complexes: lessons from the extrusive rocks.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, AbstractMelting
DS201212-0428
2012
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R.Evolution of peralkaline silicic complexes: lessons from the extrusive rocks. ( caldera collapse)Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 11-12.MantlePre-eruption chambers
DS201312-0928
2013
Macdonald, R.Upton, B.G.J., Macdonald, R., Odling, N., Ramo, O.T., Baginski, B.Kungnaat, revisited. A review of five decades of research into an alkaline complex in South Greenland, with new trace element and Nd isotopic data.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 77, 4, pp. 523-550.Europe, GreenlandKungnaat
DS201705-0851
2017
Macdonald, R.Macdonald, R., Baginski, B., Zozulya, D.Differing responses of zircon, chevkinite - (Ce), monazite-(Ce) and fergusonite-(Y) to hydrothermal alteration: Evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 22p.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkaline rocks

Abstract: A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65-2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9-1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66-1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.
DS201709-2038
2017
Macdonald, R.Nasdala, L., Broska, I., Harlov, D.E., Macdonald, R.Recent progress in the study of accessory minerals. Outline of special volume.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 111, 4, pp. 431-433.Technologymineralogy

Abstract: Accessory minerals are a common species in igneous and metamorphic rocks that are not considered characteristic of the host rock and hence do not affect its root name. Accessories tend to be complex in terms of their chemical and isotopic composition and their structural state. In spite of not being major rock constituents, they are, however, of enormous petrologic interest as they contain a record of the formation and post-formation history of their host rock. The study of accessory minerals hence has increased continuously during the past years, and still increases (Fig. 1). Recent progress is driven by new analytical opportunities of (in situ) micro-techniques. More and more the internal textures, that is, elemental, isotopic, and/or structural distribution patterns within individual grains, have come into the focus of researchers; a few examples are compiled in Fig. 2.
DS1988-0136
1988
Macdonald, R.A.Collerson, K., Hearm, B.C., Macdonald, R.A., Upton, B.F., Park, J.G.Granulite xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains,Montana: constraints on the character and evolution of lower continental crustTerra Cognita, Eclogite conference, Vol. 8, No. 3, Summer, p. 270. AbstractMontanaXenoliths, Bearpaw Mountains
DS1989-0279
1989
MacDonald, R.A.Collerson, K.D., MacDonald, R.A., Upton, B.G.J., Harmon, R.S.Composition and evolution of lower continental crust:evidence from xenoliths in Eocene lavas from the Bearpaw Mountains, MontanaNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 57. AbstractMontanaXenoliths
DS1989-0608
1989
MacDonald, R.A.Hearn, B.C.Jr., Collerson, K.D., MacDonald, R.A., Upton, B.G.J.Mantle crustal lithosphere of north central Montana,USA: evidence fromxenolithsNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 125. AbstractMontanaXenoliths
DS1991-0694
1991
Macdonald, R.A.Hearn, B.C.Jr., Collerson, K.D., Upton, B.G.J., Macdonald, R.A.Ancient enriched upper mantle beneath north-central Montana: evidence fromxenolithsGuidebook of the Central Montana Alkalic Province, ed. Baker, D.W., Berg. R., No. 100, pp. 133-135. extended abstractMontanaMantle, xenoliths
DS1994-1320
1994
Macdougall, D.Otto, J., Macdougall, D.Project financing and the mineral development agreementTransactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM), Vol. 103, A, pp. A117-123GlobalLegal, mining law, Project agreements
DS1995-1134
1995
MacDougall, D.G.MacDougall, D.G.Rare element occurrencesGeological Survey of Canada (GSC) Open File, No. 3119, pp. 67-76.SaskatchewanCarbonatite
DS1986-0511
1986
Macdougall, J.D.Macdougall, J.D., Lugmair, G.W.Strontium and neodymium isotopes in basalts from the East Pacific Rise-significance for mantle heterogeneityEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 77, No. 3-4, April pp. 273-284East Pacific RiseGeochronology
DS1988-0586
1988
Macdougall, J.D.Rubin, K.H., Macdougall, J.D.226 Ra excesses in mid ocean ridge basalts and mantle meltingNature, Vol. 335, September 8, pp. 158-161. Database # 17368GlobalMantle, Genesis
DS1992-0356
1992
Macdougall, J.D.Deng, F-L, Macdougall, J.D.Proterozoic depletion of the lithosphere recorded in mantle xenoliths from Inner MongoliaNature, Vol. 360, No. 6402, November 26, pp. 333-335GlobalXenoliths
DS1997-0641
1997
Macdougall, J.D.Kumar, A., Charan, S.N., Gopalan, K., Macdougall, J.D.Isotope evidence for a long lived source for Proterozoic carbonatites from South India.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Abstracts, India, southCarbonatite, Proterozoic, geochronology
DS1998-0817
1998
Macdougall, J.D.Kumar, A., Charan, N., Gopalan, K., Macdougall, J.D.A long lived enriched mantle source for two Proterozoic carbonatite complexes from Tamil Nadu, southern India.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 3, Feb. pp. 515-523.IndiaCarbonatite, Hogenakal, Sevathur, geochronology
DS1999-0431
1999
Macdougall, J.D.Macdougall, J.D., Haggerty, S.E.Ultradeep xenoliths from African kimberlites: Strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions suggest complex history.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 170, No. 1-2, June 30, pp. 73-82.South Africa, Africa, Liberia, Sierra LeoneGeochronology
DS2000-0534
2000
MacDougall, J.D.Krishnamurthy, P., Gopalan, K., MacDougall, J.D.Olivine compositions in picrite basalts and the Deccan volcanic cycleJournal of Petrology, Vol. 41, No. 7, July, pp. 1057-70.IndiaPicrites
DS201710-2242
2017
MacDougall, J.G.MacDougall, J.G., Jadamec, M.A., Fischer, K.M.The zone of influence of the subducting slab in the asthenospheric mantle.Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, 8, pp. 6599-6624.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Due to the multidisciplinary nature of combined geodynamics and shear wave splitting studies, there is still much to be understood in terms of isolating the contributions from mantle dynamics to the shear wave splitting signal, even in a two-dimensional (2-D) mantle flow framework. This paper investigates the viscous flow, lattice preferred orientation (LPO) development, and predicted shear wave splitting for a suite of buoyancy-driven subduction models using a non-linear rheology to shed light on the nature of the slab-driven asthenospheric flow and plate-mantle coupling. The slab-driven zone of influence in the mantle, LPO fabric, and resulting synthetic splitting are sensitive to slab strength and slab initial slab dip. The non-linear viscosity formulations leads to dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity extending over 600 km into the mantle wedge and over 300 km behind the trench, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a weaker slab and moderate slab dip. The olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The results suggest that LPO formed during initial subduction may persist into the steady state subduction regime. Vertical flow fields in the asthenosphere can produce shear wave splitting variations with back azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear wave splitting observed in real subduction zones. Furthermore, the models demonstrate the corner flow paradigm should not be equated with a 2-D subduction framework.
DS1990-0967
1990
MacDougall, R.E.MacDougall, R.E., Fuchs, R.L.Property sales- getting from here to thereAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, No. 90-36, 5pGlobalLaw, Mineral properties -overview
DS1997-0098
1997
Mace, J.Bernard-Griffiths, J., Gruau, G., Mace, J.Continental lithospheric contribution to alkaline magmatism: isotopic Sr, lead) and geochemical rare earth elements (REE).Journal of Petrology, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan. 1, pp. 115-132.MantleSerra de Monchique, Mount Ormonde, Alkaline rocks
DS1994-1077
1994
MacEachren, A.M.MacEachren, A.M., Taylor, D.R.T.Visualization in modern cartographyElsevier, 345p. $ 45.00 United StatesGlobalBook -ad, Cartography
DS1997-0708
1997
MacEachren, A.M.MacEachren, A.M.How maps work... representation, visualization and designEarth Observation Magazine books, $ 50.00GlobalBook - ad, Maps
DS2000-0027
2000
MacedoArchanjo, C.J., Trinidade, R.I., Macedo, AraujoMagnetic fabric of a basaltic dyke swarm associated with Mesozoic rifting in northeastern Brasil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3, July pp. 179-89.BrazilDike swarms, tectonics, Geophysics - magnetics
DS1992-0113
1992
Macedo, M.H.F.Bellieni, G., Macedo, M.H.F., Petrini, R., Piccirillo, E.M.Evidence of magmatic activity related to Middle Jurassic and LowerChemical Geology, Vol. 97, No. 1/2, May 15, pp. 9-32BrazilTectonics, Geochronology
DS200912-0130
2009
Macedonio, G.Costa, A., Sparks, R.J.S., Macedonio, G., melnik, O.Effects of wall rock elasticity on magma flow in dykes during explosive eruptions.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 288, 3-4, pp. 455-462.MantleMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS202012-2209
2020
Macedonio, G.Buono, G., Fanara, S., Macedonio, G., Palladino, D.M., Petrosino, P., Sottili, G., Pappalardo, L.Dynamics of degassing in evolved alkaline magmas: petrological, experimental and theoretical insights.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 211, 103402, 23p. PdfMantlealkaline

Abstract: In the last few decades, advanced monitoring networks have been extended to the main active volcanoes, providing warnings for variations in volcano dynamics. However, one of the main tasks of modern volcanology is the correct interpretation of surface-monitored signals in terms of magma transfer through the Earth's crust. In this frame, it is crucial to investigate decompression-induced magma degassing as it controls magma ascent towards the surface and, in case of eruption, the eruptive style and the atmospheric dispersal of tephra and gases. Understanding the degassing behaviour is particularly intriguing in the case of poorly explored evolved alkaline magmas. In fact, these melts frequently feed hazardous, highly explosive volcanoes (e.g., Campi Flegrei, Somma-Vesuvius, Colli Albani, Tambora, Azores and Canary Islands), despite their low viscosity that usually promotes effusive and/or weakly explosive eruptions. Decompression experiments, together with numerical models, are powerful tools to examine magma degassing behaviour and constrain field observations from natural eruptive products and monitoring signals. These approaches have been recently applied to evolved alkaline melts, yet numerous open questions remain. To cast new light on the degassing dynamics of evolved alkaline magmas, in this study we present new results from decompression experiments, as well as a critical review of previous experimental works. We achieved a comprehensive dataset of key petrological parameters (i.e., 3D textural data for bubbles and microlites using X-ray computed microtomography, glass volatile contents and nanolite occurrence) from experimental samples obtained through high temperature-high pressure isothermal decompression experiments on trachytic alkaline melts at super-liquidus temperature. We explored systematically a range of final pressures (from 200 to 25 MPa), decompression rates (from 0.01 to 1 MPa s-1), and volatile (H2O and CO2) contents. On these grounds, we integrated coherently literature data from decompression experiments on evolved alkaline (trachytic and phonolitic) melts under various conditions, with the aim to fully constrain the degassing mechanisms and timescales in these magmas. Finally, we simulated numerically the experimental conditions to evaluate strengths and weaknesses in decrypting degassing behaviour from field observations. Our results highlight that bubble formation in evolved alkaline melts is primarily controlled by the initial volatile (H2O and CO2) content during magma storage. In these melts, bubble nucleation needs low supersaturation pressures (= 50-112 MPa for homogeneous nucleation, = 13-25 MPa for heterogeneous nucleation), resulting in high bubble number density (~ 1012-1016 m-3), efficient volatile exsolution and thus in severe rheological changes. Moreover, the bubble number density is amplified in CO2-rich melts (mole fraction XCO2 = 0.5), in which continuous bubble nucleation predominates on growth. These conditions typically lead to highly explosive eruptions. However, moving towards slower decompression rates (= 10-1 MPa s-1) and H2O-rich melts, permeable outgassing and inertial fragmentation occur, promoting weakly explosive eruptions. Finally, our findings suggest that the exhaustion of CO2 at deep levels, and the consequent transition to a H2O-dominated degassing, can crucially enhance magma vesiculation and ascent. In a hazard perspective, these constraints allow to postulate that time-depth variations of unrest signals could be significantly weaker/shorter (e.g., minor gas emissions and short-term seismicity) during major eruptions than in small-scale events.
DS202109-1455
2021
Macedonio, G.Buono, G., Fanara, S., Macedonio, G., Palladino, D.M., Petrosino, P., Sottili, G., Pappalardo, L.Dynamics of degassing in evolved alkaline magmas: petrological, experimental and theoretical insights.Earth Science Reviews , Vol. 211, 103402, 23p. PdfMantlegeodynamics

Abstract: In the last few decades, advanced monitoring networks have been extended to the main active volcanoes, providing warnings for variations in volcano dynamics. However, one of the main tasks of modern volcanology is the correct interpretation of surface-monitored signals in terms of magma transfer through the Earth's crust. In this frame, it is crucial to investigate decompression-induced magma degassing as it controls magma ascent towards the surface and, in case of eruption, the eruptive style and the atmospheric dispersal of tephra and gases. Understanding the degassing behaviour is particularly intriguing in the case of poorly explored evolved alkaline magmas. In fact, these melts frequently feed hazardous, highly explosive volcanoes (e.g., Campi Flegrei, Somma-Vesuvius, Colli Albani, Tambora, Azores and Canary Islands), despite their low viscosity that usually promotes effusive and/or weakly explosive eruptions. Decompression experiments, together with numerical models, are powerful tools to examine magma degassing behaviour and constrain field observations from natural eruptive products and monitoring signals. These approaches have been recently applied to evolved alkaline melts, yet numerous open questions remain. To cast new light on the degassing dynamics of evolved alkaline magmas, in this study we present new results from decompression experiments, as well as a critical review of previous experimental works. We achieved a comprehensive dataset of key petrological parameters (i.e., 3D textural data for bubbles and microlites using X-ray computed microtomography, glass volatile contents and nanolite occurrence) from experimental samples obtained through high temperature-high pressure isothermal decompression experiments on trachytic alkaline melts at super-liquidus temperature. We explored systematically a range of final pressures (from 200 to 25 MPa), decompression rates (from 0.01 to 1 MPa s-1), and volatile (H2O and CO2) contents. On these grounds, we integrated coherently literature data from decompression experiments on evolved alkaline (trachytic and phonolitic) melts under various conditions, with the aim to fully constrain the degassing mechanisms and timescales in these magmas. Finally, we simulated numerically the experimental conditions to evaluate strengths and weaknesses in decrypting degassing behaviour from field observations. Our results highlight that bubble formation in evolved alkaline melts is primarily controlled by the initial volatile (H2O and CO2) content during magma storage. In these melts, bubble nucleation needs low supersaturation pressures (= 50-112 MPa for homogeneous nucleation, = 13-25 MPa for heterogeneous nucleation), resulting in high bubble number density (~ 1012-1016 m-3), efficient volatile exsolution and thus in severe rheological changes. Moreover, the bubble number density is amplified in CO2-rich melts (mole fraction XCO2 = 0.5), in which continuous bubble nucleation predominates on growth. These conditions typically lead to highly explosive eruptions. However, moving towards slower decompression rates (= 10-1 MPa s-1) and H2O-rich melts, permeable outgassing and inertial fragmentation occur, promoting weakly explosive eruptions. Finally, our findings suggest that the exhaustion of CO2 at deep levels, and the consequent transition to a H2O-dominated degassing, can crucially enhance magma vesiculation and ascent. In a hazard perspective, these constraints allow to postulate that time-depth variations of unrest signals could be significantly weaker/shorter (e.g., minor gas emissions and short-term seismicity) during major eruptions than in small-scale events.
DS1999-0432
1999
Macek, J.J.Macek, J.J., Ducharme, E.B., Lettley, C., McGregor, C.R.Thompson nickel belt project: retrieval of core from Falcon bridge Bucko exploration site near Wabowden.Man. Geological Survey Report Activities, pp. 15-17.ManitobaExploration - drilling, Bucko project, Falconbridge Ltd.
DS2003-0446
2003
Macera, P.Gasperini, D., Blichert Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albaraede, F.Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: evidence from theJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 12, Dec. 6, pp. DO1 10.1029/2001JB000418MantleGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS200412-0614
2003
Macera, P.Gasperini, D., Blichert Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albaraede, F.Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 12, Dec. 6, pp. DO1 10.1029/2001 JB000418MantleGeophysics - seismics Tectonics
DS201612-2343
2016
Macey, P.H.Thomas, R.J., Macey, P.H., Spencer, C., Dhansay, T., Diener, J.F.A., Lambert, C.W., Frei, D., Nguno, A.The Sperrgebeit Domain, Aurus Mountains, SW Namibia: a ~2020-850 Ma window within the Pan-African Gariep Orogen.Precambrian Research, Vol. 286, pp. 35-58.Africa, NamibiaGeochronology
DS201901-0037
2018
Macey, P.H.Grantham, G., Eglinton, B., Macey, P.H., Ingram,B., Radeneyer, M., Kaiden, H., Manhica, V.The chemistry of Karoo age andesitic lavas along the northern Mozambique coast, southern Africa and possible implications for Gondwana breakup.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, pp. 271-286.Africa, Mozambiquegeodynamics

Abstract: Major, trace, radiogenic isotope and stable isotope data from lavas along the northeastern coast of Mozambique are described. The whole rock composition data demonstrate that the rocks are dominantly andesitic with compositions typical of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from arc environments. SHRIMP U/Pb data from zircons indicate that the zircons are xenocrystic, having ages of between 500 Ma and 660 Ma, with the age of the lava constrained by Rb/Sr data at ~184 Ma. Strontium, Nd and Pb radiogenic isotope data support an interpretation of extensive mixing between a Karoo age basaltic magma (dolerite) from Antarctica and continental crust similar in composition to the Mozambique basement. Oxygen isotope data also imply a significant crustal contribution to the lavas. Possible tectonic settings for the lavas are at the margin of a plume or from a locally restricted compressional setting during Gondwana breakup processes.
DS201905-1017
2019
Macey, P.H.Boger, S.D., Maas, R., Pastuhov, M., Macey, P.H., Hirdes, W., Schulte, B., Fanning, C.M., Ferreira, C.A.M., Jenett, T., Dallwig, R.The tectonic domains of southern and western Madagascar.Precambrian Research, Vol. 327, pp. 144-175.Africa, Madagascarplate tectonics

Abstract: Southern and western Madagascar is comprised of five tectonic provinces that, from northeast to southwest, are defined by the: (i) Ikalamavony, (ii) Anosyen, (iii) Androyen, (iv) Graphite and (v) Vohibory Domains. The Ikalamavony, Graphite and Vohibory Domains all have intermediate and felsic igneous protoliths of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-granite composition, with positive eNd, and low Sr and Pb isotopic ratios. All three domains are interpreted to be the products of intra-oceanic island arc magmatism. The protoliths of the Ikalamavony and Graphite Domains formed repectively between c. 1080-980?Ma and 1000-920?Ma, whereas those of the Vohibory Domain are younger and date to between c. 670-630?Ma. Different post-formation geologic histories tie the Vohibory-Graphite and Ikalamavony Domains to opposite sides of the pre-Gondwana Mozambique Ocean. By contrast, the Androyen and Anosyen Domains record long crustal histories. Intermediate to felsic igneous protoliths in the Androyen Domain are of Palaeoproterozoic age (c. 2200-1800?Ma), of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-granite composition, and show negative eNd, moderate to high 87Sr/86Sr and variable Pb isotopic compositions. The felsic igneous protoliths of the Anosyen Domain are of granitic composition and, when compared to felsic gneisses of the Androyen Domain, show consistently lower Sr/Y and markedly higher Sr and Pb isotope ratios. Like the Vohibory and Graphite Domains, the Androyen Domain can be linked to the western side of the Mozambique Ocean, while the Anosyen Domain shares magmatic and detrital zircon commonalities with the Ikalamavony Domain. It is consequently linked to the opposing eastern side of this ocean. The first common event observed in all domains dates to c. 580-520?Ma and marks the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The trace of this suture lies along the boundary between the Androyen and Anosyen Domains and is defined by the Beraketa high-strain zone.
DS202004-0544
2020
Macey, P.H.Will, T.M., Hohn, S., Frimmel, H.E., Gaucher, C., Le Roux, P.J., Macey, P.H.Petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of Neoproterozoic rock units from Uruguay and South Africa: correlation of basement terranes across the South Atlantic.Gondwana Research, Vol. 80, pp. 12-32.South America, Uruguay, Brazil, Africa, Namibiacraton

Abstract: Felsic to intermediate igneous rocks from the Cuchilla Dionisio (or Punta del Este) Terrane (CDT) in Uruguay and the Várzea do Capivarita Complex (VCC) in southern Brazil were emplaced in the Tonian and experienced high-grade metamorphism towards the end of the Cryogenian. Geological and geochemical data indicate an S-type origin and formation in a continental within-plate setting by recycling of lower crustal material that was initially extracted from the mantle in the Palaeoproterozoic. Similar felsic igneous rocks of Tonian age occur in the Richtersveld Igneous Complex and the Vredefontein and Rosh Pinah formations in westernmost South Africa and southern Namibia and have been correlated with their supposed equivalents in Uruguay and Brazil. Geochemical and isotope data of the largely unmetamorphosed felsic igneous rocks in southwestern Africa imply a within-plate origin and formation by partial melting or fractional crystallization of mafic rocks that were extracted from the mantle in the Proterozoic. The parental melts of all of these Tonian igneous rocks from South America and southwestern Africa formed in an anorogenic continental setting at the western margin of the Kalahari Craton and were emplaced in, and/or contaminated by, Namaqua Province-type basement after separation from their source region. However, the source regions and the time of extractions thereof are different and, moreover, occurred at different palaeogeographical latitudes. New petrological data of CDT high-grade gneiss indicate a geothermal gradient of c. 20-25 °C/km, implying continental collisional tectonics following subduction and ocean basin closure at an active continental margin at the eastern edge of present-day South America in the late Cryogenian to early Ediacaran. The associated suture may be traced by the high-grade gneiss and amphibolite-facies mafic rocks in the CDT and probably continues northwards to the Arroio Grande Complex and the VCC in southern Brazil.
DS202102-0205
2020
Macey, P.H.Martin, E.L., Spencer, C.J., Collins, W.J., Thomas, R.J., Macey, P.H., Roberts, N.M.W.The core of Rodinia formed by the juxtaposition of opposed retreating and advancing accretionary orogens.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 211, doi.org/10.1016 /j.earscirev.2020 .103413 17p. Pdf Globalcratons

Abstract: Long-lived (800?Ma) Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic accretionary orogens on the margins of Laurentia, Baltica, Amazonia, and Kalahari collided to form the core of the supercontinent, Rodinia. Accretionary orogens in Laurentia and Baltica record predominately radiogenic zircon eHf(t) and whole-rock Pb isotopic compositions, short crustal residence times (ca. 0.5?Ga), and the development of arc-backarc complexes. The accretionary orogenic record of Laurentia and Baltica is consistent with a retreating accretionary orogen and analogous to the Phanerozoic western Pacific orogenic system. In contrast, the Mesoproterozoic orogens of Amazon and Kalahari cratons record unradiogenic zircon eHf(t) values, ca. 0.8?Ga crustal residence times, and more ancient whole-rock Pb isotopic signatures. The accretionary orogenic record of Amazonia and Kalahari indicates the preferential incorporation of cratonic material in continental arcs of advancing accretionary orogens comparable to the Phanerozoic eastern Pacific orogenic system. Based on similarities in the geodynamic evolution of the Phanerozoic circum-Pacific orogens peripheral to Gondwana/Pangea, we suggest that the Mesoproterozoic accretionary orogens formed as peripheral subduction zones along the margin of the supercontinent Nuna (ca. 1.8-1.6?Ga). The eventual collapse of this peripheral subduction zone onto itself and closure of the external ocean around Nuna to form Rodinia is equivalent to the projected future collapse of the circum-Pacific subduction system and juxtaposition of Australia-Asia with South America. The juxtaposition of advancing and retreating accretionary orogens at the core of the supercontinent Rodinia demonstrates that supercontinent assembly can occur by the closure of external oceans and indicates that future closure of the Pacific Ocean is plausible.
DS201012-0462
2010
MacFadyen, C.MacFadyen, C.The vandalizing effect of irresponsible core sampling: a call for a new code of conduct.Geology Today, Vol. 26, 4, pp. 146-151.GlobalSampling - Not specific to diamonds
DS1984-0578
1984
Macfadyen, D.A.Paterson, N.R., Macfadyen, D.A.An Airborne Electromagnetic Input Magnetometer Survey State Line District,colorado Wyoming.American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) PREPRINT., No. 84-310, 11P.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsGeophysics, Kimberlite
DS1986-0633
1986
MacFadyen, D.A.Paterson, N.R., MacFadyen, D.A.Airborne electromagnetic (input)/magnetometer survey, State Line Colorado-WyomingAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Transactions Vol, Vol. 280, pt. A, pp. 1935-1942Colorado, WyomingBlank
DS1992-0178
1992
MacFadyen, D.A.Brummer, J.J., MacFadyen, D.A., Pegg, C.C.Discovery of kimberlites in the Kirkland Lake area, northern Ontario, Canada. Part I: kimberlite discoveries, sampling, diamondcontent, age, emplacementThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Exploration Mining Geology, Vol. 1, No. 4, October pp. 351-370OntarioGeology, geophysics -aeromagnetics, Kimberlite pipes
DS1992-0179
1992
MacFadyen, D.A.Brummer, J.J., MacFadyen, D.A., Pegg, C.C.Discovery of kimberlites in the Kirkland Lake area, northern Ontario, Canada. Part I: early surveys and surficial geologyThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), Vol. 1, No. 4, October pp. 339-350OntarioHistory, Quaternary, sampling programs
DS1993-0946
1993
MacFadyen, D.A.MacFadyen, D.A.Discovery of kimberlites Kirkland Lake area(Part III) - a decisive contribution by aeromagnetic dat a analysis in conditions of deep overburden.Mid-continent diamonds Geological Association of Canada (GAC)-Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Symposium ABSTRACT volume, held Edmonton May, pp. 31-36.OntarioGeophysics, Geomorphology
DS1995-0871
1995
MacFadyen. D.A.Janse, A.J.A., Novak, N.A., MacFadyen. D.A.Discovery of a new type of highly Diamondiferous kimberlitic rocks in The james Bay Lowlands, Northern OntarioProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 260-262.OntarioKimberlite, Deposit -Kyle Lake area
DS1940-0122
1946
Macfall, R.P.Macfall, R.P., Chagnon, H.E.Gem Hunter's GuideChicago: Science And Mechanics Publishing Co., 95P.GlobalKimberlite
DS1970-0954
1974
Macfarlane, A.Macfarlane, A., Crow, M.J., Arthurs, J.W., Wilkinson, A.F.The Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Sierra Leone #1Overseas Institute of Geological Sciences International Report, No. 34, 203P.Sierra Leone, West AfricaKimberley, Geology, Diamonds
DS1975-1119
1979
Macfarlane, A.Macfarlane, A., Crowe, M.J., Wilkinson, A.F., Arthurs, J.W.The Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Sierra Leone #2Geological Survey SIERRA LEONE Bulletin., No. 7Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Diamonds
DS1981-0276
1981
Macfarlane, A.Macfarlane, A., Crow, M.J., Arthurs, J.W., Wilkinson, A.F., Auco.The Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Sierra Leone #3Institute GEOL. SCIENCES OVERSEAS MEMOIR., MEMOIR No. 7, 103P. DIAMONDS PP. 65-66.Sierra Leone, West AfricaKimberley, Geology, Diamond
DS1993-1423
1993
Macfarlane, A.Sen, G., Macfarlane, A., Srimal, N.Mantle metasomesGeological Society of America Annual Abstract Volume, Vol. 25, No. 6, p. A99 abstract onlyHawaiiMantle, Metasomatism
DS1980-0056
1980
Macfarlane, A.C.Beckinsale, R.D., Gale, N.H., Parkhurst, R.J., Macfarlane, A.C.Discordant Rubidium-strontium and Lead Whole Rock Isochron Ages for ThePrecambrian Research., Vol. 13, No. 1, PP. 43-62.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeochronology, Geology
DS2001-0713
2001
Macfarlane, A.S.Macfarlane, A.S.A code for the valuation of mineral properties and projects in South AfricaValmin 01, Mineral Asset Valuation Oct. 25-6th., pp.34-50.South AfricaEconomics - legal code, Mineral reserves, resources, valuation, exploration
DS1991-1029
1991
Macfarlane, A.W.Macfarlane, A.W., Holland, H.D.The timing of alkali metasomatism in paleosolsCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 29, pt. 4, December pp. 1043-1050GlobalGeochronology, Precambrian paleosols
DS1994-1078
1994
Macfarlane, A.W.Macfarlane, A.W., Prol-Ledesma, R-M., Conrad, M.E.Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes northern PeruInternational Geology Review, Vol. 36, No. 7, July pp. 645-677PeruGeochronology, Metallogeny
DS1993-0947
1993
Macfarlane, S.N.Macfarlane, S.N.Political and economic change in the former USSR: implications for Canadian competiveness in mineralsCrs Perspectives, No. 42, January pp. 2-9RussiaEconomics, Mineral industry
DS1991-1324
1991
MacFayden, D.A.Pegg, C.C., Brummer, J.J., MacFayden, D.A.Discovery of kimberlite diatremes in the Kirkland Lake area, Ontario #2The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) ., Session, Vol. 84, No. 947, March p. 99. AbstractOntarioKimberlite -diatremes, Kirkland Lake area
DS1996-0868
1996
MacGillivray, L.D.MacGillivray, L.D.Nuggets: a motherlode of useful natural resource and real propertytopics... trespass and technology .Can. Bar Association Continuing Legal Education, Oct. 26, 21pOntarioLegal - interference and property rights, Geophysical surveys
DS1910-0469
1915
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M.Notes on a Graphic Intergrowth of Diopside and Ilmenite From the Bembesi Diamond Field, Southern Rhodesia.Geological Society of South Africa Transactions, Vol. 18, PP. 1-4. ALSO: REPLY TO DRAPER, Geological Society STH. AFRZimbabweOxide-silicate-intergrowths, Mineralogy
DS1920-0079
1921
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M.The Geology of the Diamond Bearing Gravels of the Somabula Forest. Notes by A.e.v. Zealley.Geological Survey Southern Rhodesia Bulletin., No. 8, PP. 7-38.ZimbabweAlluvial Diamond Placers, Geology
DS1930-0114
1932
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M.Walvis Bay Economic Survey. Geological Report with Analyses by E. Golding.In: Report of The Rhodesia-walvis Bay Reconnaissance Survey, PP. 44-54.Southwest Africa, NamibiaGeology, Littoral Diamond Placers
DS1930-0257
1937
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M., Ferguson, J.C., Amm, F.L.The Geology of the Country Around the Queen's Mine, BulawayoGeological Survey Southern Rhodesia Bulletin., No. 30, 175P.ZimbabweColussus, Wessels, Geology
DS1940-0156
1947
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M.An Outline of the Geological History of Southern RhodesiaRhodesia Geological Survey, Bulletin. No. 38, 73P.ZimbabweGeology, Kimberley
DS1940-0184
1948
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M.On Alkaline Ring Complexes in Sabi Valley at the Meeting Of african Geological Surveys Held in London.Chronique de Mines COLON. 16TH., No. 147, PP. 205-206.ZimbabweRelated Rocks
DS1950-0076
1951
Macgregor, A.M.Macgregor, A.M.A Discussion on the Origin of CarbonatitesInternational Geological Congress 18TH., PT. 14, P. 23.South AfricaGeology Kimberlite Pipes, Mining Methods, Recovery Diamond
DS201412-0538
2015
Macgregor, D.Macgregor, D.History of the development of the East African Rift system: a series of interpreted maps through time.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 101, pp. 232-252.AfricaTectonics
DS201503-0159
2015
MacGregor, D.MacGregor, D.The Fairway concept and chance mapping: African petroleum and carbonatite examples.PDAC 2015, Abstract, 1p.Africa, East AfricaCarbonatite
DS1960-0477
1964
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D., Ringwood, A.E.The Natural System Enstatite PyropeCarnegie Institute Yearbook, FOR 1963-1964, PP. 161-163.South AfricaBultfontein, Mineral Chemistry
DS1960-0983
1968
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.Mafic and Ultramafic from the Roberts Victor Kimberlite, South Africa.Geological Society of America (GSA) SPECIAL PAPER., No. 115, PP. 136-137.South AfricaGeology, Petrography
DS1960-1159
1969
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D., Carter, J.L.The Genesis of Eclogite Xenoliths from the Roberts Victor Kimberlite Pipe South Africa.American Geophysical Union (AGU) Transactions, Vol. 50, No. 4, P. 342. (abstract.).South AfricaGeology
DS1970-0125
1970
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.An Hypothesis for the Origin of KimberliteAmerican MINERALOGIST., SPECIAL PAPER No. 3, PP. 51-62.South AfricaGenesis
DS1970-0126
1970
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D., Carter, J.L.The Chemistry of Clinopyroxenes and Garnets of Eclogite And peridotite Xenoliths from the Roberts Victor Mine, South Africa.Phys. Earth. Plan. International, Vol. 3, PP. 391-397.South AfricaGeochemistry
DS1970-0127
1970
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D., Wittkop, R.W.Diopside Ilmenite Intergrowth from the Monastery Mine, Orange Free State, South Africa.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 2, P. 113, (abstract.).South AfricaMineralogy, Petrography
DS1970-0294
1971
Macgregor, I.D.Garlick, G.D., Macgregor, I.D., Vogel, D.E.Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Eclogites from KimberlitesScience., Vol. 172, No. 3987, PP. 1025-1027.South AfricaMineralogy
DS1970-0750
1973
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.Petrological Structure of the Upper Mantle Beneath the South African Shield.1st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 207-209.South AfricaTectonics
DS1970-0955
1974
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.The System Mgo Al2os Sio2: Solubility of Al2o3 in Enstatitefor Spinel and Garnet Peridotite Compositions.American MINERALOGIST, \, Vol. 59, PP. 110-119.GlobalMineral Chemistry
DS1975-0027
1975
Macgregor, I.D.Basu, A.R., Macgregor, I.D.Chromite Spinels Fromm Ultramafic XenolithsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta ., Vol. 39, PP. 937-945.GlobalGeochemistry
DS1975-0127
1975
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.Petrologic and Thermal Structure of the Upper Mantle Beneath South Africa in the Cretaceous.Physics and Chemistry of the Earth., Vol. 9, PP. 455-466.South AfricaPetrology, Geothermometry, Littoral Diamond Placers
DS1975-1120
1979
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.Mafic and Ultramafic Xenoliths from the Kao Kimberlite PipeProceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 2, PP. 156-172.LesothoPetrography
DS1975-1121
1979
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D., Basu, A.R.Petrogenesis of the Mount Albert Ultramafic Massif, QuebecGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 90, No. 10, OCTOBER, PP. 898-900. PT. 2. FICHE PP. 1529Canada, QuebecBlank
DS1985-0405
1985
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.The Roberts Victor Eclogites: Ancient Oceanic Crust?Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 7, P. 650. (abstract.).South AfricaOxygen Isotope Geochemistry
DS1986-0060
1986
MacGregor, I.D.Basu, A.R., Ongley, J.S., MacGregor, I.D.Eclogites, pyroxene geotherm and layered mantle convectionScience, Vol. 233, No. 4770, Sept. 19, pp. 1303-1305MantleBlank
DS1986-0061
1986
Macgregor, I.D.Basu, A.R., Ongley, J.S., Macgregor, I.D.Roberts Victor eclogites, pyroxenes geotherm and layered mantleconvectionEos, Vol. 67, No. 16, April 22, p. 394. (abstract.)South AfricaGeothermometry
DS1986-0512
1986
MacGregor, I.D.MacGregor, I.D., Manton, W.I.The Roberts Victor eclogites: ancient oceanic crustJournal of Geophysical Research, Pt. B, Paper No. 6B5997 (abstract.)South AfricaEclogite
DS1986-0513
1986
MacGregor, I.D.MacGregor, I.D., Manton, W.I.Roberts Victor eclogites: ancient oceanic crustJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 91, No. b14, December 10, pp. 14063-14079South AfricaEclogites, Genesis
DS201509-0414
2015
Macgregor, I.D.Macgregor, I.D.Empirical geothermometers and geothermobarometers for spinel peridotite phase assemblages.International Geology Review, Vol. 57, 15, pp. 1940-1974.TechnologyPeridotite, experimental petrology

Abstract: Experimental synthesis of spinel peridotite phase assemblages for a range of compositions that mimic natural samples is used to derive a set of empirical geothermometers and geothermobarometers represented by multiple linear regression best-fit surfaces that link the variables of temperature, pressure, and composition. The calibrated geothermometers use reactions that govern the solubility of Al and Cr in both pyroxenes and the Mg–Fe exchange between silicates and spinel. Geothermobarometers map the Mg–Fe exchange between coexisting olivine and clinopyroxene and pyroxenes and Ca–Mg exchange between coexisting pyroxenes. Application of the geothermometers and geothermobarometers to suites of naturally occurring samples indicates that while reactions governing the Cr and Al solubility and solvus of orthopyroxene give useful estimates of ‘original’ mantle temperatures and pressures, respectively, comparable reactions for clinopyroxene yield estimates that are variably dependent on the transport phase of the sample suites. Temperature and pressure estimates from reactions governing Mg and Fe exchange between silicates and spinel and coexisting silicates are all sensitive to the later transport stage of the samples.
DS201112-1154
2011
Mach, K.Zavada, P., Dedecek, P., Mach, K., Lexa, O., Potuzak, M.Emplacement dynamics of phonolite magma into maar-diatreme structures - correlation of field, thermal modeling and AMS analogue modeling data.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 201, 1-4, pp. 210-226.EuropeGeodynamics - not specific to diamonds
DS1998-1271
1998
MachadoRyan, B., Phillips, Shwetz, MachadoA tale of more than ten plutons - Okay Bay and Staghorn lakeNewfound. Geological Survey, Paper 98-1, pp. 143-71.Quebec, Labrador, UngavaAnorthosites
DS1970-0553
1972
Machado, A. DE M.Machado, A. DE M.Dias E Noites Em DiamantinaUnknown, XEROXBrazilKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, History
DS201312-0563
2013
Machado, G.Machado, G., Bilodeau, C., Takpanie, R., St.Onge, M., Rayner, N., Skipton, D., From, R., MacKay, C., Young, M., Creason, G., Braden, Z.Regional bedrock mapping, Hall Peninsula, Nunavut.Geoscience Forum 40 NWT, abstract only p. 26Canada, NunavutMapping
DS1994-1079
1994
Machado, I.F.Machado, I.F., et al.Virgin versus mature reserves: a crucial dilemma for new investmentRaw Materials Report, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 8-16GlobalEconomics, Mineral resource development
DS1997-0709
1997
Machado, I.F.Machado, I.F.The CVRD privatization a hard victory for the governmentJournal of Mineral Policy, Business and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 36-41BrazilEconomics, CVRD.
DS2000-0604
2000
Machado, I.F.Machado, I.F., Souza Filho, C.R.Revisiting the largest diamond found in the AmericasIgc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, Minas GeraisDiamond - notable President Vargas
DS201603-0397
2011
Machado, I.F.Machado, I.F.Expedicao Grafte: viagem as berco do maior diamante das Americas. Presidente Vargas diamond found in 1938.Jornal Da Unicamp *** IN POR, Vol. 35, no. 510, 3p. *** In PortugueseSouth America, BrazilDeposit - Coromandel area
DS1997-0912
1997
Machado, KirkhaM.Pilote, P., Dion, C., Joanisse, David, Machado, KirkhaM.Geochronologie des mineralisations d'affiliation magmatique de l'Abitibi -implications geotectoniques.Quebec Department of Mines, DV97-03, p. 47.QuebecGeochronology, Magmatism - not specifc to diamonds
DS1986-0230
1986
Machado, N.Fahrig, W.F., Christie, K.W., Chown, E.H., Janes, D., Machado, N.The tectonic significance of some basic dyke swarms in the Canadian Superior province with special reference to The geochemistry and paleomagnetism of thCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 2, February pp. 238-253Ontario, QuebecTectonics, Dyke
DS1987-0430
1987
Machado, N.Machado, N., Heaman, L.Isotope geochemistry of the Coldwell alkaline complex II evidence for crustal contamination from preliminary Sr and neodymium dat a on primary mineralsGeological Association of Canada (GAC), Vol.12, p. 69. abstractOntarioGeochronology, Isotope
DS1989-0915
1989
Machado, N.Machado, N., Goulet, C., Gariepy, C.uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology of reactivated Archean basement and Hudsonian metamorphism in northern Labrador Trough.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 1-15.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorGeochronology, Tectonics
DS1989-0916
1989
Machado, N.Machado, N., Goulet, N., Gariepy, C.uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology of reactivated Archean basement and of Hudsonian metamorphism in the northern Labrador...Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 1-15.Labrador, QuebecGeochronology, Labrador Trough
DS1989-0917
1989
Machado, N.Machado, N., Goulet, N., Gariepy, C.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) geochronology of reactivated Archean basement and ofHudsonian metamorphism in the northern Labrador TroughCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 1, January pp. 1-15Quebec, Labrador, UngavaProterozoic, Geochronology
DS1990-0968
1990
Machado, N.Machado, N., Krogh, T.E., Weber, W.uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology of basement gneisses in the Thompson Belt: evidence for Pikwitonei type crust .. basement..Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, pp. 794-802.ManitobaGeochronology, Trans Hudson Orogeny
DS1990-0969
1990
Machado, N.Machado, N., Krogh, T.E.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) geochronology of basement gneisses in the Thompson Belt (Manitoba):evidence for pre-Kenoran and Pikwitonei type crust and early ProterozoicbasementCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 6, June pp. 794-802ManitobaThompson belt, Geochronology
DS1992-0690
1992
Machado, N.Heaman, L.M., Machado, N.Timing and origin of Midcontinent rift alkaline magmatism, North America:evidence from the Coldwell ComplexContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 110, No. 2-3, pp. 289-303OntarioAlkaline, Midcontinent Rift
DS1992-0691
1992
Machado, N.Heaman, L.M., Machado, N.Timing and orogen of midcontinent rift alkaline magmatism, North America:evidence from the Coldwell complexMineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 110, No. 2/3, pp. 289-303OntarioTectonics, Alkaline magmatism
DS1992-0971
1992
Machado, N.Machado, N., Carneiro, M.uranium-lead (U-Pb) evidence of late Archean tectono thermal activity in the southern Sao Francisco shield, Brasil.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 2341-46.BrazilCraton, Geochronology
DS1992-0972
1992
Machado, N.Machado, N., Carneiro, M.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) evidence of late Archean tectono-thermal activity in the southern Sao Francisco shield, BrasilCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 11, November, pp. 2341-2346BrazilTectonics, Geochronology
DS1992-0973
1992
Machado, N.Machado, N., Noce, C.M., Ladeira, E.A., Belo de Oliveira, O.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) geochronology of Archean magmatism and Proterozoic metamorphism in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, southern Sao Francisco craton, BrasilGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 104, No. 9, September pp. 1221-1227BrazilGeochronology, Proterozoic
DS1993-0948
1993
Machado, N.Machado, N., David, Scott, Lamothe, Philipe, Gariepyuranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology of the western Cape Smith Belt: new insights on age of initial rifting and arc magmatismGeological Association of Canada (GAC), Annual Meeting, Vol. 16, p. A78. abstract.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorGeochronology, Tectonics
DS1995-0265
1995
Machado, N.Carignan, J., Machado, N., Gariepy, C.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) isotopic geochemistry of komatiites and pyroxenes from the southern Abitibi greenstone belt, CanadaChemical Geology, Vol. 126, No. 1, Nov. 20, pp. 17-28QuebecKomatiites, Abitibi greenstone belt
DS1997-0710
1997
Machado, N.Machado, N., Clark, T., David, J., Goulet, N.uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for magmatism and deformation in the New Quebec OrogenCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 34, pp. 716-23.Quebec, Labrador, UngavaMagmatism, Orogeny - New Quebec
DS1997-0913
1997
Machado, N.Pimentel, M.M., Whitehouse, M.J., Machado, N.The Mara Rosa Arc in the To cantins Province: further evidence for Neoproterozoic crustal accretion ..Precambrian Research, Vol. 81. No. 3-4, Feb. 1, pp. 299-Brazil, CentralTectonics, Proterozoic
DS2000-0836
2000
Machado, N.Ross, S., Bernier, F., Machado, N.Buried cratons: completing the Precambrian map of Canada, 2000Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000, 1p. abstract.Ontario, Manitoba, Western CanadaTrans Hudson Orogen, Archean Superior Province
DS2001-1131
2001
Machado, N.Stevenson, R.K., Machado, N., Coutreau, BernierBuried Cratons: completing the Precambrian map of Canada, 2001Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 26, p. 145.abstract.ManitobaTrans Hudson orogen, Tectonics
DS2002-1555
2002
Machado, N.Stevenson, R., Machado, N., Bernier, F.Isotopic and geochronologic constraints on the Precambrian basement beneath southern Manitoba.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.114., p.114.ManitobaGeochronology, Orogen - Trans Hudson
DS2002-1556
2002
Machado, N.Stevenson, R., Machado, N., Bernier, F.Isotopic and geochronologic constraints on the Precambrian basement beneath southern Manitoba.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.114., p.114.ManitobaGeochronology, Orogen - Trans Hudson
DS1984-0468
1984
Machado, R.Machado, R.Discussao Da Genese Do Protominerio de Mangabes de Facies Oxido Carbonatico Denominados Bandarrito Municipio de Jacaraci,bahia.Revista Brasileira De Geociencias, Vol. 13, No. 1, PP. 19-22.BrazilRelated Rocks
DS201812-2823
2018
Machado, V.Jerram, D.A., Sharp, T.H., Torsvik, T.H., Poulson, R., Watton, T.H., Freitag, U., Halton, A., Sherlock, S.C., Malley, J.A.S., Finley, A., Roberge, J., Swart, R., Fabregas, P., Ferreira, C.H., Machado, V.Volcanic constraints on the unzipping of Africa from South America: insights from new geochronological controls alone the Angola margin.Tectonophysics, doi.org/10.1016/ j.tecto.2018.07.027 33p.Africa, Angola, South Americageochronology

Abstract: The breakup of Africa from South America is associated with the emplacement of the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province from around 134 Ma and the Tristan da Cunha plume. Yet many additional volcanic events occur that are younger than the main pulse of the Paraná-Etendeka and straddle the rift to drift phases of the main breakup. This contribution reports on new geochronological constraints from the Angolan part of the African Margin. Three coastal and one inland section have been sampled stretching across some 400 Km, with 39Ar/40Ar, U-Pb and Palaeontology used to provide age constraints. Ages from the new data range from ~100 to 81 Ma, with three main events (cr. 100, 91 and 82-81 Ma). Volcanic events are occurring within the Early to Late Cretaceous, along this part of the margin with a general younging towards Namibia. With the constraints of additional age information both onshore and offshore Angola, a clear younging trend at the early stages of rift to drift is recorded in the volcanic events that unzip from North to South. Similar age volcanic events are reported from the Brazilian side of the conjugate margin, and highlight the need to fully incorporate these relatively low volume volcanic pulses into the plate tectonic breakup models of the South Atlantic Margin.
DS201904-0750
2019
Machado, V.Jerram, D.A., Sharp, I.R., Torsvik, T.H., Poulsen, R., Machado, V.Volcanic constraints on the unzipping of Africa from South America: insights from new geochronological controls along the Angola margin.Tectonophysics, in press available 27p.Africa, Angola, South Americageochronology

Abstract: The breakup of Africa from South America is associated with the emplacement of the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province from around 134?Ma and the Tristan da Cunha plume. Yet many additional volcanic events occur that are younger than the main pulse of the Paraná-Etendeka and straddle the rift to drift phases of the main breakup. This contribution reports on new geochronological constraints from the Angolan part of the African Margin. Three coastal and one inland section have been sampled stretching across some 400?Km, with 39Ar/40Ar, U-Pb and Palaeontology used to provide age constraints. Ages from the new data range from ~100 to 81?Ma, with three main events (cr. 100, 91 and 82-81?Ma). Volcanic events are occurring within the Early to Late Cretaceous, along this part of the margin with a general younging towards Namibia. With the constraints of additional age information both onshore and offshore Angola, a clear younging trend at the early stages of rift to drift is recorded in the volcanic events that unzip from North to South. Similar age volcanic events are reported from the Brazilian side of the conjugate margin, and highlight the need to fully incorporate these relatively low volume volcanic pulses into the plate tectonic breakup models of the South Atlantic Margin.
DS1985-0406
1985
Machado, W.G.Machado, W.G., Moore, M.On the Dodechahedral Growth of Coasted DiamondJournal of Crystal growth, Vol. 71, pp. 718-727GlobalDiamond Morphology
DS1985-0407
1985
Machado, W.G.Machado, W.G., Moore, M., Woods, G.S.On the Dodecahedral Growth of Coated DiamondsJournal of CRYST. GR., Vol. 71, No. 3, PP. 718-727.GlobalExperimental Petrology
DS200712-0386
2006
Machado Alves, F.Grohmann, C.H., Riccomini, C., Machado Alves, F.SRTM based morphotectonic analysis of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline Massif, southeastern Brazil.Computers & Geosciences, Vol. January pp. 10-19.South America, BrazilGeomorphology - alkaline
DS201509-0391
2015
Machaka, E.Cornah, A., Machaka, E.Integration of imprecise and biased dat a into mineral resource estimates.South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 115, June pp. 523-531.GlobalResource estimation, kriging not specific to diamonds

Abstract: Mineral resources are typically informed by multiple data sources of varying reliability throughout a mining project life cycle. Abundant data which are imprecise or biased or both (‘secondary data’) are often excluded from mineral resource estimations (the ‘base case’) under an intuitive, but usually untested, assumption that this data may reduce the estimation precision, bias the estimate, or both. This paper demonstrates that the assumption is often wasteful and realized only if the secondary data are naïvely integrated into the estimation. A number of specialized geostatistical tools are available to extract maximum value from secondary information which are imprecise or biased or both; this paper evaluates cokriging (CK), multicollocated cokriging (MCCK), and ordinary kriging with variance of measurement error (OKVME). Where abundant imprecise but unbiased secondary data are available, integration using OKVME is recommended. This re-appropriates kriging weights from less precise to more precise data locations, improving the estimation precision compared to the base case and to Ordinary Kriging (OK) of a pooled data-set. If abundant secondary data are biased and imprecise, integration through CK is recommended as the biased data are zero-sum weighted. CK consequently provides an unbiased estimate with some improvement in estimation precision compared to the base case.
DS1999-0150
1999
MacHattieCorrigan, D., Pehrsson, S.J., MacHattie, Piper, WrightLithotectonic framework of the Trans Hudson Orogen in the northwestern Reindeer Zone: update recent mapping.Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), Current Research 1999- C, pp. 169-78.SaskatchewanTectonics, Trans Hudson Orogen
DS2001-0714
2001
MacHattie, T.G.MacHattie, T.G., Jenner, G.A., Corrigan, D.The Wathaman Batholith: evidence for role of enriched lithospheric mantle in a Proterozoic subduction zone.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 26, p.92.abstract.Saskatchewan, ManitobaTectonics, Subduction
DS1996-0869
1996
Machel, H.G.Machel, H.G., Cavell, P.A., Patey, K.S.Isotopic evidence for carbonate cementation and recrystallization, and for tectonic expulsion of fluidsGeological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 108, Sept. pp.1108-19.Alberta, western CanadaWestern Canada Sedimentary Basin, Geochronology
DS1995-1904
1995
Machetal, P.Thoraval, C., Machetal, P., Cazenave, A.Locally layered convection inferred from dynamic models of the earth'smantle.Nature, Vol. 375, No. 6534, June 29, pp. 777-779.MantleSubduction, Geodynamics
DS1991-1030
1991
Machetel, P.Machetel, P., Weber, P.Intermittent layered convection in a model mantle with an endothermic phase change at 670 KM.Nature, Vol. 350, No. 6313, March 7, pp. 55-57GlobalMantle, Layered mantle
DS1991-1031
1991
Machetel, P.Machetel, P., Weber, P.Intermittent layered convection in a model mantle with an endothermic phase change at 670 KM.Nature, Vol. 350, No. 6313, March 7, pp. 55-57GlobalMantle, Layered mantle
DS1995-1905
1995
Machetel, P.Thoraval, C., Machetel, P.Empirical estimates of upper mantle discontinuities topography based upongeodynamical constraints.Eos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F578. Abstract.MantleConvection
DS1998-0198
1998
Machetel, P.Cadek, O., Yuen, D.A., Machetel, P.New perspectives on mantle dynamics from high resolution seismic tomographic model P1200.Pure and Applied Geophys., Vol. 151, No. 2-4, Mar. 1, pp. 503-538.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Geodynamics
DS2003-0856
2003
Machetel, P.Machetel, P., Hunter, E.High mantle temperature during Cretaceous avalancheEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 208, 3-4, pp. 125-133.MantleGeothermometry
DS200412-1189
2003
Machetel, P.Machetel, P., Hunter, E.High mantle temperature during Cretaceous avalanche.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 208, 3-4, pp. 125-133.MantleGeothermometry
DS2002-0023
2002
Machette, K.M.Allaoua Saadi, M.N., Machette,K.M., Haller,K.M., Dart, R.L., Bradley, L-A.Map and database of Quaternary faults and lineaments in BrazilU.s. Geological Survey, OF 02-0230 58p $ 76. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/ofr-BrazilBlank
DS200412-0019
2002
Machette, K.M.Allaoua Saadi, M.N., Machette,K.M., Haller,K.M., Dart, R.L., Bradley, L-A., De Souza, A.M.P.D.Map and database of Quaternary faults and lineaments in Brazil.U.S. Geological Survey, OF 02-0230 58p $ 76.South America, BrazilMap - structure
DS201808-1766
2018
Machev, P.Machev, P., O'Bannon, E.F., Bozhilov, K.N., Wang, Q., Dobrzhinetskaya, L.Not all moissanites are created equal: new constraints on moissanite from metamorphic rocks of Bulgaria. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 498, pp. 387-396.Europe, Bulgariamoissanite

Abstract: Terrestrial moissanite (SiC) is widely reported as an ultra-high pressure mineral occurring in kimberlites, diamonds and ultramafic/mafic rocks of mantle origin. However, the conditions of crystallization remain largely unknown. Moreover, dozens of SiC occurrences have been reported from continental crust sources such as granitoids, andesite-dacite volcanic rocks and their breccia, metasomatic and metamorphic rocks, and even limestones. The validity of many of these reports is still debated primarily due to possible contaminations from the widespread use of synthetic SiC abrasives in samples preparation. Indeed, reports of well-documented in-situ occurrences of moissanite in association with co-existing minerals are still scarce. The only condition of moissanite formation that is agreed upon is that extremely reducing media are required (e.g. 4.5-6 log units below the iron-wustite buffer). Here, we report the new occurrence of moissanite that was found in-situ within the garnet-staurolite-mica schists of Topolovgrad metamorphic group of Triassic age in Southern Bulgaria. The 10-300 µm moissanite crystals are situated within 0.1-1.2 mm isolated clusters, filled with amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite. Most of moissanite crystals are 15R (rhombohedral) and 6H (hexagonal) polytypes, and one prismatic crystal, found within them, exhibits unusual concentric polytypical zoning with core (15R), intermediate zone (6H) and rim (3C-cubic). Experimental data show that this type of polytypical zonation is likely due to a decrease in temperature (or/and pressure?) and changes in Si/C ratio. Indeed, amphibolite facies metamorphism (500-580?°C - garnet-staurolite zone) followed by a subsequent cooling during the retrograde stage of green schist facies metamorphism (~400-500?°C) could have provided a change in temperature. The SiC containing clusters exhibit evidence that they are pre-metamorphic, and we hypothesize that their protolith was a "lack shale" material likely rich in carbon, hydrocarbon and terrigenous silica. The latter served as a source of isolated chemically-reduced media, which is required for SiC formation. Other concepts to explain moissanite occurrences in metasedimentary rocks are also discussed. Importantly, our findings show that the formation conditions of moissanite are likely more variable than previously recognized.
DS201603-0371
2016
Macheyeki, A.Delcamp, A., Delvaux, D., Kwelwa, S., Macheyeki, A., Kervyn, M.Sector collapse events at volcanoes in the North Tanzanian divergence zone and their implications for regional tectonics. ( Oldoinyo Lengai)Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 128, 1/2, pp. 169-186.Africa, TanzaniaLineaments

Abstract: The North Tanzanian divergence zone along the East African Rift is characterized by active faults and several large volcanoes such as Meru, Ol Doinyo Lengai, and Kilimanjaro. Based on systematic morphostructural analysis of the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation model and targeted field work, 14 debris avalanche deposits were identified and characterized, some of them being - to our knowledge - previously unknown. Our field survey around Mount Meru allowed previous "lahar" deposits to be reinterpreted as debris avalanche deposits and three major collapse events to be distinguished, with the two older ones being associated with eruptions. We used topographic lineaments and faults across the North Tanzanian divergence zone to derive the main tectonic trends and their spatial variations and highlight their control on volcano collapse orientation. Based on previous analogue models, the tectonic regime is inferred from the orientation of the collapse scars and/or debris avalanche deposits. We infer two types of regime: extensional and transtensional/strike-slip. The strike-slip regime dominates along the rift escarpment, but an extensional regime is inferred to have operated for the recent sector collapses. The proposed interpretation of sector collapse scars and debris avalanche deposits therefore provides constraints on the tectonic regime in the region. It is possible that, in some cases, movement on regional faults triggered sector collapse.
DS201701-0027
2016
Machida, S.Pilet, S., Abe, N., Rochat, L., Kaczmarek, M-A., Hirano. N., Machida, S., Buchs, D.M., Baumgartner, P.O., Muntener, O.Pre-subduction metasomatic enrichment of the oceanic lithosphere induced by plate flexure.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 898-903.MantleSubduction

Abstract: Oceanic lithospheric mantle is generally interpreted as depleted mantle residue after mid-ocean ridge basalt extraction. Several models have suggested that metasomatic processes can refertilize portions of the lithospheric mantle before subduction. Here, we report mantle xenocrysts and xenoliths in petit-spot lavas that provide direct evidence that the lower oceanic lithosphere is affected by metasomatic processes. We find a chemical similarity between clinopyroxene observed in petit-spot mantle xenoliths and clinopyroxene from melt-metasomatized garnet or spinel peridotites, which are sampled by kimberlites and intracontinental basalts respectively. We suggest that extensional stresses in oceanic lithosphere, such as plate bending in front of subduction zones, allow low-degree melts from the seismic low-velocity zone to percolate, interact and weaken the oceanic lithospheric mantle. Thus, metasomatism is not limited to mantle upwelling zones such as mid-ocean ridges or mantle plumes, but could be initiated by tectonic processes. Since plate flexure is a global mechanism in subduction zones, a significant portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle is likely to be metasomatized. Recycling of metasomatic domains into the convecting mantle is fundamental to understanding the generation of small-scale mantle isotopic and volatile heterogeneities sampled by oceanic island and mid-ocean ridge basalts.
DS1998-0913
1998
Machin, K.J.Machin, K.J., Barton, E.S.The petrology of the Rex mine kimberlite fissures, central Free State, South Africa.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 524-6.South AfricaPetrology, mineral chemistry, Deposit - Rex
DS1998-1160
1998
Machin, K.J.Phillips, D., Machin, K.J., Skinner, E.M.W.A petrographic and 40 Ar-39 Ar geochronological study of the Voorspoedkimberlite, implications for origin..South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 4, Dec. 1, pp. 299-306.South AfricaKimberlite - Group II magmatism, Deposit - Voorspoed, Argon
DS1990-0970
1990
Machotkin, I.L.Machotkin, I.L., Vrublevskaja, Z.V.Typomorphic associations of secondary minerals of lamproites of centralAldanInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 2, extended abstract p. 812-813RussiaLampoites, Secondary minerals
DS1990-0343
1990
MacInnes, S.Cole, G., MacInnes, S., Miller, J.Conversion of contoured topography to digital terrain dataComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 101-110GlobalProgram, Contoured topography
DS1975-0327
1976
Macintosh, E.K.Macintosh, E.K.A Guide to the Rocks Minerals and Gemstones of Southern Africa.Johannesburg: C. Struik, 96P.GlobalKimberlite
DS1983-0427
1983
Macintosh, E.K.Macintosh, E.K.Rocks, Minerals and Gemstones of Southern AfricaStruik Publishing, South AfricaKimberley
DS1988-0504
1988
MacIntyre, D.Nelson, J., MacIntyre, D.Metallogeny of northeastern British ColumbiaGeoscience Canada, Vol. 15, No. 2, June pp. 113-116British ColumbiaMetallogeny, Diatremes
DS1960-0828
1967
Macintyre, R.M.Gittins, J.G., Macintyre, R.M., Yorck, D.The Ages of Carbonatite Complexes in Eastern CanadaCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 4, PP. 651-655.Canada, QuebecRelated Rocks
DS1970-0342
1971
Macintyre, R.M.Macintyre, R.M.Apparent Periodicity of Carbonatite Emplacement in CanadaNature., Vol. 230, MARCH 22ND. PP. 79-81.United States, Appalachia, New YorkGeochronology, Age Dating
DS1975-0276
1976
Macintyre, R.M.Faerseth, R.B., Macintyre, R.M., Naterstad, J.Mesozoic Alkaline Dikes in the Sunnhordaland Region. Western Norway: Ages, Geochemistry and Regional Significance.Lithos, Vol. 9, PP. 331-345.Norway, ScandinaviaUltramafic And Related Rocks
DS1982-0384
1982
Macintyre, R.M.Macintyre, R.M.Kimberlite-carbonatite: Evolutionary Links?Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, P. 215, (abstract.).GlobalKimberlite, Radiometric, Dating, Iridium Anomaly
DS1989-1008
1989
MacIntyre, R.M.Menzies, M.A., Halliday, A.N., Hunter, R.H., MacIntyre, R.M., UptonThe age, composition and significance of a xenolith bearing monchiquitedike, Lewis, ScotlandGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 2, pp. 843-852ScotlandMantle xenoliths
DS1970-0343
1971
Macintyre, R.N.Macintyre, R.N., Dawson, J.B.Radiometric Dating of Alkaline Intrusions in Southern AfricaAnnual SOC. GEOL. BELG., Vol. 94, P. 120.South AfricaDating
DS1975-0328
1976
Macintyre, R.N.Macintyre, R.N., Dawson, J.B.Age and Significance of Some South African KimberlitesEur. Colloq. Geochron. Cosmochron. Isotope Geol. 4th. Held A, ABSTRACT VOLUME, P. 66.South AfricaGeochronology
DS1992-0974
1992
Mack, G.H.Mack, G.H., James, W.C.Paleosols for sedimentologistsGeological Society of America Short Course, Notes, 125pGlobalShort Course, Sedimentology, paleosols
DS1993-0949
1993
Mack, G.H.Mack, G.H., James, W.C., Monger, H.C.Classification of paleosolsGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 105, No. 2, February pp. 129-136GlobalLaterites, Paleosols
DS1994-1080
1994
Mack, G.H.Mack, G.H., James, W.C.Paleoclimate and the global distribution of paleosolsJournal of Geology, Vol. 102, No. 3, May pp. 360-366GlobalPaleoclimate, Paleosols, Laterites
DS1994-1081
1994
Mack, G.H.Mack, G.H., James, W.C.Paleoclimate and the global distribution of paleosolsJournal of Geology, Vol. 102, No. 3, May pp. 360-366.GlobalPaleosols -not specific to diamonds
DS1984-0587
1984
Mack, J.F.Plaisted, P.S., Mack, J.F.The metallurgical evaluation of AK1 kimberlite to establish process design criteriaIn: Darwin Conference, Publishing Australasian Institute Min. Metallurgy, pp. 151-160AustraliaMetallurgy, Mining Methods
DS1993-1749
1993
Mack, L.E.Wittke, J.H., Mack, L.E.The mantle source for continental alkaline rocks of the Balcones Texas: trace -element and isotopic evidence.Journal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 3, May pp. 333-344.GlobalAlkaline rocks, Balcones
DS1960-0271
1962
Mack, S.Mack, S.Post Stormking Dikes in the Hudson Highlands of New YorkNew York Academy of Sciences ANNALS, Vol. 93, PP. 923-933.United States, Appalachia, New YorkRelated Rocks, Petrography
DS1860-0113
1870
Mackay, A.Mackay, A.A Visit to Sydney and the Cudgegong MineMelbourne:, 64P.Australia, New South WalesTravelogue
DS2002-0083
2002
Mackay, A.G.E.August, C.M., Esterhuizey, G., Mackay, A.G.E.The application of geophysical techniques in the delineation of diamond bearing shallow marine deposits.11th. Quadrennial Iagod Symposium And Geocongress 2002 Held Windhoek, Abstract p. 19.NamibiaGeophysics - sonar, chirp sub bottom profiling, Alluvials
DS1991-1032
1991
Mackay, A.L.Mackay, A.L., Terrones, H.Diamond from graphiteNature, Vol. 352, No. August 29, p. 762GlobalDiamond morphology, Graphite
DS201312-0563
2013
MacKay, C.Machado, G., Bilodeau, C., Takpanie, R., St.Onge, M., Rayner, N., Skipton, D., From, R., MacKay, C., Young, M., Creason, G., Braden, Z.Regional bedrock mapping, Hall Peninsula, Nunavut.Geoscience Forum 40 NWT, abstract only p. 26Canada, NunavutMapping
DS201412-0539
2014
Mackay, D.A.R.Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J.Geology, market and supply chain of niobium and tantalum - a review.Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 49, 8, pp. 1025-1047.GlobalNiobium
DS201512-1936
2015
Mackay, D.A.R.Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J.Niobium and tantalum: geology, markets, and supply chains.Symposium on critical and strategic materials, British Columbia Geological Survey Paper 2015-3, held Nov. 13-14, pp. 13-22.GlobalNiobium, tantalum

Abstract: Until 2014, niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) were on the critical metals list of the European Union (European Commission, 2011; 2014). Both Ta and Nb have high levels of supply chain risk and even temporary disruptions in supply could be difficult to cope with. The Ta market is subject to infl ux of ‘conflict’ columbite-tantalite concentrate, or ’Coltan,’ into the supply chain, displacing production in Australia and Canada. The growing consumer appetite for goods made of ethically sourced or ‘confl ict-free’ minerals and metals has put pressure on manufacturers of components for consumer electronics, such as smart phones, laptop computers, computer hard drives, digital cameras, GPS navigation systems, and airbag triggers to stop using Ta from ‘confl ict’ areas. Other uses of Ta include medical implants, super alloys used in jet turbine and rocket nozzle production, corrosion prevention in chemical and nuclear plants, as a sputtering target, and in optical lenses (Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, 2015a, b). These applications make Ta economically and strategically important to industrialised countries (European Commission, 2011, 2014; Brown et al., 2012; Papp, 2012). Niobium (Nb) is primarily used in high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel used extensively in the oil and gas and automotive industries. Niobium is also a major component in vacuum-grade alloys used in rocket components and other aeronautic applications (Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, 2015a, c). Demand for Nb is increasing due to greater use of Nb in steel making in China, India, and Russia (Roskill, 2013b; Mackay and Simandl, 2014). Because most primary Nb production is restricted to a single country (Brazil), security of supply is considered at risk (European Commission, 2014). New sources of supply may be developed to diversify geographic location of supply for strategic reasons (Mackay and Simandl, 2014). Herein we summarize the geology, market, and supply chains of Niobium and Tantalum metals.
DS201512-1937
2015
Mackay, D.A.R.Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J.,Ma, W., Gravel, J., Redfearn, M.Indicator minerals in exploration for speciality metal deposits: a QEMSCAN approach.Symposium on critical and strategic materials, British Columbia Geological Survey Paper 2015-3, held Nov. 13-14, pp. 211-218.TechnologyRare earths

Abstract: Quantitative Evaluation of Materials by Scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN®) was used to assess carbonatite indicator minerals in fl uvial sediments from the drainage area of the Aley carbonatite, in north-central British Columbia. QEMSCAN® is a viable method for rapid detection and characterization of carbonatite indicator minerals with minimal processing other than dry sieving. Stream sediments from directly above, and up to 11 km downstream, of the carbonatite deposit were selected for this indicator mineral study. The geology of the Aley carbonatite is described by Mäder (1986), Kressal et al. (2010), McLeish (2013), Mackay and Simandl (2014), and Chakhmouradian et al. (2015). Traditional indicator mineral exploration methods use the 0.25-2.0 mm size fraction of unconsolidated sediments (Averill, 2001, 2014; McCurdy, 2006, 2009; McClenaghan, 2011, 2014). Indicator minerals are detectable by QEMSCAN® at particle sizes smaller than those used for hand picking (<0.25 mm). Pre-concentration (typically by shaker table) is used before heavy liquid separation, isodynamic magnetic separation, optical identifi cation using a binocular microscope, and hand picking (McClenaghan, 2011). Following additional sieving, the 0.5-1 and 1-2 mm fractions are hand picked for indicator minerals while the 0.25-0.5 mm fraction is subjected to paramagnetic separation before hand picking (Averill, 2001; McClenaghan, 2011). Hand picking indicator minerals focuses on monomineralic grains, and composite grains may be lost during processing. Composite grains are diffi cult and time consuming to hand pick and characterize using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. A single grain mount can take 6-12 hours to chemically analyse (Layton- Matthews et al., 2014). Detailed sample analysis using the QEMSCAN® Particle Mineral Analysis routine allows for 5-6 samples to be analyzed per day. When only mineral identifi cation and mineral concentrations and counts are required, the use of a Bulk Mineral Analysis routine reduces the analysis time from ~4 hours to ~30 minutes per sample.
DS201605-0864
2016
Mackay, D.A.R.Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J., Ma, W., Redfearn, M., Gravel, J.Indicator mineral-based exploration for carbonatites and related specialty metal deposits - a QEMSCAN orientation survey, British Columbia. Aley, Lonnie, WicheedaJournal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 165, pp. 159-173.Canada, British ColumbiaGeochemistry - carbonatites

Abstract: This orientation survey indicates that Quantitative Evaluation of Materials by Scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN®) is a viable alternative to traditional indicator mineral exploration approaches which involve complex processing followed by visual indicator mineral hand-picking with a binocular microscope. Representative polished smear sections of the 125-250 µm fraction (dry sieved and otherwise unprocessed) and corresponding Mozley C800 table concentrates from the drainages of three carbonatites (Aley, Lonnie, and Wicheeda) in the British Columbia Alkaline Province of the Canadian Cordillera were studied. Polished smear sections (26 × 46 mm slide size) contained an average of 20,000 exposed particles. A single section can be analyzed in detail using the Particle Mineral Analysis routine in approximately 3.5-4.5 h. If only mineral identification and mineral concentrations are required, the Bulk Mineral Analysis routine reduces the analytical time to 30 min. The most useful carbonatite indicator minerals are niobates (pyrochlore and columbite), REE-fluorocarbonates, monazite, and apatite. Niobate minerals were identified in the 125-250 µm fraction of stream sediment samples more than 11 km downstream from the Aley carbonatite (their source) without the need for pre-concentration. With minimal processing by Mozley C800, carbonatite indicator minerals were detected downstream of the Lonnie and Wicheeda carbonatites. The main advantages of QEMSCAN® over the traditional indicator mineral exploration techniques are its ability to: 1) analyze very small minerals, 2) quickly determine quantitative sediment composition and mineralogy by both weight percent and mineral count, 3) establish mineral size distribution within the analyzed size fraction, and 4) determine the proportions of monomineralic (liberated) grains to compound grains and statistically assess mineral associations in compound grains. One of the key advantages is that this method permits the use of indicator minerals based on their chemical properties. This is impossible to accomplish using visual identification.
DS201801-0063
2017
Mackay, D.A.R.Simandl, G.J., Mackay, D.A.R., Ma, X., Luck, P., Gravel, J., Akam, C.The direct indicator mineral concept and QEMSCAN applied to exploration for carbonatite and carbonatite related ore deposits.in: Ferbey, T. Plouffe, A., Hickein, A.S. eds. Indicator minerals in tills and stream sediments of the Canadian Cordillera. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper,, Vol. 50, pp. 175-190.Canada, British Columbiacarbonatite - Aley, Lonnie, Wicheeda

Abstract: This volume consists of a series of papers of importance to indicator minerals in the Canadian Cordillera. Topics include the glacial history of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, drift prospecting methods, the evolution of survey sampling strategies, new analytical methods, and recent advances in applying indicators minerals to mineral exploration. This volume fills a notable knowledge gap on the use of indicator minerals in the Canadian Cordillera. We hope that the volume serves as a user guide, encouraging the wider application of indicator minerals by the exploration community.
DS1994-0312
1994
MacKay, R.Clarke, D.B., Mitchell, R.H., Chapman, C.A.T., MacKay, R.Occurrence and origin of djerfisherite from Elwin Bay kimberlite, SomersetIsland, northwest Territories.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 32, No. 4, Dec. pp. 815-824.Northwest Territories, Somerset IslandMineralogy
DS1990-0336
1990
MacKay, R.M.Clarke, D.B., MacKay, R.M.An ilmenite garnet clinopyroxenite nodule from Matsoku: evidence for oxide rich liquid immiscibility in kimberlitesCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 28, pt. 2, June pp. 229-239LesothoGeothermometry, Garnet analyses Xenolith
DS202005-0748
2020
Mackensie, S.Mackensie, S., Everingham, J-A., Bourke, P.The social dimensions of mineral exploration. Not specific to diamonds - but interestSEG Discovery ( former NewsLetter), No. 121, April, pp. 16-28.Globalgeoscience

Abstract: Geoscientists are often the first point of contact a local community has with a company conducting mineral exploration. The behavior of the geoscientists and the interest they take in understanding the local community and stakeholders will have ramifications well beyond their direct exploration activities. This article highlights some of the positive and negative impacts exploration can have for local communities (in part drawing on interviews with experienced geoscientists and others involved in exploration). The article explores the increasing complexity of deposits in terms of environmental, economic, social, and political parameters and the increasing scrutiny by local stakeholders and the international community. We argue that, although geoscientists are not social performance specialists, they still need the awareness, tools, and capabilities to understand and manage the social aspects of their exploration activities commensurate with the stage and resourcing of the project. We propose three interrelated aspects of social performance that can be applied during mineral exploration: meaningful and positive engagement, acquiring and documenting a social knowledge base, and strategic investment in the community. Two case studies provide cautionary examples of failure to do so and two case studies highlight how, through careful engagement and strategic collaboration, mutually beneficial and positive relationships can be built from early exploration.
DS1992-0975
1992
Mackenzie, B.W.Mackenzie, B.W., Doggett, M.D.Economics of mineral exploration in AustraliaCentre for Resource Studies, 269p. $ 125.00AustraliaEconomics, Book -ad
DS1992-0976
1992
Mackenzie, B.W.Mackenzie, B.W., Doggett, M.D.Economic potential of mining in Manitoba: developing taxation policyCentre for Resource Studies, June 124pManitobaEconomics, Legal, Policy and mining taxation
DS1993-0950
1993
Mackenzie, B.W.Mackenzie, B.W., Doggett, M.How to appraise mineral resourcesCrs Perspective, No. 42, January pp. 28-34CanadaEconomics, MIneral appraisal, ore reserves
DS1994-0439
1994
Mackenzie, B.W.Doggett, M.D., Mackenzie, B.W.Mineral potential on Canada's frontiersCrs Perspectives, No. 48, February pp. 19-27CanadaEconomics, Mineral policies for remote areas
DS1995-1135
1995
Mackenzie, B.W.Mackenzie, B.W., Doggett, M.D.The changing economic climate for mineral supply in CanadaCentre for Resource Studies, Mon. 31, 100p. $ 25.00CanadaEconomics, Mineral supply
DS1994-1082
1994
Mackenzie, D.Mackenzie, D.Where has all the carbon gone?New Science, January pp. 31-33GlobalCarbon dioxide, Atmosphere, lithosphere
DS1960-0167
1961
Mackenzie, D.H.Mackenzie, D.H.Geology and Mineral Resources of the Gbangbama AreaGeological Survey SIERRA LEONE Bulletin., No. 3, UNPUBL.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Kimberlite, Diamond
DS1998-0117
1998
Mackenzie, D.H.Berkman, D.A., Mackenzie, D.H.Geology of Australian and Papua New Guinean mineral depositsAusIMM, Mon. 22, 880pAustralia, Papua New GuineaBook - table of contents, Mineral deposits, gold, copper, zinc, nickel
DS200612-0040
2006
Mackenzie, F.T.Arvidson, R.S., Mackenzie, F.T., Guidry, M.MAGic: a Phanerozoic model for the geochemical cycling of major rock forming components.American Journal of Science, Vol. 306, 3, pp. 135-190.TechnologyComputer program - MAGic, geochemistry
DS1860-0153
1871
Mackenzie, J. REV.Mackenzie, J. REV.Ten Years North of the Orange River from 1859-1869Edinburgh: Edmunston And Douglas, 523P.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceHistory
DS1985-0299
1985
Mackenzie, J.K.Humble, P., Mackenzie, J.K., Olsen, A.Platelet Defects in Natural Diamond. 1. Measurement of DisplacementPhil. Magazine Part A., Vol. 52, No. 5, Nov. pp. 605-621GlobalMineral Chemistry, Diamond Morphology
DS1997-0711
1997
Mackenzie, J.M.Mackenzie, J.M., Canil, D.Petrological aspects of the Barra do Itapirapua carbonatite, southernBrasil.Lithoprobe Slave/SNORCLE., pp. 223-4.Northwest TerritoriesMantle, Petrology
DS1998-0914
1998
Mackenzie, J.M.Mackenzie, J.M., Canil, D.Upper mantle xenoliths from the Archean Slave Craton: composition and thermal evolution of a kimberlite ProvinceGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Abstract Volume, p. A114. abstract.Northwest TerritoriesThermobarometry, Xenoliths
DS1999-0433
1999
Mackenzie, J.M.Mackenzie, J.M., Canil, D.Composition and thermal evolution of cratonic mantle beneath the central Archean Slave Province, northwest Territories.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 134, No. 4, pp. 313-324.Northwest TerritoriesCraton, Geothermometry
DS2003-0319
2003
MacKenzie, J.M.Davis, W.J., Canil, D., MacKenzie, J.M., Carbno, G.B.Petrology and U Pb geochronology of lower crust xenoliths and the development of aLithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 541-573.Northwest Territories, NunavutGeochronology
DS200412-0419
2003
MacKenzie, J.M.Davis, W.J., Canil, D., MacKenzie, J.M., Carbno, G.B.Petrology and U Pb geochronology of lower crust xenoliths and the development of a craton, Slave Province, Canada.Lithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 541-573.Canada, NunavutGeochronology
DS200512-0668
2005
MacKenzie, J.M.MacKenzie, J.M., Canil, D., Johnston, S.T., English, J., Mihalynuk, M.G., Grant, B.First evidence for ultrahigh pressure garnet peridotite in the North American Cordillera.Geology, Vol. 33, 2, pp. 105-108.Canada, Yukon, British ColumbiaUHP, Mantle lithosphere
DS200612-0218
2005
MacKenzie, J.M.Canil, D., Mihalynuk, M., MacKenzie, J.M., Johnston, S.T., Grant, B.Diamond in the Atlin-Nakin a region, British Columbia: insights from heavy minerals in stream sediments.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 12, Dec. pp. 2161-2171.Canada, British Columbia, Yukon, United States, AlaskaGeochemistry
DS1992-1488
1992
MacKenzie, P.Strang, J., MacKenzie, P.A manual on Mines rescue, safety and gas detectionColorado School of Mines Press, 475p. $ 45.00 United StatesGlobalBook -ad, Mines rescue, safety, gas
DS1900-0029
1900
Mackenzie, W.D.Mackenzie, W.D., Skead, A.South Africa Its History, Heroes and WarsChicago: American Literary And Musical Association, 663P.Africa, South AfricaKimberley, History, Politics
DS1984-0469
1984
Mackenzie, W.S.Mackenzie, W.S., Donaldson, C.H., Guilford, C.Kimberlite and Garnet PeridotiteAtlas of Igneous Rocks And Their Textures, J.wiley- Halstead, 148P. PP. 81-82.GlobalPhotomicrographs
DS1990-1622
1990
Mackenzie, W.S.Zeng Rongshu, Mackenzie, W.S.Variation of the primary field of leucite under water deficient conditions in the system northeast-Ks-Q-H2O at PH2O =kbInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 1, extended abstract p. 129-130ChinaExperimental petrology, Leucite
DS1998-0007
1998
MacKenzie, W.S.Adams, A.E., MacKenzie, W.S.A colour atlas of carbonate sediments and rocks under the microscopeOxford University of Press, 192p. approx. $ 90.00GlobalBook - ad, Atlas - carbonate sediments
DS1998-0915
1998
Mackey, K.G.Mackey, K.G., Fujita, K., Ruff, L.J.Crustal thickness of northeast RussiaTectonophysics, Vol. 284, No. 3-4, Jan. 30, pp. 283-298.Russia, SiberiaTectonics, Crust
DS1997-1140
1997
Mackey, T.Tarlowksi, C., Gunn, P.J., Mackey, T.Enhancements of the magnetic map of AustraliaAgso Journal, Australian Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 77-82AustraliaGeophysics - airborne, Geophysics - magnetics
DS1998-0887
1998
Mackey, T.Liu, S., Mackey, T.Using images in a geological interpretation of magnetic dataAgso Research Newsletter, No. 28, May pp. 17-19AustraliaLithology, structure, Geophysics - magnetics
DS1993-0951
1993
Mackey, T.S.Mackey, T.S.No tomorrow? environmental matters affecting new industrial plants in theUSAEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 194, No. 12, December pp. NA 16A, 16B, 16D.United StatesEnvironmental, Mining
DS1970-0751
1973
Mackidd, D.G.Mackidd, D.G.Interpretation of Gravity and Magnetics North of Lake Superior.Msc. Thesis, University Toronto, 103P.GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics
DS201712-2702
2017
Mackintosh, V.Mackintosh, V., Kohn, B., Gleadow, A., Tian, Y.Phanerozoic morphotectonic evolution of the Zimbabwean craton: unexpected outcomes from a multiple low temperature thermochronology study.Tectonics, Vol. 36, 10, in press availableAfrica, Zimbabwecraton, geothermometry

Abstract: The fragmentary Phanerozoic geological record of the anomalously elevated Zimbabwe Craton makes reconstructing its history difficult using conventional field methods. Here we constrain the cryptic Phanerozoic evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton using a spatially extensive apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe), apatite fission track (AFT), and zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) data set. Joint thermal history modeling reveals that the region experienced two cooling episodes inferred to be the denudational response to surface uplift. The first and most significant protracted denudation period was triggered by stress transmission from the adjacent ~750-500 Ma Pan-African orogenesis during the amalgamation of Gondwana. The spatial extent of this rejuvenation signature, encompassing the current broad topographic high, could indicate the possible longevity of an ancient topographic feature. The ZHe data reveal a second, minor denudation phase which began in the Paleogene and removed a kilometer-scale Karoo cover from the craton. Within our data set, the majority of ZHe ages are younger than their corresponding AHe and AFT ages, even at relatively low eU. This unexpectedly recurrent age “inversion” suggests that in certain environments, moderately, as well as extremely, damaged zircons have the potential to act as ultra-low-temperature thermochronometers. Thermal history modeling results reveal that the zircon radiation damage accumulation and annealing model (ZRDAAM) frequently overpredicts the ZHe age. However, the opposite is true for extremely damaged zircons where the ZHe and AHe data are also seemingly incompatible. This suggests that modification of the ZRDAAM may be required for moderate to extreme damage levels.
DS2003-0857
2003
Macklem, K.Macklem, K.Diamonds with an edge. Canadian stones are transforming the industryMacleans, Sept. 8, pp. 52-55.Ontario, Wawa, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, SaskatchewanNews item
DS200412-1190
2003
Macklem, K.Macklem, K.Diamonds with an edge. Canadian stones are transforming the industry.Macleans Magazine, Sept. 8, pp. 52-55.Canada, Ontario, WawaNews item
DS2002-1238
2002
Mackley, R.D.Pederson, J.L., Mackley, R.D., Eddleman, J.L.Colorado Plateau uplift and erosion evaluated using GISGsa Today, Vol. 12, No. 8, August pp. 4-10.Colorado, Arizona, Utah, New MexicoStratigraphic - geomorphology, epeirogeny
DS1990-0449
1990
Macko, S.A.Engel, M.H., Macko, S.A., Silfer, J.A.Carbon isotope composition of individual amino acidss in the MurchisonmeteoriteNature, Vol. 348, No. November 1, pp. 47-49GlobalMeteorite, Geochronology -CI
DS1993-0410
1993
Macko, S.A.Engel, M.H., Macko, S.A.Organic geochemistry.. principles and applicationsPlenum Publishing Corp, $ approx. 90.00 United StatesGlobalBook -table of contents, ad, Geochemistry -organic
DS1997-0316
1997
Macko, S.A.Engel, M.H., Macko, S.A.Organic geochemistry - principles and applicationsPlenum Publ, $ 100.00 approxGlobalBook - ad, Organic geochemistry
DS2002-0186
2002
Mackwell, S.Bolfan Casanova, N., Mackwell, S., Keppler, H., McCammon, C., Rubie, D.C.Pressure dependence of H solibility in magnesiowustite up to 25 GPa: implications forGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29,10,May15,pp.89-MantleGeochemistry
DS1990-0971
1990
Mackwell, S.J.Mackwell, S.J., Kohlstedt, D.L.Diffusion of hydrogen in olivine: implications for water in the mantleJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, B4, April 10, pp. 5079-5088GlobalMantle, Olivine
DS1992-0405
1992
Mackwell, S.J.Dyar, M.D., McGuire, A.V., Mackwell, S.J.Fe3/H and D/H in kaersutites- misleading indicators of mantle sourcefugacitiesGeology, Vol. 20, No. 6, June pp. 565-568GlobalMantle, iron, Hydrogen, Geochronology
DS1993-0385
1993
Mackwell, S.J.Dyar, M.D., Mackwell, S.J., Cross, L.R., Robertson, J.D.Crystal chemistry of iron and Hydrogen in mantle kaersutite: implications for mantle MetasomatismAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 78, No. 9, 10, September-October pp. 968-979MantleMetasomatism, iron, Hydrogen, Geochemistry
DS2002-0977
2002
Mackwell, S.J.Mackwell, S.J., Paterson, M.S.New developments in deformation studies: high strain deformationPlastic Deformation of Minerals and Rocks, Geological Society of America, No. 51, Chapter 1, pp. 1-17.MantleUHP
DS200412-1191
2002
Mackwell, S.J.Mackwell, S.J., Paterson, M.S.New developments in deformation studies: high strain deformation.Plastic Deformation of Minerals and Rocks, Geological Society of America, Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, No. 51, Chapter 1, pp. 1-17.MantleUHP
DS200712-0090
2006
Mackwell, S.J.Bolfan Casanova, N., McCammon, C.A., Mackwell, S.J.Water in transition zone and lower mantle minerals.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, No. 168, pp. 57-68.MantleWater
DS200712-0238
2007
Mackwell, S.J.Demouchy, S., Mackwell, S.J., Kohlstedt, D.L.Influence of hydrogen on Fe Mg interdiffusion in (Mg,Fe)O and implications for Earth's lower mantle.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 154, 3m pp. 279-289.MantleMineralogy
DS200812-0660
2008
Mackwell, S.J.Li, ZX., Lee, C-T.A, Peslier, A.H., Lenardic, A., Mackwell, S.J.Water contents in mantle xeonoliths from the Colorado Plateau and vicinity: implications for the mantle rheology and hydration induced thinking of lithosphereJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, B9, B09210.MantleWater content
DS200812-1325
2008
Mackwell, S.J.Zheng-Xue, A.L., Lee, C-T.A., Peslier, A.H., Lenardic, A., Mackwell, S.J.Water contents in mantle xenoliths from the Colorado Plateau and vicinity: implications for mantle rheology and hydration induced thinning of continental lithosph.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113. B09210United States, Colorado PlateauPeridotite
DS1995-1136
1995
MacLachlan, K.MacLachlan, K., Helmsteadt, H.Geology and geochemistry of an Archean mafic dike complex in the Chan Formation -revised plate tectonicsCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 5, May pp. 614-630Northwest TerritoriesYellowknife greenstone belt, Tectonics
DS2000-0605
2000
MacLachlan, K.MacLachlan, K., Hanmer, S., Berman, W.J., Ryan, RelfComplex, protracted, Proterozoic reworking Western Churchill Province: the craton that wouldn't grow up.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000, 4p. abstractWestern Canada, Northwest Territories, SaskatchewanTectonics - craton, Geothermometry
DS200512-0669
2005
Maclachlan, K.Maclachlan, K., Davis, W.J., Relf, C.Paleoproterozoic reworking of an Archean thrust fault in the Hearne Domain, Western Churchill Province: U Pb geochronological constraints.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 7, July pp. 1-18.Canada, Northwest Territories, NunavutGeotectonics
DS1999-0434
1999
MacLatchy, P.MacLatchy, P., Witteman, J.Development of an aquatic effects monitoring program for BHP's Ekati diamond mine, northwest Territories.The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) ., Vol. 92, No. 1028, Mar. p. 112, abstractNorthwest TerritoriesMining - environment, Deposit - Ekati
DS201706-1105
2017
MacleanSt. Onge, M.R., Harrison, J.C., Paul, D., Tella, S., Brent, T.A., Jauer, C.D., MacleanTectonic map of Arctic Canada (TeMAC): a first derivative product from Canada in 3-D geological compilation work.GAC annual meeting, 1p. AbstractCanadatectonics
DS1991-0300
1991
Maclean, B.C.Cook, D.G., Maclean, B.C.Seismic interpretation, northern interior plains, Canada: bedding parallel thrusts versus Wyoming style basement block upliftsGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract Volume, Vol. 23, No. 5, San Diego, p. A 422Saskatchewan, WyomingGeophysics -seismics, Tectonics
DS1992-0298
1992
MacLean, B.C.Cook, D.G., MacLean, B.C.Proterozoic thick-skinned intracratonic deformation, Colville Hills Northwest Territories, CanadaGeology, Vol. 20, No. 1, January pp. 67-70Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics -seismics, Reflections, stratigraphy
DS1992-0978
1992
Maclean, B.C.Maclean, B.C., Cook, D.G.The influence of Proterozoic structures on the development of Laramidestructures, northern interior Plains, Northwest Territories, CanadaCanadian Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 3, September pp. 207-221Northwest TerritoriesStructure, Interior Plains
DS1995-0347
1995
Maclean, B.C.Cook, D.G., Maclean, B.C.The intracratonic Paleoproterozoic Forward orogeny, and implications for regional correlations, northwest Territories.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 11, Nov. pp. 1991-1998Northwest TerritoriesOrogeny, Structure, tectonics
DS1996-0291
1996
Maclean, B.C.Cook, D.G., Maclean, B.C.Mid-continent tectonic inversions, Northwest Territories, CanadaJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 18, No. 6, June 1, pp. 791-802.Northwest TerritoriesTectonics
DS2002-0978
2002
Maclean, B.C.Maclean, B.C., Miles, W.Potential field modeling of a Proterozoic half graben near Blackwater Lake: and its implications Fort SimpsonCanadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol.39,2,Feb.169-87.Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - magnetics, seismics, Precambrian tectonics
DS2002-1096
2002
Maclean, B.C.Morrow, D., Maclean, B.C., Tzeng, P., Pana, D.Subsurface Paleozoic structure and isopach maps and selected seismic surveys ofGeological Survey of Canada Open File, No. 4366, 1 CD., $26.Northwest Territories, AlbertaGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0356
2004
Maclean, B.C.Cook, D.G., Maclean, B.C.Subsurface Proterozoic stratigraphy anf tectonics of the western plains of the Northwest Territories.Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, No. 575 92p. 1 CD $ 70.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesTectonics
DS200412-1192
2004
MacLean, B.C.MacLean, B.C., Cook, D.G.Revisions to the Paleoproterozoic sequence A, based on reflected seismic dat a across the western plains of the Northwest TerritoPrecambrian Research, Vol. 129, 3-4, March 10, pp. 271-289.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS1992-0979
1992
Maclean, D.Maclean, D., Adams, C.Diamonds in Canada odds of finding a mine are long, but favourable forWood Gundy Investment Research, June 24, 5pCanada, Northwest TerritoriesNews item, Promotional literature -background
DS1991-0761
1991
MacLean, W.H.Ichangi, D.W., MacLean, W.H.The Archean volcanic facies in the Migori segment, Nyanza greenstone @Kenya: stratigraphy, geochemistry and mineralizationJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3-4, pp. 277-290KenyaGreenstone belt -Nyanza, Mineralization
DS1992-0977
1992
Maclean HunterMaclean HunterSurface Mining, second editionNaclean Hunter, M-164, 2nd ed, approx. $ 80.00 United States plus $ 34.50 airmailGlobalBook -ad, Surface Mining
DS200812-0697
2008
MacLeansMacLeansA shiny piece of hope. Birks sells diamonds and a little peace of mind.Macleans Magazine, No. 24, June 23, p. 38.Canada, United StatesNews item - retail
DS200512-0670
2005
Macleans MagazineMacleans MagazinePixels, not pickaxes. Brief overview of Geoinformatics and Goldcorp background.Macleans Magazine, August 1, pp. 36-37.Canada, OntarioComputer - brief overview
DS2001-0715
2001
Maclennan, J.Maclennan, J., McKenzie, D., Gronvold, K., Slater, L.Crustal accretion under northern IcelandEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 191, No. 3-4, pp. 295-310.GlobalTectonics, geodynamics
DS2001-0716
2001
Maclennan, J.Maclennan, J., McKenzie, D.M., Gronvold, K.Plume driven upwelling under central IcelandEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 194, No. 1-2, pp. 67-82.IcelandHot spots, Herdubreid region, Northern Volcanic Zone
DS2002-0979
2002
Maclennan, J.Maclennan, J., Lovell, B.Control of regional sea level by surface uplift and subsidence caused by magmatic underplating of Earth's crust.Geology, Vol.30,8,Aug.pp.675-8.MantleMagmatism
DS200612-0646
2005
Maclennan, J.Jones, S.M., Maclennan, J.Crustal flow beneath Iceland.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, B9 B09410Europe, IcelandTectonics
DS201112-0813
2011
Maclennan, J.Poore, H., White, N., Maclennan, J.Ocean circulation and mantle melting controlled by radial flow of hot pulses in the Iceland plume.Nature Geoscience, in press availableMantle, Europe, IcelandMelting
DS201112-0887
2011
Maclennan, J.Rudge, J.F., Maclennan, J., Stracke, A.Statistical sampling of mantle heterogeneity.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1765.MantleMelting
DS201312-0756
2013
Maclennan, J.Rudge, J.F., Maclennan, J., Stracke, A.The geochemical consequences of mixing melts from a heterogeneous mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 114, pp. 112-143.MantleMelting
DS201412-0464
2014
Maclennan, J.Klocking, M., White, N., Maclennan, J.A magmatic probe of lithospheric thickness variations beneath western North America.Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group meeting, Poster Held Jan. 6-8. See minsoc websiteUnited States, CanadaMagmatism
DS201610-1875
2016
Maclennan, J.Jennings, E.S., Gibson, S.A., Maclennan, J., Heinonen, J.S.Deep mixing of mantle melts beneath continental flood basalt provinces: constraints from olivine hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas. Etendeka and KarooGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press availableAfrica, NamibiaPicrite, ferroPicrite

Abstract: We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and ferropicrite olivine-hosted melt inclusions are remarkably uniform and closely reflect those of the host whole-rocks, except in a small subset affected by hydrothermal alteration. The Paraná-Etendeka picrites and ferropicrites are petrogenetically related to the more evolved and voluminous flood basalts, and so we propose that compositional homogeneity at the melt inclusion scale implies that the CFB parental mantle melts were well mixed prior to extensive crystallisation. The incompatible trace element homogeneity of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo near primitive magmatic rocks has also been identified in other CFB provinces and contrasts with findings from studies of basalts from mid-ocean ridges (e.g. Iceland and FAMOUS on the Mid Atlantic Ridge), where heterogeneity of incompatible trace elements in olivine-hosted melt inclusions is much more pronounced. We suggest that the low variability in incompatible trace element contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in near-primitive CFB rocks, and also ocean island basalts associated with moderately thick lithosphere (e.g. Hawaii, Galápagos, Samoa) may reflect mixing along their longer transport pathways during ascent and/or a temperature contrast between the liquidus and the liquid when it arrives in the crust. These thermal paths promote mixing of mantle melts prior to their entrapment by growing olivine crystals in crustal magma chambers. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions of ferropicrites from the Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo CFB have the least variable compositions of all global melt inclusion suites, which may be a function of their unusually deep origin and low viscosity.
DS201611-2115
2016
Maclennan, J.Jennings, E.S., Gibson, S.A., Maclennan, J., Heinonen, J.S.Deep mantle melts beneath continental flood basalt provinces: constraints from olivine hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 196, pp. 36-57.Africa, Namibia, AngolaParan-Etendeka, Karoo

Abstract: We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Parana ´-Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and ferropicrite olivine-hosted melt inclusions are remarkably uniform and closely re?ect those of the host whole-rocks, except in a small subset a?ected by hydrothermal alteration. The Parana ´-Etendeka picrites and ferropicrites are petrogenet- ically related to the more evolved and voluminous ?ood basalts, and so we propose that compositional homogeneity at the melt inclusion scale implies that the CFB parental mantle melts were well mixed prior to extensive crystallisation. The incompatible trace element homogeneity of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Parana ´-Etendeka and Karoo primitive magmatic rocks has also been identi?ed in other CFB provinces and contrasts with ?ndings from studies of basalts from mid- ocean ridges (e.g. Iceland and FAMOUS on the Mid Atlantic Ridge), where heterogeneity of incompatible trace elements in olivine-hosted melt inclusions is more pronounced. We suggest that the low variability in incompatible trace element contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in near-primitive CFB rocks, and also ocean island basalts associated with moderately thick lithosphere (e.g. Hawaii, Gala ´pagos, Samoa), may re?ect mixing along their longer transport pathways during ascent and/or a temperature contrast between the liquidus and the liquid when it arrives in the crust. These thermal paths promote mixing of mantle melts prior to their entrapment by growing olivine crystals in crustal magma chambers. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions of ferropicrites from the Parana ´-Etendeka and Karoo CFB have the least variable compositions of all global melt inclusion suites, which may be a function of their unusually deep origin and low viscosity.
DS201704-0629
2017
Maclennan, J.Jennings, E.S., Holland, T.J.B., Maclennan, J., Gibson, S.A.The composition of melts from a heterogeneous mantle and the origin of ferropicrite: application of a thermodynamic model.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 57, 11-12, pp. 2289-2310.MantleGeochemistry
DS201809-2072
2018
Maclennan, J.Matthews, S., Shorttle, O., Maclennan, J., Rudge, J.F., Miller, W.G.R.Can we detect carbon rich mantle reservoirs?Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractMantlecarbon

Abstract: The Earth’s surface inventory of carbon is critical for maintaining the planet’s habitability, yet the majority of Earth’s carbon is likely sequestered in the solid Earth. Understanding how Earth’s shallow carbon cycle evolved requires an assesment of the total carbon accreted, how it was distributed between Earth’s reservoirs, and how these reservoirs continue to exchange carbon. The low carbon content of Earth’s depleted upper mantle has been well constrained by primitive olivine hosted melt inclusions and the CO2/3He ratios of magmatic fluids. Using mass balance constraints we show that either the lower mantle is considerably more carbon rich, or the Earth has lost much of its initial carbon inventory. Distinguising between these scenarios is crucial for understanding the development and maintenance of Earth’s shallow carbon cycle. We assess the carbon content of the lower mantle using new melt inclusion datasets from Iceland, sampling both primordial and recycled mantle material. By comparing carbon concentrations with lithophile element concentrations we find evidence that carbon rich material is transported in the Iceland plume. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such datasets provide only a low bound on the true carbon content of the lower mantle, due to fundamental limits imposed by magma mixing, degassing and inclusion decrepitation. Using a global compilation of melt inclusion analyses we argue these processes occur ubiquitously and are likely to limit our ability to robustly resolve high mantle carbon using melt inclusion datasets. By combining these observations with global mass balance constraints we derive new estimates of the carbon content of primordial and recycled mantle material.
DS1997-0712
1997
MacLeod, C.J.MacLeod, C.J., Tyler, P.A., Walker, C.L.Tectonic, magmatic, hydrothermal and biological segmentation of Mid-OceanRidgesGeological Society of London Special Paper, No. 118, 240p. approx. 200.00GlobalTectonics, Book - Table of contents
DS200412-0355
2004
MacLeod, C.J.Coogan, L.A., Thompson, G.M., MacLeod, C.J., Dick, H.J., Edwards, S.J., Hosford Scierer, A., Barry, T.L.A combined basalt and peridotite perspective on 14 million years of melt generation at the Atlantis Bank segment of the southwesChemical Geology, Vol. 207, 1-2, pp. 13-30.IndiaMantle dynamics, tectonics
DS1992-1630
1992
MacLeod, M.D.Walstrom, J.S., MacLeod, M.D., Rutherford, T.L.Environmental liability management for mineral processorsAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, Annual Meeting held Phoenix Arizona Feb. 24-27th. 1992, Preprint No. 92-16. 5pGlobalEnvironment, Legal, mineral processing
DS1981-0277
1981
Macleod, N.Macleod, N.Mining in Western AustraliaPerth: Chamber of Mines of Western Australia., 73P.AustraliaMining Overview, Diamonds
DS1991-1033
1991
MacLeod, N.MacLeod, N., Keller, G.Hiatus distributions and mass extinctions at the Cretaceous/TertiaryboundaryGeology, Vol. 19, No. 5, May pp. 497-501GlobalBoundary, Extinctions
DS201912-2821
2019
Macleod, S.Sanatmaria-Perez, D., Ruiz-Fuertes, J., Pena-Alvarez, M., Chulia-Jordan, R., Marquerno, T., Zimmer, D., Guterrez-Cano, V., Macleod, S., Gregoryanz, E., Popescue, C., Rodriguez-Herandez, P., Munoz, A.Post-tilleyite, a dense calcium silicate carbonate phase.Nature Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, 11p. PdfMantletilleyite

Abstract: Calcium carbonate is a relevant constituent of the Earth’s crust that is transferred into the deep Earth through the subduction process. Its chemical interaction with calcium-rich silicates at high temperatures give rise to the formation of mixed silicate-carbonate minerals, but the structural behavior of these phases under compression is not known. Here we report the existence of a dense polymorph of Ca5(Si2O7)(CO3)2 tilleyite above 8 GPa. We have structurally characterized the two phases at high pressures and temperatures, determined their equations of state and analyzed the evolution of the polyhedral units under compression. This has been possible thanks to the agreement between our powder and single-crystal XRD experiments, Raman spectroscopy measurements and ab-initio simulations. The presence of multiple cation sites, with variable volume and coordination number (6-9) and different polyhedral compressibilities, together with the observation of significant amounts of alumina in compositions of some natural tilleyite assemblages, suggests that post-tilleyite structure has the potential to accommodate cations with different sizes and valencies.
DS1960-1160
1969
Macleod, W.N.Macleod, W.N.Intrusive Carbonate Rocks of the Mount Fraser Area, Peak Hill Goldfield.Western Australia Department of Mines Report For 1969, PP. 26-29.Australia, Western AustraliaCarbonatite
DS200712-1177
2006
MacMaster, G.Woodward, R., MacMaster, G., Scott, F.Ekati - drilling in the Canadian Arctic - a journey of continuous safety improvements.34th Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 60-61. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesEkati - safety
DS200912-0142
2009
Macmbira, M.J.B.Da Silva Valerio, C., da Silva Valerio, V., Macmbira, M.J.B.The 1.90-1.88 Ga magnetism in the southernmost Guyana Shield, Amazonas, Brazil: geology, geochemistry, zircon geochronology and tectonic implications.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 3, pp. 304-320.South America, BrazilGeochronology
DS201805-0960
2017
Macmillan, H.Macmillan, H.Mining in South Africa in the last 30 years - an overview.Reviews of African Political Economy, Vol. 44, 152, pp. 272-291.Africa, South Africahistory

Abstract: This article examines the history of South African mining over the last 30 years. It notes the declining contribution of mining to the economy, and a drop in employment levels and labour migration. It considers political, legislative and macro-economic changes, as well as mine ownership and control. It addresses the question why a democratically elected government, progressive labour legislation, trade-unionisation and Black Economic Empowerment have made remarkably little difference to working conditions. After examining the trajectories of individual commodities, such as gold, platinum, coal and diamonds, it concludes there has been no fundamental change in the relationship between state and capital.
DS1970-0128
1970
Macmillan, M.Macmillan, M.Sir Henry Barkly, Mediator and Moderator 1815- 1898Cape Town: A.a. Balkema., 302P.South AfricaKimberley, Biography
DS1900-0341
1905
Macmillan And FergusonMacmillan And FergusonThe Orange River Colony. an Illustrated Historical Description and Commercial Review.Cape Town, Port Elizabeth: Macmillan And Ferguson., 51P.Africa, South AfricaMineral Resources, Current Activities, Diamond Occurrences
DS201812-2845
2018
Macmorran, M.Macmorran, M.2018 kimberlite discoveries at the Loki ( Lac de Gras, NT) and Mel ( Melville Peninsula, NU) diamond projects.2018 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum , p. 49. abstractCanada, Northwest Territories, Nunavutdeposit - Loki, Mel

Abstract: Details will be provided on the recent kimberlite discoveries at North Arrow's Loki (NT) and Mel (NU) diamond projects. In April of this year, North Arrow announced the discovery of a new kimberlite at its Loki Diamond Project in the Northwest Territories. The Project is located in the Lac de Gras region, approximately 30 km southwest, and 24 km west of the Ekati and Diavik diamond mines, respectively. The Loki claims are contiguous to the south and east of the diamondiferous Monument kimberlite cluster. The project hosts several prospective exploration targets, as well as five known kimberlites: EG-01, EG-02, EG-05 and EG-130. At the beginning of March 2018, North Arrow commenced drilling to test the EG-05 kimberlite, as well as other priority targets. On April 5th, intersections of the first new kimberlite (465) discovered at Lac de Gras in over five years were announced, along with new drilling of kimberlite EG-05. The Mel Diamond Project is located on the Melville Peninsula (NU), approximately 140 km south of the community of Hall Beach, and 210 km northeast of the community of Naujaat (formerly Repulse Bay). A prospecting program conducted in late 2017 focused on discovery of potential kimberlite bedrock sources to a well-defined kimberlite indicator mineral train in the north part of the project area. Kimberlite float and subcrop was found in two areas, including a surface exposure of the ML8 kimberlite. A 62.1 kg sample of ML8 yielded 23 diamonds larger than the 0.106 mm sieve size, including a single, colourless diamond larger than the 0.85 mm sieve size. The 2018 exploration program included 778 m of exploration drilling leading to the discovery of a new kimberlite (ML345) and defining the ML8 kimberlite over a 170 m strike length. In addition, 447 till samples were collected to better define existing and new targets within the project area, 14 magnetic ground survey grids were completed, and over 200 kg of kimberlite was collected from surface at ML8 for further microdiamond analysis.
DS1991-1945
1991
Macnab, R.Zonenshain, L.P., Verhoef, J., Macnab, R., Meyers, H.Magnetic imprints of continental accretion in the U.S.S.REos, Vol. 72, No. 29, July 16, pp. 305, 310RussiaGeophysics -magnetics, Tectonics
DS1995-1137
1995
Macnab, R.Macnab, R., Verhoef, J., Roest, W., Arkani-Hamed, J.New database documents the magnetic character of the Arctic and NorthAtlanticEos, Vol. 76, No. 45, Nov. 7, p. 449, 458Arctic, Atlantic OceanGeophysics - database
DS1991-1034
1991
MacNae, J.MacNae, J., McGowan, P.Quantitative resistance and capacitative electrodes: new developments in inductive source resistivity8th. Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (ASEG) Conference, Vol. 22, No. 2, June pp. 251-256AustraliaGeophysics, Inductive resistivity
DS1995-1138
1995
Macnae, J.Macnae, J.Applications of geophysics for the detection and exploration of Kimberlites and lamproites.Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 52, pp. 213-244.AustraliaDiamond exploration, Geophysics
DS1995-1139
1995
Macnae, J.Macnae, J.Esoteric and mundane geophysics for Diamondiferous pipe explorationExploration Geophysics, Vol. 26, No. 2-3, June 1, pp. 131-137.AustraliaGeophysics, Diamonds
DS201610-1885
2016
Macnae, J.Macnae, J.Definitive superparamagnetic source identification through spatial, temporal, and amplitude analysis of airborne electromagnetic data.Geophysical Prospecting, in press available 14p.TechnologyPaleosols

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to add confidence to existing methods using decay shape analysis to detect superparamagnetic responses in airborne electromagnetic data. While expensive to acquire, vertical spatial gradient measurements of the electromagnetic signals can discriminate near-surface superparamagnetic sources. This research investigated the use of horizontal spatial gradients and amplitude information as further indicators of superparamagnetic. High horizontal gradients were shown both theoretically and in field data to help discriminate superparamagnetic from deep mineral targets. Further, superparamagnetic responses have characteristically small amplitudes inconsistent with realistic mineral exploration targets at shallow depths.
DS201703-0425
2016
Macnae, J.Macnae, J.Airborne unmanned excluding photography. RPA geophysics .Society of Exploration Geophysics, Dallas annual meeting, RMIT University 27ppt.TechnologyGeophysics
DS201705-0852
2016
Macnae, J.Macnae, J.DO-27 and DO-18 (formerly Tli Kwi Cho complex when they were believed to be part of the same kimberlite complex).SEG Annual Meeting Dallas, 24 ppt.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Tli Kwi Cho
DS1975-0800
1978
Macnae, J.C.Macnae, J.C.Kimberlite GeophysicsEos, Vol. 59, No. 12, P. 1023, (abstract.).Lesotho, South AfricaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1975-1122
1979
Macnae, J.C.Macnae, J.C.Kimberlites and Exploration GeophysicsGeophysics, Vol. 44, No. 8, PP. 1395-1416.Lesotho, South AfricaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1989-0060
1989
Macnae, J.C.Bailey, R.C., Craven, J.A., Macnae, J.C., Polzar, B.D.Deep UTEM controlled source electromagnetic sounding across the Ivanhoe Lake cataclastic zoneGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Program Abstracts, Vol. 14, p. A124. (abstract.)OntarioTectonics, Kapuskasing Zone
DS1989-0061
1989
Macnae, J.C.Bailey, R.C., Craven, J.A., Macnae, J.C., Polzer, B.D.Imaging of deep fluids in Archean crustNature, Vol. 340, No. 6229, July 13, pp. 136-8 Database #18038OntarioGeophysics, Midcontinent- Ivanhoe Lake
DS200612-0706
2006
MacNeil, D.Kjarsgaard, B.A., Harvey, S.E., Zonneveld, J.P., Heaman, L.M., White, D., MacNeil, D.Volcanic stratigraphy, eruptive sequences and emplacement of the 140/141 kimberlite Fort a la Corne field, Saskatchewan.Emplacement Workshop held September, 5p. extended abstractCanada, SaskatchewanDeposit - 140/141 geology
DS1985-0030
1985
Macneil, K.A.Averill, S.A., Macneil, K.A., Huneault, R.G., Baker, C.L.Rotasonic drilling operations and overburden heavy mineral studies Matheson area, district of CochraneOntario Geological Survey Open File, No. 5569, 59p. 5 figs. 1 mapOntarioDrilling, Geochemistry, Sampling, Geomorphology
DS1975-0557
1977
Macnevin, A.A.Macnevin, A.A.Diamonds in New South Wales. #1New South Wales Geological Survey Min. Res., No. 42, 114P.AustraliaKimberlite, Prospecting
DS1980-0222
1980
Macnevin, A.A.Macnevin, A.A., Holmes, G.G.Gemstones; New South Wales Geological Survey, 1980New South Wales Geological Survey Mineral Industry Report., No. 18, 119P.Australia, New South WalesKimberley, Diamond Occurrences
DS200912-0224
2009
MacNiocaill, C.Fontana, G.P.,MacNiocaill, C., Brown, R.J., Sparks, S.R., Field, M., Gernon, T.M.Emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic and colcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa: new constraints from paleomagnetic measurementsGAC/MAC/AGU Meeting held May 23-27 Toronto, Abstract onlyAfrica, Botswana, South AfricaDeposit - AK1, Orapa, K1, K2 Venetia
DS201212-0092
2012
MacNiocaill, C.Brown, R.J., Manya, S., Buisman, I., Fontana, G., Field, M., MacNiocaill, C., Sparks, R.S.J., Stuart, F.M.Eruption of kimberlite magmas: physical volcanology, geomrphology and age of the youngest kimberlitic volcanoes known on Earth ( the Upper Pleistocene-Holocene Igwisi Hills, volcanoes, Tanzania.Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 74, 7, pp. 1621-1643.Africa, TanzaniaIgwisi Hills
DS1999-0443
1999
MacNiocaill C.Marcano, M.C., Van Der Voo, R., MacNiocaill C.True polar wander during the Permo-TriassicJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, Sept. 2, pp. 75-95.MantleGeophysics - thermodynamics, Lithosphere
DS200512-0090
2005
Maconachie, R.Binns, T., Maconachie, R.Going home in post-conflict Sierra Leone: diamonds, agriculture and re-building rural livelihoods in the eastern province.Geography, Vol. 90, 1, pp. 67-78. Ingenta 1050887072Africa, Sierra LeoneInfostructure
DS200712-0664
2007
MaConachie, R.MaConachie, R., Binns, T.Farming miners or mining farmers? Diamond mining and rural development in post conflict Sierra Leone.Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 23, 3, pp. 367-380.Africa, Sierra LeoneHistory
DS200712-0665
2007
MaConachie, R.MaConachie, R., Binns, T.Farming miners or mining farmers? Diamond mining and rural development in post conflict Sierra Leone.Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 23, 3, pp. 367-380.Africa, Sierra LeoneHistory
DS200912-0464
2009
Maconachie, R.Maconachie, R.Diamonds, governance and 'local' development in post-conflict Sierra Leone: lessons for artisanal and small scale mining in sub-Saharan Africa?Resources Policy, Vol. 34, 1-2, pp. 71-79.Africa, Sierra LeoneLegal
DS201603-0398
2016
Maconachie, R.Maconachie, R., Hilson, G.Re-thinking the child labour "problem" in rural sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Sierra Leone's half shovels.World Development, Vol. 78, pp. 136-147.Africa, Sierra LeoneHistory

Abstract: This article contributes to evolving debates on Sierra Leone’s post-war “crisis of youth” by providing an extended analysis of the role that young boys and girls assume in negotiating household poverty and enhancing their livelihood opportunities in small-scale mining communities. Child miners – or “half shovels” as they are locally known – are both directly and indirectly involved in small-scale gold extraction in Kono District, Sierra Leone’s main diamond-producing area. But the implications of their involvement are often far more nuanced and complex than international children’s rights advocates understand them to be. Drawing upon recent fieldwork carried out in and around the Kono mining village of Bandafayie, the article argues that children’s participation in the rural economy not only generates much-needed household income, but in many cases is the only way in which they can earn the monies needed to attend school. A blind and uncritical acceptance of international codes and agreements on child labor could have an adverse impact on children and, by extension, poor communities in rural Sierra Leone. Western notions of “progress” and development, as encapsulated in the post-conflict reconstruction programing of international NGOs and donor organizations, often do not match up with the complex realities or competing visions of local people.
DS201810-2350
2018
Maconachie, R.Maconachie, R., Hilson, G.The war whose bullets you don't see: diamond digging, resilience and ebola in Sierra Leone.Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 61, 1, pp. 110-122.Africa, Sierra Leonealluvials

Abstract: This paper reflects critically on the transformational impacts the recent Ebola epidemic has had in diamond-rich areas of rural Sierra Leone. It focuses specifically on the country's ‘diggers’, a sizable group of labourers who occupy the bottom of the country's artisanal diamond mine production pyramid. Based upon research conducted in the diamond-producing localities of Kenema and Kono, the paper argues how, in sharp contrast to the gloomy picture painted in the literature about their existences and struggles, diggers exhibited considerable resilience during the Ebola crisis. Their diversified livelihood portfolios proved to be effective survival strategies and buffers against the shocks and stresses brought about by lengthy periods of quarantine, and during times when mobility was restricted by the government in a bid to prevent the spreading of the disease. Drawing inspiration from the resilience literature, the paper captures the essence of these survival strategies, which should be viewed as latest reshuffling and expansion of diggers' rural livelihood portfolios. Policymakers and donors have yet to embrace fully these changes in a country where the Ebola recovery period promises to be lengthy and at a time when fresh, locally-informed rural development solutions are in short supply.
DS202011-2051
2020
Maconachie, R.Maconachie, R., Conteh, F.M.Artisanal mining and the rationalisation of informality: critical reflections from Liberia.Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 41, 3, pp. 432-449. pdfAfrica, Liberiaalluvials

Abstract: Across sub-Saharan Africa, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) represents a major source of direct and indirect employment. Yet, despite the livelihood benefits and the growing interest from governments, donors and policy makers to formalise ASM, most artisanal miners still operate informally. Focusing on Liberia, this article critically investigates the question of why formalisation efforts continue to fail and argues that the persistence of informality in the sector needs to first be understood as a rational strategy for those who profit from it. Only then can sustainable mining reforms be linked to broader national and international extractive sector policy frameworks.
DS201504-0226
2015
Macorps, E.Valentine, G.A., Graettinger, A.H, Macorps, E., Ross, P-S., White, J.D.L., Dohring, E., Sonder, I.Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes.Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 77, 15p.TechnologyDiatremes, kimberlites
DS2003-0858
2003
Macouin, M.Macouin, M., Valet, J.P., Besse, J., Buchan, K., Ernst, R., Le Goff, M., ScharerLow paleointensities recorded in 1 to 2.4. Ga Proterozoic dykes, Superior ProvinceEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 213, 1-2, pp. 79-95.Ontario, ManitobaGeochronology
DS200412-1193
2003
Macouin, M.Macouin, M., Valet, J.P., Besse, J., Buchan, K., Ernst, R., Le Goff, M., Scharer, U.Low paleointensities recorded in 1 to 2.4. Ga Proterozoic dykes, Superior Province, Canada.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 213, 1-2, pp. 79-95.Canada, Ontario, ManitobaGeochronology
DS200612-0847
2006
Macouin, M.Macouin, M., Valet, J.P., Besse, J., Ernst, R.E.Absolute paleointensity at 1.27 Ga from the Mackenzie dyke swarm ( Canada).Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 7, Q01H21Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochronology, magnetiziation
DS200912-0143
2009
MacPhersonDale, C.W., Pearson, D.G., Starkey, N.A., Stuart, F.M., Ellam, Larsen, Fitton, MacPhersonOsmium isotope insights into high 3He4He mantle and convecting mantle in the North Atlantic.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A260 Abstract.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin Island, Europe, GreenlandPicrite
DS1992-0980
1992
Macpherson, C.Macpherson, C., Mattey, D.P., Harris, J.Oxygen isotope analysis of microgram quantities of silicate by a laser fluorination technique dat a for syngenetic inclusions in diamondV.m. Goldschmidt Conference Program And Abstracts, Held May 8-10th. Reston, p. A 66. abstractGlobalDiamond inclusions, Geochemistry
DS1994-1124
1994
Macpherson, C.Mattey, D., Lowry, D., Macpherson, C.Oxygen isotope composition of mantle peridotiteEarth Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 128, No. 3-4, Dec. pp. 231-242.MantleGeochronology
DS1994-1060
1994
Macpherson, C.G.Lowry, D., Mattey, D.P., Macpherson, C.G., Harris, J.W.Evidence for stable isotope and chemical disequilibrium associated with diamond formation in the mantle.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58A, pp. 535-536. AbstractMantleGeochronology, Diamond genesis
DS2002-0980
2002
Macpherson, C.G.Macpherson, C.G., Hall, R.Timing and tectonic controls in the evolving orogen of SE Asia and the western Pacific and some implications for ore generation.Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 204, pp.49-68.AsiaTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS200512-0220
2005
MacPherson, C.G.Day, J.M.D., Hilton, D.R., Pearson, D.G., MacPherson, C.G., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Janney, P.E.Absence of a high time integrated 3He (U-Th) source in the mantle beneath continents.Geology, Vol. 33, 9, Sept. pp. 733-736.Mantle, Canada, Africa, South Africa, UgandaGeochronology - helium isotopes
DS200512-0671
2005
MacPherson, C.G.MacPherson, C.G., Hilton, D.R., Day, J.M., Lowry, D., Grenvold, K.High 3He 4He depleted mantle and low 180 recycled oceanic lithosphere in the source of central Iceland magmatism.Physics and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 233, 3-4, pp. 411-427.MantleGeochemistry
DS200512-0672
2005
MacPherson, C.G.MacPherson, C.G., Hilton, D.R., Day, J.M.D., Lowry, D., Gronvold, K.High He3 He4 depleted mantle and low delta18O recycled oceanic lithosphere in the source of central Iceland magmatism.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 233, 3-4, May 15, pp. 411-427.Europe, IcelandMagmatism, geochronology, recycling
DS200912-0161
2009
Macpherson, C.G.Day, J.M.D., Pearson, D.G., Macpherson, C.G., Lowry, D., Carracedo, J-C.Pyroxenite rich mantle formed by recycled oceanic lithosphere: oxygen osmium isotope evidence from Canary Island lavas.Geology, Vol. 37, 6, pp. 555-558.Mantle, Canary IslandsGeochronology
DS201212-0641
2012
MacPherson, C.G.Shaw, A.M., Hauri, E.H., Behn, M.D., Hilton, D.R., MacPherson, C.G., Sinton, J.M.Long term preservation of slab signatures in the mantle interred from hydrogen isotopes.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 5, March pp, 224-228.MantleTomography - seismics
DS200512-0092
2004
Macpherson, G.L.Blackburn, T.J., Stockli, D., Berendsen, P., Carlson, R.W., Macpherson, G.L.New (U-TH/He) age constraints on the emplacement of kimberlite pipes in north eastern Kansas.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting ABSTRACTS, Nov. 7-10, Paper 192-2, Vol. 36, 5, p. 447.United States, KansasGeochronology, Bala. Stockdale, Tuttle, Leonardville
DS1982-0385
1982
Macquarie UniversityMacquarie UniversityThe Magsat Project in AustraliaNational Technical Information Service, NASA CR 169599, 8P.AustraliaGeophysics
DS201012-0679
2010
MacQueen, J.Seigel, H.O., Nind, C.J.M., Milanov, A., MacQueen, J.Results from the initial field tests of a borehole gravity meter for mining and geotechnical applications. NOT specific to diamonds.Scintrex, 5p. distributed Jan. 2010 PPT also availableTechnologyGravity methodology
DS1992-0981
1992
Macqueen, R.W.Macqueen, R.W., Leckie, D.A.Foreland basins and foldbeltsAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 55, 460pCordilleraBook -ad, Basins
DS1997-0713
1997
MacQueen, R.W.MacQueen, R.W.Exploring for minerals in Alberta: Geological Society of Canada (GSC) Alberta agreement on mineral development 1992-1995Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, No. 500, 350pAlbertaBook - table of contents, Mineral resources
DS200912-0795
2009
MacQuet, A.Verhoeven, O., MacQuet, A., Vacher, P., Rivoldini, A., Menvielle, M., Arrial, P.A., Chiblet, G., Tarits,P.Constraints on thermal state and composition of the Earth's lower mantle from electromagnetic impedances and seismic data.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, B3, B03302.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS2003-0276
2003
MacRae, C.M.Cooper, S.A., MacRae, C.M., Wilson, N.C., Scarlett, N.V.Y., Marx, W.T.Diamond coatings that affect diamond recoveries on grease tables investigated by8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 1 POSTER abstractSouth AfricaKimberlite geology and economics, Technology - recovery, Perdevlei, Kareevlei
DS201312-0564
2013
MacRae, C.M.MacRae, C.M., Wilson, N.C., Torpy, A.hyper spectral cathodluminescence.Mineralogy and Petrology, in pressTechnologyCL spectra
DS1960-1161
1969
Macrae, N.D.Macrae, N.D.Ultramafic Inclusions of the Abitibi Area, OntarioCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 6, pp. 281-303.OntarioUltramafic Rocks, Peridotites
DS1990-1127
1990
MacRae, N.D.O'Connor, T.K., MacRae, N.D.A new occurrence of Rhoenite in a lherzolite xenolithof Victoria, AustraliaGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Vancouver 90 Program with Abstracts, Held May 16-18, Vol. 15, p. A98. AbstractAustraliaMt. Leura, Lherzolite xenolith
DS1993-0404
1993
MacRae, N.D.Elphick, J.R., MacRae, N.D., Barnett, R.L., Barron, K.M., Morris, W.Spinel compositions and trends from tuffisitic breccias of the James BayLowlands, OntarioMid-continent diamonds Geological Association of Canada (GAC)-Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Symposium ABSTRACT volume, held Edmonton May, pp. 47-52OntarioMineralogy
DS1994-1083
1994
MacRae, N.D.MacRae, N.D., Armitage, A.E., Miller, A.R.Diamond bearing potential of alkaline dykes in the Gibson Lake area, District of Keewatin, northwest Territories.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Abstract Volume, Vol. 19, p.Northwest TerritoriesAlkaline dykes, Gibson Lake area
DS1995-0891
1995
MacRae, N.D.Jones, A.L., Miller, A.R., Armitage, A.E., MacRae, N.D.Lamprophyre dikes of the Christopher Island Formation, Thirty Mile Lake, District of Keewatin.Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 1995-C, pp. 187-194.Northwest TerritoriesLamprophyre dykes
DS1995-1140
1995
MacRae, N.D.MacRae, N.D., Armitage, A.E., Jones, A.L.A Diamondiferous lamprophyre dike, Gibson Lake area, NorthwestTerritories.International Geology Review, Vol. 37, pp. 212-229.Northwest TerritoriesLamprophyre, diamond, Deposit -Akluilak dike
DS1996-0870
1996
MacRae, N.D.MacRae, N.D., Armitage, A.E., Miller, A.R., Roddick, J.C.The Diamondiferous Akluilak lamprophyre dyke, Gibson Lake area, northwest TerritoriesGeological Survey of Canada, LeCheminant ed, OF 3228, pp. 101-107.Northwest TerritoriesLamprophyre, Akluilak dyke
DS200912-0841
2009
Macris, C.A.Young, E.D., Tonui, E., Manning, C.E., Schauble, E., Macris, C.A.Spinel olivine magnesium isotope thermometry in the mantle and implications for the MG isotopic composition of Earth.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 288, 3-4, pp. 524-533.MantleGeothermometry
DS201012-0881
2009
Macris, C.A.Young, E.D., Tonui, E., Manning, C.E., Schauble, E., Macris, C.A.Spinel olivine magnesium isotope thermometry in the mantle and implications for the Mg isotopic composition of Earth.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 288, pp. 524-533..MantleGeochemistry
DS200712-1113
2006
Macthans, H.Vecsei, P., Macthans, H., Schryer, R.Monitoring a sub-arctic lake trout population to determine potential TDS effects from a diamond mining operation at Snap Lake.34th Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 59-60. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesWater
DS2001-0222
2001
MacyealCutler, P.M., Mickelson, Colgan, Macyeal, ParizekInfluence of the Great Lakes on the dynamics of the southern Laurentide ice sheet: numerical experiments.Geology, Vol. 29, No. 11, Nov. pp. 1039-42.Ontario, Michigan, WisconsinGeomorphology, Glacial flow
DS1989-1211
1989
Maczuga, D.E.Phinney, W.C., Morrison, D.A., Maczuga, D.E.Anorthosites and related megacrystic units in the evolution of ArcheancrustJournal of Petrology, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 1283-1323. Database # 17977Ontario, Greenland, South AfricaAnorthosites -chromite, Archean
DS201909-2078
2019
Madabhooshi, S.Pothuri, R.C.P., Madabhooshi, S.Petrogenesis of a newly discovered diamondiferous chloritised kimberlite at Dibbasanipalli, Wajrakarur field, southerm India.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. Poster abstractIndiadeposit - Dibbasanipalli

Abstract: Petrogenesis of a newly discovered diamondiferous kimberlite pipe (3-021) by the Rio Tinto Group, ~2 km east of Dibbasanipalli, Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field, eastern Dharwar craton is attempted. The pipe is located in field based on published literature and consultation with local villagers [1,2]. Local geology is dominated by Archaean basement granitoids and genisses intruded by younger nordmarkites and dolerites. The rock is highly chloritised giving rise to poor preservation of kimberlitic matrix. However, olivine pseudomorphs are distinctly visible in thin sections. The rock possesses crustal xenoliths of granite, syenite, dolerite etc. with petrographic similarities to Khaderet pipe (3-106). Geochemically, the kimberlite is silica undersaturated (SiO2 39.32-45.67 wt%), MgO rich (26.51- 28.82 wt%) with K2O (1-88-2.1 wt%) higher than Na2O (0.29-0.39 wt%), akin to archetypal Group-I variety. High amounts of MgO and Mg# correspond to enrichment of magnesium bearing mineral phases like olivine and to some extent Mg-ilmenite. The higher concentration of elements Ba, Cr, Co, Nb, Ni, V, Zr is attributed to enrichment of mantle originated xenocrysts like chromite, perovskite, pyrope, Crdiopside. Based on trace element content, the kimberlite appears to be of magmatic origin within a stable continental geological set up. The enrichment of LREE over HREE supports inferior degree of partial melting (0.1-2%) indicating a metasomatically enriched phlogopite bearing garnet lherzolite source, inturn indicating a deep seated and depleted mantle origin, within an estimated temperature range of 1150- 1280oC and low viscosity (0.05 Pa s).
DS202007-1120
2020
Madani, A.A.Abe, N., Surour, A.A., Madani, A.A., Arai, S.Metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from the Cretaceous rift related Natash volcanics and their bearing on the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern part of the eastern desert of Egypt.Lithos, in press available , 47p. PdfAfrica, Asia, Egyptperidotites

Abstract: Highly carbonated mantle xenoliths have been found in rift-related alkaline basalts at the Wadi Natash area in the southern part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Although all olivine and most orthopyroxene was replaced by carbonate and/or quartz, textural and mineral chemical features show that they are plagioclase-free spinel peridotites (lherzolite to harzburgite). Cr and Mg numbers (Cr#, Mg#) of Cr-spinel vary from 0.06 to 0.45 and 0.73 to 0.81, respectively. The correlation between Cr# and Mg# of the Cr-spinel in the studied xenoliths is weakly negative and its TiO2 content is slightly higher than in abyssal peridotite that was not affected by melt injection. The chemistry of ortho- and clinopyroxene suggests enstatite and chromian diopside compositions, respectively, with distinct signatures of a sub-continental mantle source. In particular, the Na2O contents (>1.0?wt%) and AlVI/AlIV ratios (1.2-2.6) of chromian diopside suggest such an origin. Two-pyroxene geothermometry indicates a temperature of about 900?°C, which is slightly lower than that of ordinary spinel peridotite xenoliths from other rift zones. It is evident that the studied peridotite xenoliths had experienced mantle processes (e.g. decompression melting, magma upwelling and metasomatism) at higher pressure than abyssal peridotites. The trace-element chemistry of clinopyroxene, e.g. high LREE/HREE ratios {(Ce/Yb)n?=?7}, high LREE contents (>3.6?ppm and up to 30.0?ppm Ce) and high Sr between >85.6?ppm and 466?ppm, indicates metasomatic alteration of the peridotite. Clinopyroxene in one sample has very low Ti/Eu and high LREE/HREE ratios. Clinopyroxene with (Ce/Yb)n higher than 3-4 and Ti/Eu ratio lower than 1500 may have experienced carbonatite or carbonate-rich melt metasomatism prior to their incorporation into the host basalt. The basalt itself is almost devoid of any carbonatization and hence the studied mantle peridotites were carbonatized before the generation of the basaltic magma but following an earlier event of K-metasomatism as indicated by the presence of phlogopite. The studied peridotites from the Wadi Natash area were altered by a carbonate-rich melt during a rifting stage. The results of the present paper indicate that the Natash basalts with their peridotite xenoliths extruded along transversal fractures of the NW-trending Nuqra-Kom Ombo-Kharit continental rift on its western shoulder in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt.
DS200712-0480
2007
Madden, P.A.Jahn, S., Madden, P.A.Modeling Earth materials from crustal to lower mantle conditions: a transferable set of interaction potentials for the CMAS system.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 162, 1-2, pp. 129-139.MantleChemistry
DS200712-0481
2007
Madden, P.A.Jahn, S., Madden, P.A.Modeling Earth materials from crustal to lower mantle conditions: a transferable set of interaction potentials for the CMAS system.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 162, 1-2, pp. 129-139.MantleChemistry
DS1990-0972
1990
Maddox, J.Maddox, J.Tectoclimatology comes of ageNature, Vol. 343, February 8, p. 507GlobalMountain Building, Climate
DS1993-0952
1993
Maddox, J.Maddox, J.Calculating the energy of fullerenesNature, Vol. 363, June 3, p. 305.GlobalFullerenes
DS1995-1141
1995
Maddox, J.Maddox, J.Sustainable development unsustainableNature, Vol. 374, No. 6520, March 23, p. 305GlobalEconomics, Environment
DS2003-0785
2003
Maddren, J.Lee, D.C., Maddren, J., Griffin, B.J.The importance of chromite morphology in diamond exploration8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 8, POSTER abstractAustraliaBlank
DS200412-1102
2003
Maddren, J.Lee, D.C., Maddren, J., Griffin, B.J.The importance of chromite morphology in diamond exploration.8 IKC Program, Session 8, POSTER abstractAustraliaDiamond exploration
DS1995-1142
1995
Madeira, J.Madeira, J., et al.Spectral (MIR) determination of kaolinite and gibbsite contents in lateritic soilsC.r. Academy Of Science Paris, Vol. 321, 11a, pp. 119-128GlobalLaterites, Spectroscopy
DS201012-0519
2009
Madeira, J.Mourai, C., Mata, J., Doucelance, R., Madeira, J., Brum da Silviera, A., Silva, L.C., Moreira, M.Quaternary extrusive calciocarbonatite volcanism on Brava Island ( Cape Verde): a nephelinite carbonatite immiscibility product.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 56, 2-3, pp. 59-74.Europe, Cape Verde IslandsCarbonatite
DS201212-0497
2012
Madeira, J.Mourao, C., Mata, J., Doucekance, R., Madeira, J., Millet, M-A., Moreira, M.Geochemical temporal evolution of Brava Island magmatism: constraints on the variability of Cape Verde mantle sources and on carbonatite-silicate magma link.Chemical Geology, Vol. 334, pp. 44-61.Europe, Cape Verde IslandsCarbonatite
DS201212-0498
2012
Madeira, J.Mourao, C., Moreira, M., Mata, J., Raquin, A., Madeira, J.Primary and secondary processes constraining the noble gas isotopic signatures of carbonatites and silicate rocks from Brava Island: evidence for a lower mantle origin of the Cape Verde Plume.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 163, 6, pp. 995-1009.Europe, Brava IslandCarbonatite
DS1993-0953
1993
Mader, G.L.Mader, G.L.Permanent satellite tracking networks for geodesy and geodynamicsSpringer-Verlag, 208p. approx. $ 75.00GlobalBook -ad, GPS systems
DS1999-0042
1999
Mader, G.M.Baragar, R.A., Mader, G.M.Carbonatitic ultramafic volcanic rocks (meimechites) of lower most Povungnituk Group, Cape Smith Belt, Quebec.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)., Vol. 24, p. 6. abstractQuebec, Labrador, UngavaCarbonatite, Meimechites
DS1996-0871
1996
Mader, H.M.Mader, H.M., et al.Dynamics of explosive degassing of magma: observations of fragmenting two phase flowsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. B 3, March 10, pp. 5547-60GlobalMagma, Layered intrusion
DS2001-0115
2001
Mader, H.M.Blower, J.D., Mader, H.M., Wilson, S.D.R.Coupling of viscous and diffusive controls on bubble growth during explosive volcanic eruptions.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 193, No. 1-2, Nov. 30, pp. 47-56.MantlePhreatomagmatism
DS200612-0848
2006
Mader, H.M.Mader, H.M., Coles, S.G., Connor, C.B., Connor, L.J.Statistics in volcanology. Guide to modern statistical methods applied to volcanology.Geological Society of London, IAVCEI Publication, Oct. 296p.TechnologyBook - volcanology
DS201012-0170
2010
Mader, H.M.Doyle, E.E., Hogg, A.J., Mader, H.M., Sparks, R.S.J.A two layer model for the evolution and propogation of dense and dilute regions of pyroclastic currents.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 190, 3-4, pp. 365-378.TechnologyVolcanism
DS201312-0565
2013
Mader, H.M.Mader, H.M., Llewllin, E.W., Mueller, S.P.The rheology of two phase magmas: a review and analysis.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 257, pp. 135-158.MantleSilicate melt, viscosity ( bubbles or crystals)
DS200612-1401
2006
Mader, M.M.Sylvester, P.J., Mader, M.M., Myers, J.S.Ultramafic alkaline magmas (meymechites) from the mid-Archean Ivistaroq greenstone belt, southwest Greenland.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 633. abstract only.Europe, GreenlandMeymechites
DS1995-1648
1995
Mader, P.Salomons, W., Forstner, U., Mader, P.Heavy metals... problems and solutionsSpringer, 270p. approx. $ 110.00GlobalBook -ad, Environment -heavy metals
DS1992-0079
1992
Mader, U.Baragar, W.R.A., Mader, U., Le Cheminant, G.M.Lac Leclair carbonatitic ultramafic center, Cape Smith BeltGeological Survey of Canada (GSC) Paper, No. 92-1C, pp. 103-9.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorCarbonatite
DS1992-0080
1992
Mader, U.Baragar, W.R.A., Mader, U., LeCheminant, G.M.Lac Leclair carbonatitic ultramafic volcanic centre, Cape Smith Belt, QuebecGeological Survey of Canada, Paper No. 92-1C, pp. 103-110Quebec, Labrador, UngavaCarbonatite, Lac Leclair
DS2001-0082
2001
Mader, U.Baragar, W.R.A., Mader, U., LeCheminant, G.M.Paleoproterozoic carbonatitic ultrabasic volcanic rocks (meimechites) of Cape Smith Belt, Quebec.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sept. pp. 1313-34.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorLac Le Clair, Carbonatite, geochemistry, Lapilli tuffs
DS1987-0431
1987
Mader, U.K.Mader, U.K.The Aley carbonatite complex, Northern Rocky Mountain,British SOURCE[ British Columbia Geological Field work 1986British Columbia Geological Fieldwork 1986, Paper No. 1987-1, pp. 283-288British ColumbiaCarbonatite
DS1988-0429
1988
Mader, U.K.Mader, U.K., Greenwood, H.J.Carbonatites and related rocks of the Prince and George Claims Northern Rocky MountainsBritish Columbia Department of Mines, Geological Fieldwork 1987, Paper 1988-1, pp. 375-380British ColumbiaBlank
DS1989-0918
1989
Mader, U.K.Mader, U.K.The Aley carbonatite complex, Northern Rocky Mountains, BritishColumbia(94 B 5)Msc. Thesis University Of British Columbia, British ColumbiaCarbonatite, Aley
DS1986-0514
1986
Mader U.KMader U.KThe Aley carbonatite complexMsc. Thesis University Of British Columbia, 104pBritish ColumbiaCarbonatite
DS1989-0919
1989
Madge, D.N.Madge, D.N.Mine economic valuation and the determination of economic parametersThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) 91st. Annual Meeting Preprint, No. 81, text 19p. slides 20p. Database # 17969GlobalEconomics, Mine evaluation
DS1990-0973
1990
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V., Mallikarjuna Rao, J.Petrology of olivine basalt dyke of lamprophyre affinity at Uppalapadu, Prakasam District, Andhra PradeshJournal of Geological Society India, Vol. 36, November pp. 493-501IndiaLamprophyre dike, Petrology
DS1992-0982
1992
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V., Mallikharjuna Rao, J. Balaram. V., Kumar, R.Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lamprophyres and associated dikes fromElchuru, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaJournal of Geological Society India, Vol. 40, No. 2, August pp. 135-150IndiaLamprophyres, Petrology
DS1992-0983
1992
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V., Mallikharjuna, J., et al.Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lamprophyres and associated dykes fromElchuru, Andhra Pradesh, India.Journal Geological Society of India, Vol. 40, August pp. 135-149.IndiaLamprophyres, minettes, sannaite, camptonite, Geochemistry
DS1996-1157
1996
Madhavan, V.Rao, C.N.V., Miller, J.A., Pyle, D.M., Madhavan, V.New Proterozoic K-Ar ages for some kimberlites and lamproites from the Cuddapah Basin, Dharwar Craton:Precambrian Research, Vol. 79, pp. 363-369.India, MahbubnagarLamproite, Geochronology, Deposit -Ramannapeta, Kotakonda, Chelima
DS1996-1161
1996
Madhavan, V.Rao, N.V.C., Madhavan, V.Some observations on the geochemistry of Ramannapeta -Ustapalle lamproiticbody, Krishna District AP.Journal of Geological Society India, Vol. 47, No. 4, Apr. 1, pp. 409-418.IndiaLamproite, Deposit -Ramannapeta-Ustapalle
DS1999-0580
1999
Madhavan, V.Rao, N.V.C., Miller, J.A., Madhavan, V.Precise 40 Ar-39 Ar age determinations of the Kotonda kimberlite and Chelima lamproite : implications timingJournal of Geological Society India, Vol. 53, No. 4, Apr. pp. 425-32.IndiaGeochronology - mafic dyke swarm emplacement, Argon, Craton - Dharwar
DS2001-0717
2001
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V.Rare alkaline rocks from Andhra Pradesh, southern India: an overviewJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 3, Apr. pp.321-32.India, Andhra PradeshAlkaline rocks
DS2002-0981
2002
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V.Comments on : kimberlite occurrence in Raichur area, Karnataka by S. ShivannaJournal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 60, 5, Oct. pp. 478-80.India, KarnatakaLamproite, lamprophyere
DS200412-1194
2002
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V.Notes: National seminar on alkaline carbonatite magmatism.Journal Geological Society of India, Vol. 59, 6, pp. 233-234.IndiaConference note
DS200412-1195
2002
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V.Comments on : kimberlite occurrence in Raichur area, Karnataka by S. Shivanna.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 60, 5, Oct. pp. 478-80.India, KarnatakaLamproite, lamprophyere
DS200612-0849
2005
Madhavan, V.Madhavan, V.Group II kimberlite or Orangeite? no final verdict in sight.Geological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 114-115.India, Madhya Pradesh, Aravalli Bundelkhand CratonClassification
DS1989-0920
1989
Madhaven, V.Madhaven, V., Mallikharjuna Rao, J., Subrahmanyam, K., KrishnaBedrock geology of the Elchuru alkaline pluton,Prakasam District, AndhraPradeshGeological Society of India, Memoir, Editor C. LeelanandaM., No. 15, pp. 189-206IndiaAlkaline rocks, Lamprophyres
DS1990-0974
1990
Madhaven, V.Madhaven, V., Rao, J.M., Sprininasan, T.P., Sprininansan, M.The mid-Proterozoic dyke swarm of mica lamprophyres and microshonkinites from Elchuru IndiaMafic dykes and emplacement mechanisms, Editors A.J. Parker, P.C., pp. 363-372IndiaLamprophyric dykes, Shonkinites
DS1996-1160
1996
Madhaven, V.Rao, N.V., Chalapthi, Madhaven, V.A new look at the olivine lamproitic rocks of the Maddur Narayanpet area, Mahbubnagar District, A.P.Journal of Geological Society India, Vol. 47, No. 6, June pp. 549-664.IndiaLamproites, Deposit -Maddur Narayanpet
DS1998-0916
1998
Madhaven, V.Madhaven, V., David, K., Srinivas, M.Comparative study of lamprophyres from the Cuddapah Intrusive province(CIP) Andhra Pradesh, India.Journal of Geological Society India, Vol. 52, No. 6, Dec. pp. 621-42.India, South IndiaLamprophyres, Deposit - Elchuru, Purimetla, PrakasaM.
DS1999-0435
1999
Madhaven, V.Madhaven, V., Rao, J.M., Srinivas, M.Mid Proterozoic intraplate alkaline magmatism in the eastern Dharwar Craton of India: the Cuddapah ProvinceJournal of Geological Society IndiaM., Vol. 53, No. 2, Feb. 1, pp. 143-62.India, CuddapahAlkaline rocks, Magmatism, Craton
DS200412-1196
2004
Madhaven, V.Madhaven, V.Continental alkaline magmatism vis a vis the Indian subcontinent: a documentary profile.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 63, 3, pp. 271-281.IndiaAlkalic
DS1996-1162
1996
Madhavran, V.Rao, NVC, Madhavran, V.Titanium rich phlogopites from the Zangamajupalle kimberlitic rock, AndhraPradesh, India.Journal of Geological Society India, Vol. 47, No. 3, March pp. 355-363.IndiaPetrography, Deposit -Zangamajupalle
DS201512-1920
2015
MadhuraGokhale, M., Madhura, Somani, R., RakeshFullerenes: chemistry and its applications.Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, Vol. 12, 4, pp. 355-366.TechnologyFullerenes

Abstract: Fullerenes being allotropes of carbon, have been considered as new class of molecules. Unlike diamond and graphite, this is made up of hollow carbon cage structure. The idea of spheroidal cage structures of C60 arose from construction of geodesic domes made by renowned architect Buckminster Fuller. Although fullerenes have low solubility in physiological media they finds promising biological applications. The photo, electrochemical and physical properties of C60 and other fullerene derivatives finds applications in medical fields. The ability of fullerenes to fit inside the hydrophobic cavity of HIV proteases makes them potential inhibitor for substrates to catalytic active site of enzyme. It possesses radical scavenging and antioxidant property. At the same time, when it exposed to light it can form singlet oxygen in high quantum yields which with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerenes and DNA bases finally results in cleavage of DNA. The fullerenes are also used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery system. The associated low toxicity of fullerenes is sufficient to attract the researchers for investigation of these interesting molecules.
DS200512-0673
2005
Madi, K.Madi, K., Forest, S., Cordier, P., Boussuge, M.Numerical study of creep in two phase aggregates with a large rheology contrast: implications for the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 237, 1-2, Aug, 30, pp. 223-238.MantleSeismic anistropy
DS1994-1084
1994
MadibaMadiba, CCP, et al.From stoichiometry to nitrogen in ilmenitesHyper. Inter., #QB951, Vol. 91, No. 1-4, pp. 715-719.GlobalIlmenite, Mineralogy
DS1975-1215
1979
Madiba, C.C.P.Sellschop, J.P.F., Madiba, C.C.P., Annegarn, H.J.Volatile Light Elements in DiamondDiamond Research, VOLUME FOR 1979, PP. 24-30.GlobalDiamond Genesis, Microprobe
DS1988-0430
1988
Madiba, C.C.P.Madiba, C.C.P., Sellschop, J.P.F., Van Wyx, J.A.Light volatiles in synthetic diamond analyzed by ion probesNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B., Vol. B35, No. 3-4, 12(II) pp. 442-445GlobalDiamond synthesis
DS1983-0428
1983
Madigan, R.Madigan, R.Diamond Exploration in AustraliaIndiaqua., 1983/II, No. 35, PP. 27-38.AustraliaHistory, Prospecting, Current Actvities, Recovery, Sampling
DS1994-1085
1994
Madill, H.Madson, E., Madill, H., Walker, R.Exploration to development: DIAND's regulatory requirements. #2The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), pp. 25-38.Northwest TerritoriesLegal, environment, Regulations
DS1994-1086
1994
Madill, H.Madson, E., Madill, H., Walker, R.Exploration to development: DIAND's regulatory requirements. #1The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), pp. 25-38.Northwest TerritoriesLegal, Environmental
DS200812-0698
2008
Madison DialogueMadison DialogueDiamonds are forever, and so is sustainable development. Third white paper Making Diamonds Work for Development.madisondialogue.org, July 16, 30p.GlobalNews item - overview
DS1995-0013
1995
Madon, M.Ahmed Zid, I., Madon, M.Electron microscopy of high pressure phases synthesized from natural garnets in a diamond anvil cell: mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 129, No. 1-4, January pp. 233-248.MantleGarnet mineralogy, Petrology -experimental
DS1995-0845
1995
Madon, M.Ingrin, J., Madon, M.TEM observations of several spinel garnet assemblages - toward the rheologyof the transition zone.Terra Nova, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 509-515.MantlePetrology
DS2003-0091
2003
Madorc, L.Bedard, J.H., Brouillette, P., Madorc, L., Berclaz, A.Archean cratonization and deformation in the northern Superior Province, Canada: anPrecambrian Research, Vol. 127, 1-2, Nov. pp. 61-87.Northwest Territories, QuebecTectonics
DS200412-0121
2003
Madorc, L.Bedard, J.H., Brouillette, P., Madorc, L., Berclaz, A.Archean cratonization and deformation in the northern Superior Province, Canada: an evaluation of plate tectonic versus verticalPrecambrian Research, Vol. 127, 1-2, Nov. pp. 61-87.Canada, Northwest Territories, QuebecTectonics
DS200512-0674
2005
Madore, C.Madore, C., Annesley, I.R., Portella, P.Geology and thermotectonic evolution of the western margin of the Trans-Hudson Orogen: evidence from the eastern sub-Athabasca basement, Saskatchewan.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 573-597.Canada, SaskatchewanGeothermometry
DS1993-0954
1993
Madore, L.Madore, L., Girard, R.Etude petrographique et recommendations de travaux dans le cadre de l'exploracion pour le diamant.. Castignon.La Societe Miniere Ecudor Inc., Ressources KWG Inc., 37p.QuebecExploration - assessment, KWG Resources
DS1995-1716
1995
Madore, L.Sharma, K.N.M., Guguere, E., Cimon, J., Madore, L.Les roches ultramafiques dans le Granville de l'Outaoais... contexte tectonique et potential mineralQuebec Department of Mines, Pro 95-08, 6p.QuebecUltramafics
DS1995-1717
1995
Madore, L.Sharma, K.N.M., Guguere, E., Cimon, J., Madore, L.Les roches ultramafiques dans le Grenville de l'Outaoais... contexte tectonique et potential mineralQuebec Department of Mines, Pro 95-08, 6p.QuebecUltramafics
DS2001-0718
2001
Madore, L.Madore, L., Larbi, Y.Regional structural character of the northeastern Ungava Peninsula: connection between Rae and SuperiorGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 26, p.93.abstract.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorTectonics - structure
DS201312-0566
2013
Madowe, A.Madowe, A.The mine planning process for an open pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho.South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 113, July pp. 547-554.Africa, LesothoLetseng - mine plan
DS201605-0865
2016
Madowe, A.Madowe, A.Design and implementation of steeper slope angles on a kimberlite open pit diamond operation - a practical approach.Diamonds Still Sparkling SAIMM 2016 Conference, Mar. 14-17, pp. 215-228.TechnologyMining - applied
DS201709-2024
2016
Madowe, A.Madowe, A.Design and implentation of steeper slope angles on a kimberlite open pit diamond operation - a practical approach.South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 116, 8, pp. 723-731.Africa, Lesothodeposit - Letseng

Abstract: The steepening of slope angles on an open pit mining operation has a material impact on improving the economics of mining. Steepening of slope angles can also increase the risk of slope failure. Slope failures are inherently costly events, because they can be catastrophic, resulting in multiple fatalities, equipment damage, and temporary or permanent closure of a mine. The steepening of the basalt slope angles at Letseng Diamond Mine followed operational improvements that were introduced through improved blasting practices and geotechnical controls. The steeper slope design resulted in a 6 Mt/a reduction in the peak waste mining compared with the previous mine plan coupled with an increase in the net present value and life of mine. This paper is an outline of the steps that were taken at Letseng to increase slope angles in waste and the resulting improvements to the mine plan.
DS1920-0393
1928
Madras MailMadras MailWajrakarurMadras Mail, MAY 2.India, MadrasHistory, Companies
DS1987-0515
1987
MadsenNickel, E.H., Grey, I.E., MadsenLucasite-(Ce),CeTi2(O, Oh06; a new mineral from WesternAustralia: its description and structureAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 72, pp. 1006-1010Australia, LucasiteLamproite
DS2001-0711
2001
Madsen, E.Macdonald, G., Wytrychowski, S., Baker, Madsen, E.Environmental management and monitoring - Diavik 2001 dike contruction29th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 21-23, abstract p. 55-6.Northwest TerritoriesLegal - environment, Deposit - Diavik
DS201812-2846
2018
Madsen, E.Madsen, E., Truter, K.The transformation of De Beers Canada.2018 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum , p. 49-50. abstractCanadadeposit - De Beers

Abstract: Over the past two years, De Beers Canada has undergone a transformation. This has included: opening the world's largest newdiamond mine (Gahcho Kué Mine); relocating its operational supportcentre to Calgary from Toronto, andrefocusing the Calgary organizationto ensure it provides support servicesto our remote operations rather thanacting as a “head office”; improving partnerships with localcommunities; preparing to close the highlysuccessful Victor Mine in NorthernOntario; and, looking for opportunities to grow thecompany in Canada. The De Beers Canada of 2018 is a dramatically different company, one that has become a solid contributor to the De Beers Group, is a national leader in safety and has its focus on developing the first diamond mine on Baffin Island. Our presentation will provide an update on the activities of De Beers Canada since 2016 and a look ahead at where our company is going in the future.
DS1987-0516
1987
Madsen, I.C.Nickel, E.H., Grey, I.E., Madsen, I.C.Lucasite (Ce) CeTi2 (O, OH)6 a new mineral from Western Australia: its description and structure.American Miner., Vol. 72, pp. 1006-10.AustraliaMineralogy, Lucasite, Deposit - Argyle mine
DS200712-0666
2006
Madsen, J.K.Madsen, J.K., Thorkelson, D.J., Friedman, R.M., Marshall, D.D.Cenozoic to Recent plate configuration in the Pacific Basin: ridge subduction and slab window magmatism in western North America.Geosphere, Vol. 2, pp. 11-34.United States, CanadaSubduction
DS1994-1085
1994
Madson, E.Madson, E., Madill, H., Walker, R.Exploration to development: DIAND's regulatory requirements. #2The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), pp. 25-38.Northwest TerritoriesLegal, environment, Regulations
DS1994-1086
1994
Madson, E.Madson, E., Madill, H., Walker, R.Exploration to development: DIAND's regulatory requirements. #1The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), pp. 25-38.Northwest TerritoriesLegal, Environmental
DS201412-0541
2014
Madugalla, T.B.N.S.Madugalla, T.B.N.S., Pitawala, H.M.T.G.A., Karunaratne, D.G.G.P.Use of carbonatites in the production of precipitated calcium carbonate: a case study from Eppawala, Sri Lanka.Natural Resources Research, Vol. 23, 2, June pp. 217-230.Asia, Sri LankaCarbonatite
DS1984-0470
1984
Madureira filho de, J.B.Madureira filho de, J.B., Svisero, D.P.Diagrama Quinario Para a Determinacao Da Composicao de Granadas Gemologicas.Anais Do Xxxiii Congress Brasilieiro Geologia., PP. 4, 968-4, 978.BrazilNatural, Garnets, Geochemistry, Chemical Analyses
DS1996-0100
1996
MaduskiBeard, A.D., Downes, H., Vetrin, V., Kempton, P.D., MaduskiPetrogenesis of Devonian lamprophyre and carbonatite minor intrusions Kandalaksha Gulf, Kola Peninsula.Lithos, Vol. 39, pp. 93-119.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS201705-0808
2017
Madvedev, N.Ashchepkov, I., Ntaflos, T., Logvinova, A., Vladykin, N., Ivanov, A., Spetsius, Z., Stegnitsky, Y., Kostrovitsky, S., Salikhov, R., Makovchuk, I., Shmarov, G., Karpenko, M., Downes, H., Madvedev, N.Evolution of the mantle sections beneath the kimberlite pipes example of Yakutia.European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017, Vienna April 23-28, 1p. 6337 AbstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Sytykanskaya, Dalnyaya, Aykhal, Zarya, Komosomolskaya, Zarnitsa, Udachnaya

Abstract: The PTX diagrams for the separate phases in Sytykanskaya (Ashchepkov et al., 2016) Dalnyaya (Ashchepkov et al., 2017), pipes shows that the PK show the relatively simple P-X trends and geotherms and shows more contrast and simple layering. The PK contain most abundant material from the root of the magma generation they are dunitic veins as the magma feeders represented by the megacrysts. New results for the Aykhal, Zarya and Komsomolskaya pipes in Alake field and Zarnitsa and Udachnaya pipes in Daldyn field show that evolution is accompanied by the developing of metasomatites and branching and veining of the wall rock peridotites . In Aykhal pipe in PK the Gar- dunites prevail, the xenoliths from the dark ABK "Rebus" contain Cr-Ti - rich garnets and ilmenites, more abundant compared with the grey carbonited breccia Nearly the same features were found for Yubileinaya pipe. The example of Komsomolskya pipes show that the ABK contain more eclogitic xenolith than PK. The developing of the magma channel shown in satellite Chukukskaya and Structurnaya pipe was followed by the separation of some parts of the magmatic feeders and crystallization of abundant Gar megacrysts near o the walls blocking the peridotites from the magma feeder. This drastically decrease diamond grade of pipes. Such blocking seems to be the common features for the latest breccias. In Zarnitsa pipe, the dark PK and ABK also contain fresh xenoliths but not only dunites but also sheared and metasomatic varieties and eclogites. Most of dark ABK in Yakutia contain the intergrowth of ilmenites with brown Ti- Cpx showing joint evolution trends. The late breccia contains completely altered peridotite xenoliths mainly of dunite- harzburgite type. The comparison of the trace elements of the coexisting minerals in megacryst show that they were derived from the protokimberlites but are not in complete equilibrium as well as other megacrystalline phases. Ilmenites show inflections of the trace element patterns of most Ilmenites but more regular for the Cpx and Garnets revealing the sub parallel patterns elevating LREE with the rising TRE. But commonly these are not continuous sequances because they developed in the pulsing moving systems like beneath Zarnitsa. The minerals from the feeders like dunites also show the inflected or S-type REE patterns. From the earlier to later phases the TRE compositions became more evolved reflecting the evolution of protokimberlites. The wall rocks also often show the interaction with the more evolved melts and sometimes "cut" spectrums due to the dissolution some phases and repeated melting events So we could suggest the joint evolution of the mantle column protokimberlites and megacrysts composition and type of kimberlites with the diamond grade. The mantle lithospheric base captured by the PK. The developing and rising protokimbelrites was followed by the crystallization of the diamonds in the gradient in FO2 zone in wall rocks due to reductions of C -bearing fluids and carbonatites (> 1 QMF) on peridotites ((< -2 -5 QMF). The most intensive reactions are near the graphite - diamond boundary where protokimberlites are breaking and where most framesites are forming.
DS200612-0253
2006
Madyukov, I.A.Chupin, V.P., Kuzmin, D.V., Madyukov, I.A.Melt inclusions in minerals of scapolite bearing granulite (lower crustal xenoliths from diatremes of the Pamirs).Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 407, 3, pp. 507-511.RussiaXenoliths
DS200712-1101
2007
Madyukov, I.A.Urakaev, F.K., Shevchenko, V.S., Logvinoa, A.M., Madyukov, I.A., Petrushin, E.I., Yusupov,T.S.Sobolev.Mechano chemical processing of low grade diamond into nanocomposite materials.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 415, 5, pp. 755-758.RussiaMining - mineral processing
DS201412-0542
2014
Maeda, F.Maeda, F., Ohtani, E., Kamada, S., Sakamaki, T., Ohishi, Y., Hirao, N.The reactions in the MgCO3-SiO2 system in the slabs subducted into the lower mantle and formation of deep diamond.V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences International Symposium Advances in high pressure research: breaking scales and horizons ( Courtesy of N. Poikilenko), Held Sept. 22-26, 1p. AbstractSouth America, BrazilCarbon
DS201704-0638
2017
Maeda, F.Maeda, F., Ohtani, E., Kamada, S., Sakamaki, T., Hirao, N., Ohishi, Y.Diamond formation in the deep lower mantle: a high pressure reaction of MgCO3 and SiO2.Nature Scientific reports, Jan. 13, 7p. PdfMantleDiamond, genesis

Abstract: Diamond is an evidence for carbon existing in the deep Earth. Some diamonds are considered to have originated at various depth ranges from the mantle transition zone to the lower mantle. These diamonds are expected to carry significant information about the deep Earth. Here, we determined the phase relations in the MgCO3-SiO2 system up to 152?GPa and 3,100?K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. MgCO3 transforms from magnesite to the high-pressure polymorph of MgCO3, phase II, above 80?GPa. A reaction between MgCO3 phase II and SiO2 (CaCl2-type SiO2 or seifertite) to form diamond and MgSiO3 (bridgmanite or post-perovsktite) was identified in the deep lower mantle conditions. These observations suggested that the reaction of the MgCO3 phase II with SiO2 causes formation of super-deep diamond in cold slabs descending into the deep lower mantle.
DS201911-2534
2019
Maeda, F.Ishi, T., Huang, R., Myhill, R., Fei, H., Koemets, I., Liu, Z., Maeda, F., Yuan, L., Wang, L., Druzhbin, D., Yamamoto, T., Bhat, S., Farla, R., Kawazoe, T., Tsujino, N., Kulik, E., Higo, Y., Tange, H., Katsura, T.Sharp 660 km discontinuity controlled by extremely narrow binary post-spinel transition.Nature Geosciences, Vol. 12, pp. 869-872.Mantlediscontinuity

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is characterized by a sharp seismic discontinuity at a depth of 660?km that can provide insights into deep mantle processes. The discontinuity occurs over only 2?km—or a pressure difference of 0.1?GPa—and is thought to result from the post-spinel transition, that is, the decomposition of the mineral ringwoodite to bridgmanite plus ferropericlase. Existing high-pressure, high-temperature experiments have lacked the pressure control required to test whether such sharpness is the result of isochemical phase relations or chemically distinct upper and lower mantle domains. Here, we obtain the isothermal pressure interval of the Mg-Fe binary post-spinel transition by applying advanced multi-anvil techniques with in situ X-ray diffraction with the help of Mg-Fe partition experiments. It is demonstrated that the interval at mantle compositions and temperatures is only 0.01?GPa, corresponding to 250?m. This interval is indistinguishable from zero at seismic frequencies. These results can explain the discontinuity sharpness and provide new support for whole-mantle convection in a chemically homogeneous mantle. The present work suggests that distribution of adiabatic vertical flows between the upper and lower mantles can be mapped on the basis of discontinuity sharpness.
DS2001-0849
2001
Maeda, M.Ohtani, E., Maeda, M.Density of basaltic melt at high pressure and stability of the melt at the base of the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 193, No. 1-2, pp. 69-75.MantleMorb, picrites, floating diamond method, peridotites, D Layer, discontinuity
DS1996-1033
1996
MaehrNewsom, H.E., Sims, Noll, Jaeger, Maehr, BesserraThe depletion of tungsten in the bulk silicate earth: constraints on coreformation.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 60, No. 7, pp. 1155-69.MantleGeochemistry - bulk silicate EARTH backscatter electron (BSE) imaging ., Core formation
DS1997-1034
1997
Maekawa, H.Shibakusa, H., Maekawa, H.Lawsonite bearing eclogitic metabasites in the Cazadero area, northernCalifornia.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 61, No. 1-4, pp. 163-180.CaliforniaEclogite
DS1960-0861
1967
Maertens, K.Maertens, K.Edelsteine. #2Hannover: Schmidt-kuster Gmbh, 211P.GlobalKimberlite
DS200412-1197
2004
Maes, J.Maes, J., Iakoubovskii, K., Hayne, M., Stesmans, A., Moshchalkov, V.V.Diamond as a magnetic field calibration probe.Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 37, 7, April 7, pp. 1102-1106.TechnologyGeophysics - magnetics
DS201904-0791
2019
Maes, W.Vanpoucke, D.E.P., Nicely, S.S., Raymakers, J., Maes, W., Haenen, K.Can europium atoms form luminescent centres in diamond: a combined theoretical-experimental study.Diamond and Related Materials, https://doi.org/j. diamond.2019.02.024Globaldiamond morphology

Abstract: The incorporation of Eu into the diamond lattice is investigated in a combined theoretical-experimental study. The large size of the Eu ion induces a strain on the host lattice, which is minimal for the Eu-vacancy complex. The oxidation state of Eu is calculated to be 3+ for all defect models considered. In contrast, the total charge of the defect-complexes is shown to be negative: -1.5 to -2.3 electron. Hybrid-functional electronic-band-structures show the luminescence of the Eu defect to be strongly dependent on the local defect geometry. The 4-coordinated Eu substitutional dopant is the most promising candidate to present the typical Eu3+ luminescence, while the 6-coordinated Eu-vacancy complex is expected not to present any luminescent behaviour. Preliminary experimental results on the treatment of diamond films with Eu-containing precursor indicate the possible incorporation of Eu into diamond films treated by drop-casting. Changes in the PL spectrum, with the main luminescent peak shifting from approximately 614?nm to 611?nm after the growth plasma exposure, and the appearance of a shoulder peak at 625?nm indicate the potential incorporation. Drop-casting treatment with an electronegative polymer material was shown not to be necessary to observe the Eu signature following the plasma exposure, and increased the background luminescence.
DS201905-1083
2019
Maes, W.Vanpoucke, D.E.P., Nicley, S.S., Raymakers, J., Maes, W., Haenen, K.Can europium atoms form luminescent centres in diamond: a combined theoretical-experimental study.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 94, pp. 233-241.Globalluminescence

Abstract: The incorporation of Eu into the diamond lattice is investigated in a combined theoretical-experimental study. The large size of the Eu ion induces a strain on the host lattice, which is minimal for the Eu-vacancy complex. The oxidation state of Eu is calculated to be 3+ for all defect models considered. In contrast, the total charge of the defect-complexes is shown to be negative: -1.5 to -2.3 electron. Hybrid-functional electronic-band-structures show the luminescence of the Eu defect to be strongly dependent on the local defect geometry. The 4-coordinated Eu substitutional dopant is the most promising candidate to present the typical Eu3+ luminescence, while the 6-coordinated Eu-vacancy complex is expected not to present any luminescent behaviour. Preliminary experimental results on the treatment of diamond films with Eu-containing precursor indicate the possible incorporation of Eu into diamond films treated by drop-casting. Changes in the PL spectrum, with the main luminescent peak shifting from approximately 614?nm to 611?nm after the growth plasma exposure, and the appearance of a shoulder peak at 625?nm indicate the potential incorporation. Drop-casting treatment with an electronegative polymer material was shown not to be necessary to observe the Eu signature following the plasma exposure, and increased the background luminescence.
DS1991-1035
1991
Mafarachisi, B.A.Mafarachisi, B.A.Mining is businessRaw Materials Report, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 21-22ZimbabweEconomics, Mining
DS1860-0154
1871
Maffei, D.E.Maffei, D.E., Figueroa, D.R.R.Apuntes Para Una Bibliotech Espanola de Libros, Folletos Y AMadrid: J.m. Lapuenta., 529P.GlobalHistory
DS201910-2306
2019
Maffione, M.Van Hinsbergen, D.J.J., Torsvik, T.H., Schmid, S.M., Matenco, L.C., Maffione, M., Vissers, R.L.M., Gurer, D., Spakman, W.Orogenic architecture of the Mediterranean region and kinematic reconstruction of its tectonic evolution since the Triassic. AtriaGondwana Research, in press available 427p.Europecraton

Abstract: The basins and orogens of the Mediterranean region ultimately result from the opening of oceans during the early break-up of Pangea since the Triassic, and their subsequent destruction by subduction accommodating convergence between the African and Eurasian Plates since the Jurassic. The region has been the cradle for the development of geodynamic concepts that link crustal evolution to continental break-up, oceanic and continental subduction, and mantle dynamics in general. The development of such concepts requires a first-order understanding of the kinematic evolution of the region for which a multitude of reconstructions have previously been proposed. In this paper, we use advances made in kinematic restoration software in the last decade with a systematic reconstruction protocol for developing a more quantitative restoration of the Mediterranean region for the last 240 million years. This restoration is constructed for the first time with the GPlates plate reconstruction software and uses a systematic reconstruction protocol that limits input data to marine magnetic anomaly reconstructions of ocean basins, structural geological constraints quantifying timing, direction, and magnitude of tectonic motion, and tests and iterations against paleomagnetic data. This approach leads to a reconstruction that is reproducible, and updatable with future constraints. We first review constraints on the opening history of the Atlantic (and Red Sea) oceans and the Bay of Biscay. We then provide a comprehensive overview of the architecture of the Mediterranean orogens, from the Pyrenees and Betic-Rif orogen in the west to the Caucasus in the east and identify structural geological constraints on tectonic motions. We subsequently analyze a newly constructed database of some 2300 published paleomagnetic sites from the Mediterranean region and test the reconstruction against these constraints. We provide the reconstruction in the form of 12 maps being snapshots from 240 to 0 Ma, outline the main features in each time-slice, and identify differences from previous reconstructions, which are discussed in the final section.
DS200712-1084
2006
Magaina, L.O.Titkov, S.V., Solodova, Y.P., Gorshkov, A.I., Magaina, L.O., Sivtsov, A.V., Sedova, E.A., Gasanov, SamosorovInclusions in white gray diamonds of cubic habit from Siberia.Gems & Gemology, 4th International Symposium abstracts, Fall 2006, p.127-8. abstract onlyRussiaDiamond morphology
DS201212-0448
2012
Magaji, S.S.Martin, R.F., Sokolov, M., Magaji, S.S.Punctuated anorogenic magmatism.Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 132-140.Canada, Greenland, Russia, AfricaMagmatism
DS201709-2025
2017
Magalhaes, N.Magalhaes, N., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Kratky, O., Farquhar, J.Sulfur isotope systematics in carbonatites from Sevattur and Samalpatti, S India.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Indiacarbonatites, Sevattur, Samalpatti

Abstract: We report preliminary data for sulfur isotopes from two spatially related Neoproterozoic carbonatite complexes in Tamil Nadu, S India, with the aim of getting further insights into their magmatic and/or post-emplacement histories [1]. The major sulfide phase in these rocks is pyrite, with minor chalcopyrite, whereas sulfate occurs as barite. A bimodal distribution of G34Ssulfide is found for Samalpatti (13.5 to 14.0‰), and Sevattur (-2.1 to 1.4‰) carbonatites. A significantly larger range of G34Ssulfide values is found for the associated Samalpatti silicate rocks (-5.2 to 7.4‰) relative to Sevattur pyroxenites and gabbros (-1.1 to 2.1‰). High G34Ssulfide values for Samalpatti carbonatites are unsual [2,3] but could reflect hydrothermal post-emplacement modification [1] of S isotopes. The low G34Ssulfide values for Sevattur may represent a mantle source signature. The G34Ssulfate is uniformly positive for both complexes, with most data falling in a narrow range (5.7 to 7.8‰) and one datum for a pyroxenite yielding more positive G34Ssulfate = 13.3‰. Data for '33S varies outside of analytical uncertainty (-0.07 to 0.04‰), indicating contribution from a source with a surface-derrived component. The small range of '33S values does not allow us to determine whether these sources contain S fractionated by biogeochemical (mass-dependent) or photochemical (mass-independent, pre GOE) processes. Data for '36S is positive, and varies within uncertainty (0.28 ± 0.15‰). Variations of this magnitude have been observed in other localities, and are not diagnostic of any unique source or process. The sulfur isotope data imply addition of crustal sulfur to Samalpatti. In contrast, sulfur from Sevattur has a mantle-like G34S but '33S with anomalous character. These observations support the idea of a different evolutionary story for these complexes, possibly more complex than previously thought.
DS202008-1390
2020
Magalhaes, N.Fitzpaynek, A., Giuliani, A., Magalhaes, N., Soltys, A., Fiorentini, M., Farquhar, J.The petrology and sulphur istopic composition of sulphide and sulphate in the Kimberley kimberlites.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: The petrology and bulk-rock sulphur isotopic compositions of kimberlite samples from four localities (Bultfontein, De Beers, Kimberley, Wesselton) of the archetypal Kimberley cluster, South Africa, were used to investigate the origin(s) of S in kimberlites and gain insights into the occurrence of recycled crustal material in the source of Mesozoic kimberlites. The samples, which show variable degrees of alteration, are all hypabyssal and were derived from coherent root-zones as well as dykes and sills. Typical sulphide minerals are Cu-Fe-Ni-sulphides with less common pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and djerfisherite. They occur in a variety of textural associations, for example as groundmass phases, secondary inclusions in olivine, inclusions in matrix phases (e.g., phlogopite), or in carbonate-serpentine segregations. Barite is the most commonly observed sulphate phase. Bulk-sample d34SVCDT values of sulphides in fresh kimberlites, which mostly do not contain barite, vary from - 2.0 to -5.7 ‰. Slightly altered kimberlite samples, in which sulphides were generally associated with serpentine, returned somewhat higher bulk-sulphide d34SVCDT (-3.8 to +1.1 ‰). One sample from the Wesselton Water Tunnel Sills complex contains abundant barite and pyrite in its groundmass, with the latter having d34SVCDT (+0.2 to +1.9 ‰) similar to altered kimberlites. Two further altered samples returned d34SVCDT values (-10.1 to -13.0 ‰) that suggest a contribution from the local country rocks (Dwyka shale: d34SVCDT from -10.2 to -10.5 ‰). All samples have near-zero ?33S values, suggesting that material displaying mass-independent fractionation has not played an important role. The negative d34SVCDT values of fresh kimberlites from Kimberley suggest the involvement of recycled crustal material in their source, which is consistent with radiogenic isotope compositions. Overall, it appears that most kimberlitic sulphide S isotopic compositions can be explained by the action of a few typical magmatic/hydrothermal processes.
DS201812-2847
2018
Magalhaes Macedo, J.Magalhaes Macedo, J.Gar Mineracao - discoveries, geology and development of diamond deposits of Romaria and Monte Carmelo.7th Symposio Brasileiro de Geologia do Diamante , Title only South America, Brazildeposit - Romaria, Monte Carmelo
DS201412-0013
2014
Magana, S.Ardon, T., Magana, S.Spatial correlation of infrared and PL optical centers in hydrogen rich diamonds.Geological Society of America Conference Vancouver Oct. 19-22, 1p. AbstractAfrica, ZimbabweDiamond absorption
DS201604-0636
2016
Magana, Z.Thomas, R.J, Spencer, C., Bushi, A.M., Baglow, N., Gerrit de Kock, B., Hortswood, M.S.A., Hollick, L., Jacobs, J., Kajara, S., Kaminhanda, G., Key, R.M., Magana, Z., McCourt, M.W., Momburi, P., Moses, F., Mruma, A., Myamilwa, Y., Roberts, N.M.W., HamisiGeochronology of the centra Tanzania craton and its southern and eastern orogenic margins.Precambrian Research, in press available 57p.Africa, TanzaniaGeochronology

Abstract: Geological mapping and zircon U-Pb/Hf isotope data from 35 samples from the central Tanzania Craton and surrounding orogenic belts to the south and east allow a revised model of Precambrian crustal evolution of this part of East Africa. The geochronology of two studied segments of the craton shows them to be essentially the same, suggesting that they form a contiguous crustal section dominated by granitoid plutons. The oldest orthogneisses are dated at ca. 2820 Ma (Dodoma Suite) and the youngest alkaline syenite plutons at ca. 2610 Ma (Singida Suite). Plutonism was interrupted by a period of deposition of volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed to greenschist facies, directly dated by a pyroclastic metavolcanic rock which gave an age of ca. 2725 Ma. This is supported by detrital zircons from psammitic metasedimentary rocks, which indicate a maximum depositional age of ca. 2740 Ma, with additional detrital sources 2820 and 2940 Ma. Thus, 200 Ma of episodic magmatism in this part of the Tanzania Craton was punctuated by a period of uplift, exhumation, erosion and clastic sedimentation/volcanism, followed by burial and renewed granitic to syenitic magmatism. In eastern Tanzania (Handeni block), in the heart of the East African Orogen, all the dated orthogneisses and charnockites (apart from those of the overthrust Neoproterozoic granulite nappes), have Neoarchaean protolith ages within a narrow range between 2710 and 2630 Ma, identical to (but more restricted than) the ages of the Singida Suite. They show evidence of Ediacaran "Pan-African" isotopic disturbance, but this is poorly defined. In contrast, granulite samples from the Wami Complex nappe were dated at ca. 605 and ca. 675 Ma, coeval with previous dates of the "Eastern Granulites" of eastern Tanzania and granulite nappes of adjacent NE Mozambique. To the south of the Tanzania Craton, samples of orthogneiss from the northern part of the Lupa area were dated at ca. 2730 Ma and clearly belong to the Tanzania Craton. However, granitoid samples from the southern part of the Lupa "block" have Palaeoproterozoic (Ubendian) intrusive ages of ca. 1920 Ma. Outcrops further south, at the northern tip of Lake Malawi, mark the SE continuation of the Ubendian belt, albeit with slightly younger ages of igneous rocks (ca. 1870-1900 Ma) which provide a link with the Ponte Messuli Complex, along strike to the SE in northern Mozambique. In SW Tanzania, rocks from the Mgazini area gave Ubendian protolith ages of ca. 1980-1800 Ma, but these rocks underwent Late Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism between 1015 and 1040 Ma. One granitoid gave a crystallisation age of ca. 1080 Ma correlating with known Mesoproterozoic crust to the east in SE Tanzania and NE Mozambique. However, while the crust in the Mgazini area was clearly one of original Ubendian age, reworked and intruded by granitoids at ca. 1 Ga, the crust of SE Tanzania is a mixed Mesoproterozoic terrane and a continuation from NE Mozambique. Hence the Mgazini area lies at the edge of the Ubendian belt which was re-worked during the Mesoproterozoic orogen (South Irumide belt), providing a further constraint on the distribution of ca. 1 Ga crust in SE Africa. Hf data from near-concordant analyses of detrital zircons from a sample from the Tanzania Craton lie along a Pb-loss trajectory (Lu/Hf = 0), extending back to ~3.9 Ga. This probably represents the initial depleted mantle extraction event of the cratonic core. Furthermore, the Hf data from all igneous samples, regardless of age, from the entire study area (including the Neoproterozoic granulite nappes) show a shallow evolution trend (Lu/Hf = 0.028) extending back to the same mantle extraction age. This implies the entire Tanzanian crust sampled in this study represents over 3.5 billion years of crustal reworking from a single crustal reservoir and that the innermost core of the Tanzanian Craton that was subsequently reworked was composed of a very depleted, mafic source with a very high Lu/Hf ratio. Our study helps to define the architecture of the Tanzanian Craton and its evolution from a single age-source in the early Eoarchaean.
DS1997-0714
1997
Magang, D.N.Magang, D.N.Presentation by the Minister of Mineral resources and Water Affairs of the Republic of BotswanaMiga Conference Held Denver June 3-5, 10pBotswanaMining
DS1997-0715
1997
Magang, D.N.Magang, D.N., Tomable, A.R., Ntsimanyana, M.Mining potential of BotswanaMiga Conference Held Denver June 3-5, 37pBotswanaMining, Overview
DS1997-0716
1997
Magang, D.N.Magang, D.N., Tomable, A.R., Ntsimanyana, M.Mining potential of BotswanaMiga Conference Held Denver June 3-5, 37p.BotswanaMining, Overview
DS201610-1840
2016
Magaraggia, R.Aravanis, T., Chen, J., Fuechsle, M., Grujic, M., Johnston, P., Kok, Y., Magaraggia, R., Mann, A., Mann, L., McIntoshm S., Rheinberger, G., Saxey, D., Smalley, M., van Kann, F., Walker, G., Winterflood, J.VK1 tm - a next generation airborne gravity gradiometer.ASEG-PESA-AIG 2016 25th Geophysical Conference, Abstract 5p.TechnologyGradiometer

Abstract: The minerals exploration industry’s demand for a highly precise airborne gravity gradiometer has driven development of the VK1TM Airborne Gravity Gradiometer, a collaborative effort by Rio Tinto and the University of Western Australia. VK1TM aims to provide gravity gradient data with lower uncertainty and higher spatial resolution than current commercial systems. In the recent years of VK1TM development, there have been significant improvements in hardware, signal processing and data processing which have combined to result in a complete AGG system that is approaching competitive survey-ready status. This paper focuses on recent improvements. Milestone-achieving data from recent lab-based and moving-platform trials will be presented and discussed, along with details of some advanced data processing techniques that are required to make the most use of the data.
DS1991-1036
1991
Magaritz, M.Magaritz, M.Carbon isotopes, time boundaries and evolutionTerra Nova, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 251-256GlobalCarbonates, Geochronology
DS2000-0355
2000
MagazinaGorshkov, A. Bao, Titkov, Ryabchikov, Magazina, SivtsovComposition of mineral inclusions and formation of polycrystalline diamond aggregates ( Bort) Shengli pipeGeochemistry International, Vol. 38, No. 7, pp. 698-705.ChinaMineralogy - bort, Deposit - Shengli, Shenli
DS200612-1429
2006
MagazinaTitkov, S.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Solodova, Ryabchikov, Magazina, Sivtsov, Gasanov, Sedova, SamosorovMineral Micro inclusions in cubic diamonds from the Yakutian deposits based on analytical electron microscopy data.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 410, no. 7 July-August, pp. 1106-1108.Russia, YakutiaDiamond inclusions
DS1995-1364
1995
Magazina, L.O.Novgorodova, M.I., Samotoin, N.D., Magazina, L.O.Packing defect regularity in graphite from deep seated xenolithsDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 334, No. 1, Aug., pp. 97-101.ChinaXenoliths, Deposit Tuvish pipe
DS1999-0260
1999
Magazina, L.O.Gorshkov, A.I., Bao, Y.N., Magazina, L.O.Polycrystalline diamond aggregate (bort) from Shanley kimberlite pipe, China: growth features, genesisGeochemistry International, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan. pp. 75-81.ChinaDiamond morphology - bort, Deposit - Shanley
DS2003-1381
2003
Magazina, L.O.Tikov, S.V., Zudin, N.G., Gorshkov, A.I., Sivtsov, A.V., Magazina, L.O.An investigation into the cause of colour in natural black diamonds from SiberiaGems & Gemology, Vol. 39,3, Fall, pp. 200-209.Russia, SiberiaMineral inclusions - Mir
DS200412-1995
2003
Magazina, L.O.Tikov, S.V., Zudin, N.G., Gorshkov, A.I., Sivtsov, A.V., Magazina, L.O.An investigation into the cause of colour in natural black diamonds from Siberia.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 39,3, Fall, pp. 200-209.Russia, SiberiaMineral inclusions - Mir
DS200412-2000
2004
Magazina, L.O.Titkov, S.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Magazina, L.O., Sivtsov, A.V., Zakharchenko, O.D.Shapeless dark diamonds ( Yakutites) from placers of the Siberian platform and criteria of their impact origin.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 191-201.Russia, SiberiaDiamond morphology
DS200612-0480
2006
Magazina, L.O.Gorshkov, A.I., Titkov, S.V., Bao, Y.N., Ryabchikov, I.D., Magazina, L.O.Micro inclusions in diamonds of octahedral habit from kimberlites of Shandong province, eastern China.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 48, 4, pp. 326-China, ShandongDiamond morphology, inclusions
DS200612-0481
2006
Magazina, L.O.Gorshkov, A.L., Titkov, S.V., Bao, Y.N., Ryabchikov, I.D., Magazina, L.O.Micro inclusions in diamonds of octahedral habit from kimberlites of Shandong Province, eastern China.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 48, 4, pp 326-334.ChinaDiamond crystallography
DS201112-1049
2011
Magazina, L.O.Titkov, S.V., Ryabchikov, I.D., Pomazanskii, B.S., Magazina, L.O.Chloride Micro inclusions in diamonds of the Siberian Platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 437, 2, pp. 503-506.Russia, SiberiaDiamond inclusions
DS201903-0529
2018
Magazina, L.O.Lykhin, D.A., Yarmolyuk, V.V., Nikiforov, A.V., Kozlovsky, A.M., Magazina, L.O.Ulan-Tologoi Ta - Nb deposit: the role of magmatism in the formation of rare metal mineralization.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 60, 6, pp. 461-85.Asia, MongoliaREE

Abstract: The role of magmatic differentiation is considered for the formation of the Ulan-Tologoi Ta-Nb-Zr deposit (northwestern Mongolia) related to the eponymous alkali granite pluton. Data are presented on the structure of the pluton, the composition of its rocks, and distribution of rare metal mineralization. The ores of the pluton include alkali granites with contents of ore elements exceeding the normative threshold for Ta (>100 ppm). The rare metal mineralization includes pyrochlore, columbite, zircon, bastnaesite, monazite, and thorite, which are typical of all alkali-salic rocks; however, their amount varies depending on the REE content of the rocks. The pluton was formed ~298 Ma ago under the influence of a mantle-crustal melt source.
DS200712-0080
2007
Magee, C.Birch, W.D., Barron, L.M., Magee, C., Sutherland, F.L.Gold and diamond bearing White Hills Gravel, St. Arnaud district, Victoria: age and provenance based on U Pb dating of zircon and rutile.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 609-628.Australia, VictoriaGeochronology
DS200812-0113
2007
Magee, C.Birch, W.D., Barron, L.M., Magee, C., Sutherland, F.L.Gold and diamond bearing White Hills gravel, St. Arnaud district, Victoria: age and provenance based on U-Pb dating of zircon and rutile.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 54, 4, June pp. 609-628.Australia, VictoriaGeochronology
DS201509-0415
2015
Magee, C.Magee, C., Mahaaj, S.M., Wrona, T., Jackson, A-L.Controls on the expression of igneous intrusions in seismic reflection data.Geosphere, Vol. 11, 4, pp. 1024-1041.MantleMagmatism

Abstract: The architecture of subsurface magma plumbing systems influences a variety of igneous processes, including the physiochemical evolution of magma and extrusion sites. Seismic reflection data provides a unique opportunity to image and analyze these subvolcanic systems in three dimensions and has arguably revolutionized our understanding of magma emplacement. In particular, the observation of (1) interconnected sills, (2) transgressive sill limbs, and (3) magma flow indicators in seismic data suggest that sill complexes can facilitate significant lateral (tens to hundreds of kilometers) and vertical (<5 km) magma transport. However, it is often difficult to determine the validity of seismic interpretations of igneous features because they are rarely drilled, and our ability to compare seismically imaged features to potential field analogues is hampered by the limited resolution of seismic data. Here we use field observations to constrain a series of novel seismic forward models that examine how different sill morphologies may be expressed in seismic data. By varying the geologic architecture (e.g., host-rock lithology and intrusion thickness) and seismic properties (e.g., frequency), the models demonstrate that seismic amplitude variations and reflection configurations can be used to constrain intrusion geometry. However, our results also highlight that stratigraphic reflections can interfere with reflections generated at the intrusive contacts, and may thus produce seismic artifacts that could be misinterpreted as real features. This study emphasizes the value of seismic data to understanding magmatic systems and demonstrates the role that synthetic seismic forward modeling can play in bridging the gap between seismic data and field observations.
DS201807-1510
2018
Magee, C.Magee, C., Stevenson, C.T.E., Ebmeier, S.K., Keir, D., Hammond, J.O.S., Gottsmann, J.H., Whaler, K.A., Schofield, N., Jackson, C.A-L., Petronis, M.S., O'Driscoll, B., Morgan, J., Cruden, A., Vollgger, S.A., Dering, G., Micklethwaite, S., Jackson, M.D.Magma plumbing systems: a geophysical perspective. InSAR, GPS, GNSS, FWI, UAVsJournal of Petrology, in press available, 99p.Mantlemagmatism - geophysics

Abstract: Over the last few decades, significant advances in using geophysical techniques to image the structure of magma plumbing systems have enabled the identification of zones of melt accumulation, crystal mush development, and magma migration. Combining advanced geophysical observations with petrological and geochemical data has arguably revolutionised our understanding of, and afforded exciting new insights into, the development of entire magma plumbing systems. However, divisions between the scales and physical settings over which these geophysical, petrological, and geochemical methods are applied still remain. To characterise some of these differences and promote the benefits of further integration between these methodologies, we provide a review of geophysical techniques and discuss how they can be utilised to provide a structural context for and place physical limits on the chemical evolution of magma plumbing systems. For example, we examine how Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data, and seismicity may be used to track magma migration in near real-time. We also discuss how seismic imaging, gravimetry, and electromagnetic data can identify contemporary melt zones, magma reservoirs, and, or, crystal mushes. These techniques complement seismic reflection data and rock magnetic analyses that delimit the structure and emplacement of ancient magma plumbing systems. For each of these techniques, with the addition of full-waveform inversion (FWI), the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the integration of geophysics with numerical modelling, we discuss potential future directions. We show that approaching problems concerning magma plumbing systems from an integrated petrological, geochemical, and geophysical perspective will undoubtedly yield important scientific advances, providing exciting future opportunities for the volcanological community.
DS1998-0917
1998
Magee, C.W.Magee, C.W., Taylor, W.R.Constraints on the history and origin of carbonado from luminescencestudies.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 527-8.Brazil, Central African RepublicCarbonado, Cathodluninescence, Photoluminescence
DS1999-0436
1999
Magee, C.W.Magee, C.W., Taylor, W.R.Constraints from luminesence on the history and origin of carbonado7th International Kimberlite Conference Nixon, Vol. 2, pp. 529-32.Central African Republic, BrazilCarbonado
DS2002-0982
2002
Magee, C.W.Magee, C.W., Taylor, W.R.Raman, cathodluminescence and optical observations of carbonado microstructureEos, American Geophysical Union, Spring Abstract Volume, Vol.83,19, 1p.Central African Republic, South America, BrazilDiamond - morphology, carbonado
DS201610-1845
2016
Magee, C.W.Beyer, C., Klemme, S., Grutzner, T., Ireland, T.R., Magee, C.W., Frost, D.J.Fluorine partitioning between eclogitic garnet, clinopyroxene, and melt at upper mantle conditions.Chemical Geology, Vol. 437, pp. 88-97.MantleLamproite

Abstract: In this experimental study we obtained new mineral/melt (DF = cmineral/cmelt) partitioning data for fluorine in a bimineralic hydrous eclogite under Earth's upper mantle conditions (4-6 GPa, 1460-1550 °C). Omphacitic clinopyroxene displays mineral/melt partition coefficients between DF = 0.056 ± 0.005 and DF = 0.074 ± 0.001. Garnet partition coefficients are consistently lower with an average partition coefficient of DF = 0.016 ± 0.003. We found that omphacitic clinopyroxene is the dominant nominally fluorine-free phase in subducted oceanic crust and hence omphacite is expected to be the major fluorine carrier during subduction of crust into the deeper mantle. Together with previously obtained partitioning data we propose that the oceanic crust can host more fluorine per mass unit than the underlying depleted oceanic mantle. If the majority of entrained fluorine is recycled into Earth's transition zone it is possible that the fluorine is either incorporated into high-pressure transition zone phases or released during high-pressure phase transformations and forming fluorine-rich small degree partial melts. Both scenarios are supported by elevated fluorine concentration in ocean island basalts, kimberlites, and lamproites. Combining the fluorine partitioning data with water partitioning data yields a plausible process to generate lamproitic magmas with a high F/H2O ratio. The enrichment of fluorine relative to H2O is triggered by multiple episodes of small degree melting that deplete the residual more in H2O than in fluorine, caused by the approximately three times smaller mineral-melt partition coefficients of H2O.
DS2003-0365
2003
Magee, D.Eccles, D.R., Pana, D.I., Paulen, R.C., Olson, R.A., Magee, D.Discovery and geological setting of the northern Alberta kimberlite provinceIn: 8th. International Kimberlite Conference Slave Province And Northern Alberta, pp. 1-10.AlbertaGeology
DS2003-0367
2003
Magee, D.Eccles, R., Olson, R., Magee, D.Mineral trains, but no gravy train as diamond hunt continuesPdac Exploration And Development Highlights, March, pp. 24-5.AlbertaNews item, Overview
DS2003-0368
2003
Magee, D.Eccles, R., Olson, R.A., Magee, D.Mineral trains, but no gravy train as diamond hunt continuesExploration and Development Highlights, March 2003, p. 24-25Albertaexploration activity
DS200412-0501
2003
Magee, D.Eccles, D.R., Pana, D.I., Paulen, R.C., Olson, R.A., Magee, D.Discovery and geological setting of the northern Alberta kimberlite province.8th. International Kimberlite Conference Slave Province and Northern Alberta Field Trip Guidebook, pp. 1-10.Canada, AlbertaGeology
DS1991-1941
1991
Magee, M.Zoback, M.L., Magee, M.Stress magnitudes in the crust -constraints from stress orientation and relative magnitude dataPhil. Transactions Royal Society of London, Vol. 337, No. 1645, October 15, pp. 181-195GlobalCrust, Tectonics
DS2000-0606
2000
Maggi, A.Maggi, A., Jackson, J.A., McKenszie, D., Priestley, K.Earthquake focal depths, effective elastic thickness and the strength of the continental lithosphere.Geology, Vol. 28, No. 6, June pp. 495-8.MantleEarthquakes - crustal thickness, Seismogenic crust
DS1984-0492
1984
Maggiore, C.Mathez, E.A., Blacic, J.D., Beery, J., Maggiore, C., Hollander.Carbon Abundances in Mantle Minerals Determined by Nuclear Reaction Analysis.Geophysical Research. LETTERS, Vol. 11, No. 10, OCTOBER, PP. 947-950.United States, Colorado Plateau, New MexicoXenolith, Crystallography
DS1986-0533
1986
Maggiore, C.Mathez, E.A., Blacic, J.D., Beery, J., Maggiore, C., Hollander, M.Carbon in olivine by nuclear reaction analysisProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 273-275GlobalBlank
DS1987-0444
1987
Maggiore, C.Mathez, E.A., Blacic, J.D., Beery, J., Hollander, M., Maggiore, C.Carbon in olivine: results from nuclear reaction analysisJournal of Geophys., Res, Vol. 92, No. B5, April 10, pp. 3500-3506GlobalMantle genesis
DS1991-0125
1991
Maggiore, C.Blacic, J.D., Mathez, E.A., Maggiore, C., Mitchell, T.E., Fogel, R.Oxygen in diamond by the nuclear microprobe: analytical technique and initial resultsProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 20-22GlobalMicroprobe, Oxygen analyses
DS1993-0980
1993
Maggiore, C.Mathez, E.A., Blacic, J.D., Maggiore, C., Mitchell, T.E., Fogel, R.A.The determination of the O content of diamond by microactivationAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 78, No. 7-8, July-August pp. 753-761.South Africa, Botswana, ZaireKimberlites, Deposit -Monastery, Finsch, Orapa, Muji Mayi
DS2001-0483
2001
MagloughlinHoldsworth, R.E., Strachan, R.A., Magloughlin, KnipeThe nature and tectonic significance of fault zone weakeningGeological Society of London - Book, No. 186, 328p. approx. $120.00 United StatesGlobalBook - ad, Structure, faulting, tectonics
DS2001-0484
2001
MagloughlinHoldsworth, R.E., Strachan, R.A., Magloughlin, KnipeThe nature and tectonic significance of fault zone weakeningGeological Society of London, No. 186, 350p.GlobalBook - table of contents, Tectonics - deformation, fault systems
DS1996-0872
1996
Magloughlin, J.Magloughlin, J., Chester, F.M., Spray, J.Fine grained fault rocks... overview of Penrose conferenceGsa Today, Vol. 6, No. 4, April pp. 33-37GlobalTectonics, Fault rock genesis, mechanisms, deformation
DS200812-0699
2008
Magna, T.Magna, T., Ionov, D.A., Oberli, F., Wiechert, U.Links between mantle metasomatism and lithium isotopes: evidence from glass bearing and cryptically metasomatized xenoliths from Mongolia.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 276, 1-2, Nov. pp. 214-222.Asia, MongoliaMetasomatism
DS201504-0183
2015
Magna, T.Barry, P.H., Hilton, D.R., Day, J.M.D., Pernet-Fisher, J.F., Howarth, G.H., Magna, T., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Opkhilenko, L.N., Taylor, L.A.Helium isotope evidence for modification of the cratonic lithosphere during the Permo-Triassic Siberian flood basalt event.Lithos, Vol. 216-217, pp. 73-80.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya, Obnazhennaya

Abstract: Major flood basalt emplacement events can dramatically alter the composition of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The Siberian craton experienced one of the largest flood basalt events preserved in the geologic record — eruption of the Permo-Triassic Siberian flood basalts (SFB) at ~250 Myr in response to upwelling of a deep-rooted mantle plume beneath the Siberian SCLM. Here, we present helium isotope (3 He/ 4 He) and concentra-tion data for petrologically-distinct suites of peridotitic xenoliths recovered from two temporally-separated kim-berlites: the 360 Ma Udachnaya and 160 Ma Obnazhennaya pipes, which erupted through the Siberian SCLM and bracket the eruption of the SFB. Measured 3 He/ 4 He ratios span a range from 0.1 to 9.8 R A (where R A = air 3 He/ 4 He) and fall into two distinct groups: 1) predominantly radiogenic pre-plume Udachnaya samples (mean clinopyroxene 3 He/ 4 He = 0.41 ± 0.30 R A (1s); n = 7 excluding 1 outlier), and 2) 'mantle-like' post plume Obnazhennaya samples (mean clinopyroxene 3 He/ 4 He = 4.20 ± 0.90 R A (1s); n = 5 excluding 1 outlier). Olivine separates from both kimberlite pipes tend to have higher 3 He/ 4 He than clinopyroxenes (or garnet). Helium con-tents in Udachnaya samples ([He] = 0.13–1.35 µcm 3 STP/g; n = 6) overlap with those of Obnazhennaya ([He] = 0.05–1.58 µcm 3 STP/g; n = 10), but extend to significantly higher values in some instances ([He] = 49– 349 µcm 3 STP/g; n = 4). Uranium and thorium contents are also reported for the crushed material from which He was extracted in order to evaluate the potential for He migration from the mineral matrix to fluid inclusions. The wide range in He content, together with consistently radiogenic He-isotope values in Udachnaya peridotites suggests that crustal-derived fluids have incongruently metasomatized segments of the Siberian SCLM, whereas high 3 He/ 4 He values in Obnazhennaya peridotites show that this section of the SCLM has been overprinted by Permo-Triassic (plume-derived) basaltic fluids. Indeed, the stark contrast between pre-and post-plume 3 He/ 4 He ra-tios in peridotite xenoliths highlights the potentially powerful utility of He-isotopes for differentiating between various types of metasomatism (i.e., crustal versus basaltic fluids).
DS201707-1300
2017
Magna, T.Ackerman, L., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Upadhyay, D., Kratky, O., Cejkova, B., Erban, V., Kochergina, Y.V., Hrstka, T.Contrasting petrogenesis of spatially related carbonatites from Samalpatti and Sevattur, Tamil Nadu, India.Lithos, Vol. 284-285, pp. 257-275.Indiacarbonatite - Samalpatti, Sevattur

Abstract: Two Neoproterozoic carbonatite suites of spatially related carbonatites and associated silicate alkaline rocks from Sevattur and Samalpatti, south India, have been investigated in terms of petrography, chemistry and radiogenic–stable isotopic compositions in order to provide further constraints on their genesis. The cumulative evidence indicates that the Sevattur suite is derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications through crustal contamination and hydrothermal overprint. The stable (C, O) isotopic compositions confirm mantle origin of Sevattur carbonatites with only a modest difference to Paleoproterozoic Hogenakal carbonatite, emplaced in the same tectonic setting. On the contrary, multiple processes have shaped the petrography, chemistry and isotopic systematics of the Samalpatti suite. These include pre-emplacement interaction with the ambient crustal materials with more pronounced signatures of such a process in silicocarbonatites. Calc-silicate marbles present in the Samalpatti area could represent a possible evolved end member due to the inability of common silicate rocks (pyroxenites, granites, diorites) to comply with radiogenic isotopic constraints. In addition, Samalpatti carbonatites show a range of C–O isotopic compositions, and d13CV-PDB values between + 1.8 and + 4.1‰ found for a sub-suite of Samalpatti carbonatites belong to the highest values ever reported for magmatic carbonates. These heavy C–O isotopic signatures in Samalpatti carbonatites could be indicative of massive hydrothermal interaction with carbonated fluids. Unusual high-Cr silicocarbonatites, discovered at Samalpatti, seek their origin in the reaction of pyroxenites with enriched mantle-derived alkali-CO2-rich melts, as also evidenced by mantle-like O isotopic compositions. Field and petrographic observations as well as isotopic constraints must, however, be combined with the complex chemistry of incompatible trace elements as indicated from their non-uniform systematics in carbonatites and their individual fractions. We emphasise that, beside common carriers of REE like apatite, other phases may be important for incompatible element budgets, such as mckelveyite–(Nd) and kosmochlor, found in these carbonatites. Future targeted studies, including in-situ techniques, could help further constrain temporal and petrologic conditions of formation of Sevattur and Samalpatti carbonatite bodies.
DS201709-1976
2017
Magna, T.Czupponi, G., Magna, T., Benk, Z., Rapprich, V., Ott, U.Noble gases in Indian carbonatites.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: We have studied noble gases in carbonates and apatites from three carbonatites of South India, namely Hogenakal (2400 Ma), Sevattur (770 Ma) and Khambamettuu (523 Ma) by vacuum crushing. Apatite has also been analysed by pyrolysis. Vacuum crushing mostly releases the trapped gas components. The ratios 21Ne/20Ne, 22Ne/20Ne and 40Ar/36Ar increase with progressive crushing due to preservation of different composition gases in smaller inclusions released in later steps. This heterogeneity of isotopic composition of fluid inclusions is a consequence of the involvement of magmas carrying different noble gas signatures. The inclusions with lower ratios suggest the presence of a subducted atmospheric component, while the higher 21Ne/20Ne, 22Ne/20Ne and 40Ar/36Ar can be attributed to the presence of an enriched lithospheric mantle component. In addition, very minor trapped gases from less degassed, deeper mantle may also be present but overprinted by lithospheric and/or nucleogenic components. We propose that these carbonatites were generated only in an advanced stage of magmatism when this lithospheric component overwhelmed any contribution from the deeper mantle source. The lithospheric mantle underwent enrichment during an ancient subduction process through mantle metasomatism manifested in nucleogenic/radiogenic isotopic ratios of 21Ne/20Ne, 22Ne/20Ne and 40Ar/36Ar. The apatites analysed by pyrolysis clearly show nucleogenic 21Ne from 18O(a,n) reaction. We have demonstrated the potential of using U,Th–21Ne systematics as a thermo-chronometer in conjunction with the established U,Th–4He and U–136Xe clocks. While for Hogenakal, the U,Th–21Ne age of 845 ± 127 Ma is in agreement with the age of emplacement of other adjacent younger carbonatites, syenites and alkali granites, for the Sevattur apatite (738 ± 111 Ma) it indicates the crystallisation age.
DS201709-2025
2017
Magna, T.Magalhaes, N., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Kratky, O., Farquhar, J.Sulfur isotope systematics in carbonatites from Sevattur and Samalpatti, S India.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Indiacarbonatites, Sevattur, Samalpatti

Abstract: We report preliminary data for sulfur isotopes from two spatially related Neoproterozoic carbonatite complexes in Tamil Nadu, S India, with the aim of getting further insights into their magmatic and/or post-emplacement histories [1]. The major sulfide phase in these rocks is pyrite, with minor chalcopyrite, whereas sulfate occurs as barite. A bimodal distribution of G34Ssulfide is found for Samalpatti (13.5 to 14.0‰), and Sevattur (-2.1 to 1.4‰) carbonatites. A significantly larger range of G34Ssulfide values is found for the associated Samalpatti silicate rocks (-5.2 to 7.4‰) relative to Sevattur pyroxenites and gabbros (-1.1 to 2.1‰). High G34Ssulfide values for Samalpatti carbonatites are unsual [2,3] but could reflect hydrothermal post-emplacement modification [1] of S isotopes. The low G34Ssulfide values for Sevattur may represent a mantle source signature. The G34Ssulfate is uniformly positive for both complexes, with most data falling in a narrow range (5.7 to 7.8‰) and one datum for a pyroxenite yielding more positive G34Ssulfate = 13.3‰. Data for '33S varies outside of analytical uncertainty (-0.07 to 0.04‰), indicating contribution from a source with a surface-derrived component. The small range of '33S values does not allow us to determine whether these sources contain S fractionated by biogeochemical (mass-dependent) or photochemical (mass-independent, pre GOE) processes. Data for '36S is positive, and varies within uncertainty (0.28 ± 0.15‰). Variations of this magnitude have been observed in other localities, and are not diagnostic of any unique source or process. The sulfur isotope data imply addition of crustal sulfur to Samalpatti. In contrast, sulfur from Sevattur has a mantle-like G34S but '33S with anomalous character. These observations support the idea of a different evolutionary story for these complexes, possibly more complex than previously thought.
DS201709-2026
2017
Magna, T.Magna, T., Wittke, A., Gussone, N., Rapprich, V., Upadhyay, D.Calcium isotope composition of carbonatites - a case study of Sevattur and Samalpatti, S. India.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: Calcium isotope compositions are presented for two suites of carbonatites and associated alkaline silicate rocks from Neoproterozoic Sevattur and Samalpatti complexes in Tamil Nadu, South India. Despite their geographic proximity, the mean G44/40Ca values are different for Sevattur (G44/40Ca = 0.69 r 0.10‰, n = 7) and Samalpatti (0.81 r 0.16‰, n = 5). The former suite is derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications [1] and its Ca isotope composition falls to the lower end of Ca isotope range reported for mantle-derived rocks [2]. Some carbonatites from Samalpatti show a 44Ca-enriched signature which could reflect large-scale low-temperature modification, recognized also by their 13C–18O-enriched isotope systematics and sizeable loss of REE, when compared to pristine carbonatites from the area [1]. This is also consistent with albite–epidote metasomatic sample and shistose pyroxenite from Samalpatti, both showing a 44Ca-depleted signature. Leaching experiments confirm a systematic G44/40Ca offset with isotopically light carbonate relative to bulk sample [also 3]. Pyroxenites from Samalpatti are isotopically heavier than accompanying unmodified carbonatites and their G44/40Ca values fall into the mantle range. In contrast, pyroxenite and phosphate from Sevattur have a G44/40Ca value identical with associated carbonatites, indicating a homogeneous mantle source for the latter complex. For K-rich syenites and monzonites, 40K-decay corrections need to be considered for the intrinsic mass-dependent isotope fractionations considering the Neoproterozoic age and high K/Ca character of some samples.
DS201709-2047
2017
Magna, T.Rapprich, V., Pecskay, Z., Magna, T., Mikova, J.Age disparity for spatially related Sevattur and Samalpatti carbonatite complexes.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: The Neoproterozoic Sevattur and Samalpatti alkaline– carbonatite complexes in S India were supposedly emplaced into regional metagranite at ~800 Ma [1]. Both complexes are close to each other (~4 km apart), with a similar NE–SW elongated oval shape arranged along NE–SW trending lineament formed by the Koratti–Attur tectonic zone [2]. Both complexes share a similar setting with central syenite intrusion mantled with a discontinuous ring and/or crescentshaped suites of carbonatites, pyroxenites, gabbros, and dunites. In contrast to identical tectonic position and similar structure, the two complexes differ significantly in geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb–O–C isotope compositions. The Sevattur suite is derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modification whilst extensive hydrothermal overprint by crustal fluids must have occurred to result in the observed 13C–18O-enriched systematics reported for the Samalpatti carbonatites [3]. Some Samalpatti pyroxenites, though, show a clear mantle signature [3]. We report preliminary K–Ar age-data, that indicate a prolonged period of the magmatic activity in this area. Sevattur gabbro and pyroxenite (both Bt-fraction) as well as one Samalpatti Cr-rich silicocarbonatite (Amp-fraction) yielded the range of ages at 700–800 Ma, consistent with previous reports [see 3 for details]. The new K–Ar data from syenites display significantly younger ages of 560–576 Ma for Samalpatti and 510–540 Ma for Sevattur, regardless of the mineral fraction used (Bt or Kfs). The K–Ar results are being supplemented by systematic U–Pb analyses of zircons. If proven true, the age disparity would have profound consequences on our understanding of carbonatite evolution.
DS201710-2209
2017
Magna, T.Ackerman, L., Slama, J., Haluzova, E., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Kochergin, Y., Upadhyay, D.Hafnium isotope systematics of carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks from south and west India.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractIndiadeposit - Amba Dongar
DS201801-0001
2017
Magna, T.Ackerman, L., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Upadhyay, D., Kratky, O., Cejkova, B., Erban, V., Kochergina, Y.V., Hrstka, T.Contrasting petrogenesis of spatially related carbonatites from Samalpatti and Sevattur, Tamil Nadu, India: insights from trace element and isotopic geochemistry.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 31-33.Indiadeposit - Samalpatti, Sevattur

Abstract: The Tamil Nadu region in southern India hosts several carbonatite bodies (e.g., Hogenakal, Samalpatti, Sevattur, Pakkanadu-Mulakkadu) which are closely associated with alkaline silicate rocks such as syenites, pyroxenites or dunites (e.g, Kumar et al., 1998; Schleicher et al., 1998; Srivastava, 1998). This is in contrast to the carbonatite occurrences in north-western India associated with the Deccan Trap basalts (e.g., Amba Dongar) or Proterozoic Newania dolomitic carbonatites. We have studied two, spatially related, Neoproterozoic carbonatite-silico(carbonatite) suites in association with alkaline silicate rocks (e.g., pyroxenite, gabbro) from Sevattur and Samalpatti in terms of petrography, chemistry and radiogenic-stable isotopic compositions in order to provide constraints on their genesis and evolution. In these two bodies, several different carbonatite types have been reported previously with striking differences in their trace element and isotopic compositions (Srivastava, 1998; Viladkar and Subramanian, 1995; Schleicher et al., 1998; Pandit et al., 2002). Collected data for previously poorly studied calcite carbonatites from the Sevattur representing the first carbonatite magmas on this locality, indicate similar geochemical characteristics to those of dolomitic carbonatites, such as high LREE/HREE ratios, very high Sr and Ba contents, large amounts of apatite and magnetite, identical Sr-Nd-C-O isotopic compositions. Thus, they were derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications through crustal contamination and hydrothermal overprint, in agreement with previous studies (e.g., Schleicher et al., 1998). Detailed microprobe analyses revealed that high levels of some incompatible elements (e.g., REE, Y, Sr, Ba) cannot be accounted by matrix calcite hosting only significant amounts of SrO (~0.6-1.2 wt.%). On the other hand, abundant micro- to nano-scale exsolution lamellae and/or inclusions of mckelveyite-(Nd) appear to host a significant fraction of LREE in parallel with apatite. Distribution of Sr is most likely influenced also by common but heterogeneously dispersed barite and strontianite. Newly acquired as well as detailed inspection of available geochemical data permits distinguish two different types of carbonatites in Samalpatti: (1) Type I similar to Sevattur carbonatites in terms of mineralogy, trace element and radiogenic-stable isotopic compositions and (2) Type II with remarkably low concentrations of REE and other incompatible trace elements, more radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions and extremely variable C–O isotopic values. The petrogenesis of the Type II seems to be intimately associated with the presence of silicocarbonatites and abundant silicate mineral domains. Instead of liquid immiscible separation from a silicate magma, elevated SiO2 contents observed in silico-carbonatites may have resulted from the interaction of primary carbonatitic melts and crustal rocks prior to and/or during magma emplacement. Arguments for such hypothesis include variable, but radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions correlated with SiO2 and other lithophile elements (e.g., Ti, Y, Zr, REE). Calc-silicate marbles present in the Samalpatti area could represent a possible evolved crustal end member for such process due to the inability of common silicate rocks (pyroxenites, granites, diorites) to comply with radiogenic isotopic constraints. The wide range of C-O isotopic compositions found in Samalpatti carbonatites belong to the highest values ever reported for magmatic carbonates and can be best explained by massive hydrothermal interaction with carbonated fluids. Unusual high-Cr silicocarbonatites were discovered at Samalpatti forming centimetre to decimetre-sized enclaves enclosed in pyroxenites with sharp contacts at hand specimen scale. Detailed microprobe analyses revealed peculiar chemical compositions of the Mgamphibole with predominantly sodic composition embaying and replacing Na-Cr-rich pyroxene (kosmochlor), accompanied by the common presence of Cr-spinel and titanite. Such association have been reported for hydrous metasomatism by Na-rich carbonatitic melts at upper mantle conditions (Ali and Arai, 2013). However, the mineralogy and the mode of occurrence of Samalpatti Mg–-r-rich silicocarbonatites argue against such origin. We explain the petrogenesis of these rocks through the reaction of pyroxenites with enriched mantle-derived alkali-CO2-rich melts, as also evidenced by mantle-like O and Hf isotopic compositions.
DS201801-0035
2017
Magna, T.Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Wittke, A., Gussone, N., Upadhyay, D., Mikova, J., Pecskay, Z.Calcium isotope systematics and K-Ar and U-Pb temporal constraints on the genesis of Sevattur Samalpatti carbonatite silicate alkaline complexes.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 34-35.Indiadeposit - Samalpatti, Sevattur

Abstract: We present the first systematic survey of Ca isotope compositions in carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from Samalpatti and Sevattur, two Neoproterozoic complexes in Tamil Nadu, south India. Despite their close geographic proximity, their genesis and post-emplacement histories differ (Ackerman et al. 2017). The Sevattur complex appears to have been derived from an enriched mantle source with a limited post-magmatic disturbance. In contrast, carbonatites from Samalpatti show a record of extensive late-stage post-magmatic overprint, also apparent from unusually heavy C-O isotope compositions in a sub-suite of carbonatites (Ackerman et al. 2017). The mean d44/40Ca = 0.69 ± 0.10‰ is slightly lighter than the average of fertile, unmetasomatized peridotites at d44/40Ca = 0.95 ± 0.05‰ (Kang et al. 2017). This difference may attest to the general difference between carbonates and silicates (see Kang et al. 2017). It could also reflect Ca isotope fractionation between isotopically heavy silicate and isotopically light carbonate (e.g., John et al. 2012), though to a somewhat minor extent. This is supported by leaching experiments in this study where the extent of silicate-carbonate fractionation (44/40Casilicate-carbonate) has been investigated. The values at ~0.1-0.2‰ are expectedly lower than those reported earlier (~0.6‰; John et al. 2012) and may reflect high-temperature Ca isotope fractionation. The variability in d44/40Ca values of carbonatites and silico-carbonatites from the Samalpatti complex is larger (0.70- 1.14‰) and appears to be in accord with extensive post-emplacement disturbance. Significant loss of REE and 13C-18O-enriched signature are combined with high ?44/40Ca values, which could reflect massive exchange with metasomatic aqueous fluids. The 40Kdecay correction was applied to K-rich rocks (syenites, monzonites). Given the antiquity of the complex dated at ca. ~800 Ma (Schleicher et al. 1997) and considering high-K/Ca character of some rocks, the resulting d44/40Ca800 Myr correction was up to ~+1.2‰. In this regard, it is crucial to constrain the age history of the entire region. The nearby Hogenakal carbonatite body was dated at ~2.4 Ga which is much older than Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd age of Sevattur (Kumar et al. 1998) from the same fault system. We have acquired K-Ar mineral (K-feldspar, biotite, amphibole) and U-Pb zircon data from Sevattur and Samalpatti. The K-Ar ages span a range between ~800 and ~510 Ma (~800 Ma for amphiboles and biotites from silico-carbonatites and mafic silicate rocks and ~570-510 Ma for K-feldspars and biotites from syenites), dating two high-grade regional tectono-thermal overprint events, documented earlier. The complex nature of this process is indicated by concordant U-Pb zircon age at ~2.5 Ga yielded for a melatonalite, for which K-Ar biotite age of ~802 Ma was measured. This fits into the age bracket of basement of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. The age distribution bimodality at ~2.5 Ga and ~800 Ma has been found for several other samples, suggesting a pulsed thermal history of the area, associated with a significant overprint by fluids likely derived from the local crust. Particularly high U concentrations in zircons (thousands ppm), combined with a range of K-Ar ages, attest to such multi-episodic history.
DS201801-0048
2017
Magna, T.Polak, L., Ackerman, L., Rapprich, V., Magna, T.Platinum group element and rhenium osmium geochemistry of selected carbonatites from India, USA and East africa.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 22-23.India, United States, Africa, East Africacarbonatites

Abstract: Carbonatites and associated alkaline silicate rocks might have potential economic impact for a large variety of metals such as Cu, Ni, Fe and platinum-group elements (PGE - Os, Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt) as it is demonstrated in South Africa (Phalaborwa; Taylor et al. 2009) or Brazil (Ipanema; Fontana 2006). In addition, determined PGE contents along with Re-Os isotopic compositions may also provide important information about PGE fractionation during the genesis of upper mantle-derived carbonatitic melts and nature of their sources. Nevertheless, the existing PGE data for carbonatites are extremely rare, limited mostly to Chinese localities and they are not paralleled by Re-Os isotopic data (Xu et al. 2008). Therefore, in this study, we present the first complete PGE datasets together with Re-Os determinations for a suite of selected carbonatite bodies worldwide. We have chosen eight carbonatite sites with different alkaline rock association, age and geotectonic position. Among these, the youngest samples are from East African rift system and include Oldoinyo Dili, Tanzania with an age spanning from ~0 to 45 Ma; same as Tororo and Sukulu in Uganda (Woolley and Kjarsgaard 2008). These carbonatites are in association with pyroxenites and nepheline syenites. Another young carbonatitic complex is Amba Dongar in west India with Cretaceous age of ~65 Ma associated with alkaline volcanic rocks such as trachybasalts within Deccan Traps (Sukheswala and Udas 1963). Proterozoic bodies are represented by Iron Hill, USA carbonatites associated with pyroxenite, melitolite and ijolite with age ranging from ~520 to 580 Ma (Nash 1972). These carbonatites are famous for their intensive and varied fenitization. Last and the oldest carbonatites in this study comes from Samalpatti and Sevattur, South India having the age of ~800 Ma (Schleicher et al. 1997) and outcropping as small bodies within alkaline rocks such as pyroxenite, syenite and gabbro. The PGE concentrations and Re-Os isotopic ratios were determined by standard methods consisting of decarbonatization using HCl, decomposition of samples in Carius Tubes in the presence of reverse aqua regia and spikes (isotopic dilution), separation of Os by CHCl3 followed by N-TIMS measurements and Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt, Re isolation by anion exchange chromatography followed by ICP-MS measurements. All analysed carbonatites exhibit extremely low PGE contents (S PGE up to 1 ppb), even in the samples with high S contents (up to 1.5 wt. %). Such values are much lower than other determined so far for upper mantle-derived melts such as basalts, komatiites, etc. (Day et al. 2016). Such signatures indicate very low partitioning of PGE into carbonatitic melts and/or early separation of PGE-bearing fraction. Elements from iridium-group I-PGE; Os, Ir and Ru; mostly < 0.1 ppb) are distinctly lower compared to palladiumgroup elements and Re (PPGE; Pt, Pd, Re; mostly > 0.1 ppb) with some rocks being largely enriched in Re (up to ~6 ppb). Most of the analysed carbonatites exhibit progressive enrichment from Os to Re and consequently, PdN/ReN < 0.1 except south India carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks (> 0.30). Rocks analysed so far for Os have OsN/IrN up to 6.2 that might suggest that the carbonatites might concentrate Os over Ir. The highest HSEtot contents have been found in Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites from South India (up to 40 ppb) and taking into account their only slightly radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.14-0.57), these rocks represents mixture of CO2-rich alkaline mantle melts and country rocks. Very high concentrations of HSE have been also found in magnetite separated from Fe-carbonatite from Amba Dongar, India (0.2-0.5 ppb of I-PGE and 0.9-9 ppb of P-PGE). The 187Os/188Os ratios determined so far for carbonatites from South India vary from 0.24 to 6.5 and calculated ?Os values range from +100 up to +5000. Such wide range of values suggest extremely heterogenous source of the melts and/or possible contamination by 187Os-rich crustal materials.
DS201909-2094
2019
Magna, T.Tappe, S., Burness, S., Smart, K., Magna, T., Stracke, A.Views of plate tectonics and mantle metal budgets from alkaline and carbonate magmas.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractGlobalalkaline rocks

Abstract: Low-volume alkaline silicate and carbonate magmas are products of volatile-controlled incipient melting processes in the Earth’s mantle. Although this form of melting is ubiquitous beneath the thick and cold portions of continental lithosphere, such melts rarely reach the Earth’s surface due to a combination of their small volumes, reactive nature, and great depths of origin. In spite of being rare at surface, the impact of alkaline and carbonate magmatism on the dynamic stability of mantle lithosphere and its metal endowment may be disproportionately large, but it is difficult to grasp in the absence of spatial and temporal constraints on melt mobility. We review evidence from major alkaline and carbonatite provinces for metasomatic overprinting of the underlying continental mantle lithosphere, and evaluate how these processes influenced plate tectonic evolution in these regions. Key examples from Greenland and Africa show that metasomatic weakening of mantle lithosphere by pervasive alkaline and carbonate melts is frequently the first step in continent fragmentation ultimately leading to supercontinent dispersal. A major obstacle in identifying carbonate melt metasomatized mantle is the use of differentiated ‘surface’ carbonatite compositions as proxies for geochemical processes operating at great depths. We assess the robustness of some of the classic geochemical proxies, such as Ti/Eu and Zr/Sm, and identify new promising fingerprints of passing carbonate melts in the deep mantle lithosphere. New evidence from the Kaapvaal craton, one of world’s best endowed metallogenic provinces, shows that redox- and volatile-controlled alkaline melting events can effectively mobilize sulphide-hosted PGE and base metal budgets from eclogite components within the thick mantle lithosphere. Such precursor alkaline magmatic events, heralding the formation of major continental rifts and mantle plume impingement, can enhance the metal contents of subsequent asthenosphere-derived mafic magmas, thereby upgrading oreforming potential. However, economic metal deposits only form when geologic conditions during magma emplacement in the crust are favorable, with mantle metal budgets being less critical.
DS201910-2241
2019
Magna, T.Ackerman, L., Polak, L., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Jana, D., Upadhyay, D.Highly siderophile element geochemistry and Re-Os isotopic systematics of carbonatites: insights from Tamil Nadu, India.Earth and Planetary Science letters, Vol. 520, pp. 175-187.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: Carbonatite metasomatism has been widely implicated for worldwide mafic mantle suites but so far, no combined data have been available for highly siderophile element systematics (HSE - Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) and Re-Os isotopic compositions in carbonatites themselves. We present the first systematic survey of the HSE and Re-Os isotopic compositions in a suite of well-characterized Neoproterozoic carbonatites, silicocarbonatites and associated silicate rocks (pyroxenites, monzogabbros, syenites) from south India in order to place constraints on the HSE systematics in carbonatite magmas, anchoring possible mantle sources of carbonatites and relationship to the ambient crustal lithologies as well as preliminary constraints on carbonatite metasomatism in Earth's mantle. The most plausible explanation for generally low HSE contents in calciocarbonatites from Tamil Nadu (?HSE < 1.22 ppb) involves a low-degree (<1%) partial melting of the mantle source producing sulfur-saturated carbonatitic magmas leaving behind sulfide phases retaining HSE. The new data also indicate a strong FeO control on the distribution of Os and Pt during segregation of carbonatite melt from its enriched mantle source and/or melt differentiation. The combined 187Re/188Os values (from 0.10 to 217), 187Os/188Os ratios (0.186-10.4) and initial ?Os values back-calculated to 800 Ma (from +0.1 to +6052) predict that most Tamil Nadu calciocarbonatites were plausibly derived from a carbonated peridotite source with <10% recycled component. This model would thus provide significant constraints on the origin/source of carbonatites, irrespective of their post-emplacement history. The unusual, volumetrically rare, Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites (?HSE = 14-41 ppb) display almost identical HSE patterns with those of host pyroxenites and predominantly high Pt (up to 38 ppb), the origin of which remains unknown. Positive co-variations between Pt, Pd and Re, and the well-developed positive correlation between Pt and MgO in these Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites argue for a source coming predominantly from the upper mantle. The Re-Os isotopic systematics agree with direct incorporation of enriched mantle-derived material into parental melts but variable incorporation of potassium-rich crustal materials is evidenced by highly positive ?Os800 Ma values for a sub-suite of Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites, indicating intense fenitization. The highly radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of monzogabbros and a syenite argue for their derivation from crustal lithologies with no or only negligible contribution of mantle material. Collectively, low Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd contents found in the Tamil Nadu carbonatites appear to indicate the incapability to significantly modify the total budget of these elements in the Earth's mantle during carbonatite metasomatism. In contrast, very high Re/Os ratios found in some of the analyzed carbonatites, paralleled by extremely radiogenic 187Os/188Os signature, can produce large modification of the Re-Os isotopic composition of mantle peridotites during carbonatite melt percolation when high melt/rock ratios are achieved.
DS201911-2543
2019
Magna, T.Magna, T., Viladkar, S., Rappirich, V., Pour, O., Cejkova, B.Nb-V enriched sovites of the northeastern and eastern part of the Amba Dongar carbonatite ring dike, India - a reflection of post emplacement hydrothermal overprint.Chemie der Erde, in press available 11p. Indiadeposit - Amba Dongar
DS202102-0204
2020
Magna, T.Magna, T., Viladar, S., Rapprich, V., Pour, O., Hopp, J., Cejkova, B.Nb-V enriched sovites of the northeastern and eastern part of the Amba Dongar carbonatite ring dike, India - a reflection of post-emplacement hydrothermal overprint?Geochemistry, Vol. 80, doi.org/10.1016 /j.chemer.2019 .125534 11p. PdfIndiadeposit - Amba Dongar

Abstract: Wakefieldite-(Ce,La) and vanadinite in coarse-grained calciocarbonatites (sovites) are for the first time reported from the northeastern part of the worldwide largest fluorite deposit at the Amba Dongar carbonatite ring dike, India. Sovite in this part of the carbonatite ring dike is rich in pyrochlore, calcite and magnetite. Pyrochlore makes up almost 50% of some sovite samples and shows core-to-rim compositional changes. The core of pyrochlore consists of primary fluorcalciopyrochlore with high F and Na contents while the margins gained elevated amounts of Pb, La and Ce with the associated loss of F and Na due to circulation of hydrothermal solutions. The presence of wakefieldite-(Ce,La) and vanadinite points to an exceptionally high V abundance in hydrothermal solutions formed towards the end of the carbonatite magma activity. This investigation thus opens new promising areas for Nb and REE prospection in the eastern part of the Amba Dongar carbonatite body.
DS202108-1294
2021
Magna, T.Krmicek, L., Magna, T., Chalapathi Rao, Pandey, A.Lithium isotopes in kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres as tracers of source components and processes related to supercontinent cycles.Geological Society of London Special Publications, doi:10.1144/SP513-2021-60geodynamics

Abstract: Our pilot study reveals potential fingerprints of Li isotopes recorded in the Mesoproterozoic (~1.4-1.1 Ga) kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres from the Eastern Dharwar Craton and Paleocene (62 Ma) orangeite from the Bastar Craton in India. The new data are interpreted in the context of available Li isotope composition of lamproitic to lamprophyric rocks occurring in Variscan (Bohemian Massif) and Alpine-Himalayan (SW Tibet) orogenic belts formed in response to Gondwana-Pangea amalgamation and break-up. As a result of supercontinents development, kimberlites from the Eastern Dharwar Craton and ‘orangeite’ from the Bastar Craton show clear presence of a component with a heavy Li isotope signature (d7Li up to 9.7‰) similar to an ancient altered oceanic crust, whereas the Eastern Dharwar Craton lamproites (2.3-6.3‰) and lamprophyres (3.3-6.7‰) show Li isotope signatures indicative of a dominant contribution from heterogeneous lithospheric mantle. Variscan lamprophyric to lamproitic rocks and post-collisional mantle-derived (ultra)potassic volcanic rocks from SW Tibet, i.e., rocks from the orogenic belts outside the cratonic areas, are characterized by a clear Li isotope shift towards isotopically lighter component (d7Li as low as -9.5‰) comparable with the involvement of an evolved continental crust and high-pressure metamorphic rocks in their orogenic mantle source. Such components with isotopically light Li are strikingly missing in the source of cratonic kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres.
DS200512-0624
2005
Magnani, M.B.Levander, A., Zelt, C., Magnani, M.B.Crust and upper mantle velocity structure of the Southern Rocky Mountains from the Jemez Lineament to the Cheyenne Belt.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, No. 154, pp. 293-308.United States,Wyoming, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics, tectonics
DS1994-1087
1994
Magnavita, L.P.Magnavita, L.P., Davison, I., Kusznir, N.J.Rifting, erosion and uplift history of the Reconcavo Tucano Jatoba Rift, northeast Brasil.Tectonics, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr. pp. 367-88.BrazilTectonics
DS1940-0157
1947
Magnee, I. DE.Magnee, I. DE.Presence de Kimberlite dans la Zone Diamantifere de BakwangaSoc. Geol. Belge Bulletin., Vol. 56, No. 1-2, PP. 97-108;Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaKimberlite, Geology
DS1940-0213
1949
Magnee, I. DE.Magnee, I. DE.Kimberlite Discovery in the Diamond Fields of BakwangaGems And Gemology, Vol. 6, No. 5, PP. 131-135.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaGeology
DS1950-0031
1950
Magnee, I. DE.Magnee, I. DE.Deliniation Geo-electrique du Premiere Pipe de Kimberlite Decouvert dans Les Champs Diamantiferes du Kasai (congo Belge).Institute of Geological Sciences 18TH. SESSION., PT. 5, PP. 52-58.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaKimberlite, Geophysics, Ground Electromagnetic
DS201709-2027
2017
Magni, V.Magni, V., Allen, M.B., van Hunen, J., Bouihol, P.Continental underplating after slab break-off.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 474, pp. 59-67.Mantle, India-Eurasiasubduction

Abstract: We present three-dimensional numerical models to investigate the dynamics of continental collision, and in particular what happens to the subducted continental lithosphere after oceanic slab break-off. We find that in some scenarios the subducting continental lithosphere underthrusts the overriding plate not immediately after it enters the trench, but after oceanic slab break-off. In this case, the continental plate first subducts with a steep angle and then, after the slab breaks off at depth, it rises back towards the surface and flattens below the overriding plate, forming a thick horizontal layer of continental crust that extends for about 200 km beyond the suture. This type of behaviour depends on the width of the oceanic plate marginal to the collision zone: wide oceanic margins promote continental underplating and marginal back-arc basins; narrow margins do not show such underplating unless a far field force is applied. Our models show that, as the subducted continental lithosphere rises, the mantle wedge progressively migrates away from the suture and the continental crust heats up, reaching temperatures >900?°C. This heating might lead to crustal melting, and resultant magmatism. We observe a sharp peak in the overriding plate rock uplift right after the occurrence of slab break-off. Afterwards, during underplating, the maximum rock uplift is smaller, but the affected area is much wider (up to 350 km). These results can be used to explain the dynamics that led to the present-day crustal configuration of the India–Eurasia collision zone and its consequences for the regional tectonic and magmatic evolution.
DS201710-2243
2017
Magni, V.Magni, V.Plate tectonics: crustal recycling evolution.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 10, 9, pp. 623-624.Mantleslab break-off

Abstract: The processes that form and recycle continental crust have changed through time. Numerical models reveal an evolution from extensive recycling on early Earth as the lower crust peeled away, to limited recycling via slab break-off today.
DS201711-2513
2017
Magni, V.Freeburn, R., Bouilhol, P., Maunder, B., Magni, V., van Hunen, J.Numerical models of the magmatic processes induced by slab breakoff.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 478, pp. 203-213.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: After the onset of continental collision, magmatism often persists for tens of millions of years, albeit with a different composition, in reduced volumes, and with a more episodic nature and more widespread spatial distribution, compared to normal arc magmatism. Kinematic modelling studies have suggested that slab breakoff can account for this post-collisional magmatism through the formation of a slab window and subsequent heating of the overriding plate and decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere, particularly if breakoff occurs at depths shallower than the overriding plate. To constrain the nature of any melting and the geodynamic conditions required, we numerically model the collision of two continental plates following a period of oceanic subduction. A thermodynamic database is used to determine the (de)hydration reactions and occurrence of melt throughout this process. We investigate melting conditions within a parameter space designed to generate a wide range of breakoff depths, timings and collisional styles. Under most circumstances, slab breakoff occurs deeper than the depth extent of the overriding plate; too deep to generate any decompressional melting of dry upwelling asthenosphere or thermal perturbation within the overriding plate. Even if slab breakoff is very shallow, the hot mantle inflow into the slab window is not sustained long enough to sufficiently heat the hydrated overriding plate to cause significant magmatism. Instead, for relatively fast, shallow breakoff we observe melting of asthenosphere above the detached slab through the release of water from the tip of the heating detached slab. Melting of the subducted continental crust during necking and breakoff is a more common feature and may be a more reliable indicator of the occurrence of breakoff. We suggest that magmatism from slab breakoff alone is unable to explain several of the characteristics of post-collisional magmatism, and that additional geodynamical processes need to be considered when interpreting magmatic observations.
DS201904-0758
2019
Magni, V.Maunder, B. Hunen, J., Bouihol, P., Magni, V.Modeling slab temperature: a reevaluation of the thermal parameter.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 673-687.MantleThermometry

Abstract: We reevaluate the effects of slab age, speed, and dip on slab temperature with numerical models. The thermal parameter F = t v sin ?, where t is age, v is speed, and ? is angle, is traditionally used as an indicator of slab temperature. However, we find that an empirically derived quantity, in which slab temperature T ? log (t-av-b) , is more accurate at depths <120 km, with the constants a and b depending on position within the slab. Shallower than the decoupling depth (~70-80 km), a~1 and b~0, that is, temperature is dependent on slab age alone. This has important implications for the early devolatilization of slabs in the hottest (youngest) cases and for shallow slab seismicity. At subarc depths (~100 km), within the slab mantle, a~1 and b~0 again. However, for the slab crust, now a~0.5 and b~1, that is, speed has the dominant effect. This is important when considering the generation of arc magmatism, and in particular, slab melting and the generation of slab-derived melange diapirs. Moving deeper into the Earth, the original thermal parameter performs well as a temperature indicator, initially in the core of the slab (the region of interest for deep water cycling). Finally, varying the decoupling depth between 40 and 100 km has a dominant effect on slab temperatures down to 140-km depth, but only within the slab crust. Slab mantle temperature remains primarily dependent on age.
DS202109-1469
2021
Magnus, S.Good, D.J., Hollings, P., Dunning, G., Epstein, R., McBride, J., Jedemann, A., Magnus, S., Bohav, T., Shore, G.A new model for the Coldwell Complex and associated dykes of the Midcontinent Rift, Canada.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 62, 7, 10.1093/petrology/ega036Canadadeposit - Coldwell

Abstract: Mafic intrusions on the NE shoulder of the Midcontinent Rift (Keweenawan LIP), including Cu-PGE mineralized gabbros within the Coldwell Complex (CC), and rift parallel or radial dykes outside the CC are correlated based on characteristic trace element patterns. In the Coldwell Complex, mafic rocks are subdivided into four groups: (1) early metabasalt; (2) Marathon Series; (3) Layer