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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - Wh+


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - Wh+
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS200812-0998
2008
Whalen, J.Sanborn-Barrie, M., Chakungal, J., James, D.T., Whalen, J., Rayner, N., Berman, R.G., Craven, J., Coyle, M.New understanding of the geology and diamond prospectivity of Southampton Island, central Nunavut.Northwest Territories Geoscience Office, p. 53-54. abstractCanada, NunavutDeposit - Qilalugaq
DS1989-1611
1989
Whalen, J.B.Whalen, J.B.The Top sails igneous suite, western Newfoundland: an Early Silurian subduction-related magmatic suite?Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 12, December pp. 2421-2434NewfoundlandGeochemistry, Igneous rocks - Topsails suite
DS1997-1052
1997
Whalen, J.B.Sinha, A.K., Whalen, J.B., Hogan, J.P.The nature of magmatism in the Appalachian OrogenGeological Society of America, MWR 191, 438p. approx. $ 110.00 United StatesAppalachiaBook - ad, Orogeny, magmatism
DS2000-0757
2000
Whalen, J.B.Percival, J.A., Skulski, T., Whalen, J.B., Theriault, R.Continental arc plutonism: major agent of crustal growthGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000, 2p. abstract.Northwest Territories, Canadian ShieldTectonics - subduction
DS2003-1472
2003
Whalen, J.B.Whalen, J.B., Percival, J.A., McNicholl, V.J., Longstaffe, F.J.Intra oceanic production of continental crust in a Th depleted ca. 3.0 Ga arc complexContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 146, 1, pp. 78=99.Ontario, Manitoba, QuebecTectonics
DS200412-2107
2003
Whalen, J.B.Whalen, J.B., Percival, J.A., McNicholl, V.J., Longstaffe, F.J.Intra oceanic production of continental crust in a Th depleted ca. 3.0 Ga arc complex, western Superior Province, Canada.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 146, 1, pp. 78=99.Canada, Ontario, Manitoba, QuebecTectonics
DS201802-0232
2017
Whaler, K.Ebinger, C.J., Keir, D., Bastow, I.D., Whaler, K., Hammond, J.O.S., Miller, A.A., Tiberi, M.S., Hautot, S.Crustal structure of active deformation zones in Africa: implications for global crustal processes.Tectonics, Vol. 36, 10.1002/2017TC004526Africatectonics

Abstract: The Cenozoic East African rift (EAR), Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), and Atlas Mountains formed on the slow-moving African continent, which last experienced orogeny during the Pan-African. We synthesize primarily geophysical data to evaluate the role of magmatism in shaping Africa's crust. In young magmatic rift zones, melt and volatiles migrate from the asthenosphere to gas-rich magma reservoirs at the Moho, altering crustal composition and reducing strength. Within the southernmost Eastern rift, the crust comprises ~20% new magmatic material ponded in the lower crust and intruded as sills and dikes at shallower depths. In the Main Ethiopian Rift, intrusions comprise 30% of the crust below axial zones of dike-dominated extension. In the incipient rupture zones of the Afar rift, magma intrusions fed from crustal magma chambers beneath segment centers create new columns of mafic crust, as along slow-spreading ridges. Our comparisons suggest that transitional crust, including seaward dipping sequences, is created as progressively smaller screens of continental crust are heated and weakened by magma intrusion into 15-20 km thick crust. In the 30 Ma Recent CVL, which lacks a hot spot age progression, extensional forces are small, inhibiting the creation and rise of magma into the crust. In the Atlas orogen, localized magmatism follows the strike of the Atlas Mountains from the Canary Islands hot spot toward the Alboran Sea. CVL and Atlas magmatism has had minimal impact on crustal structure. Our syntheses show that magma and volatiles are migrating from the asthenosphere through the plates, modifying rheology, and contributing significantly to global carbon and water fluxes.
DS1994-1900
1994
Whaler, K.A.Whaler, K.A.Downward continuation of Magsat lithospheric anomalies to the earth'ssurface.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 116, pp. 267-278.AfricaLithopshere, Geophysics -magnetics
DS200812-0935
2008
Whaler, K.A.Ranganai, R.T., Whaler, K.A., Ebinger, C.J.Gravity anomaly patterns in the south central Zimbabwe Archean Craton and their geological interpretation.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 51, 5, pp. 257-276.Africa, ZimbabweGeophysics - gravity
DS201602-0233
2016
Whaler, K.A.Ranganai, R.T., Whaler, K.A., Ebinger, C.J.Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications.International Journal of Earth Sciences, in press available, 27p.Africa, ZimbabweGeophysics - magnetics

Abstract: Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures, that were exploited by Late Archaean and Proterozoic mafic intrusions. There was interplay between vertical and horizontal tectonics as seen in similar terrains worldwide.
DS201611-2134
2016
Whaler, K.A.Ranganai, R.T., Whaler, K.A., Ebinger, C.J.Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south central Zimbabwe Craton: ( reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 105, 8, pp. 2175-2201.Africa, ZimbabweGeophysics - gravity

Abstract: Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures, that were exploited by Late Archaean and Proterozoic mafic intrusions. There was interplay between vertical and horizontal tectonics as seen in similar terrains worldwide.
DS201612-2328
2016
Whaler, K.A.Ranganai, R.T., Whaler, K.A., Ebinger, C.J.Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south central Zimbabwean Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 105, 8, pp. 2175-2201.Africa, ZimbabweGeophysics - magnetics

Abstract: Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures, that were exploited by Late Archaean and Proterozoic mafic intrusions. There was interplay between vertical and horizontal tectonics as seen in similar terrains worldwide.
DS201807-1510
2018
Whaler, K.A.Magee, C., Stevenson, C.T.E., Ebmeier, S.K., Keir, D., Hammond, J.O.S., Gottsmann, J.H., Whaler, K.A., Schofield, N., Jackson, C.A-L., Petronis, M.S., O'Driscoll, B., Morgan, J., Cruden, A., Vollgger, S.A., Dering, G., Micklethwaite, S., Jackson, M.D.Magma plumbing systems: a geophysical perspective. InSAR, GPS, GNSS, FWI, UAVsJournal of Petrology, in press available, 99p.Mantlemagmatism - geophysics

Abstract: Over the last few decades, significant advances in using geophysical techniques to image the structure of magma plumbing systems have enabled the identification of zones of melt accumulation, crystal mush development, and magma migration. Combining advanced geophysical observations with petrological and geochemical data has arguably revolutionised our understanding of, and afforded exciting new insights into, the development of entire magma plumbing systems. However, divisions between the scales and physical settings over which these geophysical, petrological, and geochemical methods are applied still remain. To characterise some of these differences and promote the benefits of further integration between these methodologies, we provide a review of geophysical techniques and discuss how they can be utilised to provide a structural context for and place physical limits on the chemical evolution of magma plumbing systems. For example, we examine how Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data, and seismicity may be used to track magma migration in near real-time. We also discuss how seismic imaging, gravimetry, and electromagnetic data can identify contemporary melt zones, magma reservoirs, and, or, crystal mushes. These techniques complement seismic reflection data and rock magnetic analyses that delimit the structure and emplacement of ancient magma plumbing systems. For each of these techniques, with the addition of full-waveform inversion (FWI), the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the integration of geophysics with numerical modelling, we discuss potential future directions. We show that approaching problems concerning magma plumbing systems from an integrated petrological, geochemical, and geophysical perspective will undoubtedly yield important scientific advances, providing exciting future opportunities for the volcanological community.
DS1990-1463
1990
Whalley, W.B.Thorp, M.B., Thomas, M.F., Martin, T., Whalley, W.B.Late Pleistocene sedimentation and landform development in western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)Geologie en Mijnbouw, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 133-150GlobalSedimentology
DS1994-0141
1994
Whateley, M.K.G.Bell, T.M., Whateley, M.K.G.Evaluation of grade estimation techniquesGeological Society of London Mineral Resource Evaluation II, No. 79, editor Whateley, Harvey pp. 67-86GlobalGeostatistics, ore reserves, economics, Grade estimation
DS1994-1901
1994
Whateley, M.K.G.Whateley, M.K.G., Harvey, P.K.Mineral resource evaluation II methods and case historiesGeological Society of London Special Publication, No. 79, 270pChile, Sweden, ZambiaBook -table of contents, Geostatistics, ore evaluation, ore reserves, economics
DS201112-1111
2011
Whattam, S.A.Whattam, S.A., Stern, R.J.The subduction initiation rule: a key for linking ophiolites, intra-oceanic forearcs and subduction initiation.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 162, 5, pp.1031-1045.MantleSubduction
DS1989-1290
1989
Wheatley, M.R.Rock, N.M.S., Wheatley, M.R.Computers in mineral exploration: establishing aknowledge base in The search for diamondsMinpet 89 Mineralogy And Petrology Symposium Held Sydney, February, p. 15-24. AbstractAustraliaComputer Program, Exploration data
DS1989-1612
1989
Wheatley, M.R.Wheatley, M.R., Rock, N.M.S.Reviews: Six database management systems for the MacintoshGeobyte, Vol. 4, No. 6, December pp. 49-56GlobalComputer, Management systems -Macintosh
DS1991-1443
1991
Wheatley, M.R.Rock, N.M.S., Carroll, G.W., Wheatley, M.R., Williams, K.L.MacSuite: an integrated compendium of geoscientific programs for the AppleMacintoshAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 76, No. 11, 12 November-December pp. 2013-2019GlobalComputer, Program -MacSuite igneous petrology
DS1991-1850
1991
Wheatly, M.Wheatly, M., Rock, N.Macintosh decoder and retrieval program for the international igneous rockdat a base IGBA.Episodes, Vol. 14, No. 4 December pp. 313-326GlobalComputer, Program -Database igneous rocks
DS1991-1851
1991
Wheatly, M.Wheatly, M., Rock, N.Macintosh decoder and retreival program for the international igneous rockdat a base IGBA.Episodes, Vol. 14, No. 4, December pp. 313-326GlobalComputer, Program -Igneous rocks database incl. kimberlites
DS1989-1291
1989
Wheatly, M.R.Rock, N.M.S., Wheatly, M.R.Some experiences with integrating the use of mainframes and microsComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 997-1002GlobalComputer, Mainframes and micros
DS201909-2059
2019
Wheeler, C.Liu, J., Chen, W., Muller, M., Chalup, S., Wheeler, C.An automatic HyLogger mineral mapping method using a machine -learning - based computer vision technique. * not specific to diamondAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 66, 7, pp. 1063-1073.Australiamapping technology
DS1994-1580
1994
Wheeler, D.Shaw, G., Wheeler, D.Statistical techniques in geographical analysisJohn Wiley, 359p. approx. $ 30.00 United StatesGlobalBook -ad, Statistics
DS200812-1253
2007
Wheeler, D.W.Wheeler, D.W., Wood, R.J.Erosion damage in diamond coatings by high velocity sand impacts.Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 87, 36, pp. 5719-5740.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS1940-0104
1945
Wheeler, H.E.Wheeler, H.E.Diamonds in Arkansaw, 1945Arkansaw MINERAL Bulletin., No. 4, PP. 1-3.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasDiamond, Geology
DS1940-0136
1946
Wheeler, H.E.Wheeler, H.E.Diamonds in Arkansaw, 1946Hobbies, Vol. 51, MAY, PP. 118-120.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaNews Item On Prospecting
DS1960-0617
1965
Wheeler, H.E.Wheeler, H.E.Ozark Precambrian - Paleozoic RelationsAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 49, PP. 1647-1665.KansasKimberlite, Central States, Tectonics, Wilson, Woodson
DS1960-0761
1966
Wheeler, H.E.Wheeler, H.E.Ozark Precambrian-paleozoic Relations. Reply to Discussion By Franks.American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 50, PP. 1042-1043.KansasKimberlite, Central States, Tectonics, Wilson, Woodson
DS2000-0782
2000
Wheeler, J.Prior, D.J., Wheeler, J., Brenker, F. Harte, MatthewsCrystal plasticity of natural garnet: new microstructural evidenceGeology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Nov. pp. 1003-6.MantleGarnets, xenoliths, kelphite, Microscopy
DS200512-0293
2005
Wheeler, J.Foreman, R., Andersen, T.B., Wheeler, J.Eclogite facies polyphase deformation of the Drosdal eclogite, Western Gneiss Complex, Norway, and implications for exhumation.Tectonophysics, Vol. 398, 1-2, March 30, pp. 1-32.Europe, NorwayTectonics, eclogites, not specific to diamonds
DS200912-0811
2009
Wheeler, J.Wheeler, J.The preservation of seismic anisotropy in the Earth's mantle during diffusion creep.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 178, 3, pp. 1723-32.MantleRheology, geodynamics
DS202101-0043
2020
Wheeler, J.Wheeler, J.A unifying basis for the interplay of stress and chemical processes in the Earth: support from diverse experiments.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, dor.org/10.1007/ s00410-020-01750-9 27p. PdfMantleGeothermometry

Abstract: The interplay between stress and chemical processes is a fundamental aspect of how rocks evolve, relevant for understanding fracturing due to metamorphic volume change, deformation by pressure solution and diffusion creep, and the effects of stress on mineral reactions in crust and mantle. There is no agreed microscale theory for how stress and chemistry interact, so here I review support from eight different types of the experiment for a relationship between stress and chemistry which is specific to individual interfaces: (chemical potential)?=?(Helmholtz free energy)?+?(normal stress at interface)?×?(molar volume). The experiments encompass temperatures from -100 to 1300 degrees C and pressures from 1 bar to 1.8 GPa. The equation applies to boundaries with fluid and to incoherent solid-solid boundaries. It is broadly in accord with experiments that describe the behaviours of free and stressed crystal faces next to solutions, that document flow laws for pressure solution and diffusion creep, that address polymorphic transformations under stress, and that investigate volume changes in solid-state reactions. The accord is not in all cases quantitative, but the equation is still used to assist the explanation. An implication is that the chemical potential varies depending on the interface, so there is no unique driving force for reaction in stressed systems. Instead, the overall evolution will be determined by combinations of reaction pathways and kinetic factors. The equation described here should be a foundation for grain-scale models, which are a prerequisite for predicting larger scale Earth behaviour when stress and chemical processes interact. It is relevant for all depths in the Earth from the uppermost crust (pressure solution in basin compaction, creep on faults), reactive fluid flow systems (serpentinisation), the deeper crust (orogenic metamorphism), the upper mantle (diffusion creep), the transition zone (phase changes in stressed subducting slabs) to the lower mantle and core mantle boundary (diffusion creep).
DS1987-0788
1987
Wheeler, J.O.Wheeler, J.O., McFeely, P.Tectonic assemblage map of the Canadian Cordillera and parts of the United states of America.Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Open file, No. 2369, 1:2, 000, 000Alberta, CordilleraMap, Tectonics
DS1988-0752
1988
Wheeler, J.O.Wheeler, J.O.Terrane map of the Canadian CordilleraGeological Survey of Canada (GSC) Open file, No. 2369, 1:2, 000, 000Alberta, CordilleraMap, Tectonics
DS1989-1613
1989
Wheeler, J.O.Wheeler, J.O., McFeeley, P.New edition of the tectonic assemblage map of the Canadian Cordillera and adjacent United StatesGeological Society of Canada (GSC) Forum 1989, P. 24 abstractCanadaMap, Tectonic
DS1996-1530
1996
Wheeler, J.O.Wheeler, J.O., Hoffman, P.F., Card, K.D., Davidson, et al.Geological map of CanadaGeological Survey of Canada, CD ROM $ 130.00CanadaMap - ad, Geological map of Canada
DS1996-1531
1996
Wheeler, J.O.Wheeler, J.O., Hoffman, P.F., Card, K.D., Davidson, A.Geological map of Canada... on CD-ROMGeological Survey of Canada, Map 1860 A CD-ROM $ 130.00CanadaGeological Map, CD-ROM version
DS1996-1532
1996
Wheeler, J.O.Wheeler, J.O., Hoffman, P.F., Card, K.D., Davidson, A. etc.Geological map of Canada... carbonatites and kimberlites featured along with geology etc.Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1860A, 1: 5, 000, 000 $ 40.00CanadaMap, Geology -with kimberlites plotted
DS2000-0697
2000
Wheeler, K.Mysen, B.O., Wheeler, K.Alkali aluminosilicate saturated aqueous fluids in the Earth's upper mantleGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 64, No. 24, Dec. 1, pp. 4243-MantleAlkaline rocks
DS2000-0774
2000
Wheeler, P.D.Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., Wheeler, P.D.Testing the validity of chrome spinel chemistry as a provenance and petrogenetic indicator.Geology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Nov. pp. 1027-30.ScotlandLayered intrusion - RuM., Mineral chemistry - spinels ( not specific to diamonds
DS1994-1453
1994
Wheeler, R.L.Rhea, B.S., Wheeler, R.L.Map showing large structures interpreted from geophysical dat a in the vicinity of New Madrid.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Map, No. MF 2264-B, C, D, E total $ 14.25MissouriGeophysics, Map -New Madrid zone
DS1994-1454
1994
Wheeler, R.L.Rhea, B.S., Wheeler, R.L.Map showing large structures interpreted from geophysical dat a in hevicinity of New MadridUnited States Geological Survey (USGS), MF-2264 B, C.D, E.MissouriMap, Structure - Madrid
DS2000-1014
2000
Wheeler, W.Whittaker, R.C., Karpuz, R., Wheeler, W., Ady, B.E.4D regional tectonic modeling: plate reconstruction using a geographic information systemGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000, 4p. abstract.Greenland, NorwayTectonics - GIS
DS1994-1902
1994
Wheeler, W.H.Wheeler, W.H., Rosendahl, B.R.Geometry of the Livingstone Mountains Border Fault, Nyasa (Malawi) Rift, East Africa.Tectonics, Vol. 13, No. 2, April pp. 303-312.GlobalTectonics, Rifting
DS201611-2147
2016
Wheeling, K.Wheeling, K.A better model for how the mantle melts.EOS Transaction of AGU, 97, Sept. 28, 1p.MantleMelting

Abstract: The bulk of the Earth’s volume is composed of the mantle-the layer of silicate rocks sandwiched between the dense, hot core and the thin crust. Although the mantle is mostly solid rock, it’s generally viscous: Slowly over millions of years, the material within the layer drifts, driving tectonic plates together and apart. Thus, the mantle’s influence can be seen on the planet’s surface on both large and small scales-from fueling volcanoes and seafloor expansion down to the composition and characteristics of igneous rocks. Most of the Earth’s mantle is composed of peridotite, an igneous rock rich in the mineral olivine. But previous research suggests that melted mantle pyroxenites-igneous rocks composed primarily of pyroxenes, minerals that contain 40% more silicon than olivine-may also be a source of oceanic lavas. New research by Lambart et al. seeks to better model how pyroxenites influence melting that occurs in the mantle. Pyroxenites make up between 2% and 10% of the upper mantle, depending on the region, but determining the amount of pyroxenites in hot mantle plumes to the surface requires more information. Researchers have found that at the same pressure, pyroxenites tend to melt at lower temperatures than peridotites, which means that any pyroxenites in peridotite-rich mantle regions might make up a larger portion of the liquid material than their small fraction of mantle bulk would suggest. To understand how the varying source materials in the mantle contribute to the characteristics of igneous rocks at the surface, researchers need to understand the melting characteristics of pyroxenites-a broad and variable group of rocks. That variability in composition makes predicting the phase changes of pyroxenites more complicated. And that complexity means that current models of mantle melting, like pMELTS, overestimate the temperature range over which pyroxenites melt. So the authors created a new parameterization for mantle melting models that seeks to rectify the problem. The new parameterization accounts for the fact that temperature, pressure, and the bulk chemical composition of the rocks together determine their near solidus temperature. The authors used a compilation of 183 experiments on pyroxenites with 25 varying chemical compositions, carried out over pressures from 0.9 to 5 gigapascals (GPa) and temperatures ranging from 1150°C to 1675°C. They charted the temperature when 5% of the materials was molten and the temperature at which clinopyroxene, a dominant mineral in pyroxenites, in each sample was gone-parameters that are easy to detect accurately and consistently. This analysis helped the authors create a new model based on experimental data from the literature, dubbed Melt-PX, which predicts the temperature at which the pyroxenites start to melt within 30°C and the amount of melting within 13%. It showed that at low pressure-less than 1 GPa-pyroxenites melt at lower temperatures than peridotites, but as pressure increases, more and more pyroxenites melt at higher temperatures than peridotites. The new model will be a useful tool to understand magma composition, ultimately giving researchers a window into the Earth and the source of oceanic basalts.
DS1993-1717
1993
Wheelock, G.Wheelock, G.The Sperrgebeit -jewel of southern NamibiaConference on Mining Investment in Namibia, March 17-19th., 1993, Abstracts pp. 18-19.NamibiaBrief overview, Deposit -Sperrgebeit
DS1998-1152
1998
Wheelock, G.Pereira, R.S., Wheelock, G., Bizzi, L., Silva, LeiteAlluvial diamond potential of Paleo drainage systems in the headwaters Of the Sao Francisco River, Minas Gerais7th. Kimberlite Conference abstract, pp. 684-6.Brazil, Minas GeraisAlluvials, Deposit - Sao Francisco
DS1970-0812
1973
Whelan, J.A.Rees, D.C., Erickson, M.P., Whelan, J.A.Geology and Diatremes of Desert Mountain, UtahUnknown, United States, Utah, Rocky MountainsDiatreme
DS1988-0753
1988
Whelan, J.F.Whelan, J.F.Computerized database of the optical properties of the opaque mineralsUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 88-0260-A, B, 151p. 1n disc. $ 21.50 and $ 10.50GlobalComputer program -Opaque minerals -general, Compiled from Tables for
DS1988-0754
1988
Whelan, J.F.Whelan, J.F.A computerized database of the optical properties of the opaque mineralsUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 88-0260-A, 151p. plus disc $ 21.50 plus $ 10.50GlobalComputer, Program -opaque minerals
DS1990-0481
1990
Wheller, G.E.Foley, S.F., Wheller, G.E.Parallels in the origin of the geochemical signatures of island arc volcanics and continental potassic igneous rocks: the role of residualtitanatesChemical Geology, Vol. 85, No. 1/2, July 10, pp. 1-18Sunda-Banda Arc, Sunda ArcLamproites, Geochemistry, Leucitites, Potassic igneous rocks
DS200712-0951
2007
Whieford, S.Schmidberger, S.S., Simonetti, A., Heaman, L.M., Creaser, R.A., Whieford, S.Lu Hf in-situ Sr and Pb isotope trace element systematics for mantle eclogites from the Diavik diamond mine: evidence for Paleproterozoic subduction..Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 254, 1-2, Feb. 15, pp. 55-68.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik, geochronology, Slave Craton
DS201212-0736
2011
Whielaw, G.S.Tsuji, L.J.S., McCarthy, D.D., Whielaw, G.S., McEachren, J.Getting back to basics: the Victor diamond mine environmental assessment scoping process and the issue of family based traditional lands versus traplines.Impact Assessment and Project Aapraisal, Vol. 29, 1, pp. 37-47.Canada, Ontario, AttawapiskatEnvironment
DS1989-0435
1989
WhillansFoland, K.A., Chen, J.-F, Linder, J.S., Henderson, C.M.B., WhillansHigh resolution 40Ar/39Ar chronology of multiple intrusion igneouscomplexes, . Application to the Cretaceous Mount Brome complex, Quebec, CanadaContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 102, No. 2, pp. 127-137QuebecMount Brome, Igneous complex
DS1970-1006
1974
Whillier, J.Whillier, J.Diamonds 1974Mining Engineering Journal of South Africa, Vol. 87, No. 4097, PP. 33-39.South AfricaMining, Production
DS1981-0426
1981
Whim Creek Consolidated NlWhim Creek Consolidated NlTr 7775h, Tr 8175h Prince Regent Diamond ExplorationWestern Australia Geological Survey, No. GSWA 1375 ROLL 432 M2688, 96P.Australia, Western AustraliaProspecting, Geochemistry
DS1998-1575
1998
Whipple, K.X.Whipple, K.X., Parker, G., Paola, C., Mohrig, D.Channel dynamics, sediment transport and the slope of alluvial fans:experimental study.Journal of Geology, Vol. 106, No.6, Nov. pp. 677-94.GlobalAlluvials, Fans - drainage - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-2108
2004
Whipple, K.X.Whipple, K.X.Bedrock rivers and the geomorphology of active orogens.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 32, May pp. 151-185.TechnologyOverview - bedrock channels, tectonic setting, models
DS200912-0280
2009
Whisner, S.Hardgrove, C., Moersch, J., Whisner, S.Thermal imaging of alluvial fans: a new technique for remote classification of sedimentary features.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 285, pp. 124-130.TechnologyGeothermometry - not specific to diamonds
DS1995-2053
1995
Whistler, J.S.Whistler, J.S.Managing the mining industry: world class management for world classperformanceAustralian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 4, June pp. 70-73AustraliaEconomics, Competitive business - mining
DS1997-0553
1997
Whitaker, A.Jaques, A.L., Wellman, P., Whitaker, A., Wyborn, D.High - resolution geophysics in modern geological mappingAgso Journal, Australian Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 159-174AustraliaGeophysics - airborne, Geological mapping
DS1995-1724
1995
Whitaker, A.J.Shaw, R.D., Wellman, P., Gunn, P., Whitaker, A.J., et al.Australian crustal elements map: a geophysical model for the tectonic framework of the continentAgso Research Newsletter, No. 23, Nov. pp. 1-3. Scale 1:5 M.AustraliaMap -crustal elements, Boundaries
DS1900-0137
1902
Whitaker, M.C.Whitaker, M.C.An Olivinite Dike of the Magnolia District and the Associated Picrotitanite.Colorado Scientific Soc., Proceedings Vol. 6, PP. 104-119.United States, ColoradoKimberlite, Green Mountain, Diatreme
DS201012-0843
2010
Whitchurch, A.Whitchurch, A.Core curiousity. ( inner core)Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Sept. p. 594 ( 1/2 pg.)MantleMelting
DS201412-0975
2014
Whitchurch, A.Whitchurch, A.Cool core boundary.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 7, p. 163.MantleTemperatures
DS201508-0380
2015
Whitchurch, A.Whitchurch, A.Tectonics: continental complexity.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, p. 502.MantleLithosphere
DS1981-0101
1981
Whitcombe, D.N.Briden, J.C., Whitcombe, D.N., Stuart, G.W., Fairhead, J.D.Depth of Geological Contact Across the West African Craton Margin.Nature., Vol. 292, JULY 9TH., PP. 123-128.West Africa, Senegal, GuineaTectonics
DS1993-0778
1993
WhiteKanasewich, E.R., Burianyk, Milkereit, White, RossThe central Alberta transect 992 acquisition program: preliminary results and progress report.Lithoprobe Report, No. 31, pp. 1-8.AlbertaGeophysics - seismics
DS1995-1612
1995
WhiteRoss, G., Milkereit, Eaton, White, Kanasewich, BurianykPaleoproterozoic collisional orogen beneath Western Canada sedimentary basin imaged by lithoprobe crustal..#2Geology, Vol 25, No. 3, Mar. pp. 195-9.Alberta, Western CanadaTectonics - orogeny
DS200612-1342
2006
WhiteSparks, R.S.J., Baker, Brooker, Brown, Field, Fontana, Gernon, Kavanagh, Shumacher, Stripp, Walter, Walters, White, WindsorDynamical constraints on kimberlite volcanism,Emplacement Workshop held September, 5p. abstractGlobalMagmatism, water, stages
DS200512-0416
2005
White, A.Heinson, G., White, A.Electrical resistivity of the northern Australian lithosphere: crustal anisotropy or mantle heterogeneity?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 232, 1-2, pp. 157-170.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS1997-1241
1997
White, A.H.White, A.H.Management of mineral exploration.... prev. listed as book adAmf., $ 115.00 AusAustraliaBook - table of contents, Exploration, management, success, financial, economic
DS1960-1157
1969
White, A.J.R.Lovering, J.F., White, A.J.R.Granulite and Eclogite Inclusions from Basic Pipes at Delegate, Australia.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 21, PP. 9-52.Australia, New South WalesKimberlite, Non Kimberlitic Breccia Pipes
DS1988-0121
1988
White, A.J.R.Chappell, B.W., White, A.J.R., Hine, R.Granite provinces and basement terranes in the Lachlan fold belt, southeastern AustraliaAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 4, December pp. 505-522AustraliaGranites, Terranes
DS1989-1614
1989
White, A.M.S.White, A.M.S.Outlook for mine financingMine Financing seminar, held April 17th. Toronto, 14p. Database # 17997GlobalMine financing, Economics, Outlook
DS1960-0476
1964
White, A.R.J.Lovering, J.F., White, A.R.J.The Significance of Primary Scapolite in Granulite Inclusions from Deep Seated Pipes.Journal of PETROLOGY, Vol. 5, PP. 192-218.Australia, New South WalesKimberlite, Non Kimberlitic Breccia Pipes, Delegate, Garnet Gr
DS1993-1718
1993
White, B.White, B.Breaking up is hard to understand... when continents split.New Scientist, No. 1867, April 3, pp. 25-28MantleTectonics, Plate margins
DS1993-1719
1993
White, B.White, B.Breaking up is hard to understandNew Scientist, No. 1867, April 3, pp. 25-29.MantleTectonics, Plate tectonics for the layman
DS1996-0592
1996
White, B.Hanley, N., Shogren, J.F., White, B.Environmental economics in theory and practiceOxford University of Press, 472p. $ 52.00GlobalBook - ad, Environment -economics
DS2003-1505
2003
White, B.Wyatt, B.A., Mitchell, M., Shee, S.R., Griffin, W.L., Tomlinson, N., White, B.The Brockman Creek kimberlite, east Pilbara, Australia8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 8, POSTER abstractAustraliaDeposit - Brockman Creek
DS200412-2152
2003
White, B.Wyatt, B.A., Mitchell, M., Shee, S.R., Griffin, W.L., Tomlinson, N., White, B.The Brockman Creek kimberlite, east Pilbara, Australia.8 IKC Program, Session 8, POSTER abstractAustraliaDiamond exploration Deposit - Brockman Creek
DS1990-1593
1990
White, B.S.Wyllie, P.J., Baker, M.B., White, B.S.Experimental boundaries for the origin and evolution of carbonatitesLithos, Special Issue, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 3-20GlobalExperimental petrology, Carbonatite
DS2000-0059
2000
White, C.E.Barr, S.M., Culshaw, N.G., Ketchum, J.W.F., White, C.E.Paleoproterozoic continental growth in the Makkovik Province, Labrador: petrology, tectonics .. granitoidsGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 4p. abstractQuebec, Ungava, LabradorKaipokok, Allik domains, Igneous rocks - not specific to diamonds
DS2001-0592
2001
White, C.E.Ketchum, J.W.F., Barr, S.E., Culshaw, N.G., White, C.E.uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages of granitoid rocks in the northwestern Makkovik Province, Labrador: evidence for 175 m yrs...Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 3, Mar. pp. 359-72.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorGeochronology - plutonisM., Episodic synorogenic and postorogenic
DS1975-0947
1979
White, C.G.Blaauw, C., White, C.G., Leiper, W., Clarke, D.B.Mossbauer Analysis of Synthetic DjerfisheriteMineralogical Magazine., Vol. 43, No. 328, PP. 552-553.GlobalRelated Mineralogy, Techniques
DS1990-1045
1990
White, D.Milkereit, B., White, D., Percival, J.A., Vasudevan, K., ThurstonHigh resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Kapuskasing structure #1G.s.c. Forum January 16-17, Ottawa, Poster display AbstractOntarioGeophysics, Seismics
DS1991-1154
1991
White, D.Milkereit, B., Percival, J.A., White, D., Green, A.G., SalisburySeismic reflectors in high grade metamorphic rocks of the Kapuskasinguplift: results of preliminary drill site surveysGeodynamics, Vol. 22, pp. 39-45OntarioKapuskasing uplift, Geophysics -seismics
DS1994-1063
1994
White, D.Lucas, S.B., White, D., et al.Three dimensional collisional structure of the Trans-Hudson OrogenTectonophysics, Vol. 232, pp. 161-178SaskatchewanGeophysics -seismics, Orogen -Trans Hudson
DS1994-1064
1994
White, D.Lucas, S.B., White, D., et al.Three dimensional collisional structure of the Trans-Hudson OrogenTectonophysics, Vol. 232, pp. 161-178.SaskatchewanGeophysics -seismics, Orogen -Trans Hudson
DS1995-1613
1995
White, D.Ross, G.M., Milkereit, B., Eaton, D., White, D., et al.Paleoproterozoic collisional orogen beneath the western Canada sedimentary basin imaged by Lithoprobe seismics.Geology, Vol. 23, No. 3, March pp. 195-199.Alberta, Saskatchewan, OntarioSuperior Province, Geophysics -seismics
DS1996-0583
1996
White, D.Hajnal, Z., Lucas, S., White, D., Lewry, J., et al.Seismic reflection images of high angle faults and linked detachments In the Trans Hudson Orogen.Tectonics, Vol. 15, No. 2, April pp. 427-439.Manitoba, OntarioCraton, Superior, Lithoprobe
DS1996-0695
1996
White, D.Jones, A.G., Eaton, D.W., White, D., Bostock, M., MareschalGeophysical measurements for lithospheric parametersGeological Survey of Canada, LeCheminant ed, OF 3228, pp. 243-250.Canada, mantleGeophysics -seismics, Lithosphere
DS1998-0899
1998
White, D.Lucas, S., Hajnal, Z., White, D., Bleeker, W., AnsdellCrustal growth and continental collisions in the 1.9-1.8 Ga Trans HudsonOrogen, Manitoba and SaskatchewanGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A46.Manitoba, SaskatchewanTectonic, Trans Hudson Orogen
DS1998-1576
1998
White, D.White, D., Helmstaedt, H., Harrap, R., Thurston, P.The origin of our continent: LITHOPROBE seismic investigations in The western Superior TransectThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 90, No. 1017, Feb. pp. 78-82OntarioLithoprobe, Plate tectonics
DS2000-0455
2000
White, D.Jones, A.G., Snyder, D., Asudeh, I., White, D., EatonLithospheric architecture at the Rae Hearne boundary revealed through magnetotelluric and seismic experimentGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 6p. abstract.Northwest Territories, Churchill, AlbertaGeophysics - seismics, magnetotellurics, Crustal - boundary
DS2002-0633
2002
White, D.Hajnal, Z., White, D., Clowes, R., Stauffer, M.3- D perspective of the western portion of the Trans Hudson Orogen in SaskatchewanGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.44., p.44.SaskatchewanGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-0634
2002
White, D.Hajnal, Z., White, D., Clowes, R., Stauffer, M.3- D perspective of the western portion of the Trans Hudson Orogen in SaskatchewanGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.44., p.44.SaskatchewanGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-0788
2002
White, D.Jones, A.G., Snyder, D., Hanmer, S., Asudeh, I., White, D., Eaton, D., Clarke, G.Magnetotelluric and teleseismic study across the Snowbird Tectonics Zone of theGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, 17, 10.1029/2002GL015359Manitoba, Saskatchewan, AlbertaGeophysics - MT, seismics
DS2002-1523
2002
White, D.Sol, S., Thomson, C.J., Kendall, J.M., White, D., Van Decan, J.C., Asudeh, I.Seismic tomographic images of the cratonic upper mantle beneath the Western SuperiorPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Letters, Vol. 134, 1-2, pp. 53-69.Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics, subduction
DS200512-0389
2005
White, D.Hajnal, Z., Lewry, J., White, D., Ashton, K., Clowes, R., Stauffer, M., Gyorfi, I., Takacs, E.The Saskatchewan Craton and Hearne Province margin: seismic reflection studies in the western Trans Hudson Orogen.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 403-419.Canada, Saskatchewan, ManitobaGeophysics - Lithoprobe
DS200612-0706
2006
White, D.Kjarsgaard, B.A., Harvey, S.E., Zonneveld, J.P., Heaman, L.M., White, D., MacNeil, D.Volcanic stratigraphy, eruptive sequences and emplacement of the 140/141 kimberlite Fort a la Corne field, Saskatchewan.Emplacement Workshop held September, 5p. extended abstractCanada, SaskatchewanDeposit - 140/141 geology
DS201512-1988
2015
White, D.White, D., Bezzola, M., Hrkac, C., Vivian, G.Kennady North property: 2015 field season update.43rd Annual Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts, abstract p. 109.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Kennady North

Abstract: The Kennady North Property, wholly owned by Kennady Diamonds Inc. (KDI) is located 300 km northeast of Yellowknife adjacent to the DeBeers/Mountain Province Gahcho Kué mine site. Exploration on the property dates back to the early 90’s, during which time several kimberlites were discovered. Since 2012 Kennady Diamonds has completed a number of geophysical, hand and RC till sampling and diamond drill programs. In 2015, KDI completed a large diameter reverse circulation drill program to bulk sample the southern lobe of the Kelvin kimberlite. Following the RC program, diamond drilling and ground geophysical surveys continued in the Kelvin-Faraday Corridor (KFC) and at various exploration targets on the property including the MZ Dyke and Doyle Sill. The field season started in January with the completion of the Kelvin camp and the construction of the RC drill icepad on Kelvin Lake. The pad and a seasonal spur road off the Gahcho Kue seasonal road were completed to coincide with the opening of the Tibbit-Contwoyto winter road and facilitated the mobilization of two large diameter RC rigs operated by Midnight Sun Drilling Inc. to the property. A total of 446 tonnes of the Kelvin kimberlite were obtained via RC drilling between February 19 and April 2. The bulk sample was processed via DMS at the Saskatchewan Research Council in Saskatoon. One diamond drill commenced drilling prior to the RC program and two other drills commenced on the heels of the RC program. A total of 31,000 meters of NQ and HQ core have been drilled during 2015 to the end of October. Drilling at Kelvin has focused on geotechnical and related environmental baseline work as well as further delineation of the pipe-like body with the aim of generating a NI43-101 compliant resource in early 2016. Diamond drilling at the Faraday group of kimberlites delineated the Faraday 1 and Faraday 2 kimberlites. These pipe-like bodies share a similar pipe-like structure and internal geology to the Kelvin kimberlite. Aurora conducted 8848 stations of ground gravity and 521.32 line-kilometers of OhmmapperTM capacitively coupled resistivity in the KFC, MZ dyke, and Doyle Sill during March and April. A 87 line-kilometer bubble seismic survey over the Kelvin, Faraday and MZ complexes was conducted in September. Kennady Diamond Inc. is very encouraged by the exploration results to date and anticipates a successful and exciting 2016.
DS201812-2877
2018
White, D.Sacco, D.A., White, D., McKillop, R.Re-thinking diamond exploration tactics in the Slave Province: a surficial geology perspective. Lac de Gras area2018 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum , p. 66-67. abstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesgeochemistry

Abstract: It took several decades to develop the necessary understanding of glaciation, geochemistry and mineralogy to refine exploration strategies and find the first kimberlite in the Northwest Territories, Canada. These fundamental drift prospecting strategies followed by geophysics and drilling have been used to locate many kimberlite occurrences over the years. Indicator minerals in surface sediments are still the primary datasets used to identify kimberlite exploration targets; however, many of the kimberlite sources for the well-defined indicator mineral dispersals have been identified. Exploration must now focus on regions with more complex surficial geology where primary dispersal patterns in till are obscured by post-depositional modification. These patterns are largely defined using data from historical “˜till' surveys that often failed to properly scrutinize the sample media; reworked tills and other surficial materials were commonly collected. The regional surficial geology maps (e.g., 1:50,000 to 1:250,000) typically published by geological surveys to stimulate reconnaissance exploration in new areas are generally incapable of providing sufficient resolution to determine the genesis and post-glacial alteration of sample media or reconcile complex dispersal patterns. Furthermore, advances in analytical methods have yielded compiled datasets with results from multiple methods that are not always comparable. Without a new, more detailed and systematic approach to evaluating surface sediment data, exploration in areas with complex glacial, deglacial and post-glacial histories will be challenged to discover kimberlite. The accessibility, quality and variety of high-resolution aerial or satellite imagery and topographic data has improved significantly over the years, affording a more detailed interpretation of the surficial environment. These detailed interpretations have allowed us to evaluate historical data with a new perspective and target the collection of new, high-quality data. Throughout the Slave Province, we have tailored surficial interpretations to distinguish in-situ till from reworked till and other materials, which have altered dispersion and indicator mineral concentrations. Using examples from the Lac de Gras area, this presentation demonstrates how a detailed surficial framework, combined with an understanding of the varied analytical methods, is applied to historical datasets to refine indicator dispersal patterns and identify new exploration targets. By standardizing the data based on sediment genesis and transport mechanisms, the dataset becomes more suitable for statistical evaluation and anomaly threshold determinations that are unique to specific data subpopulations. As a result, anomaly contrasts are improved, and complex dispersals can be unravelled. In addition, areas with insufficient data coverage are identified and the necessary framework to complete informed, efficient infill or new sampling is provided. The examples we share highlight that there is no replacement for project-scale understanding of surficial geology and its varied effects on mineral dispersals in the development and interpretation of a surface sediment dataset used to identify kimberlite exploration targets.
DS1981-0427
1981
White, D.A.White, D.A.Mineral Exploration and Philosophy in AustraliaAust. Society of Exploration Geophysics Bulletin., Vol. 12, No. 1-2, PP. 1-4.AustraliaHistory, Geophysics
DS1991-1155
1991
White, D.J.Milkereit, B., White, D.J., Percival, J.A., Vasudevan, K., ThurstonHigh resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Kapuskasing structure #2Ontario Geological Survey Open File, Open File No. 5781, 37pOntarioGeophysics -seismics, Kapuskasing structural zone
DS1991-1332
1991
White, D.J.Percival, J.A., Shaw, D.M., Milkereit, B., White, D.J., Jones, A.G.A closer look at deep crustal reflectionsEos, Vol. 72, No. 32, August 6, pp. 337, 339, 340, 341United States, CanadaTectonics, Geophysics -seismics
DS1992-1653
1992
White, D.J.White, D.J., Boland, A.V.A comparison of forward modeling and inversion of seismic first arrivalsover the Kapuskasing UpliftSeismological Soc. of American Bulletin, Vol. 82, No. 1, February pp. 304-322OntarioGeophysics -seismics, Tectonics, Kapuskasing Uplift
DS1992-1654
1992
White, D.J.White, D.J., Milkereit, B., Salisbury, M.H., Percival, J.A.Crystalline lithology across the Kapuskasing Uplift determined using insitu Poisson's ratio from seismic tomography.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B13, December 10, pp. 19, 993-20, 006.OntarioGeophysics -seismics, Lithology, Kapuskasing uplift
DS1994-1193
1994
White, D.J.Milkereit, B., White, D.J., Green, A.G.Towards an improved seismic technique for crustal structures: the Lithoprobe Sudbury experimentGeophy. Res. Letters, Vol. 21, No. 10, May 15, pp. 927-930OntarioLithoprobe, Sudbury Structure
DS1994-1903
1994
White, D.J.White, D.J., Easton, R.M., et al.Seismic images of the Grenville Orogen in OntarioCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 2, Feb. pp. 293-307.OntarioLithoprobe -Grenville, Geophysics -seismics
DS1994-1904
1994
White, D.J.White, D.J., Lucas, S.B., et al.Paleo-Proterozoic thick skinned tectonics: Lithoprobe seismic reflection results from eastern Trans Hudson Orogen.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 3, March pp. 458-469.Saskatchewan, ManitobaTectonics, Geophysics -seismics
DS1995-2123
1995
White, D.J.Zelt, C.A., White, D.J.Crustal structure and tectonics of the southeastern Canadian CordilleraJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. B12, Dec. 10, pp. 24, 255-273.British ColumbiaProterozoic rifting, Tectonics
DS1995-2124
1995
White, D.J.Zelt, C.A., White, D.J.Crustal structure and tectonics of the southeastern Canadian CordilleraJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. B12, Dec. 10, pp. 24, 255-73British ColumbiaTectonics, Crustal structure
DS1998-1577
1998
White, D.J.White, D.J., Asudeh, I., Kay, I.Upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath an Archean Craton: results from the Lithoprobe western Superior...Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Abstract Volume, p. A196. abstract.OntarioGeophysics - seismics, Archean Craton
DS2000-1011
2000
White, D.J.White, D.J., Zwanzig, H.V., Hajnal, Z.Crustal suture preserved in the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson Orogen, CanadGeology, Vol. 28, No. 6, June pp. 527-30.Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Western CanadaGeophysics - seismics, gravity, Tectonics - subduction, suture
DS2002-0824
2002
White, D.J.Kendall, J.M., Sol, S., Thomson, C.J., White, D.J., Asudeh, I., Snell, C.S.Seismic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the western Superior Province, Canada:Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 199, pp. 27-44.Northwest Territories, Ontario, Manitoba,SaskatchewanGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-1706
2002
White, D.J.White, D.J., Lucas, S.B., Bleeker, W., Hajnal, Z., Lewry, J.F., Zwanzig, H.V.Suture zone geometry along an irregular Paleoproterozoic margin: the Superior boundary zone, Manitoba, Canada.Geology, Vol.30,8,Aug.pp.735-8.ManitobaTectonics
DS2002-1803
2002
White, D.J.Zwang, H.V., White, D.J.Crustal architecture and evolution of collisional zones in Trans-Hudson Orogen: Manitoba: no easy answers.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.132., p.132.ManitobaOrogeny
DS2002-1804
2002
White, D.J.Zwang, H.V., White, D.J.Crustal architecture and evolution of collisional zones in Trans-Hudson Orogen: Manitoba: no easy answers.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.132., p.132.ManitobaOrogeny
DS2003-1473
2003
White, D.J.White, D.J., Musacchio, G., Helmstaedt, H.H., Harrap, R.M., Thurston, P.C.Images of lower crustal oceanic slab: direct evidence for tectonic accretion in theGeology, Vol. 31, 11, pp. 997-1000.OntarioSubduction - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-1389
2004
White, D.J.Musacchio, G., White, D.J., Asudeh, I., Thomson, C.J.Lithospheric structure and composition of the Archean western Superior Province from seismic refraction/ wide angle reflection aJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, B3, 10.1029/2003 JB002427Canada, Ontario, ManitobaGeophysics - seismics, gravity
DS200412-2109
2003
White, D.J.White, D.J., Musacchio, G., Helmstaedt, H.H., Harrap, R.M., Thurston, P.C., Van der Velden, A., Hall, K.Images of lower crustal oceanic slab: direct evidence for tectonic accretion in the Archean western Superior Province.Geology, Vol. 31, 11, pp. 997-1000.Canada, OntarioSubduction - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-2238
2003
White, D.J.Zonneveld, J.P., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Harvey, S.E., Marcia, K.Y., McNeil, D., Heaman, L.M., White, D.J.Sedimentologic and stratigrahic constraints on emplacement of the Star kimberlite, east central Saskatchewan.8 IKC Program, Session 1, AbstractCanada, SaskatchewanGeology, economics Deposit - Star
DS200512-1175
2005
White, D.J.White, D.J., Thomas, M.D., Jones, A.G., Hope, J., Nemeth, B., Hajnal, Z.Geophysical transect across a Paleoproterozoic continent-continent collision zone: the Trans-Hudson Orogen.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 385-402.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS200712-1152
2007
White, D.J.White, D.J., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Mwenifumbo, C.J., Buffett, G.Seismic delineation of the Orion South 140/141 kimberlite, Fort a la Corne field, Saskatchewan.Proceedings of Exploration 07 edited by B. Milkereit, pp. 1159-1163.Canada, SaskatchewanGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0111
2010
White, D.J.Clowes, R.M., White, D.J., Hajnal, Z.Mantle heterogeneities and their significance: results from lithoprobe seismic reflection and refraction wide-angle reflection studies.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 409-443.MantleGeophysics - seismic
DS201012-0118
2010
White, D.J.Cook, F.A., White, D.J., Jones, A.G., Eaton, D.W.S., Hall, J., Clowes, R.M.How the crust meets the mantle: lithoprobe perspectives on the Mohorovicic.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 315-351.Mantle, CanadaGeophysics - seismic
DS201312-0967
2012
White, D.J.White, D.J., Kjarsgaard, B.A.Seismic delineation of the Orion South kimberlite, Fort a la Corne.Geophysics, Vol. 77, WC 191-WC201.Canada, SaskatchewanDeposit - Orion South
DS1986-0303
1986
White, D.R.Gregory, P.G., White, D.R.Collection and treatment of diamond exploration samples, #1Proceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held, No. 16, pp. 460-462AustraliaDiamond exploration
DS1989-0543
1989
White, D.R.Gregory, G.P., White, D.R.Collection and treatment of diamond exploration samples #2Geological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, No. 14, Vol. 2, pp. 1123-1134AustraliaExploration, Geochemistry-sampling
DS1991-1852
1991
White, G.J.White, G.J., Padman, R.Images of atomic carbon in the interstellar mediuMNature, Vol. 354, No. 6354, December 19.26, pp. 511-513GlobalCarbon, Meteorites, Galaxy
DS1982-0635
1982
White, G.P.E.White, G.P.E.Notes on Carbonatites in Central British ColumbiaBritish Columbia Department of Mines Geol. Fieldwork, No. 1982-1, PP. 68-69.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1985-0725
1985
White, G.P.E.White, G.P.E.Further Notes on Carbonatites in Central British ColumbiaBritish Columbia Department of Mines Geol. Fieldwork, 1985-1, PP. 95-100.Canada, British ColumbiaCarbonatite
DS1987-0789
1987
White, G.V.White, G.V.Olivine potential in the Tulameen ultramafic complex,preliminary SOURCE[ British Columbia Geological Field work 1986British Columbia Geological Fieldwork 1986, Paper No. 1987-1, pp. 303-308British ColumbiaAlkaline rocks, Carbonatite
DS1989-1615
1989
White, G.V.White, G.V.Olivine in the Tulameen ultramafic complexBritish Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, No. 1989-1, p. 7British ColumbiaTulameen ultramafic, Foundry sand potential
DS1991-0656
1991
White, G.V.Hancock, K.D., Hora, Z.D., White, G.V.Olivine potential of the Tulameen ultramafic Complex (NTS 092H/10)British Columbia Ministry of Energy Mines and Resources, Open File, No. 1991-9, 19pBritish ColumbiaUltramafic, Olivine
DS2001-0900
2001
White, H.P.Peddle, D.R., White, H.P., Soffer, R.J., Miller, J.R.Reflectance processing of remote sensing spectroradiometer dataComp. and Geosciences, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 203-13.GlobalRemote sensing - reflectance, Program - BOREAS not specific to diamonds
DS201512-1904
2015
White, H.P.Chen, W., Leblanc, S.G., White, H.P., Milkovic, B., O'Keefe, H., Croft, B., Gunn, A., Boulanger, J.Caribou relevant environmental changes around the Ekati diamond mine measured in 2015.43rd Annual Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts, abstract p. 24.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Ekati

Abstract: How would a large open pit mine on caribou range (e.g., the Ekati Diamond Mine in the Bathurst caribou’s summer range) have influenced caribou? A traditional knowledge study on the cumulative impacts on the Bathurst caribou herd qualitatively described how mining activities might have influenced the herd (Mackenzie et al. 2013): caribou migration routes deflected away from the mines probably due to seeing mining activities or hearing the noises; and skinny caribou or abnormal smells and materials in caribou meat, liver, or the hide linings probably related to changes in caribou forage and quality of water and air. In other words, the potential influences of mining operations on caribou were most likely through altering what caribou can see, hear, smell (e.g., dusts and fine particle matter < 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) in the air, and from acidity in the soil), and taste (e.g., dust on foliage, vegetation composition change). Boulanger et al. (2012) estimated the size of a zone of influence (ZOI) of the Ekati-Diavik mining complex in the Bathurst caribou summer range, using caribou presence dataset. They also explored the mechanisms of ZOI using the spatial distribution of the total suspended particles, which was simulated with an atmospheric transport and dispersion model (Rescan, 2006). While these studies have added to our understanding of the possible impacts of mining operations on caribou, knowledge gaps remain. One outstanding gap is the lack of direct measurements about the caribou relevant environmental changes caused by mining operations. For example, exactly from how far away can caribou clearly see the vehicles driving on a mining road, or the buildings and the elevated waste piles in a camp? From how far away might caribou hear the noise caused by mining operations? To what spatial extent had the dusts and PM2.5 from mining operations influenced the tundra ecosystems? And how the dusts and PM2.5 from mining operations might have influenced caribou forage quality? Potentially these questions can be answered by in-situ measurements and satellite remote sensing. For example, studies have showed that it is possible to remotely sense PM2.5 distribution using twice-daily MODIS data at a spatial resolution of 1 km (Lyapustin et al., 2011; Chudnovsky et al., 2013; Hu et al., 2014). The objective of this study is thus to quantitatively measure these changes around the Ekati Diamond Mine, by means of in-situ surveys and satellite remote sensing. We conducted field surveys at more than 100 sites around the Ekati Diamond Mine during August 14-23, 2015, a collaborative effort of the NWT CIMP project entitled “Satellite Monitoring for Assessing Resource Development’s Impact on Bathurst Caribou (SMART)”, and the Dominion Diamond Ekati Corporation. In this presentation, we will report preliminary results and lessons learned from our first year’s study.
DS200912-0719
2009
White, J.Sparks, R.S.J., Brooker, R.A., Field, M., Kavanagh, J., Schumacher, J.C., Walter, M.J., White, J.The nature of erupting kimberlite melts.Lithos, In press available, 30p.MantleMelting
DS201112-0623
2011
White, J.Lucci, F., Cozzupoli, D., Zaccaria, B., White,J., Traversa, G.Mt. Isadalu complex, (Sardinia, Italy): an example of post Hercynian transition from high K calc alkaline to shoshonitic/low K alkaline magmatism.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterEurope, Italy, SardiniaAlkalic
DS201112-1112
2011
White, J.White, J.Open system evolution of peralkaline trachyte and phonolite lavas and tuffs erupted from the Suswa volcano, Kenya Rift.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, AbstractAfrica, KenyaCarbonatite
DS1992-1655
1992
White, J.C.White, J.C., Mawer, C.K.Deep crustal deformation textures along megathrusts from Newfoundland andOntario: implications for microstructural preservation, strain rates and strength of the liCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb. pp. 328-337Newfoundland, OntarioStructure -lithosphere, Megathrusts
DS201112-0822
2011
White, J.C.Prejeant, K., Perez, M., White, J.C., Ren, M.Geology of the Elliot County kimberlite, Kentucky.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Oct. 9-12, abstractUnited States, KentuckyKimberlite petrology
DS201112-0823
2011
White, J.C.Prejeant-Dickerson, K., Perez, M., White, J.C., Lierman, R.T., Ren, M.Mineral geochemistry of the Elliot County kimberlite, Kentucky.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Oct. 9-12, abstractUnited States, KentuckyKimberlite dikes
DS200912-0643
2009
White, J.D.Ross, P., White, J.D., Lorenz, V., Zimanowski, B., Boettner, R., McClintock, M.Why lower diatremes in kimberlitic and non-kimberlitic systems are non-stratified, homogenized, and contain steep internal contacts: episodic burst and debris jets.GAC/MAC/AGU Meeting held May 23-27 Toronto, Abstract onlyMantleBoundary
DS1989-1616
1989
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L.Basic elements of Maar crater deposits in the Hopi Buttes volcanic northeastern Arizona, USAJournal of Geology, Vol. 97, pp. 117-125ArizonaHopi Buttes, Diatremes
DS1989-1617
1989
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L., Fisher, R.V.Maar volcanism at Hopi Buttes, Arizona: hydrovolcanic eruptions rooted in unconsolidated strataNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 292 Abstract held June 25-July 1ArizonaVolcanology, Diatremes
DS1991-1853
1991
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L.Maar-diatreme phreatomagmatism at Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, Arizona SOURCE[ Bulletin. VolcanologyBulletin. Volcanology, Vol. 53, No. 4, May pp. 239-258ArizonaDiatreme, Volcanics
DS2001-1233
2001
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L., McClintock, M.K.Immense vent complex marks flood basalt eruption in a wet failed rift: Coombs Hills Antartica.Geology, Vol. 29, No. 10, Oct. pp. 935-8.AntarcticaDiatremes, volcanic vebts, phreatomagmatic, rifting
DS200612-0871
2006
White, J.D.L.Martin, U., Nemeth, K., Lorenz, V., White, J.D.L.Introduction: maar-diatreme volcanism.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, In press, availableGlobalDiatreme
DS200612-1524
2006
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L., Houghton, B.F.Primary volcaniclastic rocks.Geology, Vol. 34, 8, Aug. pp. 677-680.Pryoclastics
DS200612-1525
2006
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L., Houghton, B.F.Primary volcaniclastic rocks.Geology, Vol. 34, 8, August pp. 677-680.TechnologyTerminology - pyroclastic, hydroclastic - not specific
DS200912-0488
2009
White, J.D.L.McClintock, M., Ross, P-S., White, J.D.L.The importance of the transport system in shaping the growth and form of kimberlite volcanoes.Lithos, In press available 8p.MantlePhreatomagmatism
DS201112-1113
2011
White, J.D.L.White, J.D.L., Ross, P.S.Maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review ( includes kimberlites) extensive review.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 201, 1-4, pp. 1-29.Africa, CanadaReview paper
DS201212-0600
2012
White, J.D.L.Ross, P-S., White, J.D.L.Quantification of vesicle characteristerics in some diatreme filling deposits, and the explosivity levels of magma water interactions within diatremes.Journal of Geothermal Volcanology and Research, Vol. 245-246, pp. 55-67.TechnologyDiatreme
DS201312-0530
2013
White, J.D.L.Lefebvre, N.S., White, J.D.L.Unbedded diatreme deposits reveal maar-diatreme forming eruptive processes: Standing Rocks West, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA.Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 75, pp. 739-United States, Wyoming, Colorado PlateauDiatreme
DS201504-0226
2015
White, J.D.L.Valentine, G.A., Graettinger, A.H, Macorps, E., Ross, P-S., White, J.D.L., Dohring, E., Sonder, I.Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes.Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 77, 15p.TechnologyDiatremes, kimberlites
DS201212-0772
2012
White, J.L.White, J.L., Sparks, R.S.J., Bailey, K., Barnett, W.P., Field, M., Windsor, L.Kimberlite sills and dykes associated with the Wesselton kimberlite pipe, Kimberley, South Africa.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 115, 1, pp. 1-32.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Wesselton
DS1992-1682
1992
White, J.S.Winters, M.T., White, J.S.George IV's blue diamondLapidary Journal, Vol. 45, No.9, Dec. pp.34-40; Vol.45, No. 10, Jan.pp. 48-52GlobalDiamond history, Diamonds notable -Hope diamond
DS1992-1683
1992
White, J.S.Winters, M.T., White, J.S.George IV's blue diamondLapidary Journal, January pp. 48-52.GlobalDiamonds -notable, Hope diamond
DS1997-1242
1997
White, K.N.White, K.N., Lovell, B.Measuring the pulse of a plume with the sedimentary recordNature, Vol. 387, June 26, pp. 888-9MantleMagmatism, Plum, melt
DS1991-1854
1991
White, L.White, L., O'Neil, T.Environmental engineering- an evolving discipline of increasing importance to miningMining Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 11, November pp. 1309-1314United StatesEnvironmental, Legal
DS1994-1714
1994
White, L.Stuwe, K., White, L., Brown, R.The influence of eroding topography on steady state isotherms. application to fission track analysisEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 124, No. 1/4, June pp. 63-74GlobalGeothermometry
DS1997-1243
1997
White, L.White, L.Kelsey Lake: an operations report on the only commercial U.S. diamondmine.Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol., August pp. 16 ( 4 p.)ColoradoMining, Redaurum Limited, Deposit - Kelsey Lake
DS1997-1244
1997
White, L.White, L.Golden Star Resources... corporate profile... mention of diamond project in French Guiana.. Dachine.Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 198, No. 7, July pp. 18-20, 22.French GuianaNews item, Deposit - Dachine project
DS1997-1245
1997
White, L.White, L.A MEMS report: environment, construction costs and mining codes in southeast Asia... Baldridge and SteeleEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 198, No. 7, July pp. 24-27southeast Asia, Thailand, China, Papua New Guinea, Laos, MalaysiaEnvironment, Legal
DS1997-1246
1997
White, L.White, L.Bankable feasibility studies: five bankers point the wayEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 198, No. 11, Nov. pp. 16 - 6pUnited StatesEconomics, Geostatistics, ore reserves, discoveries
DS201502-0123
2014
White, L.White, L., Graham, I., Armstrong, R., Hall, R.Tracing the source of Borneo's Cempaka deposit.American Geophysical Union, December - Fall meeting in San Francisco, abstractAsia, KalimantanDeposit - Cempaka
DS1986-0251
1986
White, L.D.Ford, A.B., Kistler, R.W., White, L.D.Strontium and oxygen isotope study of the Dufek intrusionAntarctic Journal of the United States, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 63-65AntarcticaGeochronology, Dufek
DS201212-0773
2012
White, L.T.White, L.T., Lister, G.S.The collision of India with Asia.Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 56-57, pp. 7-17.IndiaTectonics
DS201212-0774
2012
White, L.T.White, L.T., Lister, G.S.The collision of India with Asia.Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 56-57, pp. 7-17.IndiaTectonics
DS201312-0968
2013
White, L.T.White, L.T., Gibson, G.M., Lister, G.S.A reassessment of paleogeographic reconstructions of eastern Gondwana: bringing geology back into the equation.Gondwana Research, Vol. 24, 3-4, pp. 984-998.IndiaTectonic models
DS201603-0431
2016
White, L.T.White, L.T., Graham, I., Tanner, D., Hall, R., Armstrong, R.A., Yaxley, G., Barron, L.The provenance of Borneo's enigmatic alluvial diamonds: a case study from Cempaka, SE Kalimantan.Gondwana Research, in press available 22p.Asia, KalimantanAlluvials, diamonds

Abstract: Gem-quality diamonds have been found in several alluvial deposits across central and southern Borneo. Borneo has been a known source of diamonds for centuries, but the location of their primary igneous source remains enigmatic. Many geological models have been proposed to explain their distribution, including: the diamonds were derived from a local diatreme; they were brought to the surface through ophiolite obduction or exhumation of UHP metamorphic rocks; they were transported long distances southward via major Asian river systems; or, they were transported from the Australian continent before Borneo was rifted from its northwestern margin in the Late Jurassic. To assess these models, we conducted a study of the provenance of heavy minerals from Kalimantan's Cempaka alluvial diamond deposit. This involved collecting U Pb isotopic data, fission track and trace element geochemistry of zircon as well as major element geochemical data of spinels and morphological descriptions of zircon and diamond. The results indicate that the Cempaka diamonds were likely derived from at least two sources, one which was relatively local and/or involved little reworking, and the other more distal which records several periods of reworking. The distal diamond source is interpreted to be diamond-bearing pipes that intruded the basement of a block that: (1) rifted from northwest Australia (East Java or SW Borneo) and the diamonds were recycled into its sedimentary cover, or: (2) were emplaced elsewhere (e.g. NW Australia) and transported to a block (e.g. East Java or SW Borneo). Both of these scenarios require the diamonds to be transported with the block when it rifted from NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. The local source could be diamondiferous diatremes associated with eroded Miocene high-K alkaline intrusions north of the Barito Basin, which would indicate that the lithosphere beneath SW Borneo is thick (~ 150 km or greater). The ‘local’ diamonds could also be associated with ophiolitic rocks that are exposed in the nearby Meratus Mountains.
DS1994-1905
1994
White, M.E.White, M.E.After the greening -the browning of AustraliaAustralia Academy of Science, $ 60.00AustraliaBook -review, Environmental
DS2000-1012
2000
White, M.E.White, M.E.Feasibility studies - scope and accuracyMin. Res. Ore Res. Est. AusIMM Guide, Mon. 23, pp. 421-34.AustraliaEconomics - geostatistics, ore reserves, exploration, Not specific to diamonds
DS1986-0343
1986
White, M.W.Hart, S.R., Gerlach, D.C., White, M.W.A possible new Strontium neodymium lead mantle array and consequences for mantle mixingGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 50, No. 7, July pp. 1551-1557GlobalMantle
DS2002-1230
2002
White, M.W.Paul, D., White, M.W., Turcotte, D.L.Modelling the isotopic evolution of the EarthPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 360, 1800, pp. 2433-74.MantleGeochronology
DS200412-1505
2002
White, M.W.Paul, D., White, M.W., Turcotte, D.L.Modelling the isotopic evolution of the Earth.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 360, 1800, pp. 2433-74.MantleGeochronology
DS1990-0905
1990
White, N.Latin, D., White, N.Generating melt during lithospheric extension: pureshear vs. simpleshearGeology, Vol. 18, No. 4, April pp. 327-331GlobalMantle melt, Tectonics -shear
DS1991-1855
1991
White, N.White, N., Yielding, G.Calculating normal fault geometries at depth: theory and examplesThe geometry of normal faults, editors Roberts, A.M., Yielding, G., No. 56, pp. 251-260GlobalStructure -faults, Fault geometry
DS1997-0841
1997
White, N.Newman, R., White, N.Rheology of the continental lithosphere inferred from sedimentary basinsNature, Vol. 385, No. 6617, Feb. 13, pp. 621-623MantleTectonics, Basins
DS2001-0550
2001
White, N.Jones, S.M., White, N., Lovell, B.Cenozoic and Cretaceous transient uplift in the Porcupine Basin and its relationship to a mantle plume.Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 187, pp. 345-60.OntarioTectonics, Plumes
DS2003-0009
2003
White, N.Al-Kindi, S., White, N., Sinha, M., England, R., Tiley, R.Crustal trace of a hot convective sheetGeology, Vol. 31, 3, pp. 207-10.IcelandGeophysics - seismics, Plumes, underplating, convection
DS2003-0671
2003
White, N.Jones, S.M., White, N.Shape and size of the starting Iceland plume swellEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 216, 3, pp. 271-82.IcelandHotspots
DS2003-0672
2003
White, N.Jones, S.M., White, N.Shape and size of the starting Iceland plume swellEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 216, 3, Nov. 30, pp. 271-282.IcelandBlank
DS200412-0017
2003
White, N.Al-Kindi, S., White, N., Sinha, M., England, R., Tiley, R.Crustal trace of a hot convective sheet.Geology, Vol. 31, 3, pp. 207-10.Europe, IcelandGeophysics - seismics Plumes, underplating, convection
DS200412-0089
2004
White, N.Baldwin, S., White, N., Muller, R.D.Resolving multiple rift phases by strain rate inversion in the Petrel sub-basin, northwest Australia.Hillis, R.R., Muller, R.D. Evolution and dynamics of the Australian Plate, Geological Society America Memoir, No. 372, pp. 245-264.AustraliaTectonics
DS200412-0930
2003
White, N.Jones, S.M., White, N.Shape and size of the starting Iceland plume swell.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 216, 3, pp. 271-82.Europe, IcelandHotspots
DS200412-2110
2003
White, N.White, N.My fault? - No Way! Industry commentary on our industry and maligned geologists.SEG Newsletter, No. 55, Oct. p.25-26.GlobalNews item - economics
DS200512-0398
2004
White, N.Hanne, D., White, N., Butler, A., Jones, S.Phanerozoic vertical motions of Hudson Bay.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, 10, Oct. pp. 1181-1200.Canada, Ontario, ManitobaTectonics
DS200812-0980
2008
White, N.Rudge, J.F., Shaw Champion, M.E., White, N., McKenzie, D., Lovell, B.A plume model of transient diachronous uplift at the Earth's surface.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 267, 1-2, pp. 146-160.MantlePlume
DS201112-0415
2011
White, N.Hartley, R.A., Roberts, G.G., White, N., Ricgardson, C.Transient convective uplift of an ancient buried landscale.Nature Geoscience, in press availableMantle, Europe, ScotlandConvection
DS201112-0813
2011
White, N.Poore, H., White, N., Maclennan, J.Ocean circulation and mantle melting controlled by radial flow of hot pulses in the Iceland plume.Nature Geoscience, in press availableMantle, Europe, IcelandMelting
DS201412-0464
2014
White, N.Klocking, M., White, N., Maclennan, J.A magmatic probe of lithospheric thickness variations beneath western North America.Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group meeting, Poster Held Jan. 6-8. See minsoc websiteUnited States, CanadaMagmatism
DS201412-0666
2014
White, N.Paul, J.D., Roberts, G.G., White, N.The African Lands cape through space and time. ( since 50 Ma)Tectonics, Vol. 33, 6, pp. 898-935..AfricaRiver profiles, topography
DS201607-1302
2016
White, N.Hoggard, M.J., White, N., Al-Attar, D.Global dynamic topography observations reveal limited influences of large scale mantle flow.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, 6, pp. 456-463.MantleGeodynamics

Abstract: Convective circulation of the Earth’s mantle maintains some fraction of surface topography that varies with space and time. Most predictive models show that this dynamic topography has peak amplitudes of about ±2?km, dominated by wavelengths of 104?km. Here, we test these models against our comprehensive observational database of 2,120 spot measurements of dynamic topography that were determined by analysing oceanic seismic surveys. These accurate measurements have typical peak amplitudes of ±1?km and wavelengths of approximately 103?km, and are combined with limited continental constraints to generate a global spherical harmonic model, the robustness of which has been carefully tested and benchmarked. Our power spectral analysis reveals significant discrepancies between observed and predicted dynamic topography. At longer wavelengths (such as 104?km), observed dynamic topography has peak amplitudes of about ±500?m. At shorter wavelengths (such as 103?km), significant dynamic topography is still observed. We show that these discrepancies can be explained if short-wavelength dynamic topography is generated by temperature-driven density anomalies within a sub-plate asthenospheric channel. Stratigraphic observations from adjacent continental margins show that these dynamic topographic signals evolve quickly with time. More rapid temporal and spatial changes in vertical displacement of the Earth’s surface have direct consequences for fields as diverse as mantle flow, oceanic circulation and long-term climate change.
DS201701-0038
2016
White, N.White, N.Surface sculpting by hidden agents.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 867-9.Africa, AngolaTectonics

Abstract: Tectonic plate interiors are often regarded as relatively inactive. Yet, reconstructions of marine terrace uplift in Angola suggest that underlying mantle flow can rapidly warp Earth's surface far from obviously active plate boundaries.
DS201810-2373
2018
White, N.Roberts, G.G., White, N., Hoggard, M.J., Ball, P.W., Meenan, C.A Neogene history of mantle convective support beneath Borneo.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 496, 1, pp. 142-158.Asia, Borneoconvection

Abstract: Most, but not all, geodynamic models predict 1-2 km of mantle convective draw-down of the Earth's surface in a region centered on Borneo within southeast Asia. Nevertheless, there is geomorphic, geologic and geophysical evidence which suggests that convective uplift might have played some role in sculpting Bornean physiography. For example, a long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly of +60 mGal centered on Borneo coincides with the distribution of Neogene basaltic magmatism and with the locus of sub-plate slow shear wave velocity anomalies. Global positioning system measurements, an estimate of elastic thickness, and crustal isostatic considerations suggest that regional shortening does not entirely account for kilometer-scale regional elevation. Here, we explore the possible evolution of the Bornean landscape by extracting and modeling an inventory of 90 longitudinal river profiles. Misfit between observed and calculated river profiles is minimized by smoothly varying uplift rate as a function of space and time. Erosional parameters are chosen by assuming that regional uplift post-dates Eocene deposition of marine carbonate rocks. The robustness of this calibration is tested against independent geologic observations such as thermochronometric measurements, offshore sedimentary flux calculations, and the history of volcanism. A calculated cumulative uplift history suggests that kilometer-scale Bornean topography grew rapidly during Neogene times. This suggestion is corroborated by an offshore Miocene transition from carbonate to clastic deposition. Co-location of regional uplift and slow shear wave velocity anomalies immediately beneath the lithospheric plate implies that regional uplift could have been at least partly generated and maintained by temperature anomalies within an asthenospheric channel.
DS202007-1147
2020
White, N.Hoggard, M.J., Parnell-Turner, R., White, N. Hotspots and mantle plumes revisited: towards reconciling the mantle heat transfer discrepancy.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 542, 116317 16p. PdfMantleplumes, geothermometry

Abstract: Mantle convection is the principal mechanism by which heat is transferred from the deep Earth to the surface. Cold subducting slabs sink into the mantle and steadily warm, whilst upwelling plumes carry heat to the base of lithospheric plates where it can subsequently escape by conduction. Accurate estimation of the total heat carried by these plumes is important for understanding geodynamic processes and Earth's thermal budget. Existing estimates, based upon swell geometries and velocities of overriding plates, yield a global heat flux of ~2 TW and indicate that plumes play only a minor role in heat transfer. Here, we revisit the Icelandic and Hawaiian plumes to show that their individual flux estimates are likely to be incorrect due to the assumption that buoyancy is mainly produced within the lithosphere and therefore translates at plate velocities. We develop an alternative methodology that depends upon swell volume, is independent of plate velocities, and allows both for decay of buoyancy through time and for differential motion between asthenospheric buoyancy and the overlying plate. Reanalysis of the Icelandic and Hawaiian swells yields buoyancy fluxes of Mg s-1 and Mg s-1, respectively. Both swells are used to calibrate a buoyancy decay timescale of ~45 Myr for the new volumetric approach, which enables buoyancy fluxes to be estimated for a global inventory of 53 swells. Estimates from magmatic hotspots yield a cumulative lower bound on global plume flux of 2 TW, which increases to 6 TW if amagmatic swells are also included and if all buoyancy is assumed to be thermal in origin. Our results suggest that upwelling plumes play a significant role in the transfer of heat into the uppermost mantle.
DS200712-1153
2007
White, N.C.White, N.C., Yang, K.Exploring in China: the challenges and rewards.SEG Newsletter, No.70, July pp. 1, 8-15.ChinaOverview - not specific to diamonds
DS201212-0587
2012
White, N.J.Roberts, G.G., White, N.J., Martin-Brandis, G.L., Crosby, A.G.An uplift history of the Colorado Plateau and its surroundings from the inverse modeling of longitudinal river profiles.Tectonics, Vol. 31, TC4022 26p.United States, CanadaGeomorphology
DS1999-0680
1999
White, R.Smallwood, J.R., Staples, R.K., White, R.Crust generated above the Iceland mantle plume: from continental rift to oceanic spreading center.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. B10, Oct. 10, pp. 22885-902.GlobalMantle plume, Tectonics
DS1990-1553
1990
White, R.M.White, R.M.The great climate debateScientific American, Vol. 263, No. 1, July pp. 36-43GlobalClimate, Greenhouse effect
DS1988-0755
1988
White, R.S.White, R.S.The earth's crust and lithosphereJournal of Petrology, Special Volume 1988- Oceanic and Continental, pp. 1-10GlobalMOHO, Mantle
DS1989-0672
1989
White, R.S.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Schulz, K.J., Cannon, W.F.Keweenaw hot spot: a Proterozoic mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent rift System of North AmericaEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1357. AbstractMidcontinentTectonics
DS1989-1618
1989
White, R.S.White, R.S., McKenzie, D.P.volcanism at riftsScientific American, Vol. 261, No. 1, July pp. 62-71. Database # 17996IndiaDeccan Traps volcanism., Tectonics - rifts
DS1990-0731
1990
White, R.S.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Keweenaw hot spot; geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift systemJournal of Geophysical Research, Pt. B., Vol. 95, No. 7, July 10, pp. 10, 869-10, 884MidcontinentGeophysics
DS1990-0732
1990
White, R.S.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Keweenaw hot spot: geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift systemJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B7, July 10, pp. 10, 869-10, 885Ontario, MidcontinentGeophysics, Midcontinent
DS1991-0757
1991
White, R.S.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Keweenaw hot spot - an inferred middle Proterozoic mantle plume beneath North AmericaGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada/Society Economic, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A58MidcontinentHot spot, Tectonics
DS1992-1656
1992
White, R.S.White, R.S.Magmatism during and after continental break-upGeological Society Special Publication, Magmatism and the Causes of Continental, No. 68, pp. 1-16GlobalTectonics, Rifting
DS1992-1657
1992
White, R.S.White, R.S., McKenzie, D., O'Nions, R.K.Oceanic crustal thickness from seismic measurements and rare earth elementinversionsJournal of Geophy. Res, Vol. 97, No. B 13, December 10, pp. 19, 683-19, 715GlobalCrust, Geophysics - seismics
DS1993-0341
1993
White, R.S.Detrick, R.S., White, R.S., Purdy, S.M.Crustal structure of North Atlantic fracture zonesReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 31, No. 4, November pp. 439-458North AtlanticTectonics, Fracture zones
DS1993-0654
1993
White, R.S.Henstock, T.J., Woods, A.W., White, R.S.The accretion of oceanic crust by episodic sill intrusionJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. B 3, March 10, pp. 4143-4161MantleCrust, Seismic refraction data
DS1993-1720
1993
White, R.S.White, R.S.Melt production in mantle plumesPhilosophical Transactions Royal Society of London, Section A, Vol. 342, pp. 137-153HawaiiGeophysics - seismics, Reunion plume, Deccan flood basalts
DS1993-1721
1993
White, R.S.White, R.S.Melt production rates in mantle plumesRoyal Society Transactions, Physical Sciences, Ser. A, Vol. 342, No. 1663, January 15, pp. 137-153.MantlePlumes, Reunion plume
DS1995-0363
1995
White, R.S.Cox, K.G., McKenzie, D.P., White, R.S.Melting and melt movement in the earthOxford University Press, 240p. approx. $ 60.00 United StatesMantleMelt
DS1995-0364
1995
White, R.S.Cox, K.G., McKenzie, D.P., White, R.S.Melting and melt movement in the earthOxford University of Press, 240p. approx. $ 60.00MantleMelt, mantle plume, Book -ad
DS1995-2054
1995
White, R.S.White, R.S., McKenzie, D.Mantle plumes and flood basaltsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. 9, Sept. 10, pp. 7543-86MantlePlumes, Flood basalts
DS1997-1247
1997
White, R.S.White, R.S.Mantle temperature and lithospheric thinning beneath the Midcontinent riftsystem: evidence magmatism.....Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 4, April, pp. 464-475.Mantle, MidcontinentMagmatism, subsidence, Rift system
DS1997-1248
1997
White, R.S.White, R.S.Mantle plume origin for the Karoo and Ventersdorp flood basalts, SouthAfrica.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 100, 4, Dec. pp. 271-282.South AfricaGondwana Rifting, lavas, Mantle plumes
DS2000-0206
2000
White, R.S.Darbyshire, F.A., White, R.S., Priestly, K.F.Structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of Iceland from a combined seismic and gravity study.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.181, No.3, Sept.15, pp.409-28.GlobalMantle - structure, Geophysics - seismics
DS200412-1255
2004
White, R.S.McBride, J.H., White, R.S., Smallwood, J.R., England, R.W.Must magmatic intrusion in the lower crust produce reflectivity.Tectonophysics, Vol. 388, 1-4, Sept. 13, pp. 271-297.Europe, IcelandMantle plume, volcanism, geophysics - seismics
DS200712-0803
2007
White, R.S.Parkin, C.J., Lunnon, Z.C., White, R.S., Christie, P.A.F.Imaging the pulsing Iceland mantle plume through the Eocene.Geology, Vol. 35, 1, Jan. pp. 93-96.Europe, IcelandGeophysics - seismics
DS201512-1934
2015
White, R.S.Jenkins, J., Cottaar, S., White, R.S., Deuss, A.Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 432, pp. 159-168.Europe, IcelandMantle plume

Abstract: The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible to definitively rule out the possibility of uncorrected velocity anomalies causing the observed correlated topography we show that this is unlikely. Instead our preferred interpretation is that the 660 km discontinuity is controlled by a garnet phase transition described by a positive Clapeyron slope, such that depression of the 660 is representative of a hot anomaly at depth.
DS201602-0214
2016
White, R.S.Jenkins, J., Cottaar, S., White, R.S., Deuss, A.Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 433, pp. 159-168.Europe, IcelandMantle - 660 km

Abstract: The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible to definitively rule out the possibility of uncorrected velocity anomalies causing the observed correlated topography we show that this is unlikely. Instead our preferred interpretation is that the 660 km discontinuity is controlled by a garnet phase transition described by a positive Clapeyron slope, such that depression of the 660 is representative of a hot anomaly at depth.
DS1960-0762
1966
White, R.W.White, R.W.Ultramafic Inclusions in Basaltic Rocks from HawaiiContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 12, PP. 245-314.United States, HawaiiBlank
DS1960-1229
1969
White, R.W.White, R.W., Leo, G.W.Geological Reconnaissance in Western LiberiaGeological Survey LIBERIA SPECIAL PAPER., No. 1GlobalGeology, Diamonds
DS1970-0214
1970
White, R.W.White, R.W., Leo, G.W.Geological Summary of Age Provinces of LiberiaLiberia Geol. Min. Met. Soc. Bulletin., No. 4, PP. 96-106.GlobalGeology, Geochronology
DS1970-0308
1971
White, R.W.Hurley, P.M., Leo, G.W., White, R.W., Fairbairn, H.W.Liberian Age Province ( About 2700ma) and Adjacent Provinces in Liberia and Sierra Leone.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 82, PP. 3483-3490.Sierra Leone, Liberia, West AfricaGeochronology
DS1970-0309
1971
White, R.W.Hurley, P.M., Leo, G.W., White, R.W., Fairbairn, H.W.Liberian Age Province ( About 2, 700 M.y.) and Adjacent Provinces in Liberia and Sierra Leone.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 82, PP. 3483-3490.West Africa, Liberia, Sierra Leone, GuineaStructure, Tectonics
DS1970-0448
1971
White, R.W.White, R.W.Reconnaisance Mapping of Deeply Weathered Crystalline Rocks in Liberia.Liberia Geol. Min. Met. Soc. Bulletin., No. 4, PP. 1-25.GlobalBlank
DS201012-0074
2010
White, R.W.Brown, R., White, R.W., Sandiford, M.On the importance of minding one's Ps and Ts: metamorphic processes and quantitative petrology.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 28, 6, pp. 561-567.TechnologyUHP
DS201112-1114
2011
White, R.W.White, R.W., Stevens, G., Johnson, T.E.Is the crucible reproducible? Reconciling melting experiments with thermodynamic calculations.Elements, Vol. 7, 4, August pp. 241-246.TechnologyMigmatites
DS201312-1017
2014
White, R.W.Ziaja, K., Foley, S.F., White, R.W., Buhre, S.Metamorphism and melting of picritic crust in the early Earth.Lithos, Vol. 189, pp. 173-184.MantlePicrite
DS201606-1108
2016
White, R.W.Reuber, G., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., White, R.W.Nonlithostatic pressure during subduction and collision and the formation of (ultra) high pressure rocks.Geology, Vol. 44, 5, pp. 343-346.UHP - subduction

Abstract: The mechanisms that result in the formation of high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks are controversial. The usual interpretation assumes that pressure is close to lithostatic, petrological pressure estimates can be transferred to depth, and (U)HP rocks have been exhumed from great depth. An alternative explanation is that pressure can be larger than lithostatic, particularly in continental collision zones, and (U)HP rocks could thus have formed at shallower depths. To better understand the mechanical feasibility of these hypotheses, we performed thermomechanical numerical simulations of a typical subduction and collision scenario. If the subducting crust is laterally homogeneous and has small effective friction angles (and is thus weak), we reproduce earlier findings that <20% deviation of lithostatic pressure occurs within a subduction channel. However, many orogenies involve rocks that are dry and strong, and the crust is mechanically heterogeneous. If these factors are taken into account, simulations show that pressures can be significantly larger than lithostatic within nappe-size, mechanically strong crustal units, or within a strong lower crust, as a result of tectonic deformation. Systematic simulations show that these effects are most pronounced at the base of the crust (at ~40 km), where pressures can reach 2-3 GPa (therefore within the coesite stability field) for millions of years. These pressures are often released rapidly during ongoing deformation. Relating metamorphic pressure estimates to depth might thus be problematic in mechanically heterogeneous crustal rock units that appear to have been exhumed in an ultrafast manner.
DS201902-0315
2018
White, R.W.Rummel, L., Kaus, B.J.P., White, R.W., Mertz, D.F., Yang, J., Baumann, T.S.Coupled petrological geodynamical modeling of a compositionally heterogeneous mantle plume.Tectonophysics, Vol. 723, pp. 242-260.Mantlehot spot

Abstract: Self-consistent geodynamic modeling that includes melting is challenging as the chemistry of the source rocks continuously changes as a result of melt extraction. Here, we describe a new method to study the interaction between physical and chemical processes in an uprising heterogeneous mantle plume by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic modeling approach for magma generation and evolution. We pre-computed hundreds of phase diagrams, each of them for a different chemical system. After melt is extracted, the phase diagram with the closest bulk rock chemistry to the depleted source rock is updated locally. The petrological evolution of rocks is tracked via evolving chemical compositions of source rocks and extracted melts using twelve oxide compositional parameters. As a result, a wide variety of newly generated magmatic rocks can in principle be produced from mantle rocks with different degrees of depletion. The results show that a variable geothermal gradient, the amount of extracted melt and plume excess temperature affect the magma production and chemistry by influencing decompression melting and the depletion of rocks. Decompression melting is facilitated by a shallower lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and an increase in the amount of extracted magma is induced by a lower critical melt fraction for melt extraction and/or higher plume temperatures. Increasing critical melt fractions activates the extraction of melts triggered by decompression at a later stage and slows down the depletion process from the metasomatized mantle. Melt compositional trends are used to determine melting related processes by focusing on K2O/Na2O ratio as indicator for the rock type that has been molten. Thus, a step-like-profile in K2O/Na2O might be explained by a transition between melting metasomatized and pyrolitic mantle components reproducible through numerical modeling of a heterogeneous asthenospheric mantle source. A potential application of the developed method is shown for the West Eifel volcanic field.
DS201906-1335
2019
White, R.W.Piccolo, A., Palin, R.M., Kaus, B.J.P., White, R.W.Generation of Earth's early continents from a relatively cool Archean mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 4, pp. 1679-1697.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: It has been believed that early Earth featured higher mantle temperature. The mantle temperature affects the geodynamic processes, and, therefore, the production of the continental crust, which has been a stable environment for the developing of life since Earth's infancy. However, our knowledge of the processes operating during the early Earth is still not definitive. The wide range of the mantle temperature estimation (from 1500 to 1600 °C) hampered our ability to understand early Earth's dynamic and geological data alone cannot provide a definitive answer. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate them with numerical modeling. Our contribution conjugates petrological modeling with thermal-mechanical simulations to unveil the effect of continental crust production. Continental crust's extraction from partially melted hydrated basalts leaves behind dense rocks that sink into the mantle dragging part of surface hydrated rocks. These drips produce a major compositional change of the mantle and promote the production of new basaltic/continental crust. The combination of these processes cools the mantle, suggesting that it could not have been extremely hot for geological timescales. We show that such processes can be active even in a relatively cool mantle (1450-1500 °C), providing new constraints to understand the infancy of our planet.
DS201906-1337
2019
White, R.W.Powell, R., Evans, K.A., Green, E.C.R., White, R.W.The truth and beauty of chemical potentials.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, doi.org.10.1111/ jmg.12484Globalgeochemistry

Abstract: This essay in honour of Mike Brown addresses aspects of chemical equilibrium and equilibration in rocks, with a focus on the role that chemical potentials play. Chemical equilibrium is achieved by diffusive flattening of chemical potential gradients. The idea of equilibration volume is developed, and the way equilibration volumes may evolve along a pressure-temperature path is discussed. The effect of the environment of an equilibration volume is key to understanding the evolution of the equilibration volume with changing conditions. The likely behaviour of equilibration volumes is used to suggest why preservation of equilibrium mineral assemblages and mineral compositions from metamorphism tends to occur. This line of logic then provides the conceptual support to conventional equilibrium thermodynamic approaches to studying rocks, using, for example, thermobarometry and pseudosections.
DS1989-0749
1989
White, S.F.Karner, F.R., Halvorson, D., Jenner, G.A., White, S.F.Devils Tower-Black Hills alkalic igneous rock sand general geology. July1-7thAmerican Geophysical Union (AGU) 28th. International Geological Congress Field Trip Guidebook, No. T131, 88pWyomingBear Lodge Mountains, Alkaline rocks
DS1989-1619
1989
White, S.H.White, S.H., Muir, M.D.Multiple reactivation of coupled orthogonal faultsystems: and example from the Kimberley region in northWestern AustraliaGeology, Vol. 17, No. 7, July pp. 618-621AustraliaTectonics, Kimberleys
DS1990-1554
1990
White, S.H.White, S.H., Muir, M.D., Smith, C.B.Basement reactivation and mineralization, Kimberley area, North westernAustraliaGeological Society of Australia, Abstracts No. 26, 9th. Inter. Conference on Basement, p. 33. AbstractAustraliaTectonics, Kimberley Block
DS1991-0359
1991
White, S.H.Deakin, A.S., White, S.H.Shear zone control of alkali intrusives -examples from Argyle and WestAfricaProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 71-73Australia, Sierra LeoneArgyle, Yengema, Lissadell, Lineaments, tectonics
DS1992-1658
1992
White, S.H.White, S.H., Smith, C.B.The structural geological setting of the Argyle and Ellendale diamondiferous lamproite pipes. (Western Australia).Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 33, No. 10, 12p.AustraliaStructure, Ellendale lamproite pipes
DS1994-0414
1994
White, S.H.Deakin, A.S., White, S.H.Shear zone control of alkali intrusives: examples from Argyle, northwestern Australia and Yengema, Sierra Leone, West Africa.Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 251-258.Sierra LeoneAlkaline rocks
DS1995-2055
1995
White, S.H.White, S.H., De Boorder, H., Smith, C.B.Structural controls on the emplacement of kimberlites and lamproitesJournal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 52, pp. 245-264.AustraliaDiamond exploration, Structure
DS1999-0826
1999
White, S.H.Zegers, T.E., De Wit, M.J., White, S.H.Vaalbara, Earth's oldest assembled continent? a combined structural, geochronological, paleomagnetic..Terra Nova, Vol. 10, No. 5, p. 250-259.Paleomagnetics, tectonics
DS2003-1342
2003
White, S.H.Strik, G., Blake, T.S., Zegers, T.E., White, S.H., Langereis, C.G.Paleomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late ArcheanJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. B 12, Dec. 3, 10.1029/2003JB002475AustraliaGeophysics - paleomagnetics, tectonics
DS200412-1937
2003
White, S.H.Strik, G., Blake, T.S., Zegers, T.E., White, S.H., Langereis, C.G.Paleomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archean continental drift and the oldest known reJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. B 12, Dec. 3, 10.1029/2003 JB002475AustraliaGeophysics - paleomagnetics, tectonics
DS1860-0944
1896
White, T.G.Kemp, J.F., White, T.G.A Dike in the Adirondack RegionScience., NEW SER, Vol. 3, P. 214.United States, New YorkGeology
DS1986-0434
1986
White, T.J.Kesson, S.E., White, T.J.Comments on priderite stability in the systemn K2MgTi7O16 BaMgTi7O16Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 50, pp. 537-538AustraliaMineralogy
DS2000-1013
2000
White, T.S.White, T.S., Witzke, B.J., Ludvigson, G.A.Evidence for an Albian Hudson arm connection between Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of NA and LabradorGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 112, No.9, Sept. pp. 1342-55.Ontario, Quebec, Ungava, LabradorGeochemistry, Hotspots
DS1989-0800
1989
White, W.B.Knight, D.S., White, W.B.Characterization of diamond films by Raman-spectroscopyJournal of Mater. Res, Vol. 4, No. 2, Mar-Apr pp. 385-393GlobalDiamond morphology, Spectroscopy
DS1995-2056
1995
White, W.B.White, W.B., Culver, D.C., Herman, J.S., Kane, T.C.Karst lands...earth's land area is dominated by dissolution rather thanerosion..American Scientist, Vol. 83, No. 5, Sept. Oct. pp. 450-459GlobalGeomorphology, Karst topography
DS1993-1722
1993
White, W.F.White, W.F.IBK Capital Corp. -overviewPaper presented at the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Meeting, held Toronto, 10pCanadaEconomics, Profile -IBK
DS1989-1155
1989
White, W.M.Othman, D.B., White, W.M., Patchett, J.The geochemistry of marine sediments, island arc magma genesis, and crust mantle recyclingEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 94, No. 1/2, August pp. 1-21GlobalCrust - mantle, Island arc
DS1992-1659
1992
White, W.M.White, W.M.Surviving subduction... crustal recyclingNature, Vol. 358, August 27, pp. 714-715GlobalCrust, Subduction
DS1993-1723
1993
White, W.M.White, W.M.Mantle recycling: isotopes and a smoking gunNature, Vol. 362, No. 6423, April 29, pp. 791-792MantleGeochronology
DS1993-1724
1993
White, W.M.White, W.M.Evidence from mantle plumes for deep mantle recyclingAmerican Geophysical Union, EOS, supplement Abstract Volume, October, Vol. 74, No. 43, October 26, abstract p. 557.MantleMantle plumes
DS1994-1906
1994
White, W.M.White, W.M.Geophysics - overturning mantle modelsNature, Vol. 372, No. 6501, Nov. 3, p. 43.MantleGeophysics
DS1994-1907
1994
White, W.M.White, W.M.Overturning mantle modelsNature, Vol. 372, No. 6501, Nov. 3, pp. 43MantleGeophysics
DS1996-1533
1996
White, W.M.White, W.M.Crustal recycling -best friend hides deep secretNature, Vol. 379, No. 6561, Jan. 11, pp. 117-118.MantleCrust
DS200412-2111
2004
White, W.M.White, W.M., Porter, K.Preferential U recycling does not resolve the kappa conundrum.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13th Goldschmidt Conference held Copenhagen Denmark, Vol. 68, 11 Supp. July, ABSTRACT p.A554.MantleUranium thorium, subduction
DS201012-0844
2010
White, W.M.White, W.M.Oceanic island basalts and mantle plumes: the geochemical perspective.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 38, pp. 133-160.MantleHotspots
DS1960-0763
1966
White, W.S.White, W.S.Geologic Evidence for Crustal Structure in the Western Lake superior Basin.American GEOPHYS. MONOGRAPH, No. 10, PP. 26-41.GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-0764
1966
White, W.S.White, W.S.Tectonics of the Keweenawan Basin, Western Lake Superior Region.United States Geological Survey (USGS) PROF. PAPER., No. 524E, 23P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1985-0724
1985
White A.hWhite A.hSpeculations on the Adelaide Rift and the Origin of DiapirsGeological Society of Australia - Adelaide geosyncline, sedimentary environments and, Australia Mineral foundation symposium -South AustraliaAustraliaCarbonatite
DS1995-0188
1995
White R.S.Bown, J.W., White R.S.Effect of finite extension rate on melt generation at rifted continentalmarginsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. 9, Sept. 10, pp. 8011-8044MantleTectonics, Rifting, margins
DS1992-1660
1992
White. N.White. N.A method for automatically determining normal fault geometry at depthJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B2, February 10, pp. 1715-1734GlobalStructure, Faults
DS1960-1200
1969
White-Cooper, D.R.R.Rickwood, P.C., Gurney, J.J., White-Cooper, D.R.R.The Nature and Occurrences of Eclogite Xenoliths in the Kimberlites of Southern Africa.Geological Survey of South Africa SPECIAL Publishing, No. 2, PP. 371-393.South AfricaGeology, Petrography
DS200512-0579
2004
Whiteford, S.Krauss, C., Chacko, T., Heaman, L., Whiteford, S.Lower crustal xenoliths from the Diavik mine - a preliminary examination of pressure - temperature conditions.32nd Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 16-18, p.44. (poster)Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochronology
DS200512-0709
2004
Whiteford, S.McLean, H., Banas, A., Creighton, S., Whiteford, S., Luth, R., Stachel, T.Garnet xenocrysts from the Diavik mine - composition, paragenesis and color.32nd Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 16-18, p.49-50. (talk)Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGarnet mineralogy
DS200612-1361
2006
Whiteford, S.Stachel, T., Creighton, S., McLean, H., Donnelly, C.L., Whiteford, S., Luth, R.W.Diamondiferous microxenoliths from the Diavik diamond mine ( Canada): lherzolite hosts for harzburgitic diamonds?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 56. abstract only.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik, xenolith mineral chemistry
DS200612-1526
2006
Whiteford, S.Whiteford, S.The Diavik diamond mine: the A154N amd A 154S kimberlites - a geology update.CIM Conference and Exhibition, Vancouver - Creating Value with Values, List of talks CIM Magazine, Feb. p. 78.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesOverview - Diavik
DS200712-0185
2006
Whiteford, S.Chislett, K., Crieghton, S., Stachel, T., Whiteford, S.Garnet peridotite microxenoliths from A154, Diavik diamond mines.34th Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 68-69. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDiavik - geology
DS200712-0207
2007
Whiteford, S.Creighton, S., Luth, R.W., Stachel, T., Eichenberg, D., Whiteford, S.Oxidation states of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Central Slave Craton.Geological Association of Canada, Gac-Mac Yellowknife 2007, May 23-25, Volume 32, 1 pg. abstract p.18,19.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS200712-0209
2006
Whiteford, S.Creighton, S., Stachel, T., McLean, H., Donnelly, C., Whiteford, S., Luth, R.W.Diamondiferous peridotite microxenoliths from the Diavik diamond mine: a challenge to the G10 paradigm in diamond exploration?34th Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 13. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeology - Diavik
DS200712-0265
2007
Whiteford, S.Donnelly, C.L., Stachel, T., Creighton, S., Muehlenbachs, K., Whiteford, S.Diamonds and their mineral inclusions from A154 South pipe mine, Northwest Territories, Canada.Lithos, Vol. 98, 1-4, pp. 160-176.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - A154
DS200712-0709
2007
Whiteford, S.McLean, H., Banas, A., Creighton, S., Whiteford, S., Luth, R.W., Stachel, T.Garnet xenocrysts from the Diavik mine, NWT, Canada: composition colour and paragenesis.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 45, 5, Oct. pp. 1131-1145.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS202011-2067
2020
White-Gaynor, A.L.White-Gaynor, A.L., Nyblade, A.A., Durrheim, R., Raveloson, R., van der Meijde, M., Fadel, I., Paulssen, H., Kwadiba, M., Ntibinyane, O., Titus, N., Sitali, M.Lithospheric boundaries and upper mantle structure beneath southern Africa imaged by P and S wave velocity models.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 10.1029/GC008925 20p. PdfAfrica, South AfricaGeophysics, seismic

Abstract: We report new P and S wave velocity models of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa using data recorded on seismic stations spanning the entire subcontinent. Beneath most of the Damara Belt, including the Okavango Rift, our models show lower than average velocities (-0.8% Vp; -1.2% Vs) with an abrupt increase in velocities along the terrane's southern margin. We attribute the lower than average velocities to thinner lithosphere (~130 km thick) compared to thicker lithosphere (~200 km thick) immediately to the south under the Kalahari Craton. Beneath the Etendeka Flood Basalt Province, higher than average velocities (0.25% Vp; 0.75% Vs) indicate thicker and/or compositionally distinct lithosphere compared to other parts of the Damara Belt. In the Rehoboth Province, higher than average velocities (0.3% Vp; 0.5% Vs) suggest the presence of a microcraton, as do higher than average velocities (1.0% Vp; 1.5% Vs) under the Southern Irumide Belt. Lower than average velocities (-0.4% Vp; -0.7% Vs) beneath the Bushveld Complex and parts of the Mgondi and Okwa terranes are consistent with previous studies, which attributed them to compositionally modified lithosphere resulting from Precambrian magmatic events. There is little evidence for thermally modified upper mantle beneath any of these terranes which could provide a source of uplift for the Southern African Plateau. In contrast, beneath parts of the Irumide Belt in southern and central Zambia and the Mozambique Belt in central Mozambique, deep-seated low velocity anomalies (-0.7% Vp; -0.8% Vs) can be attributed to upper mantle extensions of the African superplume structure.
DS2000-0132
2000
WhiteheadByron, M.J., Gibson, H.L., Whitehead, Watkinson, WinterThe Quintinos pipe: a polyphase kamafugite intrusion of the Mat a da Corda Formation, Minas Gerais, Brasil.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of, 4p. abstractBrazil, Minas GeraisLamproite, Deposit - Quintinois
DS2000-0133
2000
WhiteheadByron, M.J., Gibson, Watkinson, Whitehead, McDonaldExtraordinary accessory minerals of the Mat a Da Corda Formation: implications for rock type classificationGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Calgary May 2000, 5p.BrazilPetrology, mineralogy, exploration, diamond, igneous, Mata Da Corda Formation
DS1989-1620
1989
Whitehead, J.A.Whitehead, J.A.Giant ocean cataractsScientific American, Vol. 260, No. 2, February pp. 50-59GlobalOceans, Salinity
DS2002-0616
2002
Whitehead, J.A.Griffiths, R.W., Whitehead, J.A.Earth's surface morphology and convection in the mantleSpringer, Lecture notes in Geophysics, No. 582, pp.111-37.MantleGeophysics, Convection - review
DS201508-0381
2015
Whitehead, J.A.Whitehead, J.A., Behn, M.D.The continental drift convection cell. Wilson Cycle)Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, 11, June 16, pp. 4301-4308.GlobalConvection
DS201602-0196
2016
Whitehead, J.A.Cagney, N., Crameri, F., Newsome, W.H., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., Cotel, A., Hart, S.R., Whitehead, J.A.Constraining the source of mantle plumes.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 435, 1, pp. 55-63.MantlePlume

Abstract: In order to link the geochemical signature of hot spot basalts to Earth's deep interior, it is first necessary to understand how plumes sample different regions of the mantle. Here, we investigate the relative amounts of deep and shallow mantle material that are entrained by an ascending plume and constrain its source region. The plumes are generated in a viscous syrup using an isolated heater for a range of Rayleigh numbers. The velocity fields are measured using stereoscopic Particle-Image Velocimetry, and the concept of the ‘vortex ring bubble’ is used to provide an objective definition of the plume geometry. Using this plume geometry, the plume composition can be analysed in terms of the proportion of material that has been entrained from different depths. We show that the plume composition can be well described using a simple empirical relationship, which depends only on a single parameter, the sampling coefficient, scsc. High-scsc plumes are composed of material which originated from very deep in the fluid domain, while low-scsc plumes contain material entrained from a range of depths. The analysis is also used to show that the geometry of the plume can be described using a similarity solution, in agreement with previous studies. Finally, numerical simulations are used to vary both the Rayleigh number and viscosity contrast independently. The simulations allow us to predict the value of the sampling coefficient for mantle plumes; we find that as a plume reaches the lithosphere, 90% of its composition has been derived from the lowermost 260–750 km in the mantle, and negligible amounts are derived from the shallow half of the lower mantle. This result implies that isotope geochemistry cannot provide direct information about this unsampled region, and that the various known geochemical reservoirs must lie in the deepest few hundred kilometres of the mantle.
DS2002-1707
2002
Whitehead, K.Whitehead, K., Le Roex, A., Class, C., Bell, D.Composition and Cretaceous thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath the Damara Mobile Belt: evidenceJournal of Geological Society of London, Vol.159,pp.307-21., Vol.159,pp.307-21.NamibiaNepheline hosted peridotite xenoliths, Gibeon compariso, Deposit - Swakopmund area
DS2002-1708
2002
Whitehead, K.Whitehead, K., Le Roex, A., Class, C., Bell, D.Composition and Cretaceous thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath the Damara Mobile Belt: evidenceJournal of Geological Society of London, Vol.159,pp.307-21., Vol.159,pp.307-21.NamibiaNepheline hosted peridotite xenoliths, Gibeon compariso, Deposit - Swakopmund area
DS2003-1474
2003
Whitehead, K.Whitehead, K., Richardson, S.H.A geochemical study of peridotitic diamonds from Premier mine8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractSouth AfricaDiamonds - geochemistry, Deposit - Premier
DS201012-0821
2010
Whitehead, K.Viljoen, K.S., Harris, J.W., Ivanic, T., Richardson, S.H., Whitehead, K.Trace element geochemistry and Ni thermometry of garnet inclusions in peridotitic diamonds from Premier and Finsch, South Africa: implications - diamond formationInternational Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 187.Africa, South AfricaGeochemistry
DS201608-1396
2016
Whitehead, S.C.Burnham, A.D., Bulanova, G.P., Smith, C.B., Whitehead, S.C., Kohn, S.C., Gobbo, L., Walter, M.J.Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit, Rondona, Brazil, derived from both lithospheric and sublithospheric mantle.Lithos, in press available, 15p.South America, BrazilMorphology, textures, chemistry

Abstract: Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit have been characterised on the basis of external morphology, internal textures, carbon isotopic composition, nitrogen concentration and aggregation state and mineral inclusion chemistry. Variations in morphology and features of abrasion suggest some diamonds have been derived directly from local kimberlites, whereas others have been through extensive sedimentary recycling. On the basis of mineral inclusion compositions, both lithospheric and sublithospheric diamonds are present at the deposit. The lithospheric diamonds have clear layer-by-layer octahedral and/or cuboid internal growth zonation, contain measurable nitrogen and indicate a heterogeneous lithospheric mantle beneath the region. The sublithospheric diamonds show a lack of regular sharp zonation, do not contain detectable nitrogen, are isotopically heavy (d13CPDB predominantly - 0.7 to - 5.5) and contain inclusions of ferropericlase, former bridgmanite, majoritic garnet and former CaSiO3-perovskite. This suggests source lithologies that are Mg- and Ca-rich, probably including carbonates and serpentinites, subducted to lower mantle depths. The studied suite of sublithospheric diamonds has many similarities to the alluvial diamonds from Kankan, Guinea, but has more extreme variations in mineral inclusion chemistry. Of all superdeep diamond suites yet discovered, Machado River represents an end-member in terms of either the compositional range of materials being subducted to Transition Zone and lower mantle or the process by which materials are transferred from the subducted slab to the diamond-forming region.
DS2001-0175
2001
WhitehouseChavagnac, V., Jahn, Villa, Whitehouse, LiuMultichronometric evidence for an in situ origin of the ultra high pressure metamorphic terrane of Dabie Shan.Journal of Geology, Vol. 109, pp. 633-46.Chinaultra high pressure (UHP), Qinling - Dabie orogenic belt
DS2002-0125
2002
WhitehouseBea, F., Fershtater,Montero, Whitehouse, Levin, ScarrowRecycling of continental crust into the mantle as revealed by Kytlym dunite zircons, Ural Mountains.Terra Nova, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 407-12.RussiaSubduction
DS200812-0898
2008
WhitehousePietranik, A.B, Hawkesworth, C.J., Storey, C.D., Kemp, T.I.S., Sircombe, Whitehouse, BleekerEpisodic, mafic crust formation in the Slave Craton, Canada.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A748.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesMantle zircons
DS201312-0506
2013
WhitehouseKosler, J., Slama, Belousova, Corfu, Gehrels, Gerdes, Horstwood, Sircombe, Sylvester, Tiepolo, Whitehouse, WoodheadU-Pb detrital zircon analysis - results of an inter-laboratory comparison. (not specific to diamonds)Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 37, 3, pp. 243-259.GlobalZircon analyses
DS2000-1022
2000
Whitehouse, M.Windley, B.F., Kroner, A., Collins, A., Whitehouse, M.The tectonic evolution of Madagascar and Yemen in the Neoproterozoic and their role in accretion....Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.MadagascarTectonics - Gondwanaland, Alkaline rocks
DS2003-0403
2003
Whitehouse, M.Femencias, O., Coussaert, N., Bingen, B., Whitehouse, M., Mercier, J-C.A Permian underplating event in late to post orogenic tectonic setting. Evidence fromChemical Geology, Vol. 199, 3-4, Sept. 15, pp. 293-315.EuropeLherzolite, crust mantle boundary
DS200412-0545
2003
Whitehouse, M.Femencias, O., Coussaert, N., Bingen, B., Whitehouse, M., Mercier, J-C., Demaiffe, D.A Permian underplating event in late to post orogenic tectonic setting. Evidence from the mafic-ultramafic layered xenoliths froChemical Geology, Vol. 199, 3-4, Sept. 15, pp. 293-315.EuropeLherzolite, crust mantle boundary
DS201112-0880
2011
Whitehouse, M.Rollinson, H.R., Whitehouse, M.The growth of the Zimbabwe Craton during the late Archean: an ion microprobe U Pb zircon study.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 168, pp. 941-952.Africa, ZimbabweGeochronology
DS201112-0881
2011
Whitehouse, M.Rollinson, H.R., Whitehouse, M.The growth of the Zimbabwe craton during the late Archean: an ion microprobe U-Pb zircon study.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 168, pp. 941-952.Africa, Zimbabwe, South Africa, BotswanaGeochronology
DS201112-1042
2011
Whitehouse, M.Tichomirowa, M., EIMF, Whitehouse, M.Formation and transformation of zircon grains from the Archean carbonatite Siilinjarvi - evidence from cathodluminescence, rare earth elements and U/Pb geochrPeralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterEurope, FinlandCarbonatite
DS201112-1043
2011
Whitehouse, M.Tichomirowa, M., Whitehouse, M.Formation and transformation of zircon grains from the Archean carbonatite Siilinjarvi ( Finland) - evidence from cathodluminescence, rare earth elements and U/TbPeralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.151-152.Europe, FinlandSiilinjarvi
DS201112-1044
2011
Whitehouse, M.Tichomirowa, M., Whitehouse, M.Formation and transformation of zircon grains from the Archean carbonatite Siilinjarvi ( Finland) - evidence from cathodluminescence, rare earth elements and U/TbPeralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.151-152.Europe, FinlandSiilinjarvi
DS201212-0729
2012
Whitehouse, M.Tichomirowa, M., Whitehouse, M., Gerdes, A., Gotze, J.Carbonatite metasomatism: evidence from geochemistry and isotope composition ( U-Pb, Hf, O) on zircons from two Precambrian carbonatites of the Kola alkaline province.Goldschmidt Conference 2012, abstract 1p.Russia, Kola Peninsula, ArchangelCarbonatite
DS201312-0499
2013
Whitehouse, M.Konzett, J., Wirth, R., Hauzenberger, C., Whitehouse, M.Two episodes of fluid migration in the Kaapvaal Craton lithospheric mantle associated with Cretaceous kimberlite activity: evidence from a harzburgite containing a unique assemblage of metasomatic zirconium-phases.Lithos, Vol. 182-183, pp. 165-184.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Kimberley
DS201612-2312
2016
Whitehouse, M.Kotkova, J., Fedortchouk, Y., Jakubova, P., Whitehouse, M., Wirth, R.Bohemian microdiamonds: diamond forming media and carbon source.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, 1, July abstract P. 217-219.EuropeMicrodiamonds
DS201709-2020
2017
Whitehouse, M.Kotova, J., Fedortchouk, Y., Wirth, R., Whitehouse, M., JakubovaUHP-UHT melting and diamond formation. MicrodiamondsGoldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.MantleUHP

Abstract: Exhumed ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes, involving slices of deeply subducted crustal rocks, provide unique material for studying material transfer in subduction zones. Diamond-bearing UHP rocks with sedimentary protoliths allow for tracing melting processes at both UHP and UHT including carbon cycling in the Earth. We studied microdiamonds and associated phases in two contrasting lithologies, (1) acid, quartzofeldpathic UHP gneiss composed of garnet, kyanite, feldspar, quartz and biotite, with a high ASI characteristic of sedimentary rocks, and (2) intermediate garnet-clinopyroxene rock containing quartz, feldspar, minor kyanite and biotite, which is metaluminous. Whereas rock (1) contains exclusively single octahedral diamonds with perfect crystal shape in garnet, kyanite (more common) and zircon, the microdiamonds in the rock (2) occur mostly as clusters of cuboid shape in garnet and zircon. Micro-Raman and FIB TEM data document presence of graphite, quartz and rutile at diamond/host interface or in separate multiple solid inclusions (MSI) whereas carbonates are practically absent. The morphology and lack of inclusions reflect relatively slow growth of the octahedral diamonds (rock 1) at lower fluid supersaturation. Individual deep and symmetrical negative trigons (AFM) on the (111) plane suggest dissolution by a residual silicate-carbonate melt. In contrast, polycrystallline character of diamond cuboids (rock 2) along with their common dissolution and formation of numerous tetragonal etch pits reflect relatively rapid growth of these grains from highly supersaturated fluid/melt. Peak P-T conditions for the UHP rocks of = 1100ºC at 4.5 GPa are located above the phengite dehydration melting curve, where silicate melts are produced and may coexist with carbonate melts. In view of the light carbon isotope composition and lack of carbonates, we suggest that the diamonds crystallized from the graphitized primordial organic matter under reducing conditions at presence of silicate melt.
DS1997-0913
1997
Whitehouse, M.J.Pimentel, M.M., Whitehouse, M.J., Machado, N.The Mara Rosa Arc in the To cantins Province: further evidence for Neoproterozoic crustal accretion ..Precambrian Research, Vol. 81. No. 3-4, Feb. 1, pp. 299-Brazil, CentralTectonics, Proterozoic
DS1999-0789
1999
Whitehouse, M.J.Whitehouse, M.J., Kamber, B.S., Moorbath, S.Age significance of uranium-thorium-lead-zircon dat a from early Archean rocks of West Greenland - a reassessment..Chemical Geology, Vol. 160, No. 3, Aug. 10, pp. 201-24.GreenlandGeochronology, Ion-microprobe, imaging studies
DS200512-1157
2005
Whitehouse, M.J.Vuorinen, J.H., Halenius, U., Whitehouse, M.J., Mansfeld, J., Skelton, A.D.L.Compositional variations (major and trace elements) of clinopyroxene and Ti and radite from pyroxenite, ijolite and nepheline syenite, Alno Island, Sweden.Lithos, Vol. 81, 1-4, April pp. 55-77.Europe, Sweden, Alno IslandGeochemistry, melteigite
DS200612-1069
2006
Whitehouse, M.J.Peltonen, P., Manttari, I., Huhma, H., Whitehouse, M.J.Multi stage origin of the lower crust of the Karelian craton from 3.5 to 1.7 Ga based on isotopic ages of kimberlite derived mafic granulite xenoliths.Precambrian Research, Vol. 147, 1-2, June 10, pp. 107-123.Europe, FinlandGeochronology, kimberlite, mantle plume, craton
DS200712-0946
2007
Whitehouse, M.J.Scherer, E.E., Whitehouse, M.J., Munker, C.Zircon as a monitor of crustal growth.Elements, Vol. 3, 1, Feb. pp. 19-24.TechnologyZircon geochronology
DS200712-0984
2007
Whitehouse, M.J.Shirey, S.B., Kamber, B.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Mueller, P.A., Basu, A.R.Mantle and crustal processes in the Hadean and Archean: evidence for the onset of subduction at 3.8 Ga.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A933.MantleSubduction
DS200812-0791
2008
Whitehouse, M.J.Nemchin, A.A., Whitehouse, M.J., Menneken, M., Geisler, T., Pidgeon, R.T., Wilde, S.A.A light carbon reservoir recorded in zircon hosted diamond from the Jack Hills.Nature, Vol. 454m, 7200, July 3, pp. 92-95.AustraliaGeochronology
DS200812-0899
2008
Whitehouse, M.J.Pietranik, A.B., Hawkesworth, C.J., Storey, C.D., Kemp, A.I.S., Sircombe, K.N., Whitehouse, M.J., Bleeker, W.Episodic mafic crust formation from 4.5 to 2.8 Ga: new evidence from detrital zircons, Slave craton, Canada.Geology, Vol. 36, 11, pp. 875-878.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochronology
DS200812-1059
2008
Whitehouse, M.J.Shirey, S.B., Kamber, B.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Mueller, P.A., Basu, A.R.A review of isoptopic and trace element evidence for mantle and crustal processes in the Hadean and Archean: implications for the onset of plate tectonic subductionGeological Society of America Special Paper, 440, pp. 1-30.MantlePlate Tectonics
DS201312-0642
2013
Whitehouse, M.J.Nemchin, A.A., Horstwood, M.S.A., Whitehouse, M.J.High spatial resolution geochronology.Elements, Vol. 9, pp. 31-37.TechnologyGeochronology - resolution
DS201312-0914
2013
Whitehouse, M.J.Tichomirowa, M., Whitehouse, M.J., Gerdes, A., Gotze, J., Schulz, B., Belyatsky, B.V.Different zircon recrystallization types in carbonatites caused by magma mixing: evidence from U-Pb dating, trace element and isotope composition ( Hf and O) of zircons from two Precambrian carbonatites from Fennoscandia.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 173-198.Europe, Finland, SwedenCarbonatite
DS201606-1097
2016
Whitehouse, M.J.Kenny, G.G., Whitehouse, M.J., Kamber, B.S.Differentiated impact melt sheets may be potential source of Hadean detrital zircon.Geology, in press availableCanada, OntarioMentions Sudbury impact

Abstract: Constraining the origin and history of very ancient detrital zircons has unique potential for furthering our knowledge of Earth's very early crust and Hadean geodynamics. Previous applications of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer to >4 Ga zircons have identified a population with relatively low crystallization temperatures (Tzirxtln) of ~685 °C. This could possibly indicate wet minimum-melting conditions producing granitic melts, implying very different Hadean terrestrial geology from that of other rocky planets. Here we report the first comprehensive ion microprobe study of zircons from a transect through the differentiated Sudbury impact melt sheet (Ontario, Canada). The new zircon Ti results and corresponding Tzirxtln fully overlap with those of the Hadean zircon population. Previous studies that measured Ti in impact melt sheet zircons did not find this wide range because they analyzed samples only from a restricted portion of the melt sheet and because they used laser ablation analyses that can overestimate true Ti content. It is important to note that internal differentiation of the impact melt is likely a prerequisite for the observed low Tzirxtln in zircons from the most evolved rocks. On Earth, melt sheet differentiation is strongest in subaqueous impact basins. Thus, not all Hadean detrital zircon with low Ti necessarily formed during melting at plate boundaries, but at least some could also have crystallized in melt sheets caused by intense meteorite bombardment of the early, hydrosphere-covered protocrust.
DS201710-2215
2017
Whitehouse, M.J.Bolhar, R., Hofman, A., Kemp, A.I.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Wind, S., Kamber, B.S.Juvenile crust formation in the Zimbabwean Craton deduced from the O-Hf isotopic record 3.8-3.1 Ga detrital zircons.Geochimica et Cosmochinica Acta, Vol. 215, pp. 432-446.Africa, Zimbabwecraton

Abstract: Hafnium and oxygen isotopic compositions measured in-situ on U-Pb dated zircon from Archaean sedimentary successions belonging to the 2.9–2.8 Ga Belingwean/Bulawayan groups and previously undated Sebakwian Group are used to characterize the crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton prior to 3.0 Ga. Microstructural and compositional criteria were used to minimize effects arising from Pb loss due to metamorphic overprinting and interaction with low-temperature fluids. 207Pb/206Pb age spectra (concordance >90%) reveal prominent peaks at 3.8, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.35 Ga, corresponding to documented geological events, both globally and within the Zimbabwe Craton. Zircon d18O values from +4 to +10‰ point to both derivation from magmas in equilibrium with mantle oxygen and the incorporation of material that had previously interacted with water in near-surface environments. In eHf-time space, 3.8–3.6 Ga grains define an array consistent with reworking of a mafic reservoir (176Lu/177Hf ~0.015) that separated from chondritic mantle at ~3.9 Ga. Crustal domains formed after 3.6 Ga depict a more complex evolution, involving contribution from chondritic mantle sources and, to a lesser extent, reworking of pre-existing crust. Protracted remelting was not accompanied by significant mantle depletion prior to 3.35 Ga. This implies that early crust production in the Zimbabwe Craton did not cause complementary enriched and depleted reservoirs that were tapped by later magmas, possibly because the volume of crust extracted and stabilised was too small to influence (asthenospheric) mantle isotopic evolution. Growth of continental crust through pulsed emplacement of juvenile (chondritic mantle-derived) melts, into and onto the existing cratonic nucleus, however, involved formation of complementary depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle since the early Archaean, indicative of strongly coupled evolutionary histories of both reservoirs, with limited evidence for recycling and lateral accretion of arc-related crustal blocks until 3.35 Ga.
DS201810-2318
2018
Whitehouse, M.J.Gardiner, N.J., Searle, M.P., Morley, C.K., Robb, L.J., Whitehouse, M.J., Roberts, N.M.W., Kirkland, C.L., Spencer, C.J.The crustal architecture of Myanmar imaged through zircon U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopes: tectonic and metallogenic implications. ReviewGondwana Research, Vol. 62, pp. 27-60.Asia, Myanmartectonics

Abstract: The Tethys margin in central and eastern Asia is comprised of continental terranes separated by suture zones, some of which remain cryptic. Determining the crustal architecture, and therefore the geological history, of the Eastern Tethyan margin remains challenging. Sited in the heart of this region, Myanmar is a highly prospective but poorly explored minerals jurisdiction. A better understanding of Myanmar's mineralization can only be realized through a better understanding of its tectonic history, itself reflected in at least four major magmatic belts. The Eastern and the Main Range Provinces are associated with the Late Permian to Early Triassic closure of Palaeo-Tethys. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui Belt and Wuntho-Popa Arc are a response to the Eocene closure of Neo-Tethys. However, magmatic ages outside these two orogenic events are also recorded. We present new zircon U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotope data from magmatic rocks across Myanmar, which we append to the existing dataset to isotopically characterize Myanmar's magmatic belts. Eastern Province Permian I-type magmatism has evolved eHf (-10.9 to -6.4), whilst Main Range Province Triassic S-type magmatism also records evolved eHf (-13.5 to -8.8). The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui Belt is here divided into the Tin Province and the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. The Tin Province hosts ca. 77-50 Ma magmatism with evolved eHf (-1.2 to -15.2), and d 18 O of 5.6-8.3‰. The Mogok Metamorphic Belt exhibits a more complex magmatic and metamorphic history, and granitoids record Jurassic, Late Cretaceous, and Eocene to Miocene phases of magmatism, all of which exhibit evolved eHf values between -4.6 and -17.6, and d 18 O between 6.3 and 9.2‰. From the Tagaung-Myitkyina Belt, we report a magmatic age of 172 Ma and eHf of 18.1 to 10.8. To accommodate the geological evidence, we propose a tectonic model for Myanmar involving a greater Sibumasu - where the documented zircon isotopic variations reflect compositional variations in magmatic source - and invoke the role of a Tengchong Block. The Baoshan Block and Greater Sibumasu were likely assembled on or before the Triassic, a former Andean margin and suture which may lie across the Northern Shan Plateau, and reflected in isotopic differences between the northern and southern parts of the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. This contiguous Sibumasu-Baoshan Block then sutured onto the Indochina margin in the Late Triassic. We propose that a Tengchong Block within Myanmar provides for a southerly termination of the Meso-Tethys suture immediately north of the Mogok area. A discrete Tengchong Block may explain a discontinuous arc of Late Triassic to Jurassic I-type magmatism in central Myanmar, representing an Andean-type margin sited above a subducting Meso-Tethys on the margin of Sibumasu. The Tengchong Block sutured onto Greater Sibumasu before the Late Cretaceous, after which subduction of Neo-Tethys drove the magmatism of the Wuntho-Popa Arc and ultimately that of the Tin Province. The metallogenic character of granite belts in Myanmar reflects the crustal architecture of the region, which is remarkable for its prolific endowment of granite-hosted Sn-W mineralization in two quite distinct granite belts related to sequential Indosinian and Himalayan orogenesis.
DS201905-1082
2019
Whitehouse, M.J.van der Meer, Q.H.A., Scott, J.M., Serre, S.H., Whitehouse, M.J., Kristoffersen, M., Le Roux, P.J., Pope, E.C.Low delta 18 O zircon xenocrysts in alkaline basalts; a window into the complex carbonatite-metasomatic history of the Zealandia lithospheric mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 254, pp. 21-39.New Zealandmetasomatism

Abstract: Megacrystic zircon grains from alkaline basaltic fields are rare but can provide fundamental insights into mantle metasomatic processes. Here, we report in-situ U-Pb ages, trace element concentrations and hafnium and oxygen isotopes for fourteen zircon megacrysts from two intraplate alkaline basalt locations in New Zealand. U-Pb ages indicate the zircons crystallised between 12.1 and 19.8 Ma. Zircon oxygen isotopic compositions range from low to mantle-like compositions (grain average d ¹8 O = 3.8-5.1‰). Hafnium isotopes (eHf (t) = +3.3 to +10.4) mostly overlap with intraplate mafic rocks and clinopyroxene in metasomatized peridotitic mantle xenoliths but show no correlation with most trace element parameters or oxygen isotopes. The zircons are interpreted to have formed by the reaction between low-degree melts derived from pre-existing mantle metasomes and the depleted mantle lithosphere prior to eruption and transport to the surface. The low Hf concentration, an absence of Eu anomalies, and elevated U/Yb compared to Nb/Yb in the megacrystic zircons are interpreted to show that the source metasomes comprised subduction- and carbonatite-metasomatised lithospheric mantle. As these trace element characteristics are common for megacrystic zircon in intra-plate basaltic fields globally, they suggest the prevalence of subduction- and carbonatite-metsasomatised mantle under these intraplate volcanic regions. The unusually low d ¹8 O was likely present prior to metasomatic enrichment and may have resulted from high-temperature hydrothermal alteration during initial mantle lithosphere formation at a mid ocean ridge or, possibly, during subduction-related processes associated with continent formation. The combination of proportionally varied contributions from carbonatite- and subduction-metasomatised lithospheric melts with asthenospheric melts may explain the variety of primitive intraplate basalt compositions, including low d ¹8 O reported for some local intraplate lavas.
DS201312-0117
2013
Whitehouse, MJ.Cabral, R.A., Jackson, M.A., Rose-Kaga, E.F., Koga, K.T., Whitehouse, MJ., Antonelli, M.A., Farquhar, J., Day, J.M.D., Hauri, E.H.Anomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archean crust.Nature, Vol. 496, April 25, pp. 490-493.Mantle, Cook IslandsSubduction
DS200912-0812
2009
Whitelaw, G.S.Whitelaw, G.S., mcCarthy, D.D., Tsuji, L.J.S.The Victor diamond mine environmental assessment process: a critical first.Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, Vol. 27, Sept, no. 3, pp. 205-215.Canada, OntarioDeposit - Victor
DS201112-1060
2011
Whitelaw, G.S.Tsuji, L.J.S., McCarthy, D.D., Whitelaw, G.S., McEachren, J.Getting back to basics: the Victor diamond mine environmental assessment scoping process and the issue of family based traditional lands versus reg. traplinesImpact assessment and Project Appraisal, March Vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 37-47.Canada, Ontario, AttawapiskatLegal
DS201212-0775
2009
Whitelaw, G.S.Whitelaw, G.S., McCarthy, D.D., Tsuji, L.J.S.The Victor diamond mine environmental assessment process: a critical First Nation perspective.Impact Assessment and Project Aapraisal, Vol. 27, 3, pp. 205-215.Canada, Ontario, AttawapiskatEnvironment
DS1970-0848
1973
Whitelock, T.K.Whitelock, T.K.Morphology of the Kao DiamondsMaseru: Lesotho Nat. Dev. Corp. Lesotho Kimberlites Editor N, PP. 128-140.LesothoMorphology
DS1970-0849
1973
Whitelock, T.K.Whitelock, T.K.The Monastery Mine Kimberlite PipeMaseru: Lesotho Nat. Dev. Corp. Lesotho Kimberlites Editor N, PP. 214-220.South AfricaGeology
DS1970-0642
1973
Whiteman, A.J.Burke, K., Whiteman, A.J.Uplift, Rifting and the Break Up of AfricaAcademic Press, 784P. PP. 735-755.AfricaGeotectonics
DS1991-0575
1991
Whiten, W.J.Ginsberg, D.W., Whiten, W.J.Cluster analysis for mineral processing applicationsInstitute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 100, Sept-Dec. pp. C 139-146GlobalComputer, Program -Cluster analysis
DS1992-0929
1992
Whiten, W.J.Lecouture, B., Whiten, W.J.Use of a rule based strategy to control a 7 foot cone crusherCommunition -theory and practice, S. Komar Kawatra ed., pp. 517-528.AustraliaMining -crusher, Deposit -Argyle Diamond Mines
DS1992-0572
1992
Whiten W.J.Ginsberg, D.W., Whiten W.J.Application of clustering in the analysis and control of mineral processingplantsAusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 297, No. 2, October pp. 9-17GlobalMineral processing, Cluster analysis, computers
DS1997-1249
1997
Whitener, A.Whitener, A., Ryker, B.MapBasic developers guideEarth Observation Magazine books, $ 50.00GlobalBook - ad, Computer - program MapBasic
DS1999-0790
1999
Whiteny, D.L.Whiteny, D.L., Miller, R.B., Paterson, S.R.P T t evidence for mechanisms of vertical tectonic motion in acontractional orogen: north western United States CordJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan. 1, pp. 75-90.Cordillera, United States, Canada, British Columbia, YukonTectonics
DS1996-1534
1996
White-Pinella, K.C.White-Pinella, K.C., Wendlandt, R.F.Characterization of genitizing fluids at the Iron Hill carbonatite Gunnison County, Colorado.Geological Society of America, Abstracts, Vol. 28, No. 7, p. A-213.ColoradoCarbonatite, Deposit - Iron Hill
DS1970-0449
1971
Whitfield, G.C.Whitfield, G.C.A Petrological and Mineralogical Study of Peridotite and Eclogite Xenoliths from Certain Kimberlite Pipes.Msc. Thesis, Rhodes University, South AfricaPetrology, Mineralogy, Xenoliths
DS1970-0850
1973
Whitfield, G.C.Whitfield, G.C.The Petrology and Mineralogy of Eclogite Xenoliths from Theroberts Victor Kimberlite.1st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 313-315.South AfricaPetrology
DS1970-0851
1973
Whitfield, G.C.Whitfield, G.C.The Petrology and Mineralogy of Peridotite Xenoliths from The Bultfontein, Wesselton, Dutoitspan and Roberts Victor Kimberlites.1st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 317-319.South AfricaPetrology
DS1960-1120
1969
Whitfield, G.G.Gurney, J.J., Siebert, J.C., Whitfield, G.G.A Diamondiferous Eclogite from the Roberts Victor Mine in Upper Mantle Project.Geological Society of South Africa SPECIAL Publishing, No. 2, PP. 351-357.South AfricaPetrography
DS1975-0391
1976
Whitfield, G.G.Reid, A.M., Brown, R.W., Dawson, J.B., Whitfield, G.G., Siebert.Garnet and Pyroxene Composition in Some Diamondiferous Eclogites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 58, PP. 203-220.Tanzania, East AfricaPetrography, Mineral Chemistry
DS1985-0726
1985
Whitford-Stark, J.L.Whitford-Stark, J.L.Cenozoic Alkaline Volcanic Provinces of MaIn land AsiaGeological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 3, P. 197. (abstract.).Asia, ChinaLeucite, Basanite
DS1999-0735
1999
Whithm, A.G.Thomson, K., Green, P.F., Whithm, A.G., Price, S.P.New constraints on the thermal history of southeast Greenland from apatite fission track analysis.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 111, No. 7, July pp. 1054-68.GreenlandGeothermometry
DS2002-1682
2002
WhitingWalters, S., Skrzecynski, B., Whiting, Bunting, ArnoldDiscovery and geology of the Cannington Ag Pb Zn deposit Mount Isa Eastern Succession: development ...Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication, No.9,pp.95-118.AustraliaSilver, lead, zinc, exploration model Broken Hill type, Deposit - Cannington
DS1993-1725
1993
Whiting, B.Whiting, B., Hodgson, C.J., Mason, R.Giant Ore Deposits #2Society of Economic Geology Special Publication, No. 2, 404pGlobalBook -table of contents, Deposits -diamonds, nickel, gold, copper, moly, MVS
DS1992-1661
1992
Whiting, B.H.Whiting, B.H., Mason, R., Hodgson, C.J.Giant ore deposits #1Department of Geological Sciences, Queen's University, 550pGlobalDiamond, nickel, copper, platinum, Porphyry copper, molybdenum, sulphide
DS1997-0361
1997
Whiting, J.M.Fripong, S., Whiting, J.M.Multivariate simulation of risks resolution in mine design and valuation17th. World Mining Congress Oct. Mexico, pp. 445-454GlobalGeostatistics, valuations, sampling, Risk controls
DS1998-0449
1998
Whiting, J.M.Frimpong, S., Whiting, J.M.Simulation of mining venture risks resolution in Canadian marketsThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 91, No. 1019, Apr. pp. 63-68CanadaEconomics, reserves, valuations, discoveries, DRM VSR dynamic risk model, variance sensitity ratio
DS1991-1016
1991
Whiting, P.J.Lowman, P.D.Jr., Whiting, P.J., Short, N.M., Lohmann, A.M., Lee, G.Fracture patterns on the Canadian shield: a lineament study with landsat and orbital radar imagery.Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Basement Tectonics, held, pp. 139-160.CanadaLandsat remote sensing, Structure, tectonics, lineaments
DS1940-0020
1940
Whitlock, H.P.Whitlock, H.P.The Story of the GemsNew York: Garden City Publishing Co., 206P.GlobalKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Gemology
DS1994-1908
1994
Whitman, D.Whitman, D.Moho geometry beneath eastern margin of the Andes, northwest Argentina, implications to the effect.elastic thicknessJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, No. B8, Aug. 10, pp. 15, 277-15, 289Argentina, AndesTectonics, thickness, Santa Barbara foreland system
DS1996-1535
1996
Whitman, D.Whitman, D., Isaacks, B.L., Kay, S.M.Lithospheric structure and along strike segmentation of the Central AndeanPlateau: seismic Q, magmatism...Tectonophysics, Vol. 259, No. 1-3, June 30, pp. 29-40Andes, Cordillera, Bolivia, ArgentinaSubduction, Tectonics
DS200512-1000
2005
Whitmarsh, R.Skeleton, A., Whitmarsh, R., Arghe, F., Crill, P., Koyi, H.Constraining the rate and extent of mantle serpentinization from seismic and petrological data: implications for chemosynthesis and tectonic processes.Geofluids, Vol. 5, 3, pp. 153-164.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-1001
2005
Whitmarsh, R.Skelton, A., Whitmarsh, R., Arghe, F., Crill, P., Koyi, H.Constraining the rate and extent of mantle serpentinization from seismic and petrological data: implications for chemosynthesis and tectonic processes.Geofluids, Vol. 5, 3, pp. 153-164.MantleGeophysics - seismics, tectonics
DS200712-1154
2007
Whitmeyer, S.J.Whitmeyer, S.J., Karlstrom, K.E.Tectonic model for the Proterozoic growth of North America.Geosphere, Vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 220-259.Canada, United StatesTectonics
DS200712-1155
2007
Whitmeyer, S.J.Whitmeyer, S.J., Karlstrom, K.E.Tectonic model for the Proterozoic growth of North America.Geosphere, Vol. 4, pp. 220-259.United States, CanadaTectonics - Rodinia, Laurentia
DS201012-0845
2010
Whitmeyer, S.J.Whitmeyer, S.J., et al.The digital revolution in geologic mapping.GSA Today, April pp. 4-10.TechnologyGraphics
DS2000-0100
2000
Whitmore, R.Borofsky, R.L., Whitmore, R., Chamberlain, S.C.Scepter quartz crystals from the Treasure Mountain Diamond Mine. ( Herkimer ).Rocks and Minerals, Vol. 75, July/Aug. p. 231-7.GlobalHerkimer 'diamonds'
DS1994-1909
1994
Whitney, D.L.Whitney, D.L., Irving, A.J.Origin of Potassium poor leucosomes in a metased migmatite complex byultrametamorphism, syn-metamorphic magmatismLithos, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, July pp. 173-192GlobalMigmatite, migmatites, Magma, metamorphism, ultra, syn, subsolidus
DS1996-1536
1996
Whitney, D.L.Whitney, D.L.Garnets as open systems during regional metamorphismGeology, Vol. 24, No. 2, Feb. pp. 147-150Globalmetamorphism, Mineral inclusions -garnets
DS200612-0185
2006
Whitney, D.L.Broz, M.E., Cook, R.F., Whitney, D.L.Microhardness, toughness and modulous of Mohs scale minerals.American Mineralogist, Vol. 91, pp. 135-142.TechnologyDepth sensing indentation, mechanical propreties nano
DS200612-1527
2006
Whitney, D.L.Whitney, D.L., Davis, P.B.Why is lawsonite eclogite so rare? Metamorphism and preservation of lawsonite eclogite, Sivtihisar, Turkey.Geology, Vol. 34, 6, June pp. 473-476.Europe, TurkeyEclogite - mineralogy
DS200712-0221
2006
Whitney, D.L.Davis, P.B., Whitney, D.L.Petrogenesis of lawsonite and epidote eclogite and blueschist, Sivrihisar Massif, Turkey.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 24, 9, pp. 823-849.Europe, TurkeyEclogite petrology - general
DS201012-0846
2010
Whitney, D.L.Whitney, D.L., Seaton, N.C.A.Garnet polycrystals and the significance of clustered crystallization.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 160, 4, pp. 591-607.TechnologyMineralogy - not specific to diamonds
DS1985-0727
1985
Whitney, J.A.Whitney, J.A., Stormer, J.C.Mineralogy, Petrology and Magmatic Conditions from the Fish canyon Tuff, Central San Juan Volcanic Field, Colorado - Review.Journal of PETROLOGY, Vol. 26, No. 3, AUGUST PP. 726-762.United States, Colorado Plateau, ColoradoMantle Evolution
DS1988-0756
1988
Whitney, J.A.Whitney, J.A.The origin of granite: the role and source of water in the evolution of granitic magmasGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 100, No. 12, December pp. 1886-1897GlobalGranite, Magma evolution
DS1990-1555
1990
Whitney, J.A.Whitney, J.A., Naldrett, A.J.Oxygen fugacities of natural systems -xenoliths and megacrysts from alkali basalts and kimberlitesOre deposition associated with magmas, SEG Reviews in Economic Geology, Vol. 4, p. 23GlobalKimberlite, Oxygen fugacity
DS1860-0019
1865
Whitney, J.D.Whitney, J.D.Report of Progress and Synopsis of the Field Work from 1860-1864.Geological Survey of CALIFORNIA, GEOLOGY REPORT., No. 1, P. 498, (abstract.).United States, CaliforniaDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0032
1866
Whitney, J.D.Whitney, J.D.Geological Survey of California: Report of Progress and Synopsis of Field Work from 1860-1864.American Journal of Science, Vol. 41, 2ND. SER., P. 124; PP. 231-240; PP. 351-368.United States, CaliforniaDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0348
1880
Whitney, J.D.Whitney, J.D.The Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada of CaliforniaCambridge : Memoirs of The Museum of Comparative Zoology At, Vol. VI, No. 1, 569.United States, California, West CoastDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0349
1880
Whitney, J.D.Whitney, J.D.The Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California.Cambridge University Press J. Wilson And Son., United States, CaliforniaDiamond Occurrence
DS1989-1621
1989
Whitney and WhitneyWhitney and WhitneyU.S. State taxes. StudyWhitney and Whitney Inc. P.O. Box 12075, Reno, Nevada 89510, 145p. price?United StatesTaxation, Study -state laws
DS201212-0781
2012
Whittaker, J.M.Williams, S.E., Muller, R.D., Landgrade, T.C.W., Whittaker, J.M.An open source software environment for visualizing and refining plate tectonic reconstructions using high resolution geological and geophysical dat a sets.Geology Today, Vol. 22, no. 4/5, pp. -9.TechnologyGplates
DS1983-0633
1983
Whittaker, P.J.Whittaker, P.J., Watkinson, D.H.chromium SPINEL in the MT. SYDNEY WILLIAMS ULTRAMAFIC MASSIF, CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of, Vol. 8, P. A74, (abstract.).Canada, British ColumbiaHarzburgite, Microprobe, Alteration
DS1985-0728
1985
Whittaker, P.J.Whittaker, P.J.Platinum Group Minerals from Chromitite in Alpine Type Peridotite of the Cache Creek Group, British Columbia.Canadian Mineralogist., Vol. 23, PT. 2, MAY P. 320. (abstract.).Canada, British ColumbiaMineralogy
DS2000-1014
2000
Whittaker, R.C.Whittaker, R.C., Karpuz, R., Wheeler, W., Ady, B.E.4D regional tectonic modeling: plate reconstruction using a geographic information systemGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000, 4p. abstract.Greenland, NorwayTectonics - GIS
DS1995-2057
1995
Whitten, E.H.T.Whitten, E.H.T.Open and closed compositional dat a in petrologyMath. Geol, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 789-806GlobalPetrology, Specific gravity
DS1987-0790
1987
Whitten, T.E.H.Whitten, T.E.H., Bornhorst, T.J., Gongshi Li, Hicks, D.L., BeckwithSuites, subdivision of batholiths and igneous rock classification:geological and mathematical conceptualizationAmerican Journal of Science, Vol. 287, April pp. 332-352GlobalClassification, Igneous rocks
DS200612-0014
2006
Whittington, A.Alkmim, F.F., Marshak, S., Pedrosa Soares, A.C., Peres, G.G., Cruz, S.C., Whittington, A.Kinematic evolution of the Aracuai West Congo in Brazil and Africa: nutcracker tectonics during the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana.Precambrian Research, Vol. 149, 1-2, pp. 43-64.South America, BrazilTectonics - collisional, orogen
DS201112-0714
2010
Whittington, A.G.Nabelek, P.I., Whittington, A.G., Hofmeister, A.M.Strain heating as a mechanism for partial melting and ultrahigh temperature metamorphism in convergent orogens: implications of temperature dependent thermalJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, B 12 B12417MantleMelting, geodynamics, rheology, geothermometry
DS201312-0969
2013
Whittle, G.Whittle, G.Misguided objectives that destroy value. Online, 5p. AvailableTechnologyEconomics
DS201212-0759
2012
Whyte, J.Waldie, C., Whyte, J., Holland, R.NI 43-101 The new version and what you need to know.PDAC Short course, March 7, ppt manualCanadaLegal - reports
DS1989-1433
1989
Wiband, J.T.Soo Meen Wee, Wiband, J.T.Geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic significance of early Proterozoicigneous rocks of The upper Peninsula of Michigan, USAGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Program Abstracts, Vol. 14, p. A95. (abstract.)MichiganPetrology, Tectonics
DS201312-0495
2013
Wibberley, E.Kohn, S.C., Wibberley, E., Smith, C.B., Bulanova, G.P., Walter, M.J.Platelet degradation in diamonds. Insights from infrared microscopy and implications for the thermal evolution of cratonic mantle.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleDiamond crystallography
DS201812-2785
2018
Wibberley, E.Bulanova, G.P., Speich, L. Smith, C.B., Gaillou, E., Koln, S.C., Wibberley, E., Chapman, J.G., Howell, D., Davy, A.T.Argyle deposit: The unique nature of Argyle fancy diamonds: internal structure, paragenesis, and reasons for color.Society of Economic Geology Geoscience and Exploration of the Argyle, Bunder, Diavik, and Murowa Diamond Deposits, Special Publication no. 20, pp. 169-190.Australia, western Australiadeposit - Argyle
DS1950-0361
1957
Wickenden, J.Wickenden, J.A Claim in the HillsNew York: Rinehart., 275P.VenezuelaKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Travelogue
DS1993-1726
1993
Wickens, B.Wickens, B., Watt, E.Diamonds in the rough.. Canadian prospectors help to fuel a newMaclean's Magazine, May 3, issue pp. 34-35.Northwest TerritoriesNews item, Overview of history -Fipke
DS201912-2834
2019
Wickham, A.M.Wickham, A.M., Winterburn, P.A., Elliott, B.Till geochemistry and lithogeochemical exploration for a concealed kimberlite. Yellowknife Forum NWTgeoscience.ca, abstract volume poster p. 123-124.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Kelvin

Abstract: Research at the Kelvin kimberlite, NWT, is defining surface exploration practices and testing new host rock lithogeochemical exploration tools that will result in reduced costs and improved discovery success. In regions where recent glaciation has buried kimberlites under glacial sediments, surface geochemical detection methods are best interpreted when coupled with a comprehension of the landscape formation processes. The glacial, post-glacial, and cryoturbation processes that have affected the landscape have, in turn, affected the dispersal of geochemical signatures in the till that can be detected and exploited by detailed surface mapping, sampling, and geochemical analysis. The Kelvin kimberlite is an inclined pipe that subcrops from metaturbidite country rock beneath a lake. No indicator mineral train has been detected at Kelvin by traditional indicator mineral methods. Relative uniformity of surficial material (<6m thick till blanket) allows for extensive B horizon soil sampling above the kimberlite, up-ice, and up to 1 km down-ice. Four acid and aqua regia ICP-MS results of the -180 µm fraction indicate the presence of subtle pathfinder element trains originating from the kimberlite subcrop location and extending for >1km down-ice. Dry sonic sieving and four acid digestion results provide interpretations of geochemical partitioning and the ideal size fraction for geochemical sampling. Trace elements demonstrate systematically elevated concentrations in the fine and very fine silt fractions; however, background is higher and anomalous to background contrast is not enhanced compared to bulk -180 µm ratios. Elevated pathfinder concentrations in the fine to very fine sand fraction are attributed to fine kimberlite indicator minerals and their fragments, and display the best anomalous to background contrast ratio. Whole soil commercial Pb isotope analysis of select soils provide supplemental data to fingerprint the petrogenetic source of anomalous samples. Additional research is being carried out to detect alteration signatures in the country rock induced by the emplacement of the kimberlite. Lithogeochemical data from four drill holes aims to identify and quantify the metasomatic enrichment and depletion of elements sourced from the kimberlite, while hyperspectral imaging will aim to detect secondary mineralogy and subtle changes in mineral composition. This data will be used to generate mineralogical and geochemical vectors beneficial in near-miss situations when drilling kimberlites and defining diatreme geometries.
DS201712-2737
2017
Wickham, A.P.Wickham, A.P., Winterburn, P.A.Surface till geochemistry and lithogeochemical exploration for a concealed kimberlite.45th. Annual Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 118 abstract posterCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Kelvin, Kennady
DS201812-2898
2018
Wickham, A.P.Wickham, A.P., Winternurn, P.A., Elliott, B.Till geochemistry and lithogeochemical exploration for a concealed kimberlite.2018 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum , p. 88-89. abstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Kelvin

Abstract: Research at the Kelvin kimberlite, NWT is defining surface exploration practices and developing new exploration tools based on host rock lithogeochemical alteration, that will result in reduced costs and improved discovery success. In regions where recent glaciation has buried kimberlites under glacial sediments, surface geochemical detection methods are best interpreted when coupled with a comprehension of the landscape formation processes. The glacial, post-glacial, and cryoturbation processes that have affected the landscape have, in turn, affected the dispersal of geochemical signatures in the till that can be detected and exploited by detailed surface mapping, sampling, and geochemical analysis. Additionally, the application of geochemical and hyperspectral data to country rock alteration core can aid in the detection of kimberlites during near-miss drilling campaigns. The Kelvin kimberlite is located eight kilometers from the Gahcho Kué diamond mine in the Northwest Territories. The inclined pipe sub-crops beneath a lake and dips into gneiss country rock towards the northwest with a surface projection of more than 600 m long. Relative uniformity of surficial material (<6 m thick till veneer) allows for extensive b-horizon soil sampling above the kimberlite, up-ice, and up to 1 km in the down-ice direction. Samples were sieved to -180 microns and analyzed by four acid digest ICP-MS and aqua-regia digest ICP-MS. Results indicate the soils to be very immature and identify the presence of a subtle Ni-Cr-Mg-Nb train originating from the lake side extending for >1km from source following the most recent ice direction to the west. The material for the train was abraded by the ice from the kimberlite, now sub-cropping beneath a lake, and would have provided additional support to drill what was initially targeted from geophysics. Additional research is being carried out to detect alteration signatures in the country rock induced by the emplacement of the kimberlite. Lithogeochemical data from four drill holes aims to identify and quantify the metasomatic enrichment and depletion of elements sourced from the kimberlite while accounting for country-rock lithology variation. Hyperspectral imaging of the same drill core will aim to detect and quantify secondary mineralogy and subtle changes in mineral composition that otherwise cannot be detected visually. This data will be used to generate mineralogical and chemical vectors beneficial in near-miss situations when drilling kimberlites and defining diatreme geometries.
DS1988-0757
1988
Wickham, S.M.Wickham, S.M.Evolution of the lower crustNature, Vol. 333, No. 6169, May 12, pp. 119-120GlobalBlank
DS1989-1245
1989
Wickham, S.M.Puris, E.M., Wickham, S.M.An oxygen isotope study of the Kapuskasing UpliftGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. A189. AbstractOntarioTectonics, Kapuskasing Rift
DS1994-1910
1994
Wickham, S.M.Wickham, S.M., et al.Batholithic Potassium rich silicic magmatism in east central Asia: evidence for mantle source for progressive PotassiumMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58A, pp. 969-970. AbstractGlobalMetasomatism -potassic, Magmatism
DS1994-1911
1994
Wickham, S.M.Wickham, S.M., Janardhan, A.S., Stern, R.J.Regional carbonate alteration of the crust by mantle derived magmaticfluids, Tamil Nadu, South India.Journal of Geology, Vol. 102, No. 4, July, pp. 379-398.IndiaCarbonatite
DS200712-1156
2007
Wickins, P.Wickins, P.Addressing environmental challenges within De Beers operations.PDAC 2007, Abstract, 1p.GlobalEnvironment
DS1950-0100
1952
Wickman, F.E.Eckermann, H. Von, Ubisch, Wickman, F.E.A Preliminary Investigation Into the Isotopic Composition Of Carbon from Some Alkaline Intrusions.Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 2, PP. 207-210.Sweden, ScandinaviaAlnoite, Isotope Chemistry
DS1950-0270
1956
Wickman, F.E.Eckermann, H. Von , Wickman, F.E.A Priliminary Determination of the Maximum Age of the Alno Rocks.Geol. Foren. Forhandl., Vol. 78, PP. 122-124.Norway, ScandinaviaUltramafic And Related Rocks, Geochronology
DS1989-1622
1989
Wickramasinghe, H.K.Wickramasinghe, H.K.Scanned probe microscopesScientific American, Vol. 261, No. 4, October pp. 98-105GlobalOverview microscopes, Microscopy
DS1989-1623
1989
Wickramasinghe, H.K.Wickramasinghe, H.K.Scanned -probe microscopesScientific American, Vol. 261, No. 4, October, pp. 98-105. Database # 18173GlobalOverview of microscopes, Microelectronics
DS1993-1727
1993
Wicks, C.W.Jr.Wicks, C.W.Jr., et al.Seismic evidence for the 1200 Km discontinuityAmerican Geophysical Union, EOS, supplement Abstract Volume, October, Vol. 74, No. 43, October 26, abstract p. 550.MantleGeophysics -seismics
DS1989-1349
1989
Wicks, F.J.Schandl, E.S., O'Hanley, D.S., Wicks, F.J.Rodingites in serpentinized ultramafic rocks of the Abitibi Greenstonebelt, OntarioCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 27, No. 4, December pp. 579-592OntarioGreenstone belt, Abitibi, ultramafics
DS201606-1118
2016
Wicks, J.K.Solomatova, N.V., Jackson, J.M., Sturhahn, W., Wicks, J.K., Zhao, J., Toellner, T.S., Kalkan, B., Steinhardt, W.M.Equation of state and spin crossover of ( Mg,Fe)O at high pressure, with implications for explaining topographic relief at the core mantle boundary.American Mineralogist, Vol. 101, 5, pp. 1084-1093.MantleCore, mantle boundary
DS201709-2071
2017
Wicks, J.K.Wicks, J.K., Jackson, J.M., Struhahn, W., Zhang, D.Sound velocity and sensity of magnesiowustites: implications for ultralow velocity zone topography.Geophysics Research Letters, Vol. 44, 5, pp. 2148-2158.Mantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: We explore the effect of Mg/Fe substitution on the sound velocities of iron-rich (Mg1 - xFex)O, where x = 0.84, 0.94, and 1.0. Sound velocities were determined using nuclear resonance inelastic X-ray scattering as a function of pressure, approaching those of the lowermost mantle. The systematics of cation substitution in the Fe-rich limit has the potential to play an important role in the interpretation of seismic observations of the core-mantle boundary. By determining a relationship between sound velocity, density, and composition of (Mg,Fe)O, this study explores the potential constraints on ultralow-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary.
DS1996-1519
1996
Wicks, Jr. C.W.Weber, M., Wicks, Jr. C.W.Reflections from a distant subduction zoneGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, No. 12, June 1, pp. 1453-56.GlobalSubduction
DS1993-0028
1993
Wicks, R.E.Ambroziak, R.A., Cook, C.A., Woodwell, G.R., Wicks, R.E.Computer mapping at your desk that really works.Geological Society of America short course, 50pGlobalBook -table of contents, Computer, mapping
DS1992-0390
1992
Wickstrom, L.H.Drahovzal, J.A., Harris, D.C., Wickstrom, L.H., Walker, D.The East continent rift basin: a new discoveryIndiana Publishing Cincinnati Arch Consortium Special Report, No. 52, 25pIndiana, Kentucky, OhioStructure, Rift Basin
DS1960-0982
1968
Widdowson, J.R.Lovering, J.F., Widdowson, J.R.The Petrological Environment of Magnesium IlmenitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 4, PP. 310-314.Russia, South Africa, Sierra Leone, West Africa, United States, KentuckyGenesis, Kimberlite
DS1997-1250
1997
Widdowson, M.Widdowson, M.Paleosurfaces: recognition, reconstruction and paleoenvironmentalinterpretationGeological Society of London Special Paper, No. 120, 350p. approx. 200.00Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Europe, TurkeySlovakia, India, Sierra Leone, Bolivia, Andes, Book - table of contents
DS1990-0652
1990
Wideman, C.J.Hanneman, D.L., Wideman, C.J.Paleosols: reflectors in continental sequencesGeophysics: The Leading Edge, Vol. 9, No. 11, November pp. 38-40MontanaPaleosols, Geophysics -seismics
DS200812-0279
2008
Widemann, A.Deijanin, B., Simic, D., Zaitsev, A., Chapman, J., Dobrinets, I., Widemann, A., Del Re, N., Middleton, T., Dijanin, E., Se Stefano, A.Characterization of pink diamonds of different origin: natural ( Argyle, non-Argyle), irradiated and annealed, treated with multi-process, coated and synthetic.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 17, 7-10, pp. 1169-1178.AustraliaPink diamonds
DS1996-0333
1996
Widham, C.Davis, B., Widham, C.Statistical control for the production of assay laboratory standardsMining Engineering, Vol. 48, No. 3, March pp. 73-76GlobalSampling standards, Assay quality
DS1997-0437
1997
Widiyantoro, S.Grand, S.P., Van der Hilst, R.D., Widiyantoro, S.Global seismic tomography: a snapshot of convection in the earthGsa Today, Vol. 7, No. 4, April pp. 1-7.GlobalTomography, Geophysics - seismics
DS1997-1191
1997
Widiyantoro, S.Van der Hilst, R.D., Widiyantoro, S., Engdahl, E.R.Evidence for deep mantle circulation from global tomographyNature, Vol. 386, No. 6625, Apr. 10, pp. 578-586.MantleTomography, Geophysics - seismic
DS2001-0345
2001
Widiyantoro, S.Fukao, Y., Widiyantoro, S., Obayahi, M.Stagnant slabs in the upper and lower mantle transition regionReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 39, No. 3, Aug. pp. 291-324.MantleSlabs, Melting, subduction
DS201605-0918
2016
Widlake, A.C. .Widlake, A.C. .Evolution of shaft sinking in the mining industry.Diamonds Still Sparkling SAIMM 2016 Conference, Mar. 14-17, 1p. Abstract onlyAfrica, South AfricaMining - applied
DS1995-1795
1995
Widmer, R.Sobolev, S.V., Widmer, R., Babeyko, A.Yu.3-D temperature and composition in the upper mantle constraint by global seismic tomography/mineral physicsProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 561-563.MantleTomography, Geophysics -seismics
DS2002-1709
2002
Widom, E.Widom, E.Ancient mantle in a modern plumeNature, No. 6913, Nov. 21, p. 281.MantleHot spot
DS2003-1475
2003
Widom, E.Widom, E., Kepezhinskas, P., Defant, M.The nature of metasomatism in the sub-arc mantle wedge: evidence from Re OsChemical Geology, Vol. 196, 1-4, pp. 283-306.RussiaXenoliths
DS200412-2112
2003
Widom, E.Widom, E., Kepezhinskas, P., Defant, M.The nature of metasomatism in the sub-arc mantle wedge: evidence from Re Os isotopes in Kamchatka peridotite xenoliths.Chemical Geology, Vol. 196, 1-4, pp. 283-306.RussiaXenoliths
DS2002-0829
2002
Widon, E.Kepezhinskas, P., Defant, M.J., Widon, E.Abundance and distribution of PGE and au in the Island arc mantle: implications for sub arc metasomatism.Lithos, Vol.60, pp. 113-28.MantleMetasomatism - platinum group elements, Kamchatka Arc
DS1985-0729
1985
Wiebe, R.A.Wiebe, R.A.Proterozoic Basalt Dikes in the Nain Anorthosite Complex, LabradorCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 22, pp. 1149-57.LabradorAnorthosites, Dikes
DS1993-0216
1993
Wiebe, R.A.Carlson, R.W., Wiebe, R.A., Kalamarides, R.I.Isotopic study of basaltic dikes in the Nain Plutonic Suite: evidence for enriched mantle sourcesCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 6, June pp. 1141-1146LabradorDikes
DS1993-1728
1993
Wiebe, R.A.Wiebe, R.A.Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambersEos, Vol. 74, No. 1, January 5, pp. 1, 3GlobalBasalt, Magma
DS1997-1071
1997
Wiebe, R.A.Snyder, D., Crambes, C., Tait, S., Wiebe, R.A.Magma mingling in dikes and sillsJournal of Geology, Vol. 105, No. 1, Jan. pp. 75-86GlobalPetrology - experimental, Composite dikes
DS1992-0755
1992
Wiechert, U.Ionov, D.A., Hoefs, J., Wedepohl, K.H., Wiechert, U.Content and isotopic composition of sulphur in ultramafic xenoliths from central AsiaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 111, pp. 269-286GlobalGeochronology, Xenoliths
DS1993-0718
1993
Wiechert, U.Ionov, D.A., Hoefs, J., Wedepohl, K.H., Wiechert, U.Content of sulfur in different mantle reservoirs - replyEarth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 119, No. 4, October, pp. 635-640.AsiaXenoliths, Mantle
DS1997-1251
1997
Wiechert, U.Wiechert, U., Ionov, K.H.Spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Atsagin Dush volcano, Daringa lavaplateau, Mongolia.. upper mantleContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 345-364.GlobalXenoliths, Metasomatism
DS200812-0699
2008
Wiechert, U.Magna, T., Ionov, D.A., Oberli, F., Wiechert, U.Links between mantle metasomatism and lithium isotopes: evidence from glass bearing and cryptically metasomatized xenoliths from Mongolia.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 276, 1-2, Nov. pp. 214-222.Asia, MongoliaMetasomatism
DS2001-0901
2001
WiedemannPedrosa-Soares, A.C., Noce, C.M., Wiedemann, PintoThe Aracuai West Congo Orogen in Brasil: an overview of a confined orogen formed during Gondwanaland assembly.Precambrian Research, Vol. 110, pp. 307-24.Brazil, RodiniaOrogeny, Tectonics
DS1994-1912
1994
Wiedemann, C.Wiedemann, C., Mendes, J.C., Ludka, I.P.Contamination of mantle magmas by crustal contribution -evidence from the Brasiliano mobile belt.International Symposium Upper Mantle, Aug. 14-19, 1994, Extended abstracts pp. 39-41.Brazil, Rio de JaneiroGeochemistry, Mantle magmas
DS1992-1359
1992
Wiedemann, C.M.Seidensticker, U., Wiedemann, C.M.Geochemistry and origin of lower crustal granulite facies rocks in the Serra do Caparao region, Espirito Santo/Minas GeraisJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 289-298BrazilGeochemistry, Calc-alkaline rocks
DS201112-1120
2011
WiedenbeckWorgard, L., Trumbell, Keiding, Veksler, Wiedenbeck, Wenzel, MarklF, Cl, and S contents of olivine hosted melt inclusions from picritic dike rocks, Etendeka, NW Namibia.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.2177.Africa, NamibiaPicrite
DS2003-0708
2003
Wiedenbeck, M.Keppler, H., Wiedenbeck, M., Shcheka, S.S.Carbon solubility in olivine and mode of carbon storage in the Earth's mantleNature, No. 6947, July 24, pp. 414-15.MantleCarbon
DS200412-0987
2003
Wiedenbeck, M.Keppler, H., Wiedenbeck, M., Shcheka, S.S.Carbon solubility in olivine and mode of carbon storage in the Earth's mantle.Nature, No. 6947, July 24, pp. 414-15.MantleCarbon
DS200612-1279
2006
Wiedenbeck, M.Shcheka, S.S., Wiedenbeck, M., Frost, D.J., Keppler, H.Carbon solubility in mantle minerals.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 245, 3-4, May 30, pp. 730-742.MantleMineral chemistry - carbon
DS200912-0776
2009
Wiedenbeck, M.Trumball, R.B., Yang, J-S., Robinson, P.T., Di Pierro, S., Vennemann, T., Wiedenbeck, M.The carbon isotope composition of natural SiC (moissanite) from the Earth's mantle: new discoveries from ophiolites.Lithos, In press - available 31p.MantleMoissanite
DS201012-0703
2010
Wiedenbeck, M.Shiryaev, A.A.,Wiedenbeck, M., Hainschwang, T.Oxygen in bulk monocrystalline diamonds and its correlations with nitrogen.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Vol. 22, 4, pp. 45801-45806.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS201212-0776
2012
Wiedenbeck, M.Wiedenbeck, M., et al.GGR Biennial critical review: analytical developments since 2010.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press availableTechnologyGeochronology, Isotopic determinations, mass spectrometry
DS201312-0071
2013
Wiedenbeck, M.Bernini, D., Wiedenbeck, M., Dolejs, D., Keppler, H.Partitioning of halogens between mantle minerals and aqueous fluids: implications for the fluid flow regime in subduction zones.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 165, pp. 117-128.MantleMetasomatism, subduction
DS201412-0999
2014
Wiedenbeck, M.Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P.T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A.B., Wirth, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Cliff, J.Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals.Gondwana Research, Vol. 27, 2, pp. 459-485.Asia, TibetUHP ophiolite diamonds
DS201502-0126
2014
Wiedenbeck, M.Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P.T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A.B., Wirth, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Cliff, J.Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals.Gondwana Research, Vol. 27, 2, pp. 459-485.Russia, UralsChromitite
DS201601-0051
2015
Wiedenbeck, M.Yang, J.S., Wirth, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Griffin, W.L., Meng, F.C., Chen, S.Y., Bai, W.J., Xu, X.X., Makeeyev, A.B., Bryanchaniniova, N.I.Diamonds and highly reduced minerals from chromitite of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals: deep origin of podiform chromitites and ophiolitic diamonds.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 89, 2, p. 107.Russia, Polar UralsOphiolite
DS201703-0397
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Ashwal, L.D., Wiedenbeck, M., Torsvik, T.H.Archean zircons in Miocene oceanic hotspot rocks establish ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius.Nature Communications, Jan. 31, doi 10:1038/ncomms1048Africa, MauritiusHot spots

Abstract: A fragment of continental crust has been postulated to underlie the young plume-related lavas of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius based on the recovery of Proterozoic zircons from basaltic beach sands. Here we document the first U-Pb zircon ages recovered directly from 5.7?Ma Mauritian trachytic rocks. We identified concordant Archaean xenocrystic zircons ranging in age between 2.5 and 3.0?Ga within a trachyte plug that crosscuts Older Series plume-related basalts of Mauritius. Our results demonstrate the existence of ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius; based on the entire spectrum of U-Pb ages for old Mauritian zircons, we demonstrate that this ancient crust is of central-east Madagascar affinity, which is presently located ~700?km west of Mauritius. This makes possible a detailed reconstruction of Mauritius and other Mauritian continental fragments, which once formed part of the ancient nucleus of Madagascar and southern India.
DS201710-2276
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Wiedenbeck, M., Lian, D.Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses of diamond and moissanite in ophiolite.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 91, s1, p.44 abstractEurope, Albaniamoissanites

Abstract: The Cameca 1280-HR large geometry SIMS instrument is a highly versatile analytical tool which can support a broad range of geochemical applications. Research using the Potsdam 1280 instrument focuses primarily on isotope ratio determinations in geomaterials. Optimized measurement protocols have already been established for d18O determinations in zircon, and we are also working towards routine oxygen isotope determinations for quartz, calcite, mica, apatite and titanite. The primary challenge in developing such measurement systems are the identification and characterization of suitable reference materials (RMs), and this is made particularly challenging due to the matrix dependent ion yields of the SIMS ion source. Here we wish to report our progress towards establishing new analytical protocols for the determination of d13C in both diamond and moissanite. In the case of diamond, our facility possesses three natural RMs with which we are able to produce data with a typical analytical repeatability of ~0.15 ‰ (1sd). An inter-comparison of our three diamond RMs demonstrates an overall data quality of better than 0.5‰ in terms of systematic offset between the various materials characterized using gas source mass spectrometry (Palot et al., 2012). A single such d13C determination in diamond requires 80 s of data acquisition and involves a test portion mass of ~400 pg of material. In-house diamond reference materials for d15N calibration allow us to measure this isotopic system to a total analytical uncertainty of ± 1.6 ‰ (1sd) at nitrogen concentrations reaching down to 250 µg/g. Due to the relatively low abundance of nitrogen in diamonds, such isotope ratio determinations require around 9 minutes of data collection. With respect to d13C determinations in moissanite, we use a kimberlitic SiC as calibrant (Mathez et al., 1995), on which we achieve a repeatability of ~0.2 ‰ (1sd) on a ~350 pg test portion mass. Total data acquisition time for such measurements is 80 s. We are currently in the process of developing a second moissanite RM based on a synthetic, coarse-grained powder. We will also investigate this new material for its d30Si characteristics.
DS201801-0054
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Reutsky, V.N., Shiryaev, A.A., Titkov, S.V., Wiedenbeck, M., Zudina, N.N.Evidence for large scale fractionation of carbon isotopes and of nitrogen impurity during crystallization of gem quality cubic diamonds from placers of North Yakutia.Geochemistry International, Vol. 55, 11, pp. 988-999.Russia, Yakutiaalluvials

Abstract: The spatial distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes and of nitrogen concentrations is studied in detail in three gem quality cubic diamonds of variety II according to Orlov’s classification. Combined with the data on composition of fluid inclusions our results point to the crystallization of the diamonds from a presumably oxidized carbonate fluid. It is shown that in the growth direction d13C of the diamond becomes systematically lighter by 2-3‰ (from -13.7 to -15.6‰ for one profile and from -11.7 to -14.1‰ for a second profile). Simultaneously, we observe substantial decrease in the nitrogen concentration (from 400-1000 to 10-30 at ppm) and a previously unrecognized enrichment of nitrogen in light isotope, exceeding 30‰. The systematic and substantial changes of the chemical and isotopic composition can be explained using the Burton-Prim-Slichter model, which relates partition coefficients of an impurity with the crystal growth rate. It is shown that changes in effective partition coefficients due to a gradual decrease in crystal growth rate describes fairly well the observed scale of the chemical and isotopic variations if the diamond-fluid partition coefficient for nitrogen is significantly smaller than unity. This model shows that nitrogen isotopic composition in diamond may result from isotopic fractionation during growth and not reflect isotopic composition of the mantle fluid. Furthermore, it is shown that the infra-red absorption at 1332 ?m-1 is an integral part of the Y-defect spectrum. In the studied natural diamonds the 1290 ?m-1 IR absorption band does not correlate with boron concentration.
DS201804-0707
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Kidane, A.T., Koch-Muller, M., Wiedenbeck, M., de Wit, M.J.Tracking sources of selected diamonds from southern Africa based on carbon isotopic and chemical impurities. River Ranch, Swartruggens, Klipspringer, PremierSouth African Journal of Geology, Vol. 120, 3, pp. 371-384.Africa, Zimbabwe, South Africadiamond morphology

Abstract: The morphological, chemical impurities and carbon isotope properties of diamonds may reveal subtle details of their mantle source and growth characteristics, supporting efforts towards identifying their original place of harvesting. Here we investigate the mantle carbon and nitrogen sources and growth patterns from selected diamonds mined from four kimberlites: macro-sized diamonds from River Ranch kimberlite in Zimbabwe and the Swartruggens and Klipspringer kimberlitic deposits from South Africa, and micro-sized diamonds from the Klipspringer and Premier kimberlite intrusions in South Africa. Type IaAB diamonds are found in all the samples; Type IaB diamonds only occur in samples from the Swartruggens, River Ranch and Premier kimberlites. A single Type II diamond (nitrogen below the detection limit) was also observed in the River Ranch and Premier kimberlites. Both the micro- and macro-sized diamonds from Klipspringer have similar nitrogen contents. Based on the % B-defect, the diamonds from Klipspringer are grouped into low- and high-nitrogen aggregates (i.e. % of B-defect <40% and >56%, respectively) that likely represent two different diamond forming episodes. Time averaged mantle storage temperatures for Type IaAB diamonds are calculated to have been: 1060°C for Swartruggens; 1190°C for River Ranch; 1100°C (low aggregated); and 1170°C (highly aggregated) for Klipspringer, and 1210°C for Premier diamonds. The CL-images of the River Ranch, Klipspringer and Premier diamonds reveal multi-oscillatory growth zones. The carbon isotopic analyses on the diamonds reveal an average d13CVPDB value of: -4.5‰ for Swartruggens; -4.7‰ for River Ranch; -4.5‰ for Klipspringer; and -3‰ for Premier. With the exception of the diamond from Premier, the average d13C value of the diamonds are similar to the average d13C value of the mantle (-5‰), which is similar to the occurrence of diamonds in the other kimberlites. The internal carbon isotopic variation of individual diamonds from Swartruggens, Klipspringer and Premier are less than 4‰, which is similar to the variability of most other diamond occurrences reported from elsewhere in the world. Up to 6.7‰ internal carbon isotopic variation was observed in a single diamond from River Ranch. The internal carbon isotopic studies of the diamonds reveal that the primary carbon in the Swartruggens and Klipspringer was derived from an oxidation of CH4-bearing fluid, whereas in the River Ranch the primary carbon was derived from the reduction of carbonate-or CO2-bearing fluids. The Swartruggens diamonds also reveal a secondary carbon sourced from a reduction of CO2- or carbonate-rich fluid or melt. Diamonds from Klipspringer exhibit a cyclic change in d13C values that reflects fluctuation in a complex mantle perturbation system or periodic change in fugacity of the mantle. Based on this study, we conclude that, in principle, a selected range of diamond signatures might be used to fingerprint their origins; especially when linked to their other physical properties such as a low temperature magnetic signature.
DS201804-0754
2018
Wiedenbeck, M.Yoshioka, T., Wiedenbeck, M., Shcheka, S., Keppler, H.Nitrogen solubility in the deep mantle and the origin of Earth's primordial nitrogen budget.Earth and Planteray Science Letters, Vol. 488, pp. 134-143.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: The solubility of nitrogen in the major minerals of the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle (wadsleyite, ringwoodite, bridgmanite, and Ca-silicate perovskite) coexisting with a reduced, nitrogen-rich fluid phase was measured. Experiments were carried out in multi-anvil presses at 14 to 24 GPa and 1100 to 1800?°C close to the Fe-FeO buffer. Starting materials were enriched in 15N and the nitrogen concentrations in run products were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Observed nitrogen (15N) solubilities in wadsleyite and ringwoodite typically range from 10 to 250 µg/g and strongly increase with temperature. Nitrogen solubility in bridgmanite is about 20 µg/g, while Ca-silicate perovskite incorporates about 30 µg/g under comparable conditions. Partition coefficients of nitrogen derived from coexisting phases are DNwadsleyite/olivine = 5.1 ± 2.1, DNringwoodite/wadsleyite = 0.49 ± 0.29, and DNbridgmanite/ringwoodite = 0.24 . Nitrogen solubility in the solid, iron-rich metal phase coexisting with the silicates was also measured and reached a maximum of nearly 1 wt.% 15N at 23 GPa and 1400?°C. These data yield a partition coefficient of nitrogen between iron metal and bridgmanite of DNmetal/bridgmanite?~?98, implying that in a lower mantle containing about 1% of iron metal, about half of the nitrogen still resides in the silicates. The high nitrogen solubility in wadsleyite and ringwoodite may be responsible for the low nitrogen concentrations often observed in ultradeep diamonds from the transition zone. Overall, the solubility data suggest that the transition zone and the lower mantle have the capacity to store at least 33 times the mass of nitrogen presently residing in the atmosphere. By combining the nitrogen solubility data in minerals with data on nitrogen solubility in silicate melts, mineral/melt partition coefficients of nitrogen can be estimated, from which the behavior of nitrogen during magma ocean crystallization can be modeled. Such models show that if the magma ocean coexisted with a primordial atmosphere having a nitrogen partial pressure of just a few bars, several times the current atmospheric mass of nitrogen must have been trapped in the deep mantle. It is therefore plausible that the apparent depletion of nitrogen relative to other volatiles in the near-surface reservoirs reflects the storage of a larger reservoir of nitrogen in the solid Earth. Dynamic exchange between these reservoirs may have induced major fluctuations of bulk atmospheric pressure over Earth's history.
DS201809-2057
2018
Wiedenbeck, M.Lian, D., Yang, J., Wiedenbeck, M., Dilek, Y., Rocholl, A., Wu, W.Carbon and nitrogen isotope, and mineral inclusion studies on the diamonds from the Pozanti-Karsanti chromitite, Turkey. MicrodiamondsContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org:10.1007/ s00410-018-1499-5 19p.Europe, Turkeydiamond inclusions

Abstract: The Pozanti-Karsanti ophiolite (PKO) is one of the largest oceanic remnants in the Tauride belt, Turkey. Micro-diamonds were recovered from the podiform chromitites, and these diamonds were investigated based on morphology, color, cathodoluminescence, nitrogen content, carbon and nitrogen isotopes, internal structure and inclusions. The diamonds recovered from the PKO are mainly mixed-habit diamonds with sectors of different brightness under the cathodoluminescence images. The total d13C range of the PKO diamonds varies between - 18.8 and - 28.4‰, with a principle d13C mode at - 25‰. Nitrogen contents of the diamonds range from 7 to 541 ppm with a mean value of 171 ppm, and the d15N values range from - 19.1 to 16.6‰, with a d15N mode of - 9‰. Stacking faults and partial dislocations are commonly observed in the Transmission Electron Microscopy foils whereas inclusions are rather rare. Combinations of ( Ca0.81Mn0.19)SiO3, NiMnCo-alloy and nanosized, quenched fluid phases were observed as inclusions in the PKO diamonds. We believe that the 13C-depleted carbon signature of the PKO diamonds derived from previously subducted crustal matter. These diamonds may have crystallized from C-saturated fluids in the asthenospheric mantle at depth below 250 km which were subsequently carried rapidly upward by asthenospheric melts.
DS201904-0773
2019
Wiedenbeck, M.Reutsky, V.N., Palyanov, Yu.N., Wiedenbeck, M.Carbon isotope composition of diamond crystals grown via redox mechanism.Geochemistry International, Vol. 56, 13, pp. 1398-1404.Globaldiamond morphology

Abstract: We report the carbon isotope compositions of a set of diamond crystals recovered from an investigation of the experimental interaction of metal iron with Mg-Ca carbonate at high temperature and high pressure. Despite using single carbon source with d13C equal to +0.2‰ VPDB, the diamond crystals show a range of d13C values from -0.5 to -17.1‰ VPDB. Diamonds grown in the metal-rich part of the system are relatively constant in their carbon isotope compositions (from -0.5 to -6.2‰), whereas those diamonds recovered from the carbonate dominated part of the capsule show a much wider range of d13C (from -0.5 to -17.1‰). The experimentally observed distribution of diamond’ d13C using a single carbon source with carbon isotope ratio of marine carbonate is similar to that found in certain classes of natural diamonds. Our data indicate that the d13C distribution in diamonds that resulted from a redox reaction of marine carbonate with reduced mantle material is hardly distinguishable from the d13C distribution of mantle diamonds.
DS201904-0774
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Reutsky, V.N., Palyanov, Yu.N., Wiedenbeck, M.Evidence for large scale fractionation of carbon isotopes and of nitrogen impurity during crystallization of gem quality cubic diamonds from placers of North Yakutia.Geochemistry International, Vol. 55, 11, pp. 988-999.Russia, Yakutiadiamond morphology

Abstract: The spatial distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes and of nitrogen concentrations is studied in detail in three gem quality cubic diamonds of variety II according to Orlov’s classification. Combined with the data on composition of fluid inclusions our results point to the crystallization of the diamonds from a presumably oxidized carbonate fluid. It is shown that in the growth direction d13C of the diamond becomes systematically lighter by 2-3‰ (from -13.7 to -15.6‰ for one profile and from -11.7 to -14.1‰ for a second profile). Simultaneously, we observe substantial decrease in the nitrogen concentration (from 400-1000 to 10-30 at ppm) and a previously unrecognized enrichment of nitrogen in light isotope, exceeding 30‰. The systematic and substantial changes of the chemical and isotopic composition can be explained using the Burton-Prim-Slichter model, which relates partition coefficients of an impurity with the crystal growth rate. It is shown that changes in effective partition coefficients due to a gradual decrease in crystal growth rate describes fairly well the observed scale of the chemical and isotopic variations if the diamond-fluid partition coefficient for nitrogen is significantly smaller than unity. This model shows that nitrogen isotopic composition in diamond may result from isotopic fractionation during growth and not reflect isotopic composition of the mantle fluid. Furthermore, it is shown that the infra-red absorption at 1332 ?m-1 is an integral part of the Y-defect spectrum. In the studied natural diamonds the 1290 ?m-1 IR absorption band does not correlate with boron concentration.
DS201904-0775
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Reutsky, V.N.,Kowalski, P.M., Palyanov, Yu.N., Wiedenbeck, M.Experimental and theoretical evidence for surface induced carbon and nitrogen fractionation during diamond crystallization at high temperatures and high pressures.MDPI Crystals, 14p. Russiadiamond morphology

Abstract: Isotopic and trace element variations within single diamond crystals are widely known from both natural stones and synthetic crystals. A number of processes can produce variations in carbon isotope composition and nitrogen abundance in the course of diamond crystallization. Here, we present evidence of carbon and nitrogen fractionation related to the growing surfaces of a diamond. We document that difference in the carbon isotope composition between cubic and octahedral growth sectors is solvent-dependent and varies from 0.7h in a carbonate system to 0.4h in a metal-carbon system. Ab initio calculations suggest up to 4h instantaneous 13C depletion of cubic faces in comparison to octahedral faces when grown simultaneously. Cubic growth sectors always have lower nitrogen abundance in comparison to octahedral sectors within synthetic diamond crystals in both carbonate and metal-carbon systems. The stability of any particular growth faces of a diamond crystal depends upon the degree of carbon association in the solution. Octahedron is the dominant form in a high-associated solution while the cube is the dominant form in a low-associated solution. Fine-scale data from natural crystals potentially can provide information on the form of carbon, which was present in the growth media.
DS201904-0802
2017
Wiedenbeck, M.Zedgenizov, D., Reutsky, V., Wiedenbeck, M.The carbon and nitrogen isotope characteristics of Type Ib-IaA cuboid diamonds from alluvial placers in the northeastern Siberian platform. MDPI Minerals, 14p. PdfRussiadiamond morphology

Abstract: Cuboid diamonds are particularly common in the placers of the northeastern Siberian platform, but their origin remains unclear. These crystals usually range in color from dark yellow to orange and, more interestingly, are characterized by unusual low aggregated nitrogen impurities (non-aggregated C-center), suggesting a short residence time and/or low temperatures at which they have been stored in the mantle. In order to track possible isotopic signature that could help deciphering cuboid diamond’s crystallization processes, d¹³C values, d¹5N values, and nitrogen concentrations have been determined in situ in three samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas nitrogen aggregation states have been determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The samples fall out of the d¹³C vs. d¹5N field of canonical mantle composition. Different scales of carbon and nitrogen fractionation may produce the observed variations. Alternatively, mixing mantle and crustal material would obscure initial co-variations of d¹³C values with d¹5N or nitrogen content.
DS201906-1319
2018
Wiedenbeck, M.Mallik, A., Li, Y., Wiedenbeck, M.Nitrogen evolution within the Earth's atmosphere-mantle system assessed by recycling in subduction zones.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 482, pp. 556-566.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Understanding the evolution of nitrogen (N) across Earth's history requires a comprehensive understanding of N's behaviour in the Earth's mantle - a massive reservoir of this volatile element. Investigation of terrestrial N systematics also requires assessment of its evolution in the Earth's atmosphere, especially to constrain the N content of the Archaean atmosphere, which potentially impacted water retention on the post-accretion Earth, potentially causing enough warming of surface temperatures for liquid water to exist. We estimated the proportion of recycled N in the Earth's mantle today, the isotopic composition of the primitive mantle, and the N content of the Archaean atmosphere based on the recycling rates of N in modern-day subduction zones. We have constrained recycling rates in modern-day subduction zones by focusing on the mechanism and efficiency of N transfer from the subducting slab to the sub-arc mantle by both aqueous fluids and slab partial melts. We also address the transfer of N by aqueous fluids as per the model of Li and Keppler (2014). For slab partial melts, we constrained the transfer of N in two ways - firstly, by an experimental study of the solubility limit of N in melt (which provides an upper estimate of N uptake by slab partial melts) and, secondly, by the partitioning of N between the slab and its partial melt. Globally, 45-74% of N introduced into the mantle by subduction enters the deep mantle past the arc magmatism filter, after taking into account the loss of N from the mantle by degassing at mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and back-arcs. Although the majority of the N in the present-day mantle remains of primordial origin, our results point to a significant, albeit minor proportion of mantle N that is of recycled origin (% or % of N in the present-day mantle has undergone recycling assuming that modern-style subduction was initiated 4 or 3 billion years ago, respectively). This proportion of recycled N is enough to cause a departure of N isotopic composition of the primitive mantle from today's N of -5‰ to ‰ or ‰. Future studies of Earth's parent bodies based on the bulk Earth N isotopic signature should take into account these revised values for the N composition of the primitive mantle. Also, the Archaean atmosphere had a N partial pressure of 1.4-1.6 times higher than today, which may have warmed the Earth's surface above freezing despite a faint young Sun.
DS201909-2095
2019
Wiedenbeck, M.Thakurdin, Y., Bolhar, R., Horvath, P., Wiedenbeck, M., Rocholl, A.Formation of lower to middle crust of the Wyoming craton, Montana, USA, using evidence from zircon Hf-O isotopic and trace element compositions.Chemical Geology, Vol. 525, pp. 218-244.United States, Montanacraton - Wyoming

Abstract: Coupled oxygen-hafnium isotope and trace element geochemical data were obtained using thirty eight previously dated zircon grains extracted from five mafic to intermediate crustal xenoliths of the Wyoming Craton (Montana, USA). Xenoliths include mid to lower crustal (642-817?°C and 3.5-9.4?kbar) mafic granulites and amphibolites with dominantly Mesoproterozoic (1772-1874?Ma) and minor Paleoproterozoic to Late Archean (2004-2534?Ma) 207Pb/206Pb zircon ages. Zircon oxygen isotope data indicate derivation from melts in equilibrium with a mantle source that interacted with limited supracrustal material (d18O?=?4.4-5.7‰), as well as the incorporation of supracrustal fluids or melts into mantle source regions (d18O?=?6.0-8.1‰). The small within-sample isotopic variability suggests that primary zircon did not exchange with isotopically distinct fluids or melts after initial formation. Initial zircon Hf isotopic values are highly variable across all xenoliths (eHf?=?+3.7 to -17.6), consistent with protolith derivation from mantle sources that incorporated evolved, unradiogenic material or were modified by subduction-related fluids. Within a single granulite xenolith, two zircon types are recognized based on CL imagery, Hf isotopes and U-Pb ages (Type I and Type II). Type I magmatic zircons show dispersed ages (ca. 1700-2534?Ma) and unradiogenic initial Hf (eHf?=?-17.6 to -1.5, 176Hf/177Hf?=?0.281074-0.281232). The spread in ages and initial eHf, but narrow range in initial 176Hf/177Hf, points to variable Pb loss in response to dissolution-recrystallization of pre-existing zircon. Type II metamorphic zircon yields a younger Proterozoic population (ca. 1700-2155?Ma) with more radiogenic initial Hf relative to Type I zircon (eHf?=?-7.9 to +1.4, 176Hf/177Hf?=?0.281427-0.281578); this type represents newly grown metamorphic zircon that formed in the solid-state and incorporated Zr and Hf from pre-existing zircon and silicate matrix/metamorphic phases. REE patterns from all xenoliths are steep and positively sloping without discernible HREE depletion relative to LREE, implying zircon crystallization/recrystallization in the absence of garnet. Negative Eu anomalies signify simultaneous zircon and feldspar crystallization. Solid-state recrystallization may have lead to variations in LREE, Eu and Ce in certain xenoliths. Xenoliths containing magmatic zircon (1834?±?19?Ma) with mantle-like d18O (4.4-5.5‰) and radiogenic initial eHf (-2.3 to +3.7) likely formed through crystallization of melts derived from a mantle source that incorporated minor amounts of subducted sedimentary/supracrustal material. Proterozoic (1874?±?8?Ma) xenoliths with elevated d18O (6.0-7.0‰) and unradiogenic initial eHf (-8.2 to -9.6) within magmatic zircon represent melt products of subduction-induced melting and metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge in the vicinity of the northern GFTZ. Older (ca. 2534?Ma) xenoliths containing zircons with elevated d18O (6.4-7.2‰) and unradiogenic eHf (up to -17.6) represent crystallization of protolith magmas extracted from a mantle source metasomatized by subduction-derived fluids and melts in the Late Archean or earlier. Zircon geochronology and isotope systematics within Mesoproterozoic xenoliths support a model of ocean-closure and subsequent continental collision between the Medicine Hat Block and Wyoming Craton, resulting in the formation of subduction-related melts at ca. 1834-1874?Ma, followed by ca. 1770?Ma collision-related metamorphism thereafter.
DS201912-2818
2018
Wiedenbeck, M.Reutsky, V.N., Palynaov, Yu.N., Wiedenbeck, M.Carbon isotope composition of diamond crystals grown via redox mechanism.Geochemistry International, Vol. 56, 13, pp. 1398-1404.Mantleredox

Abstract: We report the carbon isotope compositions of a set of diamond crystals recovered from an investigation of the experimental interaction of metal iron with Mg-Ca carbonate at high temperature and high pressure. Despite using single carbon source with d13C equal to +0.2‰ VPDB, the diamond crystals show a range of d13C values from -0.5 to -17.1‰ VPDB. Diamonds grown in the metal-rich part of the system are relatively constant in their carbon isotope compositions (from -0.5 to -6.2‰), whereas those diamonds recovered from the carbonate dominated part of the capsule show a much wider range of d13C (from -0.5 to -17.1‰). The experimentally observed distribution of diamond’ d13C using a single carbon source with carbon isotope ratio of marine carbonate is similar to that found in certain classes of natural diamonds. Our data indicate that the d13C distribution in diamonds that resulted from a redox reaction of marine carbonate with reduced mantle material is hardly distinguishable from the d13C distribution of mantle diamonds.
DS202003-0338
2020
Wiedenbeck, M.Franz, G., Vyshnevsky, O., Taran, M., Khomenko, V., Wiedenbeck, M., Schiperski, F., Nissen, J.A new emerald occurrence from Kruta Balka, western Peri-Azovian, Ukraine: implications for understanding the crystal chemistry of emerald.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 162-181. pdfEurope, Ukraineemerald

Abstract: We investigated emerald, the bright-green gem variety of beryl, from a new locality at Kruta Balka, Ukraine, and compare its chemical characteristics with those of emeralds from selected occurrences worldwide (Austria, Australia, Colombia, South Africa, Russia) to clarify the types and amounts of substitutions as well as the factors controlling such substitutions. For selected crystals, Be and Li were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, which showed that the generally assumed value of 3 Be atoms per formula unit (apfu) is valid; only some samples such as the emerald from Kruta Balka deviate from this value (2.944 Be apfu). An important substitution in emerald (expressed as an exchange vector with the additive component Al2Be3Si6O18) is (Mg,Fe2+)NaAl1?1, leading to a hypothetical end-member NaAl(Mg,Fe2+)[Be3Si6O18] called femag-beryl with Na occupying a vacancy position (?) in the structural channels of beryl. Based on both our results and data from the literature, emeralds worldwide can be characterized based on the amount of femag-substitution. Other minor substitutions in Li-bearing emerald include the exchange vectors LiNa2Al1?2 and LiNaBe1?1, where the former is unique to the Kruta Balka emeralds. Rarely, some Li can also be situated at a channel site, based on stoichiometric considerations. Both Cr- and V-distribution can be very heterogeneous in individual crystals, as shown in the samples from Kruta Balka, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe. Nevertheless, taking average values available for emerald occurrences, the Cr/(Cr+V) ratio (Cr#) in combination with the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio (Mg#) and the amount of femag-substitution allows emerald occurrences to be characterized. The "ultramafic" schist-type emeralds with high Cr# and Mg# come from occur-rences where the Fe-Mg-Cr-V component is controlled by the presence of ultramafic meta-igneous rocks. Emeralds with highly variable Mg# come from "sedimentary" localities, where the Fe-Mg-Cr-V component is controlled by metamorphosed sediments such as black shales and carbonates. A "transitional" group has both metasediments and ultramafic rocks as country rocks. Most "ultramafic" schist type occurrences are characterized by a high amount of femag-component, whereas those from the "sedimentary" and "transitional" groups have low femag contents. Growth conditions derived from the zoning pattern combined replacement, sector, and oscillatory zoning in the Kruta Balka emeralds indicate disequilibrium growth from a fluid along with late-stage Na-infiltration. Inclusions in Kruta Balka emeralds (zircon with up to 11 wt% Hf, tourmaline, albite, Sc-bearing apatite) point to a pegmatitic origin.
DS201707-1383
2017
Wiedendorfer, D.Wiedendorfer, D., Schmidt, M.W., Mattsson B.A common origin of carbonatite magmas. Oldoinyo LengaiGeology, Vol. 45, 6, pp. 507-510.Africa, Tanzaniacarbonatite

Abstract: The more than 500 fossil Ca-carbonatite occurrences on Earth are at odds with the only active East African Rift carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), which produces Na-carbonatite magmas. The volcano’s recent major explosive eruptions yielded a mix of nephelinitic and carbonatite melts, supporting the hypothesis that carbonatites and spatially associated peralkaline silicate lavas are related through liquid immiscibility. Nevertheless, previous eruption temperatures of Na-carbonatites were 490–595 °C, which is 250–450 °C lower than for any suitable conjugate silicate liquid. This study demonstrates experimentally that moderately alkaline Ca-carbonatite melts evolve to Na-carbonatites through crystal fractionation. The thermal barrier of the synthetic Na-Ca-carbonate system, held to preclude an evolution from Ca-carbonatites to Na-carbonatites, vanishes in the natural system, where continuous fractionation of calcite + apatite leads to Na-carbonatites, as observed at Oldoinyo Lengai. Furthermore, saturating the Na-carbonatite with minerals present in possible conjugate nephelinites yields a parent carbonatite with total alkali contents of 8–9 wt%, i.e., concentrations that are realistic for immiscible separation from nephelinitic liquids at 1000–1050 °C. Modeling the liquid line of descent along the calcite surface requires a total fractionation of ~48% calcite, ~12% apatite, and ~2 wt% clinopyroxene. SiO2 solubility only increases from 0.2 to 2.9 wt% at 750–1200 °C, leaving little leeway for crystallization of silicates. The experimental results suggest a moderately alkaline parent to the Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites and therefore a common origin for carbonatites related to alkaline magmatism.
DS202010-1884
2020
Wiedendorfer, D.Wiedendorfer, D., Manning, C.E., Schmidt, M.W.Carbonate melts in the hydrous upper mantle.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org/10.1007/ s00410-020-01708 17p. Pdf Mantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonatite compositions resulting from melting of magnesian calcite?+?olivine?+?clinopyroxene were experimentally determined in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2-H2O as a function of temperature and bulk H2O contents at 1.0 and 1.5 GPa. The melting reaction and melt compositions were found to be highly sensitive to H-loss or -gain during experiments. We hence designed a new hydrogen-trap technique, which provided sufficient control to obtain consistent results. The nominally dry solidus temperatures at 1.0 and 1.5 GPa are 1225-1250 °C and 1275-1300 °C, respectively. At 1.0 GPa, the solidus temperature decreases with H2O increasing to 3.5 wt% (1025-1050 °C), then remains approximately constant at higher H2O concentrations. Our nominally dry solidus temperatures are up to 140 °C higher than in previous studies that did not take measures to limit hydrogen infiltration and hence suffered from H2O formation in the capsule. The near-solidus anhydrous melts have 7-8 wt% SiO2 and molar Ca/(Ca?+?Mg) of 0.78-0.82 (XCa). Melting temperatures decrease by as much as 200 °C with increasing XH2O in the coexisting COH-fluid. Concomitantly, near-solidus melt compositions change with increasing bulk H2O from siliceous Ca-rich carbonate melts to Mg-rich silico-carbonatites with up to 27.8 wt% SiO2 and 0.55 XCa. The continuous compositional array of Ca-Mg-Si carbonatites demonstrates the efficient suppression of liquid immiscibility in the alkali-free system. Diopside crystallization was found to be sensitive to temperature and bulk water contents, limiting metasomatic transformation of carbonated upper mantle to wehrlite at 1.0-1.5 GPa to?
DS200612-0677
2006
Wiedenmann, D.Keller, J., Zaitsev, A.N., Wiedenmann, D.Primary magmas at Oldoinyo Lengai: the role of olivine melilitites.Lithos, in press availableAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite, magmatism, geochronology
DS200612-0678
2006
Wiedenmann, D.Keller, J., Zaitsev, A.N., Wiedenmann, D.Primary magmas at Oldoinyo Lengai: the role of olivine melilites.Lithos, In press available,Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite, natrocarbonatite, mineralogy
DS200912-0813
2009
Wiedenmann, D.Wiedenmann, D., Keller, J., Zaitsev, A.N.Occurrence and compositional variation of high Na Al melilites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania.alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201012-0847
2010
Wiedenmann, D.Wiedenmann, D., Keller, J., Zaitsev, A.N.Melilite group minerals at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania.Lithos, in press available not formatted 23p.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS1990-0470
1990
Wieduwilt, W.G.Fink, J.B., Sternberg, B.K., McAlister, E.O., Wieduwilt, W.G.Induced polarization. Applications and case studiesSociety of Exploration Geophysicists, Vol. 4, 414pGlobalBook -table of contents, Geophysics -IP
DS200712-0603
2007
Wieland, P.Le Roux, V., Bodinier, J-L., Alard, O., Wieland, P., O'Reilly, S.Y.Insights into refertilization processes in lithospheric mantle from integrated isotopic studies in the Lherz Massif.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A563.Europe, FranceMelting
DS201312-0403
2013
Wieland, P.Howell, D., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Powell, W., Wieland, P., O'Reilly, S.Y.Trace element partitioning in mixed habit diamonds.Chemical Geology, Vol. 355, pp. 134-143.TechnologyCrystallography
DS200612-1528
2006
Wieland, P.R.Wieland, P.R., Beyer, E., Jackson, S.E., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y.Evaluation of a method of the separation of Ni in geological samples.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 19 abstract only.TechnologyGeochemistry - nickel
DS201212-0777
2012
Wiellicki, M.M.Wiellicki, M.M., Harrison, T.M., Schmitt, A.K.Geochemical signatures and magmatic stability of terrestrial impact produced zircons.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 321-322, pp. 20-31.MantleImpact structures
DS201806-1260
2018
Wiemar, D.Wiemar, D., Schrank, C.E., Murphy, D.T., Wenham, L., Allen, C.M.Earth's oldest stable crust in the Pilbara craton formed by cyclic gravitational overturns.Nature , Vol. 11, 5, pp. 357-361.Australiageophysics

Abstract: During the early Archaean, the Earth was too hot to sustain rigid lithospheric plates subject to Wilson Cycle-style plate tectonics. Yet by that time, up to 50% of the present-day continental crust was generated. Preserved continental fragments from the early Archaean have distinct granite-dome/greenstone-keel crust that is interpreted to be the result of a gravitationally unstable stratification of felsic proto-crust overlain by denser mafic volcanic rocks, subject to reorganization by Rayleigh-Taylor flow. Here we provide age constraints on the duration of gravitational overturn in the East Pilbara Terrane. Our U-Pb ages indicate the emplacement of ~3,600-3,460-million-year-old granitoid rocks, and their uplift during an overturn event ceasing about 3,413?million years ago. Exhumation and erosion of this felsic proto-crust accompanied crustal reorganization. Petrology and thermodynamic modelling suggest that the early felsic magmas were derived from the base of thick (~43?km) basaltic proto-crust. Combining our data with regional geochronological studies unveils characteristic growth cycles on the order of 100?million years. We propose that maturation of the early crust over three of these cycles was required before a stable, differentiated continent emerged with sufficient rigidity for plate-like behaviour.
DS1993-1261
1993
Wiemer, H-J.Priester, M., Wiemer, H-J.Diamond mining in the Central African Republic. (in German)Erzmetall., (in German), Vol. April pp. 226-239.Central African RepublicMining
DS2002-0698
2002
WiensHelffrich, G., Wiens, Vera, Barrientos, Shore ..A teleseismic shear wave splitting study to investigate mantle flow around South AfricaGeophysical Journal International, Vol.149,1,pp.F1-7., Vol.149,1,pp.F1-7.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-0699
2002
WiensHelffrich, G., Wiens, Vera, Barrientos, Shore ..A teleseismic shear wave splitting study to investigate mantle flow around South AfricaGeophysical Journal International, Vol.149,1,pp.F1-7., Vol.149,1,pp.F1-7.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS1994-1913
1994
Wiens, D.A.Wiens, D.A., McGuire, J.J., et al.A deep earthquake aftershock sequence and implications for the rupture mechanism of deep earthquakesNature, Vol. 372, Dec. 8, pp. 540-543MantleTectonics
DS2003-0892
2003
Wiens, D.A.Maurice, S.D.R., Wiens, D.A., Koper, K.D., Vera, E.Crustal and upper mantle structure of southernmost South America inferred fromJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 08, 2, 10.1029/2001JB0001828.Asia, MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-1250
2003
Wiens, D.A.Maurice, S.D.R., Wiens, D.A., Koper, K.D., Vera, E.Crustal and upper mantle structure of southernmost South America inferred from regional waveform inversion.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 08, 2, 10.1029/2001 JB0001828.AsiaGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-1254
2008
Wiens, D.A.Wiens, D.A., Condor, J.A., Faul, U.H.The seismic structure and dynamics of the mantle wedge.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 36, May, pp. 421-455.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-0858
2011
Wiens, D.A.Reusch, A.M., Nyblade, A.A., Tibi, R., Wiens, D.A., Shore, P.J., Bekoa, A., Tabod, C.T., Mnange, J.M.Mantle transition zone thickness beneath Cameroon: evidence for an upper mantle origin for the Cameroon Volcanic Line.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 187, 3, pp.1146-1150.Africa, CameroonMantle zone
DS201212-0055
2012
Wiens, D.A.Barcheck, C.G., Wiens, D.A., VanKeken, P.E., Hacker, B.R.The relationship of intermediate and deep focus seismicity to the hydration and dehydration of subducting slabs.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 349-350 pp. 153-160.MantleSubduction
DS201212-0362
2012
Wiens, D.A.Koch, F.W., Wiens, D.A., Nyblade, A.A., Nyblade, P.J.Upper mantle anisotropy beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo Craton from shear wave splitting measurements.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 190, 1, pp. 75-86.Africa, CameroonGeophysics - seismics
DS201212-0363
2012
Wiens, D.A.Koch, F.W., Wiens, D.A., Nyblade, A.A., Shore, P.J., Tibi, R., Ateba, B., Tabod, C.T., Nnange, J.M.Upper mantle anisotropy beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo Craton from shear wave splitting measurements.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableAfrica, CameroonGeophysics - seismics
DS201801-0050
2017
Wiens, D.A.Pratt, M.J., Wysession, M.E., Aleqabi, G., Wiens, D.A., Nyblade, A., Shore, P., Rambolamanana, G., Andriampenomanana, F., Rakotondraibe, T., Tucker, R.D., Barruol, G., Rindraharisaona, E.Shear velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle of Madagascar derived from surface wave tomography.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 458, 1, pp.405-417.Africa, Madagascargeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The crust and upper mantle of the Madagascar continental fragment remained largely unexplored until a series of recent broadband seismic experiments. An island-wide deployment of broadband seismic instruments has allowed the first study of phase velocity variations, derived from surface waves, across the entire island. Late Cenozoic alkaline intraplate volcanism has occurred in three separate regions of Madagascar (north, central and southwest), with the north and central volcanism active until <1 Ma, but the sources of which remains uncertain. Combined analysis of three complementary surface wave methods (ambient noise, Rayleigh wave cross-correlations, and two-plane-wave) illuminate the upper mantle down to depths of 150 km. The phase-velocity measurements from the three methods for periods of 8-182 s are combined at each node and interpolated to generate the first 3-D shear-velocity model for sub-Madagascar velocity structure. Shallow (upper 10 km) low-shear-velocity regions correlate well with sedimentary basins along the west coast. Upper mantle low-shear-velocity zones that extend to at least 150 km deep underlie the north and central regions of recent alkali magmatism. These anomalies appear distinct at depths <100 km, suggesting that any connection between the zones lies at depths greater than the resolution of surface-wave tomography. An additional low-shear velocity anomaly is also identified at depths 50-150 km beneath the southwest region of intraplate volcanism. We interpret these three low-velocity regions as upwelling asthenosphere beneath the island, producing high-elevation topography and relatively low-volume magmatism.
DS1990-1556
1990
Wiens, R.Wiens, R., Lal, D., Craig, H.Helium and carbon isotopes in Indian diamondsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 54, pp. 2587-2591IndiaGeochronology, Diamond inclusions - H and
DS1989-1624
1989
Wiens, R.C.Wiens, R.C., Lai, D., Craig, H.Helium and carbon isotope ratios in Indian diamondsEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1411. AbstractIndiaGeochronology, Diamond
DS1994-1914
1994
Wiens, R.C.Wiens, R.C., Lai, D., Rison, W., Wacker, J.F.Helium isotope diffusion in natural diamondsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 58, No. 7, April pp. 1747-1758.GlobalDiamond morphology, Natural diamonds
DS1950-0272
1956
Wier, K.L.Gair, J.E., Wier, K.L.Geology of the Kiernan Qaudrangle, Iron County, MichiganUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 1044, 88P.United States, Michigan, Great LakesRegional Geology
DS1998-1578
1998
Wiersberg, T.Wiersberg, T., Niedermann, S., Erzinger, J. Levsky.Geochronology and noble gas isotope signatures of kimberlites and lamproites of the Baltic Shield.Mineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 1656-7.Russia, Baltic Shield, KolaLamproites, Geochornology
DS1991-0950
1991
Wierzchov, W.Lang, A.R., Moore, M., Makepeace, A.P., Wierzchov, W.On the dilation of synthetic type 1B diamond by substitutional nitrogenimpurityPhil. Transactions Roy. A., Vol. A 337, No. 1648, Dec. 16, pp. 497-520GlobalDiamond synthesis, Nitrogen impurity
DS1993-1729
1993
Wiese, D.Wiese, D.Scientific visualization and nondestructive evaluation... productivity tools for scientists and engineersMdc Geological Consultants Ltd, 2p. overview of seminarGlobalNondestructive evaluation, Sampling procedures -metals, industrials, diamonds
DS1994-1554
1994
Wiese, D.Schulze, D., Wiese, D., Steude, J.Abundance and distribution of diamonds in eclogite revealed by volume visualization of CT x-ray scans. #1Scientific Visualization for the Geosciences, seminar October 19, 1993, pp. 20-25.South AfricaEclogite, Scanning -diamonds
DS1996-1265
1996
Wiese, D.Schulze, D.J., Wiese, D., Steude, J.Abundance and distribution of diamonds in eclogite revealed by volume visualization of CT X-ray scans. #3Journal of Geology, Vol. 104, No. 1, pp. 109-114.South AfricaEclogite, CT X-ray scans
DS1996-1537
1996
Wiese, R.G.Wiese, R.G., Edgar, A.D., Barnett, R.L.Textural and compositional variations in phlogopite and biotite In kimberlite from Fayette County, Kimb. magmaNeues Jahrb. fur Mineralogie, Abhandl., Vol. 170, No. 2, pp. 111-126.United States, PennsylvaniaKimberlite magma, Petrology
DS2003-1365
2003
Wiesli, R.Taylor, L.A., Snyder, G.A., Keller, R., Remley, D.A., Anand. M., Wiesli, R.Petrogenesis of Group A eclogites and websterites: evidence from the ObnazhennayaContributions Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol.Russia, YakutiaPetrology, genesis, Deposit - Obnazhennaya
DS2003-1366
2003
Wiesli, R.Taylor, L.A., Spetsius, Z.A., Wiesli, R., Anand, M., Promprated, P., Valley, J.The origin of mantle peridotites: crustal signatures from Yakutian kimberlites8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 4, POSTER abstractRussia, YakutiaMantle geochemistry
DS200412-1974
2003
Wiesli, R.Taylor, L.A., Snyder, G.A., Keller, R., Remley, D.A., Anand,M., Wiesli, R., Valley, J., Sobolev, N.V.Petrogenesis of Group A eclogites and websterites: evidence from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Yakutia.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 145, pp. 424-443.Russia, YakutiaPetrology, genesis Deposit - Obnazhennaya
DS200612-1418
2005
Wiesli, R.Taylor, L.A., Spetsius, Z.V., Wiesli, R., Spicuzza, M., Valley, J.W.Diamondiferous peridotites from oceanic protoliths: crustal signatures from Yakutian.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 46, 12, pp. 1176-1184.RussiaPeridotite - diamond morphology
DS2001-1234
2001
Wiesli, R.A.Wiesli, R.A., Taylor, L., Valley, Tromsdorff, KurosawaGeochemistry of eclogites and metapelites from Trescolmen: as observed from major and trace elements..International Geology Review, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 95-119.AlpsEcolgites, Geochemistry
DS1997-0679
1997
Wigen, K.E.Lewis, M.W., Wigen, K.E.The myth of continents. a critique of metageographyUniversity of of California Press, $ 20.00GlobalBook - ad, Continents - geography
DS1993-1300
1993
Wigger, P.J.Reutter, K.J., Scheuber, E., Wigger, P.J.Tectonics of the southern Central AndesSpringer Verlag, 300p. plus 3 maps, approx. $ 260.00Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, AndesTable of contents, Structure, tectonics, sedimentology, metallogeny
DS200612-0226
2006
WiggersCarswell, D.A., Van Roermund, H.L.M., De Vries, D.F., WiggersScandian ultrahigh pressure metamorphism of Protereozoic basement rocks on Fjortoft and Otroy, western Gneiss region, Norway.International Geology Review, Vol. 48, 11, pp. 957-977.Europe, NorwayUHP
DS200812-1196
2008
Wiggers de Vries, D.Ushkov, V.V., Ustinov, V.N., Smith, C.B., Bulanova, G.P., Lukyanova, L.I., Wiggers de Vries, D., PearsonKimozero, Karelia: a Diamondiferous paleoproterozoic metamorphosed volcaniclastic kimberlite.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussia, KareliaDeposit - Kimozero
DS200612-0314
2006
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Davies, G.R., Morel, M.L.A., Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Robey, J.A.Origin of Diamondiferous spinel harzburgite.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1. abstract only.Africa, South AfricaMineral chemistry
DS200912-0722
2009
Wiggers De Vries, D.F.Spetsius, Z.V., Wiggers De Vries, D.F., Davies, G.R.Combined C isotope and geochemical evidence for a recycled origin for Diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths from kimberlites of Yakutia.Lithos, In press availableRussia, YakutiaGeochronology, geochemistry
DS201012-0531
2009
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Nebel, O., Vroon, P.Z., Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Jenner, F.E., Mavrogenes, J.A.Tungsten isotopes as tracers of core mantle interactions: the influence of subducted sediments.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 74, 2, pp. 751-761.MantleSubduction
DS201012-0848
2010
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Drury, M.R., De Winter, D.A.M., Bulanova, G.P., Pearson, D.G., Davies, G.R.Three dimensional cathodluminescence imaging and electron backscatter diffraction: tools for studying the genetic nature of diamond inclusions.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 15p.TechnologyDiamond inclusions
DS201112-0231
2011
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Drury, M.R., de Winter, D.A.M., Bulanova, G.P., Pearson, D.G., Davies, G.R.Three dimensional cathodluminescence imaging and electron backscatter diffraction: tools for studying the genetic nature of diamond inclusions.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 161, 4, pp. 565-579.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201212-0097
2012
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Bulanova, G.P., Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Beard, A., Pearson, D.G., Mikhail, S.S., Smelov, A.P., Davies, G.R.Two stage origin of eclogitic diamonds recorded by a single crystal from the Mir pipe, Yakutia.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Mir
DS201212-0778
2012
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Harris, J.W., Pearson, D.G., Davies, G.R.Re-Os isotope constraints on the ages of diamonds from Mwadui, Tanzania.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, TanzaniaDeposit - Mwadui
DS201312-0970
2013
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Pearson, D.G., Bulanova, G.P., Smelov, A.P., Pavlushin, A.D., Davies, G.R.Re-Os dating of sulphide inclusions zonally distributed in single Yakutian diamonds: evidence for multiple episodes of Proterozoic formation and protracted timescales of diamond growth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 120, pp. 363-394.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Mir, 23, Udachnaya
DS201412-0082
2014
Wiggers de Vries, D.F.Bulanova, G.P., Wiggers de Vries, D.F., Pearson, D.G., Beard, A., Mikhail, S., Smelov, A.P., Davies, G.R.An eclogitic diamond from Mir pipe (Yakutia), recording two growth events from different isotopic sources.Chemical Geology, Vol. 381, pp. 40-54.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Mir
DS201212-0779
2012
Wigginton, N.S.Wigginton, N.S.Hitching a ride into the mantle. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, L17301MantleConvection
DS201312-0971
2013
Wigginton, N.S.Wigginton, N.S.The Nd of the innocence.Science, Vol. 340, 6137, June 7, 1p.MantleGeodynamics
DS201312-0972
2013
Wigginton, N.S.Wigginton, N.S.Reconstructing plate tectonics.Science, Vol. 341, no. 6152, p. 1321. Sept. 20MantleConvection, composition
DS1990-0776
1990
Wigley, T.M.L.Jones, P.D., Wigley, T.M.L.Global warming trendsScientific American, Vol. 263, No. 2, August pp. 84-91GlobalGlobal climate, Future
DS1997-0499
1997
Wignall, P.Hellam, A., Wignall, P.Mass extinctions and their aftermathOxford University of Press, 320p. $ 85.00GlobalBook - ad, Extinctions - review of evidence
DS2001-1235
2001
Wignall, P.B.Wignall, P.B.Large igneous provinces and mass extinctionsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, pp. 1-33.GlobalBasalts - flood
DS1992-1662
1992
Wiig, S.Wiig, S.Developing an automated drill hole dat a base and analysis systemMining Engineering, Vol. 44, No. 11, November pp. 1341-1343GlobalComputer, Program -drill data base system
DS200812-0704
2008
Wiitig, N.Malarkey, J., Pearson, D.G., Davidson, J.P., Wiitig, N.Origins of Cr diopside in peridotite xenoliths.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A588.Europe, Greenland, Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Kimberley
DS200812-1156
2008
Wiitinger, G.Tauzin, B., Debayle, E., Wiitinger, G.The mantle transition zone as seen by global Pds phases: no clear evidence for a thin transition zone beneath hotspots.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, B8309.MantleHotspots
DS1999-0797
1999
WijbransWilligers, B.J.A., Mengel, F.C., Bridgewater, WijbransMafic dike swarms as absolute time markers in high grade terranes: 40Ar39Ar geochronological constraintsGeology, Vol. 27, No. 9, Sept. pp. 775-8.GreenlandKangamiut dikes, Geochronology
DS201312-0973
2013
Wijbrans, C.H.Wijbrans, C.H., Klemme, S., Rohrbach, A.Experimental study of majorite stability in chromium rich garnets.Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractTechnologyGarnet
DS201606-1129
2016
Wijbrans, C.H.Wijbrans, C.H., Rohrbach, A., Klemme, S.An experimental investigation of the stability of majoritic garnet in the Earth's mantle and improved majorite geobarometer.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 171, pp. 51-MantleGeobarometry

Abstract: The stability of the majorite component in garnet has been experimentally investigated at high pressure and high temperature, focusing on the effect of bulk composition and temperature. High-pressure experiments were performed in a multi-anvil apparatus, at pressures ranging from 6 to 14.5 GPa, and temperatures between 1400 and 1700 °C. Experiments were performed in a range of bulk compositions in the system SiO2-Al2O3-Cr2O3-CaO-MgO with varying Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios. The majorite content of garnet gradually increases with pressure, and the composition of the garnet, specifically the Cr/(Cr + Al) ratio, exerts a significant effect on the majorite substitution. We found no significant effect of temperature. We use the experimental results in combination with the literature data to derive two empirical geobarometers, which can be used to determine the equilibration pressure of natural majoritic garnets of peridotitic and eclogitic bulk compositions. The barometer for peridotitic compositions is P=-77.1+27.6×Si+1.67×Cr And the barometer for eclogitic compositions is P=-29.6+11.8×Si+7.81×Na+4.49×Ca.
DS2002-1170
2002
Wijbrans, J.R.O'Connor, J.M., Stoffer, P., Wijbrans, J.R.Pulsing of a focused mantle plume. Evidence from the distribution of Foundation Chain hotspot volcanism.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29,9,May 1, p. 64-GlobalMantle plumes - not specific to diamonds
DS200612-0748
2006
Wijbrans, J.R.Kuiper, K.F., Krijgsman, W., Garces, M., Wijbrans, J.R.Revised isotopic (40 Ar 29 Ar) age for the lamproite volcano of Cabezos Negros, Fortuna Basin, eastern Beltics, SE Spain).Paleogeography Paleoclimatology Paleoecology, Vol. 238, 1-4, pp. 53-63.Europe, SpainLamproite
DS200612-1117
2006
Wijbrans, J.R.Qiu, H-N., Wijbrans, J.R.Paleozoic ages and excess 40 Ar in garnets from the Bixiling eclogite in DabieShan, China: new insights from 40Ar 39Ar dating by stepwise crushing.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In pressAsia, ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS200612-1529
2006
Wijbrans, J.R.Wijbrans, J.R., Qiu, H.N.Dabie Shan UHP garnets dated by 40 Ar 39 Ar stepwise crushing: more early Paleozoic ages.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 21, abstract only.ChinaUHP, geochronology
DS200812-0484
2008
Wijbrans, J.R.Hopp, J., Trieloff, M., Brey, G.P., Woodland, A.B., Simon, N.S.C., Wijbrans, J.R., Siebel, W., Reitter, E.40 Ar 39 Ar ages of phlogopite in mantle xenoliths from South African kimberlites: evidence for metasomatic mantle impregnation during Kilbaran orogenic cycle.Lithos, Vol. 106, no. 3-4, pp. 351-364.Africa, South Africa, LesothoDeposit - Bultfontein, Letseng, Liqhobong
DS1996-0710
1996
Wijbrans, J.W.Kamber, B.S., Biino, G.G., Wijbrans, J.W., et al.Archean granulites of the Limpopo Belt, Zimbabwe: one slow exhumation or two rapid events?Tectonics, Vol. 15, No. 6, Dec. pp. 1414-1430ZimbabweLimpopo Belt, Tectonics, Mantle, Northern Marginal Zone, metamorphism
DS1975-0893
1978
Wijesekera, N.Wijesekera, N.First Diamond Factory in Sri LankaLapidary Journ., Vol. 32, No. 7, OCTOBER PP. 1530-1531.Sri LankaDiamond Cutting
DS201412-0750
2014
Wijnrans, C.H.Rohrbach, A., Ghosh, S., Schmidt, M.W., Wijnrans, C.H., Klemme, S.The stability of Fe-Ni carbides in the Earth's mantle: evidence for a low Fe-Ni-C melt fraction in the deep mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 388, pp. 211-221.MantleMelting - mentions diamond
DS1992-1731
1992
Wikrama, A.Zeintek, M.L., Pardiarto, B., Simandjuntak, H.R.W., Wikrama, A.Placer and lode platinum group minerals in South Kalimantan, Indonesia:Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 3, Part 2, July pp. 405-418Indonesia, KalimantanAlluvials -not specific to diamonds, Ultramafics
DS1999-0521
1999
Wikstrom, A.Ohlander, B., Wikstrom, A.The Archean Proterozooic paleoboundary in the Lulea area, northern Sweden:field and isotope geochemistryPrecambrian Research, Vol. 96, 3-4, July pp, 228-44.SwedenTerrane boundary, Geochronology
DS2002-0791
2002
Wikstrom, A.Juhlin, C., Elming, S.A., Mellqvist, C., Ohlander, B., Weihed, P., Wikstrom, A.Crustal refectivity near Archean Proterozoic boundary in northern Sweden andGeophysical Journal International, Vol.150,1,pp.180-197.SwedenGeophysics - seismics, Boundary
DS1985-0730
1985
Wilband, J.T.Wilband, J.T.Magmatic Processes During the Midcontinent Rift Interval In northern Michigan: Chemical and Isotopic Constraints.31st. Annual Institute On Lake Superior Geology, Held Kenora, TECHICAL SESSION AND ABTSRACT VOLUME, P. 97.(abstract.).United StatesMid Continent
DS1987-0703
1987
Wilband, J.T.Soo Meen Wee, Wilband, J.T.Geochemistry and the tectonic significance of early Proterozoic (X) dike swarms ,northern Michigan and northeastern WisconsinEos, Vol. 68, No. 44, November 3, p. 1518. Abstract onlyMichigan, WisconsinTectonics
DS1987-0704
1987
Wilband, J.T.SOO MEEN WEE, Wilband, J.T.Geochemistry and tectonic significance of early Proterozoic Dike swarms Northern Michigan and Northeastern WisconsinEos, Vol. 68, No. 44, November 3, p. 1518. Abstract onlyMichigan, WisconsinBlank
DS200612-1530
2006
Wilbur, D.E.Wilbur, D.E., Ague, J.J.Chemical disequilibrium during garnet growth: Monte Carlo simulations of natural crystal morphologies.Geology, Vol. 34, 8, August pp. 689-692.TechnologyMetamorphism, crystal growth - not specific to diamond
DS1998-0670
1998
Wilcock, I.C.Izaeli, E., Wilcock, I.C., Navon, O.Raman shifts of diamond inclusions - a possible barometer7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 355-7.GlobalDiamond inclusions, Spectroscopy
DS1992-1663
1992
Wilcock, W.S.D.Wilcock, W.S.D., et al.The seismic attenuation structure of a fast spreading Mid Ocean RidgeScience, Vol. 258, Nov. 27, pp. 1470-4.GlobalTectonics - structure, Geophysics - seismics
DS1981-0428
1981
Wilcox, J.D.Wilcox, J.D., Young, J.Arkansaw Incredible Diamond Mine StorySpecialty Printing Company, News Supplement., United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaHistory
DS201312-0113
2013
Wilcox, L.C.Burstedde, C., Stadler,G., Alisic, L., Wilcox, L.C., Tan, E.,Gurnis, M., Ghattas, O.Large scale adaptive mantle convection simulation.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 192, no. 3, pp. 889-906.MantleConvection
DS1970-0828
1973
Wilcox, L.E.Slettene, R.L., Wilcox, L.E., Blouse, R.S., Sanders, J.R.A Bouger Gravity Anomaly Map of AfricaDefense Mapping Agency Aerospace Centre Tech. Paper., No. 73-3Africa, South Africa, BotswanaGeophysics
DS1990-1326
1990
Wilcox, R.E.Scott, G.R., Wilcox, R.E., Mehnert, H.H.Geology of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Raton-Springer area, Colfax and Union Counties, New MexicoUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Paper, No. 1507, 58pNew MexicoBrief mention -kimberlite in index terms, Alkaline rocks
DS1999-0791
1999
Wilcox, R.E.Wilcox, R.E.The idea of magma mixing: history of a struggle for acceptanceJournal of Geology, Vol. 107, No. 4, July pp. 421-32.GlobalMagmatism, Mixing model, history of concepts
DS2002-1710
2002
Wild, M.Wild, M.Valuation of mineral properties under uniform appraisal standards for Federal Land acqusitions.Fifth Joint Advanced Business Valuation Conference American Society of, Oct. 24-26, Orlando, Fla. 14p.United StatesEconomics - valuation, Standards, types of properties
DS1999-0072
1999
Wilde, A.Blain, C., Wilde, A.Trends in discovery: commodity and ore type targetsNorth Atlantic Mineral Symposium, Sept., abstracts pp. 188-90.GlobalEconomics - BHP, discoveries, resources, costs, Trends, diamonds mentioned
DS200812-1232
2008
Wilde, S.Wan, Y., Liu, D., Wilde, S., Nutman, A., Dong, C., Wang, W.The oldest rocks and zircons in China.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A994.ChinaAnshan City
DS201212-0456
2012
Wilde, S.McInnis, B., Evans, N., Jourdan, F., McDonald, B., Gorter, J., Mayers, C., Wilde, S.A Tertiary record of Australian plate motion from ages of Diamondiferous alkalic intrusions.Goldschmidt Conference 2012, abstract 1p.AustraliaGeochronology - Fohn
DS200812-0674
2008
Wilde, S.ALiu, D., Wilde, S.A, Wan, Y., Wu, J., Zhou, H., Dong, C., Yin, X.New U Pb and Hf isotopic dat a confirm Anshan as the oldest preserved segment of the North Chin a Craton.American Journal of Science, Vol. 308, 3, pp. 200-231.ChinaGeochronology
DS1981-0177
1981
Wilde, S.A.Gee, R.D., Baxter, J.L., Wilde, S.A., Wiliams, I.R.Crustal Development in the Archean Yilgarn Block, Western AustraliaGeological Society of Australia Spec. Publishing, No. 7, pp. 43-56.AustraliaTectonics - Craton
DS1990-1182
1990
Wilde, S.A.Pidgeon, R.T., Wilde, S.A.The distribution of 3.0 Ga and 2.7 Ga volcanic episodes in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia.Precambrian Research, Vol. 48, pp. 309-325.AustraliaCraton - Yilgarn, Geochronology
DS1996-1538
1996
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Middleton, M.F., Evans, B.J.Terrane accretion in the southwestern Yilgarn Craton: evidence from deep seismic crustal profilePrecambrian Research, Vol. 78, No. 1-3, May 1, pp. 179-AustraliaCraton -Yilgarn, Geophysics -seismics
DS1998-1631
1998
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Wilde, S.A., Lu, L.Thermal evolution of Archean basement rocks from the eastern part of The north Chin a Craton and its bearingInternational Geology Review, Vol. 40, No. 8, Aug. pp. 706-ChinaCraton, Tectonic setting
DS1998-1632
1998
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Wilde, S.A., Lu, L.Thermal evolution of Archean basement rocks from the Eastern part of NorthChin a Craton and tectonic settingInternational Geology Review, Vol. 40, No. 8, Aug. 1, pp. 722-China, MongoliaTectonics, Archean
DS1999-0831
1999
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Wilde, S.A., Lu, L.Tectonothermal history of basement rocks in the western zone of the NorthChin a Craton and its tectonic....Tectonophysics, Vol. 310, No. 1-4, Sept. 15, pp. 37-54.ChinaTectonics, geothermometry, Craton - North China
DS2000-1050
2000
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Cawood, P.A., Wilde, S.A., Sun, M., Lu, L.Metamorphism of basement rocks in the Central Zone of North Chin a Craton: implications for Paleoproterozoic.Precambrian Research, Vol. 103, No. 1-2, Sept.pp.55-88.ChinaCraton - North China, Metamorphism - tectonic evolution
DS2001-0899
2001
Wilde, S.A.Peck, W.H., Valley, J.W., Wilde, S.A., Graham, C.M.Oxygen isotope ratios and rare earth elements in 3.3 - 4.4 Ga zircons: ion microprobe evidence high 0 18...Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 65, No. 22, pp. 4215-29.AustraliaGeochronology, Craton - Yilgarn
DS2001-1236
2001
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Valley, J.W., Graham, C.M.Evidence from detrital zircon for the existence of continental crust and ocean in the earth 4.4 Gyr ago.Nature, Vol. 409, No. 6817, Jan. 11, p. 175-7.MantleGeochronology
DS2001-1307
2001
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Cawood, P.A., Wilde, S.A., Lu, L.high pressure granulites ( retrograded eclogites) from the Hengshan Complex,petrology tectonic implicationJournal of Petrology, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 1141-70.ChinaNorth China Craton
DS2001-1308
2001
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Cawood, P.A., Wilde, S.A., Sun, M.Polymetamorphism of mafic granulites in North Chin a Craton: textural and thermobarometric evidence...Geological Society of London, Special Publication, Special Paper 184, pp. 323-42.ChinaTectonics, Geothermometry
DS2001-1309
2001
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Wilde, S.A., Sun, M.Archean blocks and their boundaries in the North Chin a Craton: lithological,geochemical, structural P -T pathPrecambrian Research, Vol. 107, No. 1-2, Mar. 30, pp. 45-74.ChinaTectonics - evolution, Craton - North China
DS2002-0621
2002
Wilde, S.A.Guan, H., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Zhou, X., Zhai, M.SHRIMP Uranium-Lead- zircon geochronology of the Fuping Complex: implications for formation and assembly Craton.Precambrian Research, Vol. 113, No. 1-2, Jan. pp. 1-18.ChinaCraton - North China, Geochronology
DS2002-1635
2002
Wilde, S.A.Valley, J.W., Peck, W.H., King, E.M., Wilde, S.A.A cool early EarthGeology, Vol. 30,4,Apr.pp.351-4.MantleArchean - geochronology, impacts, meteorites
DS2002-1711
2002
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Zhao, G., Sun, M.Development of the North Chin a Craton during the late Archean and its fin al amalgamation at 1.8 Ga..Gondwana Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 85-94.ChinaPaleoproterozoic supercontinent, Rodinia
DS2002-1786
2002
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Cawood, P.A., Wilde, S.A., Sun, M.Review of global 2.1 - 1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinentEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 59, 1-4, Nov. pp. 125-62.GondwanaOrogenesis, tectonics
DS2002-1787
2002
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Cawood, P.A., Wilde, S.A., Sun, M.Review of global 2.1 - 1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinentEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 59, 1-4, Nov. pp. 125-162.Gondwana, South America, West AfricaCraton
DS2002-1788
2002
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Wilde, S.A., Cawood, P.A., Sun, M.Shrimp U Pb zircon ages of the Fuping Complex. Implications for Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic accretion and assembly of the North Chin a Craton.American Journal of Science, Vol.302,March,pp. 191-226.ChinaGeochronology, Craton - North China
DS2003-1476
2003
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Wu, F., Zhang, X.Late Pan-african magmatism in northeastern China: SHRIMP U Pb zircon evidencePrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.311-27.ChinaMagmatism
DS2003-1477
2003
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Zhou, X., Nemchin, A.A., Sun, M.Mesozoic crust mantle interaction beneath the North Chin a Craton: a consequence ofGeology, Vol. 31, 9, pp. 817-820.ChinaTectonics
DS2003-1551
2003
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A.Major tectonic units of the North Chin a Craton and their paleoproterozoic assemblyScience in China Series d Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, 1, pp. 23-38.ChinaTectonics
DS2003-1552
2003
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A.Correlations between the eastern block of the North Chin a Craton and the SouthPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.201-233.China, IndiaTectonics
DS2003-1553
2003
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S.Assembly, accretion and break up of the Paleo Mesoproterozoic ColumbiaGondwana Research, Vol. 6, 3, pp. 417-34.ChinaTectonics
DS200412-2113
2003
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Wu, F., Zhang, X.Late Pan-african magmatism in northeastern China: SHRIMP U Pb zircon evidence from granitoids in the Jiamusi Massif.Precambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.311-27.ChinaMagmatism
DS200412-2114
2003
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Zhou, X., Nemchin, A.A., Sun, M.Mesozoic crust mantle interaction beneath the North Chin a Craton: a consequence of the dispersal of Gondwanaland and accretion oGeology, Vol. 31, 9, pp. 817-820.ChinaTectonics
DS200412-2213
2003
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A.Correlations between the eastern block of the North Chin a Craton and the South Indian Shield: an Archean to Paleoproterozoic linPrecambrian Research, Vol. 122, 1-4, pp.201-233.China, IndiaTectonics
DS200412-2214
2003
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A.Major tectonic units of the North Chin a Craton and their paleoproterozoic assembly.Science China Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, 1, pp. 23-38.ChinaTectonics
DS200412-2215
2004
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S.A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: assembly, growth and breakup.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 67, 1-2, pp. 91-123.MantleTectonics, geodynamics, Columbia, orogen, belts
DS200412-2216
2003
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S.Assembly, accretion and break up of the Paleo Mesoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent: records in the North Chin a craton.Gondwana Research, Vol. 6, 3, pp. 417-34.ChinaTectonics
DS200512-0145
2005
Wilde, S.A.Cavosie, A.J., Valley, J.W., Wilde, S.A.Magmatic delta 18 O in 4400-3900 Ma detrial zircons: a record of the alteration and recycling of crust in the Early Archean.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 235, 1-4, July 15, pp. 663-681.AustraliaMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS200512-1176
2005
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Zhao, G.Archean to Paleproterozoic evolution of the North Chin a Craton.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 24, 5, pp. 519-522.ChinaGeochronology
DS200512-1177
2005
Wilde, S.A.Wilde, S.A., Zhao, G.Archean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North Chin a Craton.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol.ChinaTectonics
DS200512-1197
2005
Wilde, S.A.Wu, F., Zhao, G., Wilde, S.A., Sun, D.Nd isotopic constraints on crustal formation in the North Chin a Craton.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 24, 5, pp. 523-545.ChinaGeochronology
DS200512-1253
2005
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Sanzhong, L.Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North Chin a Craton: key issues revisited.Precambrian Research, Vol. 136, 2, Jan. pp. 177-202.ChinaTectonics, rifting
DS200612-0838
2006
Wilde, S.A.Lu, X.P., Wu, F.Y., Guo, J.H., Wilde, S.A., Yang, J.H., Liu, X.M., Zhang, XoZircon U Pb geochronological constraints on the Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the Eastern Block in the North Chin a Craton.Precambrian Research, Vol. 146, 3-4, pp. 138-164.ChinaGeochronology
DS200612-1599
2006
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, S., Zhang, J.Some key issues in reconstructions of Proterozoic supercontinents.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 1, pp. 3-19.GondwanaTectonics
DS200712-0667
2007
Wilde, S.A.Mahbubui Ameen, S.M., Wilde, S.A., Kabir, Z., Akon, E., Chowdbury, K.R., Khan, S.H.Paleoproterozoic granitoids in the basement of Bangladesh: a piece of the Indian Shield or an exotic fragment of the Gondwana jigsaw?Gondwana Research, Vol. 12, 4, pp. 380-387.IndiaIndian Shield
DS200712-0716
2007
Wilde, S.A.Menneken, M., Nemchin, A.A., Geisler, T., Pidgeon, R.T., Wilde, S.A.Oldest terrestrial diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A652.AustraliaJack Hills
DS200712-0717
2007
Wilde, S.A.Menneken, M., Newchin, A.A., Geisler, T., Pidgeon, R.T., Wilde, S.A.Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.Nature, Vol. 448, August 23, pp. 917-921.Australia, Western AustraliaGeochronology
DS200712-1233
2006
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., Li, A., Zhang, J.Some key issues in reconstructions of Proterozoic supercontinents.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 1, Oct. 15, pp. 3-19.Russia, United StatesAldan, Wyoming , Laurentia, paleomagnetism
DS200812-0372
2008
Wilde, S.A.Fu, B., Page, F.Z., Cavosie, A.J., Fournelle, J., Kita, N.T., Lackey, J.S., Wilde, S.A., Valley, J.W.Ti in zircon thermometry: applications and limitations.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 37p. in press availableTechnologyGeothermometry - kimberlites
DS200812-0791
2008
Wilde, S.A.Nemchin, A.A., Whitehouse, M.J., Menneken, M., Geisler, T., Pidgeon, R.T., Wilde, S.A.A light carbon reservoir recorded in zircon hosted diamond from the Jack Hills.Nature, Vol. 454m, 7200, July 3, pp. 92-95.AustraliaGeochronology
DS200812-1194
2008
Wilde, S.A.Ushikobo, T., Kita, N.T., Cavosie, A.J., Wilde, S.A., Rudnick, R.L., Valley, J.W.Lithium in Jack Hills zircon: evidence for extreme weathering of Earth's crust at 4300 Ma.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A968.AustraliaWeathering
DS200812-1195
2008
Wilde, S.A.Ushikubo, T., Kita, N.T., Cavosie, A.J., Wilde, S.A., Rudnick, R.L., Valley, J.W.Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 272, 3-4, pp. 666-676.AustraliaGeochronology, Hadean
DS200812-1292
2008
Wilde, S.A.Yang, J-H, Wu, F-Y., Wilde, S.A., Belousova, E., Griffin, W.L.Mesozoic decratonization of the North Chin a block.Geology, Vol. 36, 6, June pp. 467-470.ChinaCraton
DS200912-0114
2009
Wilde, S.A.Chu, Z-Y., Wu, F-Y., Walker, R.J., Rudnick, R.L., Pitcher, L., Puchtel, I.S., Yang, Y-H., Wilde, S.A.Temporal evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North Chin a Craton.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 50, 10, pp. 1857-1898.ChinaGeodynamics
DS200912-0836
2009
Wilde, S.A.Yang, Y-H., Wu, F-Y., Wilde, S.A., Liu, X-M., Zhang, Y-B., Xie, L-W., Yang, J-H.In in situ perovskite Sr Nd isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Ordovician Mengyin kimberlites in North Chin a craton.Chemical Geology, Vol. 264, 1-4, pp. 24-42.ChinaDeposit - Mengyin
DS200912-0866
2009
Wilde, S.A.Zhu-Yin Chu, Wu, F-Y., Walker, R.J., Rudnick, R.L., Pitcher, L., Puchtel, I.S., Yang, Y-H., Wilde, S.A.Temporal evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern north Chin a craton.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 50, 10, October, pp. 1857-1898.ChinaTectonics
DS201112-1167
2011
Wilde, S.A.Zhao, G., Li, S., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A.Assembly, accretion and break up of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent: record in the North Chin a craton revisited.International Geology Review, Vol. 53, no. 11-12, pp. 1331-1356.ChinaTectonics
DS201212-0090
2012
Wilde, S.A.Browmik, S.K., Wilde, S.A., Bhandari, A., Pal, T., Pant, N.C.Growth of the greater Indian landmass and its assembly in Rodinia:geochronological evidence from the Central Indian Tectonic Zone.Gondwana Research, Vol. 22, 1, pp. 54-72.IndiaGeochronology, tectonics, cratons
DS201312-0336
2013
Wilde, S.A.Griffin, W.L., Belousova, E.A., O'Neill, C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Malkovets, V., Pearson, N.J., Spetsius, S., Wilde, S.A.The world turns over: Hadean-Archean crust mantle evolution.Lithos, Vol. 189, pp. 2-15.MantleCrust- mantle review
DS201412-0938
2014
Wilde, S.A.Valley, J.W., Cavosie, T., Ushikubo, T., Reinhard, D.A., Lawrence, D.F., Larson, D.J., Clifton, P.H., Kelly, T.F., Wilde, S.A., Moser, D.E., Spicuzza, M.J.Hadean age for a post-magma-ocean zircon confirmed by atom-probe tomography.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 7, pp.219-223.MantleGeochronology
DS201610-1873
2016
Wilde, S.A.Ishwar-Kumar, C., Santosh, M., Wilde, S.A., Tsunogae, T., Itaya, T., Windley, B., Sajeev, K.Mesoproterozoic suturing of Archean crustal blocks in western peninsula India: implications for India-Madagascar correlations.Lithos, Vol. 263, pp. 143-160.IndiaGeodynamics

Abstract: The Kumta and Mercara suture zones welding together Archean crustal blocks in western peninsular India offer critical insights into Precambrian continental juxtapositions and the crustal evolution of eastern Gondwana. Here we present the results from an integrated study of the structure, geology, petrology, mineral chemistry, metamorphic P-T conditions, zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes of metasedimentary rocks from the two sutures. The dominant rocks in the Kumta suture are greenschist- to amphibolite-facies quartz-phengite schist, garnet-biotite schist, chlorite schist, fuchsite schist and marble. The textural relations, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling of garnet-biotite schist from the Kumta suture indicate peak metamorphic P-T conditions of ca. 11 kbar at 790 °C, with detrital SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages ranging from 3420 to 2547 Ma, eHf (t) values from - 9.2 to 5.6, and TDMc model ages from 3747 to 2792 Ma. The K-Ar age of phengite from quartz-phengite schist is ca. 1326 Ma and that of biotite from garnet-biotite schist is ca. 1385 Ma, which are interpreted to broadly constrain the timing of metamorphism related to the suturing event. The Mercara suture contains amphibolite- to granulite-facies mylonitic quartzo-feldspathic gneiss, garnet-kyanite-sillimanite gneiss, garnet-biotite-kyanite-gedrite-cordierite gneiss, garnet-biotite-hornblende gneiss, calc-silicate granulite and metagabbro. The textural relations, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling of garnet-biotite-kyanite-gedrite-cordierite gneiss from the Mercara suture indicate peak metamorphic P-T conditions of ca. 13 kbar at 825 °C, followed by isothermal decompression and cooling. For pelitic gneisses from the Mercara suture, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages vary from 3249 to 3045 Ma, eHf (t) values range from - 18.9 to 4.2, and TDMc model ages vary from 4094 to 3314 Ma. The lower intercept age of detrital zircons in the pelitic gneisses from the Mercara suture ranges from 1464 to 1106 Ma, indicating the approximate timing of a major lead-loss event, possibly corresponding to metamorphism, and is broadly coeval with events in the Kumta suture. Synthesis of the above results indicates that the Kumta and Mercara suture zones incorporated sediments from Palaeoarchean to Mesoproterozoic sources and underwent high-pressure metamorphism in the late Mesoproterozoic. The protolith sediments were derived from regions containing juvenile Palaeoarchean crust, together with detritus from the recycling of older continental crust. Integration of the above results with published data suggests that the Mesoproterozoic (1460-1100 Ma) Kumta and Mercara suture zones separate the Archean (3400-2500 Ma) Karwar-Coorg block and Dharwar Craton in western peninsular India. Based on regional structural and other geological data we interpret the Kumta and Mercara suture zones as extensions of the Betsimisaraka suture of eastern Madagascar into western India.
DS201811-2609
2018
Wilde, S.A.Stark, J.C., Wilde, S.A., Soderlund, U., Li, Z-X., Rasmussen, B., Zi, J-W.First evidence of Archean mafic dykes at 2.62 Ga in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: links to cratonisation and the Zimbabwe craton.Precambrian Research, Vol. 317, pp. 1-13.Australia, Africa, Zimbabwecraton

Abstract: The Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia hosts at least five generations of Proterozoic mafic dykes, the oldest previously identified dykes belonging to the ca. 2408-2401?Ma Widgiemooltha Supersuite. We report here the first known Archean mafic dyke dated at 2615?±?6?Ma by the ID-TIMS U-Pb method on baddeleyite and at 2610?±?25?Ma using in situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of baddeleyite. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the dyke is part of a series of NE-trending intrusions that potentially extend hundreds of kilometres in the southwestern part of the craton, here named the Yandinilling dyke swarm. Mafic magmatism at 2615?Ma was possibly related to delamination of the lower crust during the final stages of assembly and cratonisation, and was coeval with the formation of late-stage gold deposit at Boddington. Paleogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Yilgarn and Zimbabwe cratons may have been neighbours from ca. 2690?Ma to 2401?Ma and if the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons amalgamated at 2660-2610?Ma, the 2615?Ma mafic magmatism in the southwestern Yilgarn Craton may be associated with the same tectonic event that produced the ca. 2607-2604?Ma Stockford dykes in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Paleomagnetic evidence and a similar tectonothermal evolution, including coeval low-pressure high-temperature metamorphism, voluminous magmatism, and emplacement of mafic dykes, support a configuration where the northern part of the Zimbabwe Craton was adjacent to the western margin of the Yilgarn Craton during the Neoarchean. Worldwide, reliably dated mafic dykes of this age have so far been reported from the Yilgarn Craton, the Limpopo Belt and the São Francisco Craton.
DS201907-1585
2019
Wilde, S.A.Wu, F-Y., Yang, J-H., Xu, Y-G., Wilde, S.A., Walker, R.J.Destruction of the North China craton in the Mesozoic.Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 173-195.Chinacraton

Abstract: The North China Craton (NCC) was originally formed by the amalgamation of the eastern and western blocks along an orogenic belt at ~1.9 Ga. After cratonization, the NCC was essentially stable until the Mesozoic, when intense felsic magmatism and related mineralization, deformation, pull-apart basins, and exhumation of the deep crust widely occurred, indicative of destruction or decratonization. Accompanying this destruction was significant removal of the cratonic keel and lithospheric transformation, whereby the thick (~200 km) and refractory Archean lithosphere mantle was replaced by a thin (<80 km) juvenile one. The decratonization of the NCC was driven by flat slab subduction, followed by a rollback of the paleo-Pacific plate during the late Mesozoic. A global synthesis indicates that cratons are mainly destroyed by oceanic subduction, although mantle plumes might also trigger lithospheric thinning through thermal erosion. Widespread crust-derived felsic magmatism and large-scale ductile deformation can be regarded as petrological and structural indicators of craton destruction.
DS1998-0591
1998
WildingHarte, B., Harris, J.W. , Hutchison, Watt, WildingMineral facies and source materials for lower mantle inclusions in Diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brasil.Mineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 575-6.BrazilMineralogy - diamond inclusions, Deposit - Aripuena, Sao Luiz
DS2002-0660
2002
Wilding, M.Harte, B., Harris, J.W., Wilding, M., Sautter, V., McCammon, C.Eclogite garnetite inclusions in diamonds from the Sao Luiz area, Brasil18th. International Mineralogical Association Sept. 1-6, Edinburgh, abstract p.74.BrazilGarnet mineralogy
DS1989-1625
1989
Wilding, M.C.Wilding, M.C., Harte, B., Harris, J.W.Evidence of asthenospheric source for diamonds from Brasil28th. International Geological Congress, Held Washington Dc., Vol. 3, pp. 359-360. AbstractBrazilMantle, Diamond genesis
DS1991-1856
1991
Wilding, M.C.Wilding, M.C., Harte, B., Harris, J.W.Evidence for a deep origin for Sao Luiz diamondsProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 456-458BrazilMato Grosso, Diamond inclusions, Microprobe
DS1991-1857
1991
Wilding, M.C.Wilding, M.C., Harte, B., Harris, J.W.Inclusion chemistry, carbon isotopes and nitrogen distribution in Bultfontein diamondsProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, p. 459South AfricaDiamond inclusions, Geochronology
DS1994-1915
1994
Wilding, M.C.Wilding, M.C., Harte, B., Fallick, A.E., Harris, J.W.Inclusion chemistry, carbon isotopes and nitrogen distribution in Diamonds from the Bultfontein mine.Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 116-126.South AfricaMineral chemistry, Deposit -Bultfontein
DS1997-0026
1997
Wildman, J.E.Anand, R.R., Phang, C., Wildman, J.E., Lintern, M.J.Genesis of some calcretes in the southern Yilgarn Craton: implications for mineral explorationAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 1, Feb. pp. 87-104AustraliaCraton, Calcretes
DS201502-0046
2014
Wildman, M.Brown, R., Summerfield, M., Gleadow, A., Gallagher, K., Carter, A., Beucher, R., Wildman, M.Intracontinental deformation in southern Africa during the Late Cretaceous.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 100, pp. 20-41.Africa, NamibiaGeothermometry

Abstract: Intracontinental deformation accommodated along major lithospheric scale shear zone systems and within associated extensional basins has been well documented within West, Central and East Africa during the Late Cretaceous. The nature of this deformation has been established by studies of the tectonic architecture of sedimentary basins preserved in this part of Africa. In southern Africa, where the post break-up history has been dominated by major erosion, little evidence for post-break-up tectonics has been preserved in the onshore geology. Here we present the results of 38 new apatite fission track analyses from the Damara region of northern Namibia and integrate these new data with our previous results that were focused on specific regions or sections only to comprehensively document the thermo-tectonic history of this region since continental break-up in the Early Cretaceous. The apatite fission track ages range from 449 ± 20 Ma to 59 ± 3 Ma, with mean confined track lengths between 14.61 ± 0.1 µm (SD 0.95 µm) to 10.83 ± 0.33 µm (SD 2.84 µm). The youngest ages (c. 80–60 Ma) yield the longest mean track lengths, and combined with their spatial distribution, indicate major cooling during the latest Cretaceous. A simple numerical thermal model is used to demonstrate that this cooling is consistent with the combined effects of heating caused by magmatic underplating, related to the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood volcanism associated with rifting and the opening of the South Atlantic, and enhanced erosion caused by major reactivation of major lithospheric structures within southern Africa during a key period of plate kinematic change that occurred in the South Atlantic and SW Indian ocean basins between 87 and 56 Ma. This phase of intraplate tectonism in northern Namibia, focused in discrete structurally defined zones, is coeval with similar phases elsewhere in Africa and suggests some form of trans-continental linkage between these lithospheric zones.
DS200812-0786
2008
WildnerNasdala, L., Gigler, Wildner, Grambole, Zaitsev, Harris, Hofmeister, Milledge, SatitkuneAlpha radiation damage in diamond.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A672.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS201312-0637
2013
Wildner, M.Nasdala, L., Grambole, D., Wildner, M., Gigler, A.M., Hainschwang, T., Zaitsev, A.M., Harris, J.W., Milledge, J., Schulze, D.J., Hofmeister, W., Balmer, W.A.Radio-colouration of diamond: a spectroscopic study.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 165, pp. 843-861.Africa, South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, South America, Brazil, VenezuelaDiamond - colour
DS2002-0261
2002
Wildner, W.Cas, R., Wildner, W.Volcanism and associated regimes - the complexity of volcanic systemsJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 118, 3-4, Nov. 30,special issue.GlobalVolcanic systems
DS1991-1858
1991
Wiley, M.A.Wiley, M.A., et al.Delineation of the New Madrid seismic zone using Land sat Multispectral Scanner dat a with insurance and tax implications of future fault movementProceedings of the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote, Vol. I, pp. 131-144MidcontinentRemote sensing, Geophysics -seismics
DS1995-2058
1995
Wilford, J.Wilford, J.Airborne gamma ray spectrometry as a tool for assessing relative landscape activity - dev. regolith, soils.Agso Newsletter, No. 22, May pp. 12, 13, 14AustraliaWeathering, Regolith -soils, spectrometry
DS1997-1252
1997
Wilford, J.R.Wilford, J.R., Bierwirth, P.N., Craig, M.A.Application of airborne gamma ray spectrometry in soil/ regolith mapping and applied geomorphologyAgso Journal, Australian Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 201-216AustraliaGeophysics - airborne gamma ray, Regolith, geomorphology
DS1988-0758
1988
Wilhelm, E.Wilhelm, E., Artignan, D.L'analyse des mineraux lourds en exploration miniere: revuecritique etpropositions.(in French)Chronique de la Recherche Miniere, (in French), No. 490, March pp. 47-54GlobalBlank
DS201610-1891
2016
Wilhelm, H.Nestola, F., Alvaro, M., Casati, M.N., Wilhelm, H., Kleppe, A.K., Jephcoat, A.P., Domeneghetti, M.C., Harris, J.W.Source assemblage types for cratonic diamonds from x-ray synchroton diffraction.Lithos, in press available 5p.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS2000-0014
2000
Wilhelm, S.Altenberger, U., Wilhelm, S.Ductile deformation of Potassium feldspar in dry eclogite facies shear zones in Bergen Arcs Norway.Tectonophysics, Vol. 320, No. 2, May 15, pp.107-21.NorwayTectonics, Eclogites
DS1981-0177
1981
Wiliams, I.R.Gee, R.D., Baxter, J.L., Wilde, S.A., Wiliams, I.R.Crustal Development in the Archean Yilgarn Block, Western AustraliaGeological Society of Australia Spec. Publishing, No. 7, pp. 43-56.AustraliaTectonics - Craton
DS1989-0158
1989
Wiliams, I.S.Bowring, S.A., Wiliams, I.S., Compston, W.3.96 Ga gneises from the Slave Province, Northwest Territories, canadaGeology, Vol. 17, No. 11, Nov. pp. 971-75.Northwest TerritoriesGeochronology, Archean rocks
DS200812-0357
2008
Wiliams, I.S.Flowers, R.M., Bowring, S.A., Mahan, K.H., Williams, M.L., Wiliams, I.S.Stabilization and reactivation of cratonic lithosphere from the lower crustal record in the western Canadian Shield.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 21p.Canada, SaskatchewanCraton
DS1986-0556
1986
Wilk, H.Medenbach, O., Wilk, H.The magic of mineralsSpringer Verlag, 204pGlobalMineralogy, Diamond
DS2000-1027
2000
Wilke, H.G.Worner, G., Lezuan, J., Wilke, H.G.Precambrian and Early Paleozoic evolution of the Andean basement at and Cerry Uyarani, Altiplano.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 8, Aug.pp. 717-38.Chile, BoliviaTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS201812-2779
2018
Wilke, M.Benard, A., Klimm, K., Woodland, A.B., Arculus, R.J., Wilke, M., Botcharnikov, R.E., Shimizu, N., Nebel, O., Rivard, C., Ionov, D.A.Oxidising agents in sub-arc mantle melts link slab devolatillisation and arc magmas.Nature Communications, Vol. 9, 1, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05804-2 11p.Mantlemelting

Abstract: Subduction zone magmas are more oxidised on eruption than those at mid-ocean ridges. This is attributed either to oxidising components, derived from subducted lithosphere (slab) and added to the mantle wedge, or to oxidation processes occurring during magma ascent via differentiation. Here we provide direct evidence for contributions of oxidising slab agents to melts trapped in the sub-arc mantle. Measurements of sulfur (S) valence state in sub-arc mantle peridotites identify sulfate, both as crystalline anhydrite (CaSO4) and dissolved SO42- in spinel-hosted glass (formerly melt) inclusions. Copper-rich sulfide precipitates in the inclusions and increased Fe3+/?Fe in spinel record a S6+Fe2+ redox coupling during melt percolation through the sub-arc mantle. Sulfate-rich glass inclusions exhibit high U/Th, Pb/Ce, Sr/Nd and d34S (+?7 to +?11‰), indicating the involvement of dehydration products of serpentinised slab rocks in their parental melt sources. These observations provide a link between liberated slab components and oxidised arc magmas.
DS202002-0163
2019
Wilke, M.Beard, C.D., van Hinsberg, V.J., Stix, J., Wilke, M.Clinopyroxene melt trace element partitioning in sodic alkaline magmas.Journal of Petrology, in press available 92p. PdfEurope, Canary IslandsREE

Abstract: Clinopyroxene is a key fractionating phase in alkaline magmatic systems, but its impact on metal enrichment processes, and the formation of REE + HFSE mineralisation in particular, is not well understood. To constrain the control of clinopyroxene on REE + HFSE behaviour in sodic (per)alkaline magmas, a series of internally heated pressure vessel experiments was performed to determine clinopyroxene-melt element partitioning systematics. Synthetic tephriphonolite to phonolite compositions were run H2O-saturated at 200?MPa, 650-825?C with oxygen fugacity buffered to log f O2 ˜ ?QFM + 1 or log f O2 ˜ ?QFM +5. Clinopyroxene-glass pairs from basanitic to phonolitic fall deposits from Tenerife, Canary Islands, were also measured to complement our experimentally-derived data set. The REE partition coefficients are 0.3-53, typically 2-6, with minima for high-aegirine clinopyroxene. Diopside-rich clinopyroxenes (Aeg5-25) prefer the MREE and have high REE partition coefficients (DEuup to 53, DSmup to 47). As clinopyroxene becomes more Na- and less Ca-rich (Aeg25-50), REE incorporation becomes less favourable, and both the VIM1 and VIIIM2 sites expand (to 0.79 Å and 1.12 Å), increasing DLREE/DMREE. Above Aeg50 both M sites shrink slightly and HREE (VIri= 0.9 Å ˜ Y) partition strongly onto the VIM1 site, consistent with a reduced charge penalty for REE3+ ? Fe3+ substitution. Our data, complemented with an extensive literature database, constrain an empirical model that predicts trace element partition coefficients between clinopyroxene and silicate melt using only mineral major element compositions, temperature and pressure as input. The model is calibrated for use over a wide compositional range and can be used to interrogate clinopyroxene from a variety of natural systems to determine the trace element concentrations in their source melts, or to forward model the trace element evolution of tholeiitic mafic to evolved peralkaline magmatic systems.
DS201709-2034
2017
Wilke, S.Mollex, G., France, L., Furi, E., Bonnet, R., Botcharnikov, R.E., Zimmermann, L., Wilke, S., Deloule, E., Chazot, G., Kazimoto. E.O., Marty, B., Burnard, P.The Oldoinyo Lengai volcano plumbing system architecture, and composition from source to surface.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit, Oldoinyo

Abstract: Cognate xenoliths that have been emitted during the last sub-plinian eruption in 2007-08 at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) represent a unique opportunity to document the igneous processes occuring within the active magma chamber. Detailed petrographic descriptions coupled to a thermobarometric approach, and to the determination of volatile solubility models, allow us to identify the melt evolution at magma chamber conditions, and the storage parameters (P, T). Results indicate that a fresh phonolite melt (~1060°C) was injected into a crustal magma chamber at 11.5 ±3.5 km depth, in agreement with geophysical surveys performed during the eruption. The phonolite contains high volatile contents: 3.2 wt.% H2O and 1.4 wt.% CO2. The liquid line of descent highlights an evolution to nephelinite compositions by cooling down to 880°C. Our results support previous results related to this eruption, and are similar to the historical products emitted during the whole volcano history, allowing us to suggest that no major modification in the plumbing system has occured during the OL evolution. New noble gas results show that: i. fumaroles display constant He isotopic signature since 1988; ii. Cognate xenoliths documenting the active magma chamber and fumaroles display similar He isotopic values (6.58±0.46RA, and 7.31±0.40RA, respectively); iii. OL He isotopic composition is similar to that of other silicate volcanoes of the Arusha region, and comparable to the typical subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) range (5.2 to 7.0 RA); iv. Ne isotopic ratio of OL is following the MORB signature. Those results are interpreted as showing that 1/ no major modification in the hydrothermal system architecture has occured since 1988 despite major modification of the summit crater morphology, 2/ no contamination by either the atmospheric gases, or crustal material assimilation has occured between the magma chamber and the surface, and 3/ the source of OL and of the other silicate volcanoes in the Arusha region is a SCLM metasomatized by asthenospheric fluids.
DS1992-1004
1992
Wilkerson, M.S.Marshak, S., Wilkerson, M.S.Effect of overburden thickness on thrust belt geometry and developmentTectonics, Vol. 11, No. 3, June pp. 560-566GlobalTectonics, Thrust belt geometry
DS1992-1664
1992
Wilkerson, M.S.Wilkerson, M.S.Differential transport and continuity of thrust sheetsJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 749-751GlobalStructure, Thrust sheets
DS1998-1421
1998
Wilkes, J.Sumner, J., Wilkes, J., Robins, J., Ramsay, R.A geophysical case study of the Ashmore kimberlite cluster, North KimberleyProvince, Western Australia.Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (ASEG) International, p. 109. abstractAustraliaGeophysics, Deposit - Ashmore
DS200612-1531
2006
Wilkes, S.Wilkes, S.Native title in Australia. Relationship between mining companies and indigenous landowners in Australia.Materials World, April pp. 18-20.AustraliaLegal, Argyle mine
DS1995-0537
1995
Wilkes, T.A.Field, M., Gibson, J.G., Wilkes, T.A., Gababotse, KhujweThe geology of the Orapa A/K1 kimberlite, Botswana: further insight into the emplacement of kimb. pipes.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 155-57.BotswanaKimberlite genesis, Deposit -Orapa A/K1
DS1998-0257
1998
Wilkes, T.A.Clarke, J., Sobie, P.A., Wilkes, T.A., Zweistra, P.The geology and economic evaluations of the Liqhobong kimberlites, Lesotho.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 158-160.LesothoPetrology, Deposit - Liqhobong
DS1920-0254
1925
Wilkes, W.N.Wilkes, W.N.Minerals of ArkansawArkansaw Bureau of Mines MANUF. AGRIC. Bulletin. FOR 1924, 127P.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasDiamond
DS200512-0262
2004
Wilkins, C.England, P., Wilkins, C.A simple analytical approximation to the temperature structure in subduction zones.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 159, 3, pp. 1138-1154.MantleGeothermometry, tectonics
DS201807-1512
2018
Wilkins, C.Marien, C., Dukstra, A.H., Wilkins, C.The hydrothermal alteration of carbonatite in the Fen complex, Norway: mineralogy, geochemistry and implications for rare earth element resource formation.Mineralogical Magazine Open access special publication Critical metal mineralogy and ore genesis, Vol. 82 (S1) pp. S115-S131.Europe, Norwaycarbonatite

Abstract: The Fen Complex in Norway consists of a ~583 Ma composite carbonatite-ijolite-pyroxenite diatreme intrusion. Locally, high grades (up to 1.6 wt.% total REE) of rare-earth elements (REE) are found in a hydrothermally altered, hematite-rich carbonatite known as rødbergite. The progressive transformation of primary igneous carbonatite to rødbergite was studied here using scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry trace-element analysis of 23 bulk samples taken along a key geological transect. A primary mineral assemblage of calcite, dolomite, apatite, pyrite, magnetite and columbite with accessory quartz, baryte, pyrochlore, fluorite and REE fluorocarbonates was found to have transformed progressively into a secondary assemblage of dolomite, Fe-dolomite, baryte, Ba-bearing phlogopite, hematite with accessory apatite, calcite, monazite-(Ce) and quartz. Textural evidence is presented for REE fluorocarbonates and apatite breaking down in igneous carbonatite, and monazite-(Ce) precipitating in rødbergite. The importance of micro-veins, interpreted as feeder fractures, containing secondary monazite and allanite, is highlighted. Textural evidence for included relics of primary apatite-rich carbonatite are also presented. These acted as a trap for monazite-(Ce) precipitation, a mechanism predicted by physical-chemical experiments. The transformation of carbonatite to rødbergite is accompanied by a 10-fold increase in REE concentrations. The highest light REE (LREE) concentrations are found in transitional vein-rich rødbergite, whereas the highest heavy REE (HREE) and Th concentrations are found within the rødbergites, suggesting partial decoupling of LREE and HREE due to the lower stability of HREE complexes in the aqueous hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluid involved in the formation of rødbergite was oxidizing and had probably interacted with country-rock gneisses. An ore deposit model for the REE-rich rødbergites is presented here which will better inform exploration strategies in the complex, and has implications for carbonatite-hosted REE resources around the world.
DS1990-0390
1990
Wilkins, J.Davis, B.M., Wilkins, J.Lu decomposition conditional simulations for exploration strategyevaluationsAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, No. 90-71, 8pGlobalGeostatistics, Lu decompositional simulations
DS1910-0351
1913
Wilkins, J.H.Harpending, A., Wilkins, J.H.The Great Diamond Hoax and Other Stirring Incidents. in The life of A.h. Harpending.San Francisco: James H. Barry And Co., 283P.United States, California, West CoastKimberley
DS1950-0437
1958
Wilkins, J.H.Wilkins, J.H.Asbury Harpending. the Great Diamond Hoax and Other Stirring Incidents in the Life of Asbury Harpending.Norman: University Oklahoma Press, 211P.United StatesKimberley, Hoax, Salting
DS1970-0954
1974
Wilkinson, A.F.Macfarlane, A., Crow, M.J., Arthurs, J.W., Wilkinson, A.F.The Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Sierra Leone #1Overseas Institute of Geological Sciences International Report, No. 34, 203P.Sierra Leone, West AfricaKimberley, Geology, Diamonds
DS1975-1119
1979
Wilkinson, A.F.Macfarlane, A., Crowe, M.J., Wilkinson, A.F., Arthurs, J.W.The Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Sierra Leone #2Geological Survey SIERRA LEONE Bulletin., No. 7Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Diamonds
DS1981-0276
1981
Wilkinson, A.F.Macfarlane, A., Crow, M.J., Arthurs, J.W., Wilkinson, A.F., Auco.The Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Sierra Leone #3Institute GEOL. SCIENCES OVERSEAS MEMOIR., MEMOIR No. 7, 103P. DIAMONDS PP. 65-66.Sierra Leone, West AfricaKimberley, Geology, Diamond
DS200612-1244
2006
Wilkinson, A.F.Schofield, D.J., HOrstwood, M.S.A., Pitfield, P.E.J., Crowley, Q.G., Wilkinson, A.F., Sidaty, H.,Ch,O.Timing and kinematics of Eburnean tectonics in the central Reguibat Shield, Mauritania.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 163, 3, pp. 549-560.Africa, MauritaniaTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS1994-0151
1994
Wilkinson, B.H.Berry, J.P., Wilkinson, B.H.Paleoclimatic and tectonic control on the accumulation of North American cratonic sedimentGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 106, No. 7, July pp. 855-865North AmericaSedimentology, Tectonics, Craton
DS1994-0152
1994
Wilkinson, B.H.Berry, J.P., Wilkinson, B.H.Paleoclimate and tectonic control on the accumulation of North American cratonic sediment.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 106, July. pp. 855-65.Western Canada, North AmericaTectonics, Lithofacies maps
DS201412-0095
2014
Wilkinson, C.C.Campbell, L.S., Compston, W., Sircombe, K.N., Wilkinson, C.C.Zircon from the East orebody of the Bayan Obo Fe Nb REE deposit, China, and SHRIMP ages for carbonatite related magmatism and REE mineralization events.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 168, pp. 1041-ChinaCarbonatite
DS1860-0350
1880
Wilkinson, C.S.Wilkinson, C.S.On the Formation of the Diamond in the Tertiary Drifts of New South wales.Geology Magazine, Dec. 2, Vol. 7, No. 9, P. 428.Australia, New South WalesDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0568
1887
Wilkinson, C.S.Wilkinson, C.S.Report on the Diamond Bearing Formations in the Inverell District.New South Wales Geological Survey Report For 1887, P. 141.Australia, New South WalesDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0569
1887
Wilkinson, C.S.Wilkinson, C.S.Report on the Mudgee and Cudgegong DistrictNew South Wales Geological Survey Report For 1886, PP. 134-139.Australia, New South WalesDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0679
1890
Wilkinson, C.S.Wilkinson, C.S.Mittagong Diamond Field (1890)New South Wales Geological Survey Report For 1889, P. 210.Australia, New South WalesDiamond Occurrence
DS1989-1626
1989
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D., Maxey, A.Diamonds are gaining more favor as a search targetRegister of Australian Mining 1989/90, pp. 297-306AustraliaOverview of exploration, Properties
DS1991-1859
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Australian exploration -only the pegging has slowedRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 288-289AustraliaNews item Capricon, Quicksilver, Stockdale, Argyle, Ashton, ADEJV, Yilgarn JV, Moonstone, Poseidon
DS1991-1860
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Argyle maintains output despite declining gradeRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 287AustraliaNews item, Argyle
DS1991-1861
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.New South Wales - Beryl, Bonalo, Copeton, Mittagong, SofalaRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 299-300AustraliaNews item, New South Wales -activities
DS1991-1862
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Northern Territories - Coanjula, Daly River-Yambarra, Delamere, DulcieRange, Katherine, Keep River, Mount Bundey, Mount Septimus, Roper River, VictoriaRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 298-299AustraliaNews item, Northern Territories -activities
DS1991-1863
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Queensland - AnakieRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 300AustraliaNews item, Queensland -activities
DS1991-1864
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.South Australia -Cleve-Eyre, Edwards Creek, Oodnatta, Orroroo, Reedy TerowieRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 299-300AustraliaNews item, South Australia -activities
DS1991-1865
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Victoria -BeechworthRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 300AustraliaNews item, Victoria -activities
DS1991-1866
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Western Australia-Anketell, Liveringa, Argyle, Barnett, Bedford Downs, SandyGorge, Bindoola Creek-Mount Edith, Bloodwood Yard, Bow River, Boab Creek, ByroRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 290-292AustraliaNews item, Western Australia -activities
DS1991-1867
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Western Australia -Calwynyardah, Cambridge Gulf, Cameron's Bore, CaneRiver, Canning, Casuarina, Duketon, Edmund, Ellenbrae, Ellendale, Fitzroy, ForrestRiverRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 293-294AustraliaNews item, Western Australia -activities
DS1991-1868
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Western Australia -Fraser Range, Gladstone, Upper Harris, Joseph BonaparteGulch, Jubilee, Kennedy Bore, King George River, Kununurra, Lake Nabberu, LakeYindarlgoodaRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 294-295AustraliaNews item, Western Australia -activities
DS1991-1869
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Western Australia - Leopold Downes-Oscar Range, Leseur Island, MedusaBanks, Liveringa, Mount Alice West, MountBehn, Edith, Elizabeth, McGrath, Noreen, Septimus, Keep, WeldRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 295AustraliaNews item, Western Australia -activities
DS1991-1870
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Western Australia -Salvation Bore, Sorby Loop, Tiger Plain, Tier Range, Traid-ACM. Ullawarra, Van Emmerick Range, Wire Dam-BarnettRange-Harris, Wombarella, WylooRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 297-298AustraliaNews item, Western Australia -activities
DS1991-1871
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.A mixed phase for De BeersRegister of Australian Mining 1991/92, pp. 285-286GlobalEconomics, CSO
DS1991-1872
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D., Segel, M.Production and exploration are stepping up... Australian sceneRegister of Australian Mining, 1990/91, pp. 295-297AustraliaOverview -brief, Exploration/mining activities
DS1991-1873
1991
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D., Segel, M.A big turnaround to end the decade... international sceneRegister of Australian Mining, 1990/91, pp. 298-310Australia, GlobalExploration activities, Overview
DS1992-1665
1992
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Records tumble but no new MinesRegister of Australian Mining 1992-1993, pp. 241-243AustraliaNews item, Review of activities
DS1992-1666
1992
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Confidence, maintained despite war, recession and lower profit.International SceneRegister of Australian Mining 1992-1993, pp. 244GlobalNews item, Review of activities
DS1994-1916
1994
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Tighter rules in the wake of a nervous market. Overview and then brief description of each active company AustraliaRegister of Australian Mining 1994/95, pp. 224-240.AustraliaNews item, Company activities by area
DS1996-1539
1996
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Argyle partners terminate CSO contract and Aussie explorers headingoverseas.Register of Australian Mining 1996/7, p. 242-243.AustraliaNews item, CSO, Argyle
DS1997-1253
1997
Wilkinson, D.Wilkinson, D.Diamond - sectionRegister of Australian Mining 1996-97, pp. 242-257.AustraliaNews item, Company activities, review
DS1997-1254
1997
Wilkinson, J.F.Wilkinson, J.F., Stolz, A.J.Subcalcic clinopyroxenites and associated ultramafic xenoliths in alkalibasalt near Glen- Innes.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 127, No. 3, April pp. 272-290.Australia, New South WalesXenoliths
DS1970-1007
1974
Wilkinson, J.F.G.Wilkinson, J.F.G.Garnet Pyroxenite Inclusions from Diatremes in the Gloucester Area, New South Wales.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 46, PP. 275-299.AustraliaKimberlite, Xenoliths, Basalt
DS1975-0434
1976
Wilkinson, J.F.G.Wilkinson, J.F.G.Some Subcalcic Clinopyroxenites from Salt Lake Crater, Oahuand Their Petrogenetic Significance.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology BEIT. MIN. PETROL., Vol. 58, No. 2, PP. 181-201.United States, HawaiiBlank
DS1985-0731
1985
Wilkinson, J.F.G.Wilkinson, J.F.G.Undepleted Mantle Composition Beneath HawaiiEarth Planet. Sci. Letters, Vol. 75, No. 2-3, Oct. pp. 129-138HawaiiMantle
DS1986-0860
1986
Wilkinson, J.F.G.Wilkinson, J.F.G.Classification and average chemical compositions of common basalts andandesitesJournal of Petrology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 31-62GlobalRock classification, Analyses
DS1987-0791
1987
Wilkinson, J.F.G.Wilkinson, J.F.G., Le Maitre, R.W.Upper mantle amphiboles and micas and TiO2, K2O and P2O5 abundances and 100 Mg (Mg+Fe2) ratios of common basalts and andesites: implications for modal mantle metalsoJournal of Petrology, Vol. 28, No.1, pp. 37-74GlobalPetrology, Mantle genesis
DS1994-1917
1994
Wilkinson, J.F.G.Wilkinson, J.F.G., Hensel, H.D.Nephelines and analcines in some alkaline igneous rocksContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 118, No. 1, Oct. pp. 79-91.AustraliaAlkaline rocks
DS1996-1540
1996
Wilkinson, J.J.Wilkinson, J.J., Nolan, J., Rankin, A.H.Silicothermal fluid: a novel medium for mass transport in the lithosphereGeology, Vol. 24, No. 12, Dec. pp. 1059-62MantleFluid flow
DS1996-1541
1996
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Budkewitsch, P., Graham, D.F., HendersonAlternative methods of base map generation using remote sensing and GIS: a pilot study western Churchill ProvinceGeological Survey of Canada Current Research, No. 1997-C, pp. 81-90.Northwest TerritoriesRemote sensing, GIS
DS1996-1542
1996
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Kjarsgaard, B.A.Modeling the spatial relationship between lake sediment/till geochemistry anomalies and kimberlites.. #1Northwest Territories Exploration Overview, Nov. 26, p. 3-35-6Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry, Slave Province
DS1997-1255
1997
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Budkewitsch, P., et al.GIS dat a integration and analysis for regional mapping and exploration In the Northwest Territories.Geological Survey of Canada Forum 1997 abstracts, p. 17. AbstractNorthwest TerritoriesGeophysics, GIS
DS1997-1256
1997
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Kjarsgaard, B.A.Modeling the spatial relationship between Lake sediment/Till geochemistry anomalies and kimberlites...#2Exploration 97, Proceedings, pp. 165-168. Poster abstractNorthwest TerritoriesGeochemistry, GIS
DS1998-1579
1998
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Harris, J., Kjarsgaard, B.Searching for kimberlite: use of clay fraction till geochemistry in the Lacde Gras area, northwest Territories.Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Nov. 25-27, p. 116-17. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesGeochemistry, geomorphology
DS1998-1580
1998
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Harris, J., Kjarsgaard, B., Bowie, C.Preliminary weights of evidence modeling of kimberlite distributions in the Lac de Gras area, using GIS tech.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Abstract Volume, p. A198. abstract.Northwest TerritoriesComputer - GIS, Geochemistry, geophysics - magnetics
DS1999-0290
1999
Wilkinson, L.Harris, J.R., Wilkinson, L.GIS methods in geochemical explorationAssocation of Exploration Geologists (AEG) 19th. Drift Exploration Glaciated, S.C., pp. 182-210.Northwest TerritoriesGeomorphology, glacial, geochemistry, Drift prospecting - mentions diamonds
DS1999-0792
1999
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Harris, J., Kjarsgaard, B.Searching for kimberlite evaluation of till geochemistry in the Lac de Gras- using GIS spatialAssocation of Exploration Geologists (AEG) 19th. Symposium Program Abstracts, p. 102-4. AbstractNorthwest TerritoriesGIS spatial analysis, geomorphology, Lac de Gras area
DS1999-0793
1999
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Harris, J., Kjarsgaard, B., Cowie, C.GIS ( Geographic Information Systems) for kimberlite explorationAssocation of Exploration Geologists (AEG) 19th. Diamond Exploration Methods Case Histories, pp. 86-107.Northwest TerritoriesGIS - case study Lac de Gras, Geochemistry, geomorphology
DS2000-0506
2000
Wilkinson, L.Kjarsgaard, B., Wilkinson, L., Stasiuk, V., Armstrong, J.Understanding the Diamondiferous Lac de Gras kimberlite field28th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 44-5.abstractNorthwest TerritoriesKimberlite - volcanism., GIS project
DS2001-1237
2001
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Harris, J., Kjarsgaard, B., McClenaghanInfluence of till thickness and texture on till geochemistry in the Lac deGras area, applications..Geological Survey of Canada Current Research, C9, 26p.Northwest TerritoriesRegional kimberlite exploration, Geochemistry - till, geomorphology
DS2001-1238
2001
Wilkinson, L.Wilkinson, L., Kjarsgaard, B., Le Cheminant, A., HarrisDiabase dyke swarms in the Lac de Gras area, and their significance to kimberlite exploration: initial resultsGeological Survey of Canada Current Research, C8, 24p.Northwest TerritoriesProterozoic dike, tectonics, emplacement, age, patterns, Geochemistry
DS2002-0861
2002
Wilkinson, L.Kjarsgaard, B.A., Wilkinson, L., Armstrong, J.Geology Lac de Gras kimberlite field, central Slave Province, Northwest Territories, Nunuvut NTS 76 D.C.E,F.Geological Survey of Canada Open File, No. 3228, 1 colour map 1:250,000 $ 15.00Northwest Territories, NunavutMap - geology, Deposit - Lac de Gras
DS1989-1627
1989
Wilkinson, M.J.Wilkinson, M.J., Blaha, J.E., Noli, D.A new lagoon on the Namibian coast of South Africa:sand spit growth documented from STS-29 shuttlephotographyGeocarto international, No. 4, pp. 63-66Southwest Africa, NamibiaRemote sensing, Geomorphology
DS1960-0234
1962
Wilkinson, P.Downie, C., Wilkinson, P.The Explosion Craters of Basotu, Tanganyika TerritoryBulletin. VOLCANOLOGIQUE., Vol. 24, PP. 389-420.Tanzania, East AfricaDiatreme
DS201212-0122
2012
Wilkinson, P.B.Chambers, J.E., Wilkinson, P.B., Wardrop, D., Hameed, A., Hill, L., Jeffrey, C., Loke, Mledrum, Kuras, Cave, GunnBedrock detection beneath river terrace deposits using three dimensional electrical resistivity tomography.Geomorphology, Vol. 177-178, pp. 7-25.TechnologyTomography - not specific to diamonds
DS201312-0144
2013
Wilkinson, P.B.Chambers, J.E., Wilkinson, P.B., Wrdrop, D., Hameed, A., Hill, I., Jeffrey, C., Loke, M.H., Meldrum, P.I., Kuras, O., Cave, M., Gunn, D.A.Bedrock detection beneath river terrace deposits using three dimensional electrical resistivity tomography.Geomorphology, Vol. 177-178, pp. 17-25.GlobalGeochronology
DS201412-0611
2014
Wilkinson, S.R.Naeth, A.M., Wilkinson, S.R.Establishment of restoration trajectories for Up land Tundra Communities on diamond mine wastes in the Canadian Arctic.Restoration Ecology, Vol. 22, 4, pp. 534-543.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Ekati
DS1900-0605
1907
Wilkinson, W.F.Wilkinson, W.F.Rhodesia: Discovery of DiamondsEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 83, P. 41.Africa, ZimbabweDiamond Occurrence, Current Activities
DS1984-0766
1984
Wilks, E.M.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.The Abrasion Resistance of Brown DiamondsIndustrial Diamond Review., Vol. 44, No. 2, K PP. 82-85.GlobalCrystallography
DS1987-0792
1987
Wilks, E.M.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.An unusual form of coated diamondMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 51, pp. 743-746Democratic Republic of CongoBlank
DS1987-0793
1987
Wilks, E.M.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.Cleavage surfaces of diamondIndustrial Diamond Review, Vol. 47, No. 518, January pp. 17-20GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1987-0794
1987
Wilks, E.M.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.Some mechanical properties of brown and type II diamondsWear, Vol. 118, No. 2, August 1, pp. 161-184GlobalMaterials testing
DS1983-0634
1983
Wilks, J.Wilks, J.Cubic DiamondsNature., Vol. 305, No. 5930, SEPT. 8TH. PP. 102-104.GlobalCrystallography, Natural Diamonds
DS1983-0635
1983
Wilks, J.Wilks, J.Cubic DiamondNature, Vol. 305, No. 5930, p. 102GlobalDiamond Morphology
DS1984-0766
1984
Wilks, J.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.The Abrasion Resistance of Brown DiamondsIndustrial Diamond Review., Vol. 44, No. 2, K PP. 82-85.GlobalCrystallography
DS1987-0792
1987
Wilks, J.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.An unusual form of coated diamondMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 51, pp. 743-746Democratic Republic of CongoBlank
DS1987-0793
1987
Wilks, J.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.Cleavage surfaces of diamondIndustrial Diamond Review, Vol. 47, No. 518, January pp. 17-20GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1987-0794
1987
Wilks, J.Wilks, E.M., Wilks, J.Some mechanical properties of brown and type II diamondsWear, Vol. 118, No. 2, August 1, pp. 161-184GlobalMaterials testing
DS1990-1557
1990
Wilks, K.R.Wilks, K.R., Carter, N.L.Rheology of some continental lower crustal rocksTectonophysics, Vol. 182, No. 1-2, Oct. 1, pp. 57-77GlobalCrust, Rheology
DS1988-0265
1988
Will, G.Graf, G., Will, G.The influence of graphitization on the diamond synthesisTerra Cognita, Vol. 8, No. 1, Winter 1988 p. 64. Abstract onlyGlobalBlank
DS1994-0460
1994
Will, G.Duba, A., Heikamp, S., Meurer, W., NOver, G., Will, G.Evidence from borehole samples for the role of accessory minerals in lower crustal conductivity.Nature, Vol. 367, No. 6458, January 6, pp. 59-61.MantleSubduction
DS201312-0974
2013
Will, G.Will, G.The art of good writing. Clarity ….georgewill @washpost.com, March 14, 1p. ColumnTechnologyWriting skills
DS1994-1553
1994
Will, T.Schubert, W., Will, T.Granulite facies rocks of Shackleton Range: conditions of formation and preliminary petrogenetic implicationsChemie der Erde, Vol. 54, pp. 355-371.AntarcticaEast Arctic craton, Mt. Provender area
DS1991-1880
1991
Will, T.M.Wilson, C.J.L., Will, T.M.Slickenside lineations due to ductile processesDeformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics, editors Knipe, R.J., No. 54, pp. 455-460GlobalStructure, Ductile processes
DS2001-1239
2001
Will, T.M.Will, T.M., Schmadicke, E.A first find of retrogressed eclogites in the Odenwald crystalline complex, mid German crystalline rise: ...Lithos, Vol. 59, No. 3, Nov. pp. 109=25.Germany, Central VariscidesEclogites
DS2002-0862
2002
Will, T.M.Klemd, R., Schroter, F.C., Will, T.M., Gao, J.P-T evolution of glauco phaneomphacite bearing HP - LT rocks in the eastern Tien Shan Orogen: Alpine type ..Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 239-54.China, northwestTectonics - evidence, Ultrahigh pressure, UHP
DS200612-1238
2006
Will, T.M.Schmadicke, E., Will, T.M.First evidence of eclogite facies metamorphism in the Shackleton Range, Antarctica: trace of suture between East and West Gondwana?Geology, Vol. 34, 3, March pp. 133-136.AntarcticaMetamorphism
DS201112-0926
2011
Will, T.M.Schmadicke, E., Okrusch, M., Rupprecht-Gutowski, P., Will, T.M.Garnet pyroxenite, eclogite and alkremite xenoliths from the off-craton Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia: a window into the upper mantle of the Rehoboth Terrane.Precambrian Research, In press available, 63p.Africa, NamibiaGibeon kimberlite
DS201112-0927
2011
Will, T.M.Schmadicke, E., Okrusch, M., Rupprecht-Gutpwski, P., Will, T.M.Garnet pyroxenite, eclogite and alkremite xenoliths from the off-craton Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia: a window into the upper mantle of Rehoboth Terrane.Precambrian Research, Vol. 191, 1-2, pp. 1-17.Africa, NamibiaEclogite, geothermometry - Gibeon
DS201312-0975
2013
Will, T.M.Will, T.M., Frimmel, H.E.The influence of inherited structures on dike emplacement during Gondwana breakup in southwestern Africa.Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, 5, pp. 455-474.Africa, South Africa, NamibiaDykes
DS201511-1878
2015
Will, T.M.Schmadicke, E., Gose, J., Reinhardt, J., Will, T.M., Stalder, R.Garnet in cratonic and non-cratonic mantle and lower crustal xenoliths from southern Africa: composition, water in corporation and geodynamic constraints.Precambrian Research, Vol. 270, pp. 285-299.Africa, South Africa, Lesotho, NamibiaKaapvaal craton, Rehoboth Terrane

Abstract: Garnets from kimberlite-hosted mantle and a few xenoliths from the lower crust were investigated for water, major, minor, and trace elements. Xenoliths from the mantle comprise pyroxenite, eclogite, alkremite, and peridotite, and crustal xenoliths are mafic high-pressure granulites. Samples from South Africa, Lesotho, and Namibia comprise two principal settings, Kaapvaal Craton (‘on craton’) and Rehoboth terrane (‘off craton’). The composition of garnet depends on rock type but is unrelated to the setting, except for Ti and Cr. In garnets from ‘off craton’ mantle xenoliths, Ti positively correlates with Cr whereas those from ‘on craton’ samples reveal a negative correlation between both elements. Rare earth element patterns indicative of a metasomatic overprint are observed in garnets from both settings, especially in eclogitic garnet. Water contents in garnet are low and range from <1 to about 40 ppm. No setting-related difference occurs, but a weak correlation between water and rock type exists. Water contents in garnets from eclogite and mafic granulite are lower than those in pyroxenite, alkremite, and peridotite. All garnets are water under-saturated, i.e. they do not contain the maximum amount of water that can be accommodated in the mineral structure. Cratonic and non-cratonic samples also show the same characteristics in the infrared (IR) absorption spectra. An absorption band at 3650 cm-1 is typical for most mantle garnets. Bands at 3520 and 3570 cm-1 are present only in TiO2-rich garnets from the Rehoboth terrane and are ascribed to a Ti-related hydrogen substitution. A number of garnets, especially from the Kaapvaal Craton, contain molecular water in addition to structural water. Molecular water is inhomogeneously distributed at grain scale pointing to local interaction with fluid and to disequilibrium at grain scale. These garnets consistently reveal either submicroscopic hydrous phases or additional IR bands at 3630 and 3610-3600 cm-1 caused by structural water. Both features do not occur in garnets in which molecular water is absent. The observations imply (i) relatively late introduction of fluid, at least in cases where hydrous phases formed, and (ii) a relatively dry environment because only water-deficient garnets are able to incorporate additional structural water. Most importantly, they imply (iii) that the low water contents are primary and not due to water loss during upward transport. This late water influx is not responsible for the metasomatic overprint indicated by garnet REE patterns. The results of this study suggest dry conditions in the lithosphere, including mantle and crustal sections of both the Kaapvaal Craton (‘on craton’) and the Rehoboth terrane (‘off craton’). If the low water contents contributed to the stabilization of the Kaapvaal cratonic root (Peslier et al., 2010) the same should apply to the Rehoboth lithosphere where the same variety of rock types occurs. The extremely low water contents in eclogite relative to pyroxenite may be explained by an oceanic crust origin of the eclogites. Subduction and partial melting would cause depletion of water and incompatible elements. The pyroxenites formed by crystal accumulation in the mantle and did not suffer melt depletion. Such a difference in origin can be reconciled with the low Ti contents in eclogitic garnet and the high Ti contents in pyroxenitic garnet.
DS201511-1879
2015
Will, T.M.Schmadicke, E., Will, T.M., Mezger, K.Garnet pyroxenite from the Shackleton Range, Antarctica: intrusion of plume-derived picritic melts in the continental lithosphere during Rodinia breakup.Lithos, Vol. 238, pp. 185-206.AntarcticaPicrite

Abstract: Lenses of ultramafic rocks occur in supracrustal high-grade gneiss in the northern Haskard Highlands, Shackleton Range, East Antarctica. Olivine-bearing garnet pyroxenite is the dominant rock type that is associated with hornblendite and subordinate spinel peridotite and amphibolite. The high-pressure (23-25 kbar) garnet-olivine assemblage of the pyroxenite formed during Pan-African eclogite-facies metamorphism. Associated collisional tectonics led to the incorporation of the ultramafic and mafic rocks in upper crustal rocks of a subducting continental margin. The ultramafic-mafic rocks are tracers of a palaeo-suture zone and are critical for reconstructing Gondwana amalgamation. Thus, it is important to infer the tectonic setting of the rocks prior to emplacement into their current position, i.e. were the rocks part of the oceanic crust, the sub-oceanic, or the sub-continental mantle? Major and trace elements together with Pb and Nd isotope data imply that the precursor rocks of the pyroxenites and hornblendites (the latter being retrogressed pyroxenite equivalents) formed as plume-related melts, with many characteristics typical for ocean-island tholeiitic magmas. Hence, pyroxenite and hornblendite are interpreted as metamorphic equivalents of picritic melts. They differ from most garnet pyroxenites worldwide in composition and genesis. The latter formed as high-pressure clinopyroxene-rich cumulates from basaltic melts. The volumetrically minor amphibolites, sharing many geochemical characteristics with pyroxenites and hornblendites, are also interpreted as metamorphic equivalents of plume-related melts. It is inferred that the picritic melts crystallized at medium- to high-pressure conditions in the upper continental mantle or in the transition zone between mantle and continental crust. The subordinate spinel peridotites are interpreted as fragments of the uppermost, depleted mantle. They are probably the wall rocks into which the picritic melts intruded. The Pb and Nd mantle separation ages of the picritic melts range from 770 to 870 Ma. These model ages are very similar to the emplacement ages of numerous global mafic and ultramafic dykes, which are genetically linked to mantle plume activity that initiated Rodinia rifting and breakup. The protoliths of pyroxenite and related rocks in the Shackleton Range most likely formed during the initial stages of plume magmatism that eventually led to Rodinia breakup.
DS201601-0043
2015
Will, T.M.Schmadicke, E., Will, T.M., Mezger, K.Garnet pyroxenite from the Shackleton Range, Antartica: intrusion of plume derived picritic melts in the continental lithosphere during Rodinia breakup.Lithos, Vol. 238, pp. 185-206.AntarcticaPicrite

Abstract: Lenses of ultramafic rocks occur in supracrustal high-grade gneiss in the northern Haskard Highlands, Shackleton Range, East Antarctica. Olivine-bearing garnet pyroxenite is the dominant rock type that is associated with hornblendite and subordinate spinel peridotite and amphibolite. The high-pressure (23-25 kbar) garnet-olivine assemblage of the pyroxenite formed during Pan-African eclogite-facies metamorphism. Associated collisional tectonics led to the incorporation of the ultramafic and mafic rocks in upper crustal rocks of a subducting continental margin. The ultramafic-mafic rocks are tracers of a paleo-suture zone and are critical for reconstructing Gondwana amalgamation. Thus, it is important to infer the tectonic setting of the rocks prior to emplacement into their current position, i.e., were the rocks part of the oceanic crust, the sub-oceanic, or the sub-continental mantle? Major and trace elements together with Pb and Nd isotope data imply that the precursor rocks of the pyroxenites and hornblendites (the latter being retrogressed pyroxenite equivalents) formed as plume-related melts, with many characteristics typical for ocean-island tholeiitic magmas. Hence, pyroxenite and hornblendite are interpreted as metamorphic equivalents of picritic melts. They differ from most garnet pyroxenites worldwide in composition and genesis. The latter formed as high-pressure clinopyroxene-rich cumulates from basaltic melts. The volumetrically minor amphibolites, sharing many geochemical characteristics with pyroxenites and hornblendites, are also interpreted as metamorphic equivalents of plume-related melts. It is inferred that the picritic melts crystallized at medium- to high-pressure conditions in the upper continental mantle or in the transition zone between mantle and continental crust. The subordinate spinel peridotites are interpreted as fragments of the uppermost, depleted mantle. They are probably the wall rocks into which the picritic melts intruded. The Pb and Nd mantle separation ages of the picritic melts range from 770 to 870 Ma. These model ages are very similar to the emplacement ages of numerous global mafic and ultramafic dykes, which are genetically linked to mantle plume activity that initiated Rodinia rifting and breakup. The protoliths of pyroxenite and related rocks in the Shackleton Range most likely formed during the initial stages of plume magmatism that eventually led to the Rodinia breakup.
DS202004-0544
2020
Will, T.M.Will, T.M., Hohn, S., Frimmel, H.E., Gaucher, C., Le Roux, P.J., Macey, P.H.Petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of Neoproterozoic rock units from Uruguay and South Africa: correlation of basement terranes across the South Atlantic.Gondwana Research, Vol. 80, pp. 12-32.South America, Uruguay, Brazil, Africa, Namibiacraton

Abstract: Felsic to intermediate igneous rocks from the Cuchilla Dionisio (or Punta del Este) Terrane (CDT) in Uruguay and the Várzea do Capivarita Complex (VCC) in southern Brazil were emplaced in the Tonian and experienced high-grade metamorphism towards the end of the Cryogenian. Geological and geochemical data indicate an S-type origin and formation in a continental within-plate setting by recycling of lower crustal material that was initially extracted from the mantle in the Palaeoproterozoic. Similar felsic igneous rocks of Tonian age occur in the Richtersveld Igneous Complex and the Vredefontein and Rosh Pinah formations in westernmost South Africa and southern Namibia and have been correlated with their supposed equivalents in Uruguay and Brazil. Geochemical and isotope data of the largely unmetamorphosed felsic igneous rocks in southwestern Africa imply a within-plate origin and formation by partial melting or fractional crystallization of mafic rocks that were extracted from the mantle in the Proterozoic. The parental melts of all of these Tonian igneous rocks from South America and southwestern Africa formed in an anorogenic continental setting at the western margin of the Kalahari Craton and were emplaced in, and/or contaminated by, Namaqua Province-type basement after separation from their source region. However, the source regions and the time of extractions thereof are different and, moreover, occurred at different palaeogeographical latitudes. New petrological data of CDT high-grade gneiss indicate a geothermal gradient of c. 20-25 °C/km, implying continental collisional tectonics following subduction and ocean basin closure at an active continental margin at the eastern edge of present-day South America in the late Cryogenian to early Ediacaran. The associated suture may be traced by the high-grade gneiss and amphibolite-facies mafic rocks in the CDT and probably continues northwards to the Arroio Grande Complex and the VCC in southern Brazil.
DS200512-0278
2005
Willams, M.L.Farmer, G.L., Bowring, S.A., Willams, M.L., Christensen, N.I., Matzel, J.P., Stevens, L.Contrasting lower crustal evolution across an Archean Proterozoic suture: physical, chemical and geochronologic studies of lower crustal xenoliths in southern Wyoming and northern Colorado.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, No. 154, pp. 139-162.United States,Wyoming, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics, tectonics
DS201501-0013
2015
Willams-Jones, A.E.Gysi, A.P., Willams-Jones, A.E.The thermodynamic properties of Bastnasite-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce).Chemical Geology, Vol. 392, pp. 87-101.REE
DS2000-0847
2000
Willamson-Jones, G.Rymer, H., Willamson-Jones, G.Volcanic eruption prediction: magma chamber physics from gravity deformation measurements.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 16, Aug. 15, pp. 2389-92.MantleMagma - phreatomagmatic
DS1999-0794
1999
Willan, R.C.R.Willan, R.C.R., Kelley, S.P.Mafic dike swarms in the South Shetland Islands volcanic arc: unravelling multiepisodic magmatism...Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. B10, Oct. 10, pp. 23051-68.Scotland, EuropeSubduction, Tectonics - continental rifting
DS201804-0701
2018
Willard, M.A.Huguet, L., Van Oman, J.A., Hauck, S.A., Willard, M.A.Earth's inner core nucleation paradox.Earth and Planteray Science Letters, Vol. 487, pp. 1-17.MantleCore

Abstract: The conventional view of Earth's inner core is that it began to crystallize at Earth's center when the temperature dropped below the melting point of the iron alloy and has grown steadily since that time as the core continued to cool. However, this model neglects the energy barrier to the formation of the first stable crystal nucleus, which is commonly represented in terms of the critical supercooling required to overcome the barrier. Using constraints from experiments, simulations, and theory, we show that spontaneous crystallization in a homogeneous liquid iron alloy at Earth's core pressures requires a critical supercooling of order 1000 K, which is too large to be a plausible mechanism for the origin of Earth's inner core. We consider mechanisms that can lower the nucleation barrier substantially. Each has caveats, yet the inner core exists: this is the nucleation paradox. Heterogeneous nucleation on a solid metallic substrate tends to have a low energy barrier and offers the most straightforward solution to the paradox, but solid metal would probably have to be delivered from the mantle and such events are unlikely to have been common. A delay in nucleation, whether due to a substantial nucleation energy barrier, or late introduction of a low energy substrate, would lead to an initial phase of rapid inner core growth from a supercooled state. Such rapid growth may lead to distinctive crystallization texturing that might be observable seismically. It would also generate a spike in chemical and thermal buoyancy that could affect the geomagnetic field significantly. Solid metal introduced to Earth's center before it reached saturation could also provide a nucleation substrate, if large enough to escape complete dissolution. Inner core growth, in this case, could begin earlier and start more slowly than standard thermal models predict.
DS200612-1532
2006
Willbod, M.Willbod, M., Stracke, A.Trace element composition of mantle end members: implications for recycling of oceanic and upper and lower continental crust.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 7, Q04004MantleHeterogeneity, geochemistry, subduction erosion
DS201012-0849
2010
Willbold, M.Willbold, M., Stracke, A.Formation of enriched mantle components of recycling of upper and lower continental crust.Chemical Geology, Vol. 276, 3-4, pp. 188-197.MantleMelting
DS202001-0020
2020
Willbold, M.Ionov, D.A., Guo, P., Nelson, W.R., Shirey, S.B., Willbold, M.Paleoproterozoic melt depleted lithospheric mantle in the Khanka block, far eastern Russia: inferences for mobile belts bordering the North China and Siberian cratons.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 270, pp. 95-111.China, Russiametasomatism, melting

Abstract: The eastern part of Asia between the North China and Siberian cratons contains orogenic belts formed by the Paleo-Asian and Pacific subduction and older continental blocks. A fundamental question regarding these and all mobile belts is the fate of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) during their formation, i.e. whether, or to what extent the CLM may be formed, replaced or affected during orogeny. Insights into these processes can be obtained from mantle xenoliths hosted by Cenozoic basalts in the Proterozoic Khanka block in the far eastern Russia between NE China and the Pacific coast of Asia. We report petrographic, chemical, and Os-Sr-Nd isotope data for spinel peridotite xenoliths at two Khanka sites: Sviyagin and Podgelban. The modal abundances and chemical compositions suggest that the peridotites are residues of low to moderate degrees of melt extraction from fertile mantle. They show an 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os correlation with an apparent 1.9?Ga age; the 187Os/188Os ratios are positively correlated with Al2O3 and other melt extraction indices. These results provide the first robust CLM age constraints for the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The ages suggest that the ancient CLM of the Khanka block may be roughly coeval with reworked CLM at Hannuoba (North China craton), and that it persisted through the Phanerozoic orogenies. Moreover, despite the proximity to Phanerozoic subduction zones, the Khanka CLM shows little post-melting enrichment, e.g. the clinopyroxenes are typically LREE-depleted and have Sr-Nd isotope ratios typical of the MORB mantle. We posit that the metasomatism of the CLM, earlier proposed for North China xenolith suites and ascribed to the effects of Pacific or older subduction and related mantle upwelling, may not be widespread in the CAOB. In general, Proterozoic blocks composed of residual peridotites may be more common in the CLM of the SE Siberia and northern China, and possibly other orogenic belts, than previously thought.
DS202002-0194
2020
Willbold, M.Ionov, D.A., Guo, P., Nelson, W.R., Shirey, S.B., Willbold, M.Paleoproterozoic melt depleted lithospheric mantle in the Khanka block, far eastern Russia: inferences for mobile belts bordering the North China and Siberian cratons.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 270, pp. 95-111.Russiaperidotites

Abstract: The eastern part of Asia between the North China and Siberian cratons contains orogenic belts formed by the Paleo-Asian and Pacific subduction and older continental blocks. A fundamental question regarding these and all mobile belts is the fate of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) during their formation, i.e. whether, or to what extent the CLM may be formed, replaced or affected during orogeny. Insights into these processes can be obtained from mantle xenoliths hosted by Cenozoic basalts in the Proterozoic Khanka block in the far eastern Russia between NE China and the Pacific coast of Asia. We report petrographic, chemical, and Os-Sr-Nd isotope data for spinel peridotite xenoliths at two Khanka sites: Sviyagin and Podgelban. The modal abundances and chemical compositions suggest that the peridotites are residues of low to moderate degrees of melt extraction from fertile mantle. They show an 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os correlation with an apparent 1.9?Ga age; the 187Os/188Os ratios are positively correlated with Al2O3 and other melt extraction indices. These results provide the first robust CLM age constraints for the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The ages suggest that the ancient CLM of the Khanka block may be roughly coeval with reworked CLM at Hannuoba (North China craton), and that it persisted through the Phanerozoic orogenies. Moreover, despite the proximity to Phanerozoic subduction zones, the Khanka CLM shows little post-melting enrichment, e.g. the clinopyroxenes are typically LREE-depleted and have Sr-Nd isotope ratios typical of the MORB mantle. We posit that the metasomatism of the CLM, earlier proposed for North China xenolith suites and ascribed to the effects of Pacific or older subduction and related mantle upwelling, may not be widespread in the CAOB. In general, Proterozoic blocks composed of residual peridotites may be more common in the CLM of the SE Siberia and northern China, and possibly other orogenic belts, than previously thought.
DS202009-1630
2020
Willbold, M.Hegner, E., Rajesh, S., Willbold, M., Muller, D., Joachimiski, M., Hofmann, M., Linnemann, U., Zieger, J., Pradeepkumar, A.P.Sediment derived origin of the putatative Munnar carbonatite, South India.Journal of Asian Earth Science, Vol. 200, 104432, 18p. PdfIndiadeposit - Munnar

Abstract: Metacarbonate assemblages in high-grade metamorphic terranes often pose challenges when trying to distinguish between mantle-derived carbonatite and sedimentary carbonate protoliths. We present a study of granulite-facies metacarbonate samples of the putative Munnar carbonatite described as decimeter-thick dikes and veins, and layers of a meter-thick metacarbonate and calc-silicate assemblage, respectively. Thin sections of the metacarbonate dike samples show absence of pyrochlore and ubiquitous scapolite, titanite, wollastonite, and detrital zircons are compatible with impure limestone protoliths. Nd and Sr isotope compositions indicate protoliths with Paleoproterozoic crustal residence times which contrast the mantle sources of Indian and global carbonatites. Trace-element patterns display the characteristics of upper crust, and Ce- and Y-anomalies in a number of samples suggest protolith formation under marine conditions. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the metacarbonate samples interlayered with calc-silicate rocks are similar to those in marine limestone. The metacarbonate dikes, however, show mantle-like compositions which are interpreted as reflecting equilibration with mantle-derived CO2 during granulite-facies metamorphism. The dikes yielded a U-Pb zircon crystallization age of 1020 ± 70 Ma and a cross-cutting quartz syenite, thought to be cogenetic, a magmatic age of 620 ± 35 Ma; the hosting gneiss provided a magmatic age of 2452 ± 14 Ma. We conclude that the layered metacarbonate and calc-silicate rocks represent a former marine limestone and marl sequence and the metacarbonate dikes and veins small-volume melts of crust-derived carbonate-rich sediment.
DS1930-0086
1931
Willbourn, E.S.Willbourn, E.S.The Occurrence in Situ of Corundum Bearing Rocks in Britishmalaya.De Mijingenieur., Vol. 12, OCTOBER PP. 170-176.Southeast Asia, MalaysiaBlank
DS200912-0814
2008
Willcock, M.A.W.Willcock, M.A.W.The dynamic multi-phase eruptive processes and associated deposits of the Argyle ( AK1) lamproite volcanic system, Halls Creek Mobile Zone, Western Australia.Geological Society of Australia Abstracts, Vol. 90, p. 34. abs.AustraliaDeposit - Argyle
DS1985-0487
1985
Wille, D.M.Nelson, K.D., Arnow, J.A., Mcbride, J.H., Wille, D.M., Brown, L.New Cocorp Profiling in the Southeastern U.s.: Major Features and Regional Implications.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 7, P. 675. (abstract.).United States, Appalachia, GeorgiaMidcontinent
DS1985-0732
1985
Wille, D.M.Wille, D.M., Brown, L.D., Nelson, D.K., Arnow, J.A., Mcbride, J.The Surrency Bright Spot: Possible Evidence for Fluid in The Deep Crust.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 7, P. 751. (abstract.).United States, Appalachia, GeorgiaMidcontinent, Geotectonics, Suture Zone, Rift
DS200712-0225
2006
Willems, B.De Corte, K., Anthonis, A., Van Royen, J., Blancaert, M., Barjon, J., Willems, B.Overview of dislocation networks in natural type IIa diamonds.Gems & Gemology, 4th International Symposium abstracts, Fall 2006, p.122-3. abstract onlyTechnologyDiamond Type IIa
DS201112-1115
2011
Willems, B.Willems, B., Tallaire, A., Barjon, J.Exploring the origin and nature of luminescent regions in CVD synthetic diamond.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 47, 3, fall pp. 202-207.TechnologySynthetic diamond
DS201201-0860
2011
Willems, B.Willems, B., Tallaire, A., Barjon, J.Exploring the origin and nature of luminscent regions in CVD synthetic diamonds.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 47, 3, pp. 202-207.TechnologySpectroscopy - synthetics
DS201212-0123
2012
Willems, B.Chapman, J., De Corte, K., Van Royen, J., Willems, B.FTIR features in Argyle, Diavik and Murowa diamonds.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, ZimbabweDeposit - Murowa
DS201212-0780
2011
Willems, B.Willems, B., Tallaire, A., Barjon, J.Exploring the origin and nature of luminescent regions in CVD synthetic diamond.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 47, 3, Fall, pp.TechnologySynthetics
DS201312-0976
2013
Willenbring, J.K.Willenbring, J.K.Earth is ( mostly) flat: apportionment of the flux of continental sediment over millennial time scales.Geology, Vol. 41, 3, pp. 343-346.GlobalSedimentology
DS1986-0861
1986
Willett, G.C.Willett, G.C., Duncan, R.K., Rankin, R.A.Geology and economic evaluation of the Mt. Weld carbonatite,Laverton Western Australia #1Proceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held, No. 16, pp. 97-99AustraliaCarbonatite
DS1989-0377
1989
Willett, G.C.Duncan, R.K., Willett, G.C.High grade lanthanide and yttrium mineralization in the paleo-regolith Of the Mt. Weld carbonatite, western AustraliaGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Program Abstracts, Vol. 14, p. A20. (abstract.)AustraliaCarbonatite
DS1989-1628
1989
Willett, G.C.Willett, G.C., Duncan, R.K., Rankin, R.A.Geology and economic evaluation of the Mt. Weldcarbonatite, Laverton Western Australia #2Geological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, No. 14, Vol. 2, pp. 1215-1238AustraliaCarbonatite, Mt. Weld
DS1990-0747
1990
Willett, S.D.Issler, D.R., Beaumont, C., Willett, S.D., Donelick, R.A., MooersPreliminary evidence from apatite fission track dat a concerning the thermal history of the Peace River Arch region, western Canada sedimentary basinGeology of the Peace River Arch, ed. Sc.C. O'Connell, J.S. Bell, Bulletin. Can., Vol. 38A, Special Volume, December pp. 260-269AlbertaGeochronology, Geothermometry
DS1994-1918
1994
Willett, S.D.Willett, S.D., Beaumont, C.Subduction of Asian lithospheric mantle beneath Tibet inferred from models of continental collision.Nature, Vol. 369, No. 6482, June 23, pp. 642-644.ChinaMantle, Subduction
DS1998-1179
1998
Willett, S.D.Pope, D.C., Willett, S.D.Thermal mechanical model for crustal thickening in the central Andes driven by ablative subductionGeology, Vol. 26, No. 6, June pp. 511-4Andes, Bolivia, ChileBolivian Altiplano, Western Cordillera, Chilean Puna, Orogenic belt, structure, lithosphere
DS1998-1581
1998
Willett, S.D.Willett, S.D.Geodynamic modelling and insight into deep crustal processesGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A243.Europe, Tibet, AndesStructure, tectonics
DS1999-0795
1999
Willett, S.D.Willett, S.D.Rheological dependence of extension in wedge models of convergent orogensTectonophysics, Vol. 305, No. 4, May 15, pp. 419-36.MantleRheology, Tectonics
DS2002-1712
2002
Willett, S.D.Willett, S.D., Brandon, M.T.On steady states in mountain beltsGeology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Feb. pp.175-8.GlobalOrogeny - model, Subduction driven
DS201612-2345
2016
Willford, G.Willford, G., Hollabaugh, C.L.Examination of diamond stability phase mantle indicator minerals from Leucite Hills, Sweetwater County, Wyoming and Crater of Diamonds State Park, Pike Count, Arkansas.Geological Society of America, Vol. 48, 3, 1p. AbstractUnited States, Wyoming, ArkansasDeposit - Leucite Hills, Diamond State Par
DS200812-0410
2008
William-Jones, A.E.Gilbert, C.D., William-Jones, A.E.Vapour transport of rare earth elements ( REE) in volcanic gas: evidence from encrustations at Oldoinyo Lengai.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 178, 4, Oct. 15, pp. 519-528.Africa, TanzaniaNatrocarbonatite
DS201709-1961
2017
William-Jones, A.E.Beland, C.M.J., William-Jones, A.E.The nature and origin of REE mineralization in the Ashram deposit, Eldor carbonatite complex, Quebec, CanadaGoldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Canada, Quebeccarbonatite, Eldor

Abstract: A growing number of studies have suggested that hydrothermal remobilization is crucial for the formation of carbonatite-hosted rare earth element (REE) deposits [1-3]. The Ashram REE deposit, hosted by the Paleoproterozoic Eldor Carbonatite Complex [4], is an example of a REE deposit formed mainly due to hydrothermal processes in magnesio- and ferro-carbonatite. The REE minerals in the Ashram deposit, monazite-(Ce), bastnäsite-(Ce), xenotime- (Y) and minor aeschynite-(Y), are secondary, and were precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. They occur mainly as disseminations, in breccia matrices and veins, and as vug fillings. Hydrothermal apatite and fluorite are also present in appreciable quantities in REE-mineralized zones. Monazite- (Ce) was the earliest REE mineral to form, and was followed by xenotime-(Y) and bastnäsite-(Ce). The compositions of the main REE minerals vary with location in the deposit, particularly in respect to their Nd2O3 and ThO2 contents. Two generations of monazite-(Ce) have been distinguished on the basis of their Nd content. Early, low-Nd monazite-(Ce) formed by replacing apatite through the substitution of 3REE3+ for 5Ca2+ + F- ; low-Nd apatite is LREE-enriched compared to apatite. In contrast, the later high-Nd generation, which has a chondrite-normalized REE profile almost perfectly parallel to that of the apatite, is interpreted to have formed by dissolving the Ca2+ and F- of the apatite and reconstituting the REE and phosphate as monazite-(Ce): Ca4.94REE0.060(PO4)3F = 0.060REEPO4 + F- + 4.94Ca2+ + 2.94PO4 3- Bastnäsite-(Ce) developed as a replacement of monazite- (Ce) through ligand exchange (F- and CO3 2- for PO4 3- ), while preserving the original REE chemistry. A combination of magmatic zone-refinement and hydrothermal remobilization, involving a chloride-bearing fluid, contributed to the formation of a carbonatite-hosted REE deposit.
DS201909-2101
2019
William-Jones, A.E.Vasyukova, O., William-Jones, A.E.Tracing the REE composition of an evolving peralkaline granitic magma via the composition of Arfvedsonite.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractGlobalREE

Abstract: There are a number of peralkaline granitic plutons, which show significant enrichment in the REE and, in some cases, host REE deposits; the grades of the deposits represent the final enrichment in the REE. Thus, it is important to understand how this enrichment occurs and by which processes, in order to develop tools for discovering other similar deposits. The best way to reconstruct the REE composition of an evolving magma is by analysing melt inclusions, i.e., the tiny samples of magma trapped at different stages of its evolution. Such inclusions, however, are rarely preserved and difficult to analyse. Another way to reconstruct the REE composition of an evolving magma is to analyse the REE composition of the minerals crystallising from this magma at different stages in its evolution. This, however, requires that the REE mineral-melt partition coefficients be known. Here we present a model for the calculation of arfvedsonite-melt REE partition coefficients, based on data from the Strange Lake pluton (Canada). The model employs the lattice strain theory, which derives mineral-melt partition coefficients from the values of the ideal partition coefficient (D0), the ideal radius (r0) and the elastic response (EM) of the mineral. There are two sites in arfvedsonite into which the REE partition, namely the M4 site, which is preferred by the light REE and the M2 site, which is preferred by the heavy REE. Partition coefficients for both sites were modelled. Significantly, values of D0, r0 and EM for the M4 site vary linearly with the Ca content of the arfvedsonite, whereas for the M2 site these parameters vary linearly with the temperature of arfvedsonite crystallisation. Using these two relationships, a set of equations was derived, which enables the calculation of arfvedsonite-melt REE partition coefficients for any arfvedsonite for which the Ca content and crystallisation temperature are known. This model was tested on a peralkaline granitic pegmatite from the Amis complex (Namibia), for which data on the composition of the amphibole and corresponding magma (melt inclusions) have been reported. The model successfully predicts the concentrations of the various REE in the Amis magma, thereby providing confidence that it can be used to trace the REE content of evolving granitic magmas in other plutons.
DS1989-0942
1989
WilliamsMarillier, F., Keen, C.E., Stockmal, G.S., Quinlan, G., WilliamsCrustal structure and surface zonation of the CanadianAppalachians:implications of deep seismic reflection dataCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 2, February pp. 305-321NewfoundlandStructure, Geophysics
DS1989-1593
1989
WilliamsWellesley-Wood, M., Mascall, G., Williams, HuwLondon: the capital source. International mining financeInternational Mining, Vol. 6, No. 3, March pp. 34, 36, 38-39GlobalEconomics, Mine financing
DS1998-0904
1998
WilliamsLundstrom, C.C., Shaw, Ryerson, Williams, GillCrystal chemistry control of clinopyroxene melt partioning in the Di Ab Ansystem: implications for elemental fractionations in the depleted mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 16, pp. 2849-62.MantleGeochemistry
DS1998-1093
1998
WilliamsOliver, G.J.H., Johnson, Williams, HerdRelict 1.4 Ga oceanic crust in the Zambezi Valley: evidence for Mesoproterozoic supercontinental fragmentGeology, Vol. 26, No. 6, June pp. 571-3.ZimbabweArchean craton, Zambezi belt
DS1999-0403
1999
WilliamsLee, M.J., Garcia, D., Moutte, Wall, Williams, WoolleyPyrochlore and whole rock chemistry of carbonatites and phoscorites at Sokli Finland.Stanley, SGA Fifth Biennial Symposium, pp. 651-4.FinlandCarbonatite, Deposit - Sokli
DS2001-0579
2001
WilliamsKarlstrom, R.E., Ahall, Harlam, Williams, McLellandLong lived (1.8-1.0) Ga convergent Orogen in southern Laurentia: its extensions to Australia and Baltica....Precambrian Research, Vol. 111, No. 1-4, pp. 5-30.Australia, Norway, BalticaRodinia - tectonics, Orogeny
DS2001-0670
2001
WilliamsLee, M.J., Garcia, Moutte, Wall, Williams, WoolleyPyrochlore chemistry and the transition from Calcium carbonatites and phoscorites to magnesium-iron carbonatites..Journal of South African Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, p. A 24 (abs)FinlandCarbonatite, Sokli Complex
DS201112-0812
2011
WilliamsPolyakova, E.A., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Siidra ,Britvin, Petrov, Spratt, Williams, Stanley, ZaitsevFluorine, yttrium and lanthanide rich cerianite from carbonatitic rocks of the Kerimasi volcano and surrounding explosion craters, Gregory Rift.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201201-0861
2011
WilliamsZaitsev, A.N., Chakmouradian, A.R., Sidra, O.I., Spratt, J., Williams, Stanley, Petrov, Britvin, PolyakaFlourine , yttrium and lanthaide rich cerianite (Ce) from carbonatitic rocks of the Kerimasi volcano and surrounding explosive craters Gregory Rift Tanzania.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 75, 6, pp. 2813-2822.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS1900-0362
1905
Williams, A.Williams, A., Pearson, C.A.The Romance of Mining Containing Interesting Descriptions Of the Methods of Mining for Minerals in All Parts of the World.London: C.a. Pearson., 401P.Africa, South Africa, India, MyanmarMining, History, Kimberley
DS201212-0782
2012
Williams, A.Williams, A.Gahcho Kue project, Northwest Territories.PDAC 2012, abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Gahcho Kue
DS1995-1654
1995
Williams, A.E.Samson, I.M., Williams, A.E., Liu, W.N.The chemistry of hydrothermal fluids in carbonatites -evidence from leachate and sem-decrepitate analysis.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 59, No. 10, May pp. 1979-1989.QuebecCarbonatite, Deposit -Oka
DS1910-0229
1911
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F.The Kimberley System of Handling Large Quantities of Groundin the Minimum of Time, with Notes Regarding the Life of Wire Ropes.Mining Engineering Journal of South Africa, Vol. 9, PT. 1, PP. 1-18. ALSO: Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 92, JULSouth Africa, Cape Province, Kimberley AreaMining Methods, Kimberley Mine
DS1910-0429
1914
Williams, A.F.Oppenheimer, E., Williams, A.F.Diamond Deposits of German Southwest AfricaKimberley:, 58P.Southwest Africa, NamibiaKimberlite, Kimberley, Diamond, Marine Diamond Placers
DS1920-0053
1920
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F.Letter to G.f. KunzApril 29th., South AfricaDiamond Genesis
DS1930-0045
1930
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F.Diamond Bearing Gravels of the Union of South AfricaCommonwealth Min. Met. Congress 3rd., Publishing Johannesburg Off, Vol. 3, PP. 21-189; DISCUSSION PP. 190-196. ALSO: STH. AFR.South AfricaGeology, Alluvial Diamond Placers
DS1930-0046
1930
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F., Harbottle, J.Present Day Practice of Diamond Mining Including RecoveryCommonwealth Min. Met. Congress 3rd., Publishing Johannesburg Off, Vol. 3, PP. 1-20.South AfricaMining Engineering
DS1930-0126
1932
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F.The Genesis of the Diamond. a Geological, Mineralogical, Crystallographical, Petrographical and Chemical Study of Kimberlite and its Associated Cognate and Accidental Inclusions.London: E. Benn., 2 VOLS.; Vol. 1, 352P. ALSO: NATURE, Vol. 131, Feb. 25TH. PPSouth AfricaKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Genesis
DS1930-0208
1935
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F.A Tourmaline Bearing Eclogite from Suonnmoere Norway #1Geological Society of South Africa Proceedings, Vol. 37, PP. 52-57.South AfricaHeavy Minerals Concentrations
DS1940-0194
1948
Williams, A.F.Williams, A.F.Some Dreams Come True. Being a Sheaf of Stories Leading Up TCape Town: Howard B. Timmins, 590P. ILLUS.South AfricaKimberley, Janlib, Biography
DS1920-0093
1921
Williams, A.F.B.Williams, A.F.B.Rhodes. with a Bibliography and a Map of Southern and Central Africa.London:, 353P.South AfricaBiography, Kimberley
DS1920-0094
1921
Williams, A.F.B.Williams, A.F.B.Cecil Rhodes. Makers of the 19th. CenturyLondon: Constable And Co., 353P.South AfricaHistory, Kimberley
DS1994-1919
1994
Williams, A.J.Williams, A.J.Mining investment opportunities in Latin America: a foreign investorsperspectiveMinerals Outlook Conference, The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), 13pLatin America, Peru, Guyana, Ecuador, ArgentinaPanama, Mexico, Chile, Brasil, Bolivia, Columbia, Uruguay, Paraguay, Honderas
DS1994-1920
1994
Williams, A.J.Williams, A.J.Mining in Venezuela... a foreign investors perspectiveYorkton Securities, preprint for Investing in the Americas, 3pVenezuelaEconomics
DS1970-0993
1974
Williams, A.L.Smith, J.W., Kuntz, C.S., Williams, A.L., Schepper, R.J.Structural and Photographic Lineaments, Gravity, Magnetics And Seismicity of Central United States (us)First International Conference On Basement Tectonics, GlobalMid-continent
DS1988-0156
1988
Williams, B.E.Davis, R.F., Sitar, Z., Williams, B.E., Kong, H.S., Kim, H.J. et.Critical evaluation of the status of the areas for future research regarding the wide band GAP semi-conductors diamond, gallium nitride and silicon carbideMaterial Sci. Eng. B. Solid State Adv. Technol, Vol. B1, No. 1, Aug. pp. 77-104GlobalDiamond synthesis
DS1989-1629
1989
Williams, B.E.Williams, B.E., Glass, J.T.Characterization of diamond thin films - diamond phaseidentification, surface morphology and defectstructuresJournal of Mater. Res, Vol. 4, No. 2, Mar-Apr pp. 373-384GlobalDiamond morphology, CVD.
DS1997-0140
1997
Williams, C.Bulakh, A.G., Nesterov, A.R., Anisimov, I.S., Williams, C.Sevlyavr carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, RussiaGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Abstracts, POSTER.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, Deposit - Sevlyavr
DS2003-1478
2003
Williams, C.Williams, C., Van Coller, B., Nowicki, T., Gurney, J.J.Mega Kalahari geology: challenges of kimberlite exploration in this medium8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 8, POSTER abstractSouth Africa, Democratic Republic of CongoKaapvaal Craton
DS200412-2115
2003
Williams, C.Williams, C., Van Coller, B., Nowicki, T., Gurney, J.J.Mega Kalahari geology: challenges of kimberlite exploration in this medium.8 IKC Program, Session 8, POSTER abstractAfrica, South Africa, Democratic Republic of CongoDiamond exploration Kaapvaal Craton
DS201212-0107
2012
Williams, C.Campbell, I.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.The masquerade of alkaline carbonatitic tuffs by zeolites: a new global pathfinder hypothesis.Mineralium Deposita, in press available 12p.GlobalAlkaline rocks, magmatism
DS201212-0108
2012
Williams, C.Campbell, L.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.The masquerade of alkaline-carbonatite tuffs by zeolites: a new global pathfinder hypothesis.Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 371-382.MantleMagmatism - carbonatite
DS201312-0119
2013
Williams, C.Campbell, L.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.Exploring the preservation of alkaline carbonatitic extrusive rocks in relation to continent formation.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleMineral reaction paths
DS201312-0120
2013
Williams, C.Campbell, L.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.Alkaline-carbonatitic extrusive rocks in relation to continent formation.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleZeolite masquerade
DS201910-2307
2019
Williams, C.D.Williams, C.D., Mukhopadhyay, S., Rudolph, M.L., Romanowicz, B.Primitive helium is sourced from seismically slow regions in the lowermost mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi: 10.1029/ 2019GC008437Mantlehelium

Abstract: Geochemical variations in volcanic rocks erupted at Earth's surface indicate differences in mantle composition, but our understanding of the location, formation, and history of compositionally distinct mantle domains remains incomplete. In particular, some hotspot lavas contain signatures of primitive regions within the mantle that have remained relatively isolated and unprocessed throughout Earth's history. Here we use models of mantle flow to predict the locations within the mantle that are sampled by the mantle plumes associated with hotspot volcanism. Combining these models of mantle flow with state-of-the-art seismic images and a comprehensive catalog of hotspot lava geochemistry, we find that hotspots with a more primitive geochemical signature (as indicated by the isotopes of helium) sample the two large low shear-velocity provinces in the lowermost mantle. Complementary constraints from xenon and tungsten isotope ratios associated with primitive materials then require these continent-sized provinces in Earth's deep interior formed early in Earth's history, survived the violent Moon-forming giant impact, and remained relatively unmixed with the rest of the solid Earth over the past 4.5 billion years.
DS201911-2573
2019
Williams, C.D.Williams, C.D., Mukhopadhyay, S., Rudolph, M.L., Romanowicz, B.Primitive helium is sourced from seismically slow regions in the lowermost mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 8, pp. 4130-4145.Mantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Geochemical variations in volcanic rocks erupted at Earth's surface indicate differences in mantle composition, but our understanding of the location, formation, and history of compositionally distinct mantle domains remains incomplete. In particular, some hotspot lavas contain signatures of primitive regions within the mantle that have remained relatively isolated and unprocessed throughout Earth's history. Here we use models of mantle flow to predict the locations within the mantle that are sampled by the mantle plumes associated with hotspot volcanism. Combining these models of mantle flow with state-of-the-art seismic images and a comprehensive catalog of hotspot lava geochemistry, we find that hotspots with a more primitive geochemical signature (as indicated by the isotopes of helium) sample the two large low shear-velocity provinces in the lowermost mantle. Complementary constraints from xenon and tungsten isotope ratios associated with primitive materials then require these continent-sized provinces in Earth's deep interior formed early in Earth's history, survived the violent Moon-forming giant impact, and remained relatively unmixed with the rest of the solid Earth over the past 4.5 billion years.
DS1998-1582
1998
Williams, C.M.Williams, C.M., Robey, J.A., Abson, J.P.Petrography and mineral chemistry of the Mwenezi - 01 kimberlite, Zimbabwe.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 955-7.ZimbabwePetrography, geothermometry, Deposit - Mwenezi-01
DS1999-0796
1999
Williams, C.M.Williams, C.M., Robey, J.V.A.Petrography and mineral chemistry of the Mwenezi-01 kimberlite, Zimbabwe7th International Kimberlite Conference Nixon, Vol. 2, pp. 886-903.ZimbabweGeochemistry, Limpopo Mineral Belt, Deposit - Mwenezi-01
DS1990-0908
1990
Williams, C.T.Le Bas, M.J., Keller, J., Kejie, T., Wall, F., Williams, C.T., Zhang Pei-shanCarbonatite dikes at Bayan-Obo, Inner Mongolia, ChinaInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 2, extended abstract p. 940-941ChinaCarbonatite, Baiyan Obo -dikes
DS1992-0924
1992
Williams, C.T.LeBas, M.J., Keller, J., Kejie, Tao, Wall, F., Williams, C.T., Zhang PeishanCarbonatite dykes at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, ChinaMineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 195-228ChinaCarbonatite, Deposit -Bayan Obo
DS1993-1731
1993
Williams, C.T.Williams, C.T., Platt, R.G.Zirconolite (neodymium) and associated minerals from the Schryburt Lakecarbonatite, Canada.Rare earth Minerals: chemistry, origin and ore deposits, International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP) Project, pp. 157-158.OntarioCarbonatite, Mineralogy
DS1995-0813
1995
Williams, C.T.Hogarth, D.D., Williams, C.T.Zoned crystals of pyrochlore - group minerals from carbonatiteGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 20, p. A45 AbstractGlobalMineralogy, Carbonatite
DS1995-2017
1995
Williams, C.T.Wall, F., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R., Nasraoui, M.Pyrochlore from weathered carbonate at Lueshe, ZaireGeological Society Africa 10th. Conference Oct. Nairobi, p. 158-9. Abstract.Democratic Republic of CongoCarbonatite, Deposit -Lueshe
DS1995-2076
1995
Williams, C.T.Woolley, A.R., Williams, C.T., Wall, F., Garcia, D., MouteThe Bingo Carbonatite -ijolite - nepheline syenite complex Zaire: petrography, mineralogy ...Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 3, October pp. 329-348.Democratic Republic of CongoCarbonatite, Deposit -Bingo
DS1996-0697
1996
Williams, C.T.Jones, A.P., Wall, F., Williams, C.T.Rare earth minerals chemistry, origin and ore depositsChapman Hall, MSA., MSA No. 7, 360p. approx. $ 80.00 United StatesGlobalBook - table of contents, Rare earth minerals
DS1996-0698
1996
Williams, C.T.Jones, A.P., Wall, F., Williams, C.T.Rare earth minerals: chemistry, origin and ore deposits.Specific chapters cited separately.Mineralogical Soc. Series, No. 7, 372p. approx. $60.00USGlobalRare earth minerals, Carbonatite
DS1996-1498
1996
Williams, C.T.Wall, F., Williams, C.T., Nasraoui, M.Pyrochlore from weathered carbonatite at Luesche, ZaireMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 60, No. 5, Oct 1, pp. 731-750.Democratic Republic of CongoCarbonatite
DS1996-1499
1996
Williams, C.T.Wall, F., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R., Nasraoui, M.Pyrochlore from weathered carbonatite at Luashe ZaireMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 60, No. 5, Oct. pp. 731-750.Democratic Republic of CongoCarbonatite, Mineralogy
DS1996-1543
1996
Williams, C.T.Williams, C.T.The occurrence of niobian zirconolite, pyrochlore and baddeleyite in the Kovdor carbonatite complex, Kola.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 60, No. 4, Aug. 1, pp. 639-646.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, Deposit -Kovdor
DS1997-1257
1997
Williams, C.T.Williams, C.T., Wall, F., Woolley, A.R., Phillipo, S.Compositional variation in pyrochlore from the Bingo carbonatite, ZaireJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 1, July pp. 137-146.Democratic Republic of CongoCarbonatite
DS2000-0414
2000
Williams, C.T.Hogarth, D.D., Williams, C.T., Jones, P.Primary zoning in pyrochlore group minerals from carbonatitesMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 4, Aug. 1, pp.675-83.GlobalCarbonatite
DS2000-0510
2000
Williams, C.T.Kogarko, L.N., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R.Loparite in the Lovozero Massif, Kola Pen.: evidence for hidden layering in giant peralkaline intrusion.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Russia, Kola PeninsulaLamprophyre - loparite
DS2001-1214
2001
Williams, C.T.Wall, F., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R.Production of niobium deposits in weathered carbonatite: an example at Sokli northern Finland.Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM) Transactions. Durham Meeting absts., Vol. 110, p. B48. abstractFinlandCarbonatite
DS2002-0866
2002
Williams, C.T.Kogarko, L.N., Williams, C.T., Wooley, A.R.Chemical evolution and petrogenetic implications of loparite in layered agpaitic Lovozero Complex.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 1-24.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochemistry, Deposit - Lovozero
DS2002-0867
2002
Williams, C.T.Kogarko, L.N., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R.Chemical evolution and petrogenetic implications of ioparite in the layered agpaitic complex, Kola Peninsula.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 1-24.Russia, Kola PeninsulaLayered complex, Lovozero Complex
DS200612-0722
2005
Williams, C.T.Kogarko, L.N., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R.Petrogenetic implications and chemical evolution of loparite in the layered, peralkaline Lovozero complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia.Problems of Sources of deep magmatism and plumes., pp. 92-113.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkalic
DS200612-0785
2006
Williams, C.T.Lee, M.J., Lee, J.I., Garcia, D., Moutte, J., Williams, C.T., Wall, F., Kim, Y.Pyrochlore chemistry from the Sokli phoscorite carbonatite complex, Finland: implications for the genesis of phoscorite and carbonatite association.Geochemical Journal, Vol. 40, 1, pp. 1-14.Europe, FinlandCarbonatite
DS200712-0558
2006
Williams, C.T.Kogarko, L.N., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R.Compositional evolution and cryptic variation in pyroxenes of the peralkaline Lovozero intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 70, 4, pp. 347-359.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkalic
DS201012-0883
2010
Williams, C.T.Zaitsev, N., Williams, C.T., Britvin,S.N., Kuznetsova, I.V., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., Keller, J.Kerimasite Ca3ZR2(Si)O12, a new garnet from carbonatites of Kerimasi volcano and surrounding explosion craters, northern Tanzania.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 74, pp. 803-820.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201012-0886
2010
Williams, C.T.Zaitssev, A.N., Wenzel, T., Markl, G., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., Williams, C.T.Sadiman volcano, Crater Highlands, Tanzania: does it really contain melilitites and carbonatites or is it just a phonolite nephelinite volcano?International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 559.Africa, TanzaniaPetrology
DS201312-0494
2012
Williams, C.T.Kogarko, L.N., Williams, C.T., Woolley, A.R.Compositional evolution and cryptic variation in pyroxenes of the peralkaline Loverzero intrusion, Kola Peninsula Russia.Vladykin, N.V. ed. Deep seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 5-22Russia, Kola PeninsulaDeposit - Lovozero
DS201412-1015
2014
Williams, C.T.Zaitsev, A.N., Williams, C.T., Jeffreis, T.E., Strekopytov, S., Moutte, J., Ivashchenkova, O.V., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., Wall, F., Seltmann, R., Borozdin, A.P.Rare earth elements in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Devonian Kola alkaline province, Russia: examples from Kovdor, Khibina, Vuoriyarvi and Turiy Mys complexes.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 64, pp. 204-225.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS201412-1017
2014
Williams, C.T.Zaitsev, A.N., Williams, C.T., Jeffries, T.E., Strekopytov, S., Moutte, J., Ivashchenkova, O.V., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., Wall, F., Seltmann, R., Borozdin, A.P.Rare earth elements in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Devonian Kola alkaline province, Russia: examples from Kovdor, Khibina, Vuoriyarvi and Turiy Mys complexes.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 61, pp. 204-225.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS201412-1019
2014
Williams, C.T.Zaitsev, A.N., Williams, C.T., Jeffries, T.E., Strekopytov, S., Moutte, J., Ivashchenkova, O.V., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., Wall, F., Seltmann, R., Borozdin, A.P.Rare earth elements in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Devonian Kola alkaline province, Russia: examples from Kovdor, Khibina, Vuoriyarvi and Turiy Mys complexes.Ore Geology Reviews, in press availableRussia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS1986-0118
1986
Williams, D.Bussod, G., Williams, D.Thermal evolution of the lower crust and upper mantle in the southern Rio Grande riftEos, Vol. 67, No. 44, Nov. 4, p. 1183. AbstractNew Mexico, TexasMantle, Thermometry
DS1991-1874
1991
Williams, D.A.Williams, D.A.Paleozoic geology of the Ottawa-St. Lawrence Lowland, southern OntarioOntario Geological Survey Open File, Open File No. 5770, 292pOntarioPalezoic geology, General
DS1991-0201
1991
Williams, D.R.Bussod, G.Y.A., Williams, D.R.Thermal and kinematic model of the southern Rio Grande Rift- inferences from crustal and mantle xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, New MexicoTectonophysics, Vol. 197, No. 2-4, October 30, pp. 373-390New MexicoTectonics, Rio Grande Rift, Kilbourne Hole
DS1992-1667
1992
Williams, D.R.Williams, D.R., Pan, V.Internally heated mantle convection and the thermal and degassing history of the earthJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B6, June 10, pp. 8937-8950GlobalMantle, Degassing
DS1960-0844
1967
Williams, E.Jennings, I.B., Noldart, A.J., Williams, E.Geology and Mineral Resources of TasmaniaTasmania Geological Survey Bulletin., No. 50, P. 89.Australia, TasmaniaDiamond
DS1990-1558
1990
Williams, E.A.Williams, E.A., Ford, M., Edwards, H.E.Discussion of a model for the development of the Irish VariscadesJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 147, pt. 3, May pp. 566-571IrelandTectonics
DS2002-1715
2002
Williams, F.Williams, F.Diamonds in late Archean calc alkaline lamprophyres: Ontario, Canada: origin and implications.University of Sydney, B.Sc. Thesis, 82p. Ontario Geological Survey Sudbury # t9846OntarioLamprophyres
DS200412-2116
2002
Williams, F.Williams, F.Diamonds in late Archean calc alkaline lamprophyres: Ontario, Canada: origin and implications.Thesis, 'University of Sydney, B.Sc. Thesis, 82p. Ontario Geological Survey Sudbury # t9846Canada, OntarioLamprophyre
DS200512-1178
2004
Williams, G.Williams, G.Late Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Kimberley region, WA.The Australian Geologist, no. 133, pp. 15-16.AustraliaGeomorphology
DS1950-0509
1959
Williams, G.A.Stuart, J.H., Williams, G.A., Albee, H.F., Raup, O.B.Stratigraphy of Triassic and Associated Formations in Part Of the Colorado Plateau Region with a Section on Sedimentarypetrology.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 1046-Q, PP. 487-576.Colorado PlateauKimberlite, Rocky Mountains
DS1993-0182
1993
Williams, G.D.Buddin, T.S., Stimpson, I.G., Williams, G.D.North Chilean forearc tectonics and Cenozoic plate kinematicsTectonophysics, Vol. 220, No. 1-4, April 15, pp. 193-204Andes, ChileTectonics
DS1993-1732
1993
Williams, G.D.Williams, G.D., Dobb, A.Tectonics and seismic sequence stratigraphyGeological Society of London Special Publication, No. 71, 230pNamibia, North Sea, France, SpainTable of contents, Tectonics, rifting, basin
DS1998-0625
1998
Williams, G.D.Hodgetts, D., Egan, S.S., Williams, G.D.Flexural modelling of continental lithosphere deformation: a comparison of2D and 3D techniques.Tectonophysics, Vol. 294, No. 1-2, Aug. 30, pp. 1-20.MantleLithosphere - model
DS2000-1015
2000
Williams, G.E.Williams, G.E., Gostin, V.A.Mantle plume uplifts in the sedimentary record : origin of kilometer deep canyons within late Neoproterozoic...Journal of Geological Society of London, Vol. 157, No. 4, July pp. 759-68.Australia, SouthTectonics, Plumes
DS200712-0953
2006
Williams, G.E.Schmidt, P.W., Williams, G.E., Camacho, A., Lee, J.K.W.Assembly of Proterozoic Australia: implications of a revised pole for the 1070 Ma Alcurra dyke swarm, central Australia.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 167, 2, pp. 626-634.AustraliaPaleomagnetism
DS1860-0528
1886
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.The Diamond Mines of South Africa (1886)Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 42, PP. 345-347; PP. 363-366.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods
DS1860-0680
1890
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.Second Annual Report of the de Beer's Consolidated Diamond Mines of South Africa to 31st. March 1890.Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 50, PP. 574-575.Africa, South Africa, Griqualand WestProduction
DS1900-0138
1902
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.The Diamond Mines of South Africa (1902)New York: Macmillan., 681P.Africa, South Africa Kimberlite, Gemology, Geology, Mining
DS1900-0280
1904
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.The Genesis of the Diamond (1904) #2American Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Transactions, Vol. 35, PP. 440-445. ALSO: The Mining Journal R. and COM.Africa, South AfricaDiamond Genesis
DS1900-0363
1905
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.The Diamond Mines of Kimberley (1905)In: Science In South Africa, Cape Town: Maskew Miller, Edite, Africa, South AfricaGeology, Mining, Kimberley, Engineering
DS1900-0459
1906
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.The Diamond Mines of South Africa (1906)New York: Buck And Co., 2 VOLS. 359P.; 353P. ALSO: REVIEW IN MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINEAfrica, South AfricaKimberley, Diamond, Kimberlite, Mining, History, Geology
DS1900-0460
1906
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.The Genesis of the Diamond (1906)Smithsonian Institute Annual Report, PP. 193-209.Africa, South AfricaHistory, Genesis, Strata, Mine
DS1910-0480
1915
Williams, G.F.Williams, G.F.Mining Engineering Problems. South Africa Diamond DevelopmenMining Eng. World., Vol. 42, Feb. 13TH. PP. 319-325.; Feb. 27TH. PP. 405-409.; MARSouth AfricaMining Engineering
DS1860-0570
1887
Williams, G.H.Williams, G.H.On the Serpentine of Syracuse, New YorkScience., Vol. 9, PP. 232-233.United States, New YorkGeology
DS1860-0571
1887
Williams, G.H.Williams, G.H.On the Serpentine (peridotite) Occurring in the Onondaga Salt Group at Syracuse New York.American Journal of Science, SER. 3, Vol. 34, PP. 137-145. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD. 1United States, New YorkGeology, Petrology
DS1860-0572
1887
Williams, G.H.Williams, G.H.Perofskit in Serpentine Peridotite von Syracuse, N.yNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD. 2, P. 263.United States, New YorkMineralogy
DS1860-0681
1890
Williams, G.H.Williams, G.H.Note on the Eruptive Origin of the Syracuse SerpentineGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 1, PP. 533-534.United States, New YorkRelated Rocks
DS1930-0310
1939
Williams, G.J.Williams, G.J.The Kimberlite Province and Associated Diamond Deposits of Tanganyika Territory.Dar Es Salam: Government Printer, Tang. Terr. Geological Survey Bulletin., No. 12, 41P. XEROXTanzania, East AfricaKimberlite, Janlib, Kimberley
DS1930-0232
1936
Williams, H.Williams, H.Pliocene Volcanoes of the Navajo-hopi CountryGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 47, PP. 111-171.GlobalDiatreme
DS1987-0795
1987
Williams, H.Williams, H., Turner, F.J., Gilbert, C>M.Petrography - an introduction to the study of rocks in thin sectionsFreeman and Co, pp. 227-259GlobalLamprophyres, Alkalic Rocks
DS1995-2059
1995
Williams, H.Williams, H.Geology of the Appalachian Caledonian Orogeny in Canada and GreenlandGsa F-1, 944pCanada, GreenlandOrogeny -Appalachian -Caledonian, Book -Table of contents
DS2001-1240
2001
Williams, H.Williams, H., Turner, S., Kelley, S., Harris, N.Age and composition of dikes in Southern Tibet: new constraints on the timing of east west extension ...Geology, Vol. 29, No. 4, Apr. pp.339-42.Tibetvolcanism - post collisional, Geodynamics
DS200612-0577
2006
Williams, H.Hibbard, J.P., Van Staal, C.R., Rankin, D.W., Williams, H.Lithotectonic map of the Appalachian orogen, Canada-United States of America.Geological Survey of Canada, Map 2096A 1: 1,500,000 $ 30.00Canada, United StatesMap - tectonics
DS200612-1536
2006
Williams, H.Williams,H.Iron isotopes and Earth's oxygen budget.GEMOC Annual Report, 2005, p. 25.MantleOxidation states
DS200412-2117
2004
Williams, H.M.Williams, H.M., McCammon, C.A., Peslier, A.H., Halliday, A.N., Teutsch, N., Levasseur, S., Burg, J-P.Iron isotope fractionation and the oxygen fugacity of the mantle.Science, Vol. 304, 5677, June 11, p. 1656.MantleGeothermobarometry
DS200412-2118
2004
Williams, H.M.Williams, H.M., McCammon, C.A., Peslier, Halliday, Teutsch, Levasseur, BurgIron isotope fractionation and the oxygen fugacity of the mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13th Goldschmidt Conference held Copenhagen Denmark, Vol. 68, 11 Supp. July, ABSTRACT p.A563.MantleMelting
DS200512-1179
2005
Williams, H.M.Williams, H.M., Peslier, A.H., McCammon, C., Halliday, A.N., Levasseur, S., Teutsch, N., Burg, J.P.Systematic iron isotope variations in mantle rocks and minerals: the effects of partial melting and oxygen fugacity.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Advanced in press,MantleMelting
DS200512-1180
2005
Williams, H.M.Williams, H.M., Peslier, A.H., McCammon, C., Halliday, A.N., Levasseur, S., Teutsch, N., Burg, J.P.Systematic iron isotope variations in mantle rocks and minerals. The effects of partial melting and oxygen fugacity.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 235, 1-2, pp. 435-452.MantleGeochronology, melting
DS200712-1157
2007
Williams, H.M.Williams, H.M., Nielsen, S.G., Renac, C., McCammon, C.A., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y.Fractionation of Fe and O isotopes in the mantle: implications for the origins of eclogites and the source regions of mantle plumes.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A1118.MantleSubduction
DS201212-0783
2012
Williams, H.M.Williams, H.M., Wood, B.J., Wade, J., Frost, D.J., Tuff, J.Isotopic evidence for internal oxidation of the Earth's mantle during accretion.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 321-322, pp. 54-63.MantleAccretion
DS201809-2070
2018
Williams, H.M.McCoy-West, A.J., Fitton, J.G., Pons, M-L., Inglis, E.C., Williams, H.M.The Fe and Zn isotope composition of deep mantle source regions: insight from Baffin Island picrites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 238, pp. 542-562.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin Islandpicrites

Abstract: Young (61?Ma) unaltered picrites from Baffin Island, northeast Canada, possess some of the highest 3He/4He (up to 50?Ra) seen on Earth, and provide a unique opportunity to study primordial mantle that has escaped subsequent chemical modification. These high-degree partial melts also record anomalously high 182W/184W ratios, but their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions (including 142Nd) are indistinguishable from those of North Atlantic mid-ocean ridge basalts. New high precision Fe and Zn stable isotope analyses of Baffin Island picrites show limited variability with d56Fe ranging from -0.03‰ to 0.13‰ and d66Zn varying from 0.18‰ to 0.28‰. However, a clear inflection is seen in both sets of isotope data around the composition of the parental melt (MgO?=?21?wt%; d56Fe?=?0.08?±?0.04‰; and d66Zn?=?0.24?±?0.03‰), with two diverging trends interpreted to reflect the crystallisation of olivine and spinel in low-MgO samples and the accumulation of olivine at higher MgO. Olivine mineral separates are significantly isotopically lighter than their corresponding whole rocks (d56Fe?=?-0.62‰ and d66Zn?=?-0.22‰), with analyses of individual olivine phenocrysts having extremely variable Fe isotope compositions (d56Fe?=?-0.01‰ to -0.80‰). By carrying out modelling in three-isotope space, we show that the very negative Fe isotope compositions of olivine phenocryst are the result of kinetic isotope fractionation from disequilibrium diffusional processes. An excellent correlation is observed between d56Fe and d66Zn, demonstrating that Zn isotopes are fractionated by the same processes as Fe in simple systems dominated by magmatic olivine. The incompatible behaviour of Cu during magmatic evolution is consistent with the sulfide-undersaturated nature of these melts. Consequently Zn behaves as a purely lithophile element, and estimates of the bulk Earth Zn isotope composition based on Baffin Island should therefore be robust. The ancient undegassed lower mantle sampled at Baffin Island possesses a d56Fe value that is within error of previous estimates of bulk mantle d56Fe, however, our estimate of the Baffin mantle d66Zn (0.20?±?0.03‰) is significantly lower than some previous estimates. Comparison of our new data with those for Archean and Proterozoic komatiites is consistent with the Fe and Zn isotope composition of the mantle remaining constant from at least 3?Ga to the present day. By focusing on large-degree partial melts (e.g. komatiites and picrites) we are potenitally biasing our record to samples that will inevitably have interacted with, entrained and melted the ambient shallow mantle during ascent. For a major element such as Fe, that will continuosly participate in melting as it rises through the mantle, the final isotopic compositon of the magama will be a weighted average of the complete melting column. Thus it is unsuprising that minimal Fe isotope variations are seen between localities. In contrast, the unique geochemical signatures (e.g. He and W) displayed by the Baffin Island picrites are inferred to solely originate from the lowermost mantle and will be continuously diluted upon magma ascent.
DS201912-2805
2019
Williams, H.M.McCoy-West, A.J., Chowdhury, P., Burton, K.W., Sossi, P., Nowell, G,M., Fitton, J.G., Kerr, A.C., Cawood, P.A., Williams, H.M.Extensive crustal extraction in Earth's early history inferred from molybdenum isotopes.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 12, pp. 946-951.Mantlepicrites

Abstract: Estimates of the volume of the earliest crust based on zircon ages and radiogenic isotopes remain equivocal. Stable isotope systems, such as molybdenum, have the potential to provide further constraints but remain underused due to the lack of complementarity between mantle and crustal reservoirs. Here we present molybdenum isotope data for Archaean komatiites and Phanerozoic komatiites and picrites and demonstrate that their mantle sources all possess subchondritic signatures complementary to the superchondritic continental crust. These results confirm that the present-day degree of mantle depletion was achieved by 3.5 billion years ago and that Earth has been in a steady state with respect to molybdenum recycling. Mass balance modelling shows that this early mantle depletion requires the extraction of a far greater volume of mafic-dominated protocrust than previously thought, more than twice the volume of the continental crust today, implying rapid crustal growth and destruction in the first billion years of Earth’s history.
DS202001-0044
2019
Williams, H.M.Tang, F., Taylor, R.J.M., Einsle, J.F., Borlina, C.S., Fu, R.R., Weiss, B.P., Williams, H.M., Williams, W., Nagy, L., Midgley, P.A., Lima, E.A., Bell, E.A., Harrison, T.M., Alexander, E.W., Harrison, R.J.Secondary magnetite in ancient zircon precludes analysis of a Hadean geodynamo. Jack HillsProceedings National Academy of Science, Vol. 116, pp. 407-412.Australiapaleomagnetism

Abstract: Zircon crystals from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, are one of the few surviving mineralogical records of Earth’s first 500 million years and have been proposed to contain a paleomagnetic record of the Hadean geodynamo. A prerequisite for the preservation of Hadean magnetization is the presence of primary magnetic inclusions within pristine igneous zircon. To date no images of the magnetic recorders within ancient zircon have been presented. Here we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that all observed inclusions are secondary features formed via two distinct mechanisms. Magnetite is produced via a pipe-diffusion mechanism whereby iron diffuses into radiation-damaged zircon along the cores of dislocations and is precipitated inside nanopores and also during low-temperature recrystallization of radiation-damaged zircon in the presence of an aqueous fluid. Although these magnetites can be recognized as secondary using transmission electron microscopy, they otherwise occur in regions that are indistinguishable from pristine igneous zircon and carry remanent magnetization that postdates the crystallization age by at least several hundred million years. Without microscopic evidence ruling out secondary magnetite, the paleomagnetic case for a Hadean-Eoarchean geodynamo cannot yet been made.
DS1975-0209
1975
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R., Williams, R.A.The Geology of the Yengema Lease, Kono District, Sierra LeonInternational Report NATIONAL DIAMOND MINING CO. LTD., 21P.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Diamonds
DS1975-0435
1976
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R., Williams, R.A.The Kasila Group , Sierra Leone, an Interpretation of New DaPrecambrian Research., Vol. 3, PP. 505-508.Sierra Leone, West AfricaRelated Rocks
DS1975-0651
1977
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R., Williams, R.A.Kimberlites and Plate Tectonics in West AfricaNature., Vol. 270, No. 5637, PP. 507-508.Sierra Leone, West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, GhanaGeology, Genesis, Kimberlite
DS1975-0721
1978
Williams, H.R.Culver, S.J., Williams, H.R., Bulletin, P.A.Infracambrian Glaciogenic Sediments from Sierra LeoneNature., Vol. 274, PP. 49-51.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Geomorphology
DS1975-0894
1978
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R.The Archean Geology of Sierra LeonePrecambrian Research., Vol. 6, PP. 251-268.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology
DS1975-0987
1979
Williams, H.R.Culver, S.J., Williams, H.R.Late Precambrian and Phanerozic Geology of Sierra LeoneQuarterly Journal of Geological Society (London), Vol. 136, PP. 605-618.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology
DS1975-1060
1979
Williams, H.R.Hastings, D.A., Sharp, W.E., Williams, H.R.An Alternative Hypothesis for the Origin of West African Kimberlites.Nature., Vol. 277, No. 5692, PP. 152-153.West Africa, GuineaKimberlite Genesis
DS1975-1263
1979
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R.An Archean Suture in Sierra Leone?Nature., Vol. 282, Dec. 6TH., P.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Tectonics
DS1985-0743
1985
Williams, H.R.Wright, J.B., Hastings, D.A., Jones, W.B., Williams, H.R.Geology and Mineral Resources of West AfricaAllen and Unwin Publ, 200pWest AfricaMineral Resources, Book -table Of Contents -listed Due To Interest
DS1988-0759
1988
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R., Culver, S.J.Structural terranes and their relationship in Sierra LeoneProceedings of the Penrose Conference held in France Jan 17-22, 1984, pp. 473-478Sierra LeoneTectonics
DS1989-0353
1989
Williams, H.R.Devaney, J.R., Williams, H.R.Evolution of an Archean subprovince boundary: a sedimentological and structural study of part of the Wabigoon-Quetico boundary in northern OntarioCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 5, May pp. 1013-1026OntarioArchean, Structure-Wabigoon-Quetico
DS1989-1630
1989
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R.Geological studies in the Wabigoon, Quetico and Abitibi Wawa subprovinces Superior Province of Ontario, with emphasis on the struct. dev.Beardmore-Geraldton.beltOntario Geological Survey Open File, No. 5724, 189pOntarioStructure, Beardmore-Geraldton belt
DS1990-1559
1990
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R.Subprovince accretion tectonics in the south-central Superior ProvinceCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 4, April pp. 570-581OntarioTectonics -Superior, Accretion -terranes
DS1990-1560
1990
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R.Subprovince accretion tectonics in the south central Superior ProvinceCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, pp. 570-81.OntarioTectonics, Wawa area
DS1991-1875
1991
Williams, H.R.Williams, H.R., Stott, G.M.Subprovince accretion in the southern Superior Province or cross section through the Wawa-Quetico-Wabigoon subprovincial boundaries and Beardmore-GeraldtonbeltGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting held Toronto May 1991, Guidebook, No. B6, 25pOntarioGreenstone belt, Tectonics
DS1992-1577
1992
Williams, I.R.Tyler, I.M., Fletcher, I.R., Williams, I.R., Libby, W.G.Isotope and rare earth element evidence for a late Archean terrane boundary in the southeastern Pilbara craton, western AustraliaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 54, No. 2-4, January pp. 211-230AustraliaGeochronology, Archean
DS1986-0442
1986
Williams, I.S.Kinny, P.D., Williams, I.S., Compston, W., Bristow, J.Archean zircon xenocrysts from the Jwaneng kimberlite pipe, BotswanaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 267-269BotswanaBlank
DS1986-0686
1986
Williams, I.S.Rudnik, R.L., Williams, I.S., Taylor, S.R., Compston, W.Composition and age of the lower crust in north QueenslandProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 312-314AustraliaBlank
DS1989-0782
1989
Williams, I.S.Kinny, P.D., Compston, W., Bristow, J.W., Williams, I.S.Archean mantle xenocrysts in a Permian kimberlite: two generations Of kimberlitic zircon in Jwaneng DK2,southern BotswanaGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 2, pp. 833-842BotswanaMantle xenoliths, Geochronology
DS1989-0831
1989
Williams, I.S.Kroner, A., Compston, W., Williams, I.S.Growth of early Archean crust in the ancient gneiss complex of Swazilandas revealed by single zircondatingTectonophysics, Vol. 161, No. 3/4, pp. 271-298GlobalCraton, Tectonics
DS1990-0346
1990
Williams, I.S.Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Wendt, I.U-Th-lead systematics of individual perovskite grains from the Allende and Murchison carbonaceous chondritesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 101, pp. 379-387IrelandMeteorites, Perovskites
DS1990-0441
1990
Williams, I.S.Eldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Bristow, J., HarrisCrustal recycling as recorded in sulfide inclusions from diamonds: a SHRIMP sulfur and lead isotopic studyGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A26Southern AfricaDiamond inclusions, SHRIMP geochronology
DS1990-1561
1990
Williams, I.S.Williams, I.S., Collins, W.J.Granite-greenstone terranes in the Pilbara Block,Australia, as coeval volcano plutonic complexes; evidence from uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) zircon dating of the Mt. EdgarBatholithEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, February pp. 41-53AustraliaGeochronology, Greenstone Terranes
DS1991-0284
1991
Williams, I.S.Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Kinny, P.D., Bristow, J.W., HarrisA SHRIMP ion microprobe investigation into the timing, sources and processes involved in diamond formationGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract Volume, Vol. 23, No. 5, San Diego, p. A 102South AfricaMicroprobe, Diamond morphology
DS1991-0434
1991
Williams, I.S.Eldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Harris, J.W., BristowIsotope evidence for the involvement of recycled sediments in diamondformationNature, Vol. 353, Oct. 17, pp. 649-653GlobalGeochronology - isotopes, Diamond genesis
DS1991-0753
1991
Williams, I.S.Huhma, H., Claesson, S., Kinny, P.D., Williams, I.S.The growth of early Proterozoic crust- new evidence from Svecofenniandetrital zirconsTerra Nova, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 175-178Finland, Sweden, SvecofenniaProterozoic, Geochronology
DS1993-0818
1993
Williams, I.S.King, P.L., Rudnick, R.I., Williams, I.S.Geochronology of lower crustal xenoliths from western Victoria, Australia:mapping different crustal domains.American Geophysical Union, EOS, supplement Abstract Volume, October, Vol. 74, No. 43, October 26, abstract p. 577.AustraliaGeochronology, Xenoliths
DS1995-0112
1995
Williams, I.S.Barton, E.S., Brakfogel, F.F., Williams, I.S.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) zircon age for carbonatite and alkali picrite pipes Or to Yiargafield.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 37.Russia, YakutiaCarbonatite, Deposit -Orto-Yiarga
DS1996-1004
1996
Williams, I.S.Mueller, P.A., Wooden, J.L., Williams, I.S.Extended history of a 3.5 Ga trondhjemitic gneiss, Wyoming Province, USA:evidence from uranium-lead (U-Pb) systematicsPrecambrian Research, Vol. 78, No. 1-3, May 1, pp. 41-52WyomingTrondhjemites, Geochronology
DS1996-1544
1996
Williams, I.S.Williams, I.S., Eldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Bristow, J.Contributions of SHRIMP micro-isotopic analysis to understanding Kimberlite and diamond genesis.Australia Nat. University of Diamond Workshop July 29, 30., 2p.GlobalDiamond genesis, Geochemistry, mircoprobe, SHRIMP
DS1998-1092
1998
Williams, I.S.Oliver, G.J.H., Johnson, S.P., Williams, I.S., HerdRelict 1.4 Ga oceanic crust in the Zambezi Valley: evidence Mesoproterozoic supercontinental fragmentationGeology, Vol. 26, No. 6, June pp. 571-3ZimbabweOrogenic belts, Archean Craton, Rodinia, tectonics, Chewore ophiolite
DS1998-1583
1998
Williams, I.S.Williams, I.S.The Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia: a SHRIMP's eye view of crustal growth in eastern GondwanaJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, 1A, p. 211. AbstractAustraliaRemote sensing
DS2002-1569
2002
Williams, I.S.Sun, W., Williams, I.S., Li, S.Carboniferous and Triassic eclogites in the Western Dabie Mountains east central Chin a: evidence for protracted convergence of the North and South Chin a Blocks.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 20, 9, pp. 873-886.ChinaEclogites, UHP
DS2003-0181
2003
Williams, I.S.Buick, I.S., Williams, I.S., Gibson, R.L., Cartwright, I., Miller, J.A.Carbon and U Pb evidence for a Paleoproterozoic crustal component in the CentralJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 160, 4, pp. 601-12.South AfricaGeochronology, Mobile belt - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-0088
2004
Williams, I.S.Baldwin, J.A., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L., Williams, I.S.Eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone: petrological and U Pb geochronological evidence for Paleoproterozoic high pressure metaContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 147, 5, pp. 528-48.Canada, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesEclogite, shield
DS200412-0238
2003
Williams, I.S.Buick, I.S., Williams, I.S., Gibson, R.L., Cartwright, I., Miller, J.A.Carbon and U Pb evidence for a Paleoproterozoic crustal component in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 160, 4, pp. 601-12.Africa, South AfricaGeochronology Mobile belt - not specific to diamonds
DS200712-1158
2007
Williams, I.S.Williams, I.S.Earth science: old diamonds and the upper crust.Nature, Vol. 448, 7156, pp. 880-881.MantleGeochronology
DS200812-0358
2008
Williams, I.S.Flowers, R.M., Bowring, S.A., Mahan, K.H., Williams, M.L., Williams, I.S.Stabilization and reactivation of cratonic lithosphere from the lower crustal record in the western Canadian Shield.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 156, 4, pp. 529-549.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesCraton
DS200812-0359
2008
Williams, I.S.Flowers, R.M., Bowring, S.A., Mahan, K.H., Williams, M.L., Williams, I.S.Stabilization and reactivation of cratonic lithosphere from the lower crustal record in the western Canadian shield.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 21p.Canada, Alberta, Saskatchewan, ManitobaGeochronology, recycling
DS200812-0679
2008
Williams, I.S.Liu, Y., Williams, I.S., Chen, J., Wan, Y., Sun, W.The significance of Paleoproterozoic zircon in carbonatite dikes associated with the Bayan Obo REE Nb Fe deposit.American Journal of Science, Vol. 308, 3, pp. 379-397.ChinaCarbonatite
DS201312-0204
2013
Williams, I.S.Demaiffe, D., Wiszniewska, J., Krzeminska, E., Williams, I.S., Stein, H., Brassinnes, S., Ohnenstetter, D., Deloule, E.A hidden alkaline and carbonatite province of Early Carboniferous age in northeast Poland: zircon U-Pb and pyrrhotite Re-Os geochronology.Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, 1, pp. 91-104.Europe, PolandCarbonatite
DS201312-1005
2013
Williams, I.S.Zartman, R.E., Kempton, P.D., Kempton, J.B., Paces, H.D., Williams, I.S., Dobosi, G.,Futa, K.Lower crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, Upper Michigan USA: evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 54, 3, pp. 575-608.United States, MichiganDeposit - Lake Ellen, S69, S10
DS201712-2701
2017
Williams, I.S.Liu, Y-L., Ling, M-X., Williams, I.S., Yang, X-Y., Yan Wang, C., Sun, W.The formation of the giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, north China, Mesoproterozoic carbonatite and overprinted Palaeozoic dolomitization.Ore Geology Reviews, in press available, 47p.Chinadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The Bayan Obo ore deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China, the largest-known rare earth element (REE) deposit in the world, is closely associated with carbonatite dykes. Scarce zircon grains, with a wide range of ages and diverse origins, have been extracted from the Wu dyke, a REE-enriched calcitic carbonatite dyke 2?km from the East Ore Body of the Bayan Obo deposit. Three zircon populations were identified based on ages and trace element compositions: 1) Captured zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean ages. These zircons have REE patterns and moderate Th/U ratios similar to zircon with silicate inclusions from basement igneous rocks, which have been recognized as contaminants from wall rocks. 2) Carbonatite magmatic zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages. These zircons have high to extremely high Th/U ratios (13-1600), a characteristic signature of the Bayan Obo deposit. Two zircon grains yielded concordant 206Pb/238U ages (1.27?±?0.11?Ga?~?1.42?±?0.18?Ga) and 208Pb/232Th age (1.26?±?0.20?Ga) with calcite inclusions, indicating that the Wu dyke was emplaced at ca. 1.34?Ga, which coincides with a worldwide generation of Mesoproterozoic kimberlites, lamprophyres, carbonatites, and anorogenic magmatism. 3) Hydrothermal zircons with Caledonian and Triassic ages. The Caledonian zircon has 206Pb/238U age of 381?±?4?Ma and 208Pb/232Th age of 367?±?14?Ma with dolomite inclusion. These evidences are consistent with multiple stages of mineralization, Mesoproterozoic calcite carbonatite magmatism interacted by protracted fluxing of subduction-released Caledonian fluids during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean, coupled with interaction with the mantle wedge and metasomatism of overlying sedimentary carbonate.
DS201802-0250
2018
Williams, I.S.Liu, Y-L., Ling, M-X., Williams, I.S., Yang, X-Y., Wang, C.Y.The formation of the giant Bayan Obo REE Nb Fe deposit, North China, Mesoproterozoic carbonatite and overprinted Paleozoic dolomitization.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 92, pp. 73-83.Chinadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The Bayan Obo ore deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China, the largest-known rare earth element (REE) deposit in the world, is closely associated with carbonatite dykes. Scarce zircon grains, with a wide range of ages and diverse origins, have been extracted from the Wu dyke, a REE-enriched calcitic carbonatite dyke 2?km from the East Ore Body of the Bayan Obo deposit. Three zircon populations were identified based on ages and trace element compositions: 1) Captured zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean ages. These zircons have REE patterns and moderate Th/U ratios similar to zircon with silicate inclusions from basement igneous rocks, which have been recognized as contaminants from wall rocks. 2) Carbonatite magmatic zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages. These zircons have high to extremely high Th/U ratios (13-1600), a characteristic signature of the Bayan Obo deposit. Two zircon grains yielded concordant 206Pb/238U ages (1.27?±?0.11?Ga?~?1.42?±?0.18?Ga) and 208Pb/232Th age (1.26?±?0.20?Ga) with calcite inclusions, indicating that the Wu dyke was emplaced at ca. 1.34?Ga, which coincides with a worldwide generation of Mesoproterozoic kimberlites, lamprophyres, carbonatites, and anorogenic magmatism. 3) Hydrothermal zircons with Caledonian and Triassic ages. The Caledonian zircon has 206Pb/238U age of 381?±?4?Ma and 208Pb/232Th age of 367?±?14?Ma with dolomite inclusion. These evidences are consistent with multiple stages of mineralization, Mesoproterozoic calcite carbonatite magmatism interacted by protracted fluxing of subduction-released Caledonian fluids during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean, coupled with interaction with the mantle wedge and metasomatism of overlying sedimentary carbonate.
DS201312-0341
2013
Williams, J.Guagliardo, P., Byrne, K.,Chapman, J.,Sudarshan, K., Samarin, S., Williams, J.Positron annihilation and optical studies of natural brown type 1 diamonds.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 37, pp. 37-40.TechnologyBrown diamonds
DS1860-0705
1891
Williams, J.F.Kemp, J.F., Williams, J.F.Tabulation of the Dikes of Igneous Rocks of ArkansawArkansaw Geological Survey Report FOR 1890, Vol. 2, CHAPTER 13, PP. 407-432.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasMineralogy, Petrology
DS1860-0720
1891
Williams, J.F.Williams, J.F.The Igneous Rocks of ArkansawArkansas Geological Survey Report FOR 1890, 432P.United States, ArkansasRegional Geology, Petrology, Mineralogy
DS1860-0721
1891
Williams, J.F.Williams, J.F.Distribution and Petrographic Character of the Igneous Rocks from Pike County. Prairie CreekArkansas Geological Survey REPORT FOR 1890, Vol. 2, CHAPTER 11, PP. 376-391.United States, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaMineralogy, Petrology, Prairie Creek
DS1993-0740
1993
Williams, J.G.Jarvis, K.E., Williams, J.G.Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(LA-ICP-MS):rapid technique direct quantitative determination major, trace rareearth elementsChemical Geology, Vol. 106, pp. 251-262GlobalSpectrometry, Geochemistry
DS1996-1201
1996
Williams, J.M.Rodrigues, B.D., Stanley, W.D., Williams, J.M.Axial structures within the Reelfoot Rift delineated with magnetotelluricsurveys.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Prof. Paper, No. 1538-K, 30p.Michigan, Wisconsin, Arkansas, MidcontinentGeophysics - magnetotellurics, Tectonics, structure
DS1983-0189
1983
Williams, J.O.Crawford, E.S., Folkes, J.A., Williams, J.O., Barnicoat, A.C.Electron Microscope Studies of Minerals: Phase Boundaries In an Extremely Slowly Cooled Clinopyroxene (augite).Royal Society of London Proceedings, Vol. 387, No. 1792, PP. 21-30.ScotlandMicroscopy, Mineral Chemistry
DS1860-0192
1872
Williams, J.W.Williams, J.W.The Diamond Fields of South Africa. by One Who Has Visited The Fields; with Notes on Journey.New York: American News Syndicate., 230P.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceTravelogue
DS1997-1258
1997
Williams, K.E.Williams, K.E.Early Paleozoic paleogeography of Laurentia and western Gondwana: evidence from tectonic subsidence analysisGeology, Vol. 25, No. 8, August pp. 747-750Gondwana, Central America, LaurentiaTectonics, Subduction, Rifting, terranes, Mixteca, Famatina, Zapoteca
DS1990-1562
1990
Williams, K.L.Williams, K.L., Rock, N.M.S., Carroll, G.W.SPINEL and SPINELTAB: Macintosh programs to plot spinel analyses in the three dimensional oxidized (magnetite) and reduced (ulvospinel) prismsAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 75, No. 11-12, November-December pp. 1428-1430GlobalComputer Program, SPINEL
DS1991-0165
1991
Williams, K.L.Branagan, D.F., Gibbons, G.S., Williams, K.L.The geological mapping of two southern continentsEdgeworth David Socity Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of, Australia, AntarcticaBook -ad, Geological mapping
DS1991-1443
1991
Williams, K.L.Rock, N.M.S., Carroll, G.W., Wheatley, M.R., Williams, K.L.MacSuite: an integrated compendium of geoscientific programs for the AppleMacintoshAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 76, No. 11, 12 November-December pp. 2013-2019GlobalComputer, Program -MacSuite igneous petrology
DS1994-1076
1994
Williams, L.A.Macdonald, R., Williams, L.A., Gass, I.G.Tectonomagmatic evolution of Kenya rift valley -some geologicalperspectives.Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 151, No. 5, Sept. pp. 879-888.KenyaTectonics, Rifting
DS1995-0741
1995
Williams, M.Hanmer, S., Williams, M., Kopf, C.Modest movements, spectacular fabrics intracontinental deep crustal strikeslip fault: Athabaska mylonite zoneJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 493-507Saskatchewan, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesTrans-Hudson Orogen, Rae, Hearne, Snowbird tectonic zones, Structure, tectonics
DS2002-0812
2002
Williams, M.Karstrom, K., Williams, M.Long lived (1.8-1.0GA) convergent orogen in southern Laurentia - evaluation of the AUSWUS model for Rodinia.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Oct. 27-30, Abstract p. 559.Australia, OntarioTectonics, Gondwana
DS201512-1996
2015
Williams, M.Yang, X., Williams, M.Landforms and processes in arid and semi-arid environments.Catena, Vol. 134, pp. 4-13.Africa, South Africa, AustraliaGeomorphology
DS1995-1785
1995
Williams, M.C.Snoeyenbos, D.R., Williams, M.C., Hanmer, S.Archean high pressure metamorphism in the western Canadian ShieldEur. Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 7, No. 6, Nov. 1, pp. 1251-1272Cordillera, British Columbia, Alberta, Yukonmetamorphism, Shield
DS1994-1646
1994
Williams, M.I.Snoeyenbos, D.K., Williams, M.I.An Archean eclogite facies terrane from the Snowbird tectonic zone, northern Saskatchewan.Eos, Vol. 75, No. 16, April 19, p. 355.SaskatchewanTectonics, Eclogite facies
DS1996-1545
1996
Williams, M.I.Williams, M.I., Karlstrom, K.E.Looping P-T paths and high T low pressure middle crustal metamorphism: Proterozoic evolution of the southwest USAGeology, Vol. 24, No. 12, Dec. pp. 1119-22.Colorado PlateauProterozoic, Tectonics
DS2000-0635
2000
Williams, M.I.Matzel, J., Bowring, S., Stevns, L., Williams, M.I.Geochronology of lower crustal xenoliths from across the State Line Belt, S. Wyoming and N. Colorado.Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 32, No. 7, p.A-387.Wyoming, ColoradoGeochronology, Deposit - Leucite Hills, State Line
DS200712-0304
2005
Williams, M.I.Farmer, G.L., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.I., Christiensen, N.I., Matzel, J., Stevens, I.Contrasting lower crustal evolution across an Archean Proterozoic suture, physical, chemical and geochronologic studies of lower crustal xenoliths....Keller & Karlstrom: The Rocky Mountain Region, American Geophysical Union, No. 154, pp. 139-162.United States, Wyoming, Colorado PlateauGeochronology
DS1998-0723
1998
Williams, M.L.Karlstrom, K.E., Williams, M.L.Heterogeneity of the middle crust: implications for strength of continentallithosphere.Geology, Vol. 26, No. 9, Sept. pp. 815-8.Colorado, PlateauWyoming Archean province, Mantle, Paleoproterozoic
DS2000-0931
2000
Williams, M.L.Stevens, L.M., Williams, M.L., Bowring, S.A., FarmerPetrology of lower crustal xenoliths across the Cheyenne Belt Implications for evolution and seismics..Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 32, No. 7, p.A-386.Wyoming, New MexicoXenoliths, Geophysics - seismic imaging of the lower crust
DS2002-0339
2002
Williams, M.L.Crowley, J.L., Mazel, J.P., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L., Farmer, G.L.Paleoproterozoic to mesoproterozoic evolution of southwestern North America: the view from the lower crust.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Oct. 27-30, Abstract p. 253.Wyoming, New MexicoDeformation, xenoliths
DS2003-0065
2003
Williams, M.L.Baldwin, J.A., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L.Petrological and geochronological constraints on high pressure, high temperatureJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 21, 1, pp. 81-98.Alberta, SaskatchewanGeochronology, UHP
DS2003-0690
2003
Williams, M.L.Karlstrom, K.E., Sears, J.W., Holm, D.K., Williams, M.L., Wooden, HatcherSouthern Laurentia in Rodinia: collaborative compilation of a tectonic map for IGCPGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.342.RodiniaTectonics
DS2003-0860
2003
Williams, M.L.Mahan, K.H., Hoffman-Setka, D., Williams, M.L., Kopf, C.F.Contrasting lithotectonic domain boundaries within a deep crustal exposure, northernGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlySaskatchewanTectonics
DS200412-0088
2004
Williams, M.L.Baldwin, J.A., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L., Williams, I.S.Eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone: petrological and U Pb geochronological evidence for Paleoproterozoic high pressure metaContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 147, 5, pp. 528-48.Canada, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesEclogite, shield
DS200412-0954
2003
Williams, M.L.Karlstrom, K.E., Sears, J.W., Holm, D.K., Williams, M.L., Wooden, Hatcher, Finn, Price, Miller, BerquistSouthern Laurentia in Rodinia: collaborative compilation of a tectonic map for IGCP 440.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.342.Gondwana, RodiniaTectonics
DS200412-1199
2003
Williams, M.L.Mahan, K.H., Hoffman-Setka, D., Williams, M.L., Kopf, C.F.Contrasting lithotectonic domain boundaries within a deep crustal exposure, northern Saskatchewan, western Canadian shield.Geological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyCanada, SaskatchewanTectonics
DS200512-0503
2005
Williams, M.L.Keller, G.R., Karlstrom, K.E., Williams, M.L., Miller, K.C., Andronicos, C., Levander, A.R., Snelson, ProdehlThe dynamic nature of the continental crust-mantle boundary: crustal evolution in the southern Rocky Mountain region as an example.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, No. 154, pp. 403-420.United States,Wyoming, Colorado PlateauTectonics
DS200512-0675
2005
Williams, M.L.Mahan, K.H., Williams, M.L.Reconstruction of a large deep crustal terrane: implications for the Snowbird tectonic zone and early growth of Laurentia.Geology, Vol. 33, 5, May pp. 385-388.Canada, Ontario, ManitobaTectonics, mantle
DS200512-0676
2005
Williams, M.L.Mahan, K.H., Williams, M.L., Dumond, G., Card, C.Reconstruction of a large deep crustal terrane: implications for the Snowbird tectonic zone and early growth of Laurentia.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.Canada, Alberta, SaskatchewanTrans Hudson Orogen, tectonics
DS200512-1181
2005
Williams, M.L.Williams, M.L., Jercinovic, M.J., Mahan, K., Drumond, G., Flowers, R.M., Davis, W.J.Regional high T metamorphic events in Proterozoic crust of Laurentia: implications of magmatic underplating for regional tectonics crustal evolution.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.Canada, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, AlbertaTectonics, Churchill Province
DS200612-0290
2006
Williams, M.L.Crowley, J.L., Schmitz, M.D., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L., Karlstrom, K.E.U Pb Hf isotopic analysis of zircon in lower crustal xenoliths from the Navajo volcanic field: 1.4 Ga mafic magmatism and metamorphism beneath Colorado Plateau.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 151, 3, pp. 313-330.United States, Colorado PlateauGeochronology
DS200612-0399
2006
Williams, M.L.Flowers, R.M., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L.Timescales and significance of high pressure, high temperature metamorphism and mafic dike anatexis Snowbird tectonics zone, Canada.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 151, 5, May pp. 558-581.Canada, SaskatchewanMagmatism, Chipman mafic dikes, geochronology
DS200612-0400
2006
Williams, M.L.Flowers, R.M., Mahan, K.H., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L., Pringle, M.S., Hodges, K.V.Multistage exhumation and juxap