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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - Br+


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - Br+
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS1990-0608
1990
Braak, C.J.F.Gruijter, J.J.de, Braak, C.J.F.Model-free estimation from spatial samples: are appraisal of classical sampling theoryMathematical Geology, Vol. 22, No. 4, May pp. 407-416GlobalGeostatistics, Sampling theory
DS2000-0105
2000
Braathen, A.Braathen, A., Nordgulen, Osmundsen, Andersen, SolliDevonian, orogen parallel, opposed extension in the central Norwegian Caledonides.Geology, Vol. 28, No. 7, July, pp. 615-18.NorwayBaltica, Laurentia, Tectonics
DS2002-0493
2002
Braathen, A.Gabirelsen, R.H., Braathen, A., Dehls, J., Roberts, D.Tectonic lineaments of NorwayNorsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 153-174.NorwayTectonics
DS1997-0889
1997
Brabant, S.Parson, R., Brabant, S.Structuring mining investment into Africa. Presentation by PriceWaterhouse.Miga Conference Held Denver June 3-5, 33p.AfricaMining, Economics - investment, not specific to diamonds
DS201807-1479
2018
Brabers, P.M.Brabers, P.M.Geophysical alluvial exploration using the Aquares resistivity method. ( mainly ports) two diamond application cases. Luderitz port, Sankura gravels DRC, SA Cape province PresentationSAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., pp. 73-88.Africa, Namibia, Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africageophysics - resistivity
DS201808-1727
2018
Brabers, P.M.Brabers, P.M.Geophysical alluvial exploration using the Aquares resistivity method. SAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., 18 ppts.Africa, Namibia, Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africageophysics
DS201902-0303
2018
Bracco Gartner, A.J.J.Nikogosian, I.K., Bracco Gartner, A.J.J., Bergen, M.J., Mason, P.R.D., Hinsbergen, D.J.J.Mantle sources of recent Anatolian intraplate magmatism: a regional plume or local tectonic origin?Tectonics, Vol. 37, 12, pp. 4535-4566.Asia, Turkeymagmatism

Abstract: We present an extensive study of rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions, olivine phenocrysts, and chromian spinel inclusions to explore the link between geodynamic conditions and the origin and composition of Pliocene-Quaternary intraplate magmatism in Anatolia at Kula, Ceyhan-Osmaniye, and Karacadag. Exceptional compositional variability of these products reveals early and incomplete mixing of distinct parental melts in each volcanic center, reflecting asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle sources. The studied primitive magmas consist of (1) two variably enriched ocean island basalt (OIB)-type melts in Kula; (2) both OIB-type and plume mid-ocean ridge basalt (P-MORB)-like melts beneath Toprakkale and Üçtepeler (Ceyhan-Osmaniye); and (3) two variably enriched OIB-type melts beneath Karacadag. Estimated conditions of primary melt generation are 23-9 kbar, 75-30 km, and 1415-1215 °C for Kula; 28-19 kbar, 90-65 km, and 1430-1350 °C for Toprakkale; 23-18 kbar, 75-60 km, and 1400-1355 °C for Üçtepeler; and 35-27 kbar, 115-90 km, and 1530-1455 °C for Karacadag, the deepest levels of which correspond to the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in all regions. Although magma ascent was likely facilitated by local deformation structures, recent Anatolian intraplate magmatism seems to be triggered by large-scale mantle flow that also affects the wider Arabian and North African regions. We infer that these volcanics form part of a much wider Arabian-North African intraplate volcanic province, which was able to invade the Anatolian upper plate through slab gaps.
DS202008-1370
2020
Bracco Gartner, A.J.J.Bracco Gartner, A.J.J., Davies, G.R., Koornneef, J.M.Sub-nanogram Pb isotope analysis of individual melt inclusions.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractMantlemagmatism

Abstract: Precise analysis of 20xPb/204Pb ratios is challenging when the amount of Pb is limited by sample volume or elemental concentration. The current precision impedes meaningful analyses of analytes with sub-nanogram Pb contents, such as individual melt inclusions with typical diameters (<100 µm). Decreasing this lower limit whilst maintaining precision and accuracy is crucial for studies aiming to understand the composition and heterogeneity of melt source regions, and the effects of magma transport from the Earth’s interior. The preferred method for precise analysis of sub-nanogram Pb samples combines miniaturised ion-exchange separation, a Pb double spike, and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) with 10^13 O amplifier technology. This approach allows for interference-free, instrumental mass fractionation-corrected isotope measurements, and therefore provides precision superior to in situ measurements. As a result, reliable analyses can be conducted on samples which contain only a few hundred picograms of Pb. The principal obstacle at the lower limit is the analytical blank, which usually adds a few pg Pb—and thus up to a few percent—to the sample of interest. This contribution may differ for the 207Pb-204Pb-spiked and unspiked runs of one sample, which in turn convolutes the algebraic inversion of the spike. It is therefore imperative to evaluate the magnitude, isotope composition, and homogeneity of the blanks, and constrain how the uncertainty and potential variability within these parameters affect the inversion. Here, we describe the optimised analytical techniques, and discuss the present feasibility and limitations in obtaining precise Pb isotope compositions of rock reference materials and olivine-hosted melt inclusions with sub-nanogram Pb contents. In addition, we discuss the effect of different blank contributions on double-spike analyses using numerical simulations, and evaluate the potential of accurate blank corrections. We find that the optimised technique allows accurate Pb analyses to be conducted on melt inclusions with >200 pg Pb, which will ultimately help to better constrain mantle heterogeneity beneath mid-ocean ridges, oceanic islands, and volcanic arcs.
DS1991-0791
1991
Brace, T.Jenner, G.A., Dunning, G.R., Malpas, J., Brown, M., Brace, T.Bay of Islands and Little Port complexes, revisited: age, geochemical and isotopic evidence confirm suprasubduction-zone originCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 10, October pp. 1635-1652NewfoundlandOphiolites, Geochronology
DS1989-0183
1989
Bracewell, H.Brown, G., Bracewell, H., Snow, J.Gems of the Mud Tank carbonatiteThe Australian Gemologist, Vol. 17, No. 2, May pp. 52-59AustraliaCarbonatite, Mineralogy
DS1930-0017
1930
Bracewell, S.Bracewell, S.Report on the Buck Canister-oranapai Section of the Mazaruni Diamond Field. (with a Report by H.f. King.).British Guiana Geological Survey, PP. 1-18.Brazil, MazaruniKimberlite
DS1940-0026
1941
Bracewell, S.Bracewell, S.The Geomorphology Pf British GuianaGeology Magazine, Vol.78, Jan-Dec., pp; . 463-9.GlobalGeomorphology, Basement Complex
DS1940-0041
1942
Bracewell, S.Bracewell, S.Geology of the Waikuri District, Cuyuni RiverGeological Survey British Guiana, Bulletin. 18, p. 16.GlobalToroparou Creek
DS1996-0165
1996
Brack, W.Brack, W.Geological compilation report on the Temiscamingue diamond prospect Campeau Township. in EnglishQuebec Department of Mines, MRN GM 53989, 26p.Quebec, TemiscamingueExploration - assessment, Fairstar Exploration
DS1998-0156
1998
Brack, W.Brack, W.Diamond drill report on the Temiscamingue diamond prospect Campeau Township,Temiscamingue County.Quebec Department of Mines, GM 55658, 19p.QuebecExploration - assessment, Ditem Explorations Inc.
DS1998-0157
1998
Brack, W.Brack, W.Report on the Otish Mountains diamond prospect, north central QuebecQuebec Department of Mines, GM 56612, 56p.QuebecExploration - assessment, Ditem Explorations Inc.
DS1999-0090
1999
Brack, W.Brack, W.Report on the Otish Mountains diamond prospect, north central Quebec, Ditem Explorations Inc.Quebec Department of Mines, GM 56615, 116p.QuebecExploration - assessment, Ditem Explorations Inc.
DS1860-0620
1889
Brackett, R.N.Branner, J.C., Brackett, R.N.The Peridotite of Pike County, Arkansas Prarie CreekAmerican Journal of Science, SER. 3, Vol. 38, PP. 50-59. United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaMineralogy, Petrology
DS1940-0146
1947
Bradburn, M.Born, M., Bradburn, M.The Theory of the Raman Effect in Crystals in Particular Rock SaltProceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. 188, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, .GlobalBlank
DS1992-1109
1992
Bradbury, J.Neil, C., Tykklainen, M., Bradbury, J.Coping with closure: an international comparison of mine town experiencesRoutledge London, 427p. $ 150.00Canada, Scandinavia, AustraliaBook -review, Mine closures -towns
DS1950-0264
1956
Bradbury, J.C.Clegg, K.E., Bradbury, J.C.Igneous Intrusive Rocks of Illinois and Their Economic Significance.Illinois Geological Survey Report Inv., No. 197, 19P.United States, Illinois, Great LakesRelated Rocks
DS1989-0092
1989
Bradbury, J.C.Baxter, J.W., Kisvarsanyi, E.B., Hagni, R.D., Bradbury, J.C.Precambrian and Paleozoic geology and ore deposits in the MidcontinentregionAmerican Geophysical Union (AGU) 28th. International Geological Congress Field Trip Guidebook, No. T 147, 68pMissouriGuidebook
DS202012-2207
2020
Bradby, J.Bradby, J.Diamond bling made within minutes.Sciencetimes.com, https://www.cnn.com /2020/11/19/world/ diamonds-room- temperature-scli -intl-scn/index.html Australiacarbon
DS1975-0132
1975
Braddoc.Mccallum, M.E., Smith, C.B., Burns, L.K., Eggler, D.H., Braddoc.Kimberlite Diatremes and Others Iron Mountain Area, Laramierange, Wyoming.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 7, No. 5, P. 628 (abstract.).United States, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1960-1008
1968
Braddock, W.A.Peterman, Z.E., Hedge, C.E., Braddock, W.A.Age of Precambrian Events in the Northeast Front Range, Colorado.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 73, PP. 2277-2296.United States, Colorado, State Line, Rocky MountainsDiatreme
DS1989-0166
1989
Braddock, W.A.Braddock, W.A., Cole, J.C., Eggler, D.H.Geologic map of the Diamond Peak Quadrangle, LarimerCounty, Colorado and Albany County, WyomingUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Map, GQ No. 1614, 1: 24, 000 $ 3.60Colorado, WyomingMap
DS1997-1193
1997
Braddocks, J.P.Van der Pluijm, B.A., Braddocks, J.P., Harris, J.H.Paleostress in cratonic North America: implications for deformation of continental interiors.Science, Vol. 277, No. 5327, Aug. 8, pp. 794-5.United States, CanadaCraton, Deformation, tectonics
DS201112-0105
2011
Braden, B.Braden, B.Frozen out! Why is NWT exploration slowing so drastically? grass roots explorers shun the NWT, discouraged by high cost, scant infrastructure, legalCanadian Mining Journal, May, pp. 38-42.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesHistory - legal
DS201212-0085
2012
Braden, B.Braden, B.Great gusto Diavik's wind project is world class in size and promise.Canadian Mining Journal, May pp. 44-49.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDiavik - wind energy
DS201312-0092
2013
Braden, B.Braden, B.Safety rules the road to diamond mines.Canadian Mining Journal, April pp. 18-21.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesIce road
DS201412-0065
2014
Braden, B.Braden, B.Sask Rocks…. Veteran gem hunters get rewarded at remote North Arrow's Pikoo project… Canad's newest diamond district.Canadian Mining Journal, June/July pp. 14-17.Canada, SaskatchewanDeposit - Pikoo
DS201312-0563
2013
Braden, Z.Machado, G., Bilodeau, C., Takpanie, R., St.Onge, M., Rayner, N., Skipton, D., From, R., MacKay, C., Young, M., Creason, G., Braden, Z.Regional bedrock mapping, Hall Peninsula, Nunavut.Geoscience Forum 40 NWT, abstract only p. 26Canada, NunavutMapping
DS201212-0474
2012
Bradford, J.H.Miller, R.D., Bradford, J.H., Hilliger, K.Advances in near surface seismology and ground penetrating radar. ( not specific to diamonds)AGU, 487p. Approx. $ 150.00TechnologyBook - radar
DS200912-0068
2009
Bradley, A.Bradley, A.The diamond industry presents hige problems for buyers.Supply Management, Vol. 14, 3, pp. 22-27.GlobalEconomics
DS1993-0155
1993
Bradley, D.Bradley, D.Facing the reality of native titleAustralian Institute of Mining Bulletin, No. 4, August pp. 29-30AustraliaLegislation, Legal -natives
DS1993-0156
1993
Bradley, D.Bradley, D.Whats harder than diamondNew Scientist, Vol. 137, No. 1865, March 20, pp. 22-23GlobalDiamond synthesis
DS1994-0205
1994
Bradley, D.Bradley, D.Native title act 1993 - a guideAustralian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 2, March pp. 25-29AustraliaMining laws, Native title
DS201506-0257
2015
Bradley, D.Bradley, D.The promise of perovskite ( solar)Chemistry Views, May 5, 2p.TechnologyEnergy
DS201608-1392
2016
Bradley, D.Bradley, D.Improving rare earth extraction efficiency. Bastnasites ( structure and crystal properties)Journal of Physical Chemistry, 10.1002/ chemv.201600068TechnologyRare earths

Abstract: Scientists in the U.S. have provided a new understanding of the structure and crystal properties of the main mineral source of rare earth metals, bastnäsites. They are fluoro-carbonate minerals which contain ytterbium, lanthanum, and cerium, among other elements. The researchers used powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and density functional theory (DFT) to reveal details of the minerals' structure and interfacial energy. The work could help in the design of new reagents for selective binding to mineral interfaces and could improve the recovery of rare metals by froth flotation, which is the major stage of ore beneficiation. Increasing flotation concentrate grades makes the subsequent leaching and rare earth separations more efficient and economic. Rare earth elements are increasingly important in modern technology - for electronics, catalysis, possible future quantum devices, and especially for clean energy applications like wind and solar energy, energy-efficient lighting, and electric vehicles. For example, neodymium and praseodymium are used in strong permanent magnets, lanthanum and cerium are used in batteries, metal alloys, petroleum refining, and catalysis, and ytterbium is a common material in phosphors for displays and in high-tech ceramics. These elements, which are defined as the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium, are commonly found in the same ores. Despite what their name suggests, they are not actually rare, but they are difficult and costly to refine. As such, it is crucial that scientists and technologists optimize ore beneficiation to provide an enriched feedstock for the subsequent efficient extraction of these elements from the mined mineral ores in which they are found.
DS1989-0167
1989
Bradley, D.C.Bradley, D.C.Description and analysis of early faults based on geometry of faultbed-intersectionsJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 1011-1020GlobalStructure, Early faults
DS200912-0069
2008
Bradley, D.C.Bradley, D.C.Passive margins through Earth history. CratonsEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 91, 1-4, Dec. pp. 1-26.Mantle, RussiaTectonics, plate velocity, collision, supercontinents
DS201112-0106
2011
Bradley, D.C.Bradley, D.C.Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinent cycle.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 108, 1-2, Sept. pp. 16-33.PangeaZircon detritals
DS201412-0066
2014
Bradley, D.C.Bradley, D.C.Global age distribution of detrital zircons, the supercontinent cycle and subduction flux through time.GAC-MAC Annual Meeting May, abstract 1p.MantleGeochronology
DS200812-0809
2008
Bradley, J.O'Brien, H.E., Bradley, J.New kimberlite discoveries in Kuusamo, northern Finland.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractEurope, FinlandDeposit - Kuusamo field
DS2002-0023
2002
Bradley, L-A.Allaoua Saadi, M.N., Machette,K.M., Haller,K.M., Dart, R.L., Bradley, L-A.Map and database of Quaternary faults and lineaments in BrazilU.s. Geological Survey, OF 02-0230 58p $ 76. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/ofr-BrazilBlank
DS200412-0019
2002
Bradley, L-A.Allaoua Saadi, M.N., Machette,K.M., Haller,K.M., Dart, R.L., Bradley, L-A., De Souza, A.M.P.D.Map and database of Quaternary faults and lineaments in Brazil.U.S. Geological Survey, OF 02-0230 58p $ 76.South America, BrazilMap - structure
DS1981-0097
1981
Bradley, S.D.Bradley, S.D., Mccallum, M.E.Lower Crustal Granulite Facies and Related Xenoliths from Colorado-Wyoming State Line Kimberlites.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 13, No. 4, P. 192, (abstract.).United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1982-0113
1982
Bradley, S.D.Bradley, S.D., Mccallum, M.E.Lower Crustal Xenoliths from Colorado-Wyoming State Line Kimberlites.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, P. 236, (abstract.).United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1984-0171
1984
Bradley, S.D.Bradley, S.D.Granulite facies and related xenoliths from Colorado-WyomingkimberliteMsc. Colorado State Univ, Colorado, WyomingXenoliths, Granulite Facies
DS1984-0172
1984
Bradley, S.D.Bradley, S.D., Mccallum, M.E.Granulite Facies and Related Xenoliths from Colorado Wyoming Kimberlite.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, PP. 205-217.United States, State Line, California, Colorado, WyomingPetrography, Whole Rock Chemistry
DS1960-1098
1969
Bradley, W.E.Eggler, D.H., Larson, E., Bradley, W.E.Granites, Grusses and the Sherman Erosion Surface Southern Laramie Range, Colorado-wyoming.American Journal of Science, Vol. 267, No. 4, PP. 510-522.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1960-0429
1964
Bradley, W.H.Bradley, W.H.Geology of the Green River Formation and Associated Eocene Rocks in the Southwestern Wyoming and Adjacent Parts of Colorado and Utah.United States Geological Survey (USGS) PROF. PAPER., No. 496-A, PP. 57-58.GlobalRocky Mountains, Leucite Hills, Leucite
DS1920-0373
1928
Bradley, W.W.Bradley, W.W.California's Commercial Non-metallic MineralsMining Congress Journal, Vol. 14, No. 9, SEPTEMBER PP. 669-718.United States, California, West CoastBlank
DS1930-0271
1938
Bradley, W.W.Bradley, W.W.California's Commercial MineralsMining Congress Journal, Vol. 24, No. 9, P. 19.United States, CaliforniaDiamond Occurrences
DS201607-1332
2016
Bradshaw, J.Bradshaw, J.The history of the Gondwana continent and the chronology of break up.IGC 35th., Session A Dynamic Earth 1p. AbstractMantleGondwana
DS1975-0965
1979
Bradshaw, J.Y.Brown, E.H., Bradshaw, J.Y.Phase Relations of Pyroxene and Amphibole in Greenstone, Blueschist and Eclogite of the Franciscan Complex, California.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 71, No. 1, PP. 67-83.GlobalEclogite, Kimberlite
DS1960-0796
1967
Bradshaw, N.Bradshaw, N.The Petrography of a Kimberlite from Kamangono Near Katiola, Ivory Coast.Overseas Geol. Institute Report, No. 287.GlobalPetrology
DS200712-0962
2007
Bradshaw, S.M.Scott, G., Bradshaw, S.M., Eksteen, J.J.The effect of microwave pretreatment on the liberation of a copper carbonatite ore after milling.International Journal of Mineral Processing, In press, availableTechnologyCarbonatite
DS201012-0071
2010
Brady, A.Brady, A.The kinship between lamprophyres and carbonatites: evidence from the south coast of Ireland.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, AbstractEurope, IrelandCarbonatite
DS200812-0134
2008
Brady, A.E.Brady, A.E., Moore, K.R.The role of carbonate in alkaline diatremic magmatism.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractEurope, Greenland, Russia, UzbekistanCarbonatite
DS200912-0070
2009
Brady, A.E.Brady, A.E., Moore, K.R.Using the composition of the carbonate phase to investigate the geochemical evolution of subvolcanic intrusions.alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractEurope, Ireland, Greenland, Russia, UzbekistanCarbonatite
DS201701-0004
2016
Brady, A.E.Broom-Fendley, S., Brady, A.E., Wall, F., Gunn, G., Dawes, W.REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE enrichment in late stage apatite.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 81, pp. 23-41.Africa, MalawiCarbonatite

Abstract: Compared to all published data from carbonatites and granitoids, the fluorapatite compositions in the Songwe Hill carbonatite, determined by EPMA and LA ICP-MS, have the highest heavy (H)REE concentration of any carbonatite apatite described so far. A combination of this fluorapatite and the REE fluorocarbonates, synchysite-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce), which are the other principal REE bearing minerals at Songwe, gives a REE deposit with a high proportion of Nd and a higher proportion of HREE (Eu-Lu including Y) than most other carbonatites. Since Nd and HREE are currently the most sought REE for commercial applications, the conditions that give rise to this REE profile are particularly important to understand. Multiple apatite crystallisation stages have been differentiated texturally and geochemically at Songwe and fluorapatite is divided into five different types (Ap-0-4). While Ap-0 and Ap-1 are typical of apatite found in fenite and calcite-carbonatite, Ap-2, -3 and -4 are texturally atypical of apatite from carbonatite and are progressively HREE-enriched in later paragenetic stages. Ap-3 and Ap-4 exhibit anhedral, stringer-like textures and their REE distributions display an Y anomaly. These features attest to formation in a hydrothermal environment and fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures indicate crystallisation occurred between 200-350 °C. Ap-3 crystallisation is succeeded by a light (L)REE mineral assemblage of synchysite-(Ce), strontianite and baryte. Finally, late-stage Ap-4 is associated with minor xenotime-(Y) mineralisation and HREE-enriched fluorite. Fluid inclusions in the fluorite constrain the minimum HREE mineralisation temperature to approximately 160 °C. A model is suggested where sub-solidus, carbonatite-derived, (carbo)-hydrothermal fluids remobilise and fractionate the REE. Chloride or fluoride complexes retain LREE in solution while rapid precipitation of apatite, owing to its low solubility, leads to destabilisation of HREE complexes and substitution into the apatite structure. The LREE are retained in solution, subsequently forming synchysite-(Ce). This model will be applicable to help guide exploration in other carbonatite complexes.
DS201707-1310
2017
Brady, A.E.Broom-Fendley, S., Brady, A.E., Horstwood, M.S.A., Woolley, A.R., Mtegha, J., Wall, F., Dawes, W., Gunn, G.Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 134, pp. 10-23.Africa, Malawicarbonatite - Songwe Hill

Abstract: Songwe Hill, Malawi, is one of the least studied carbonatites but has now become particularly important as it hosts a relatively large rare earth deposit. The results of new mapping, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology indicate that the 0.8 km diameter Songwe Hill is distinct from the other Chilwa Alkaline Province carbonatites in that it intruded the side of the much larger (4 x 6 km) and slightly older (134.6 ± 4.4 Ma) Mauze nepheline syenite and then evolved through three different carbonatite compositions (C1–C3). Early C1 carbonatite is scarce and is composed of medium–coarse-grained calcite carbonatite containing zircons with a U–Pb age of 132.9 ± 6.7 Ma. It is similar to magmatic carbonatite in other carbonatite complexes at Chilwa Island and Tundulu in the Chilwa Alkaline Province and others worldwide. The fine-grained calcite carbonatite (C2) is the most abundant stage at Songwe Hill, followed by a more REE- and Sr-rich ferroan calcite carbonatite (C3). Both stages C2 and C3 display evidence of extensive (carbo)-hydrothermal overprinting that has produced apatite enriched in HREE (<2000 ppm Y) and, in C3, synchysite-(Ce). The final stages comprise HREE-rich apatite fluorite veins and Mn-Fe-rich veins. Widespread brecciation and incorporation of fenite into carbonatite, brittle fracturing, rounded clasts and a fenite carapace at the top of the hill indicate a shallow level of emplacement into the crust. This shallow intrusion level acted as a reservoir for multiple stages of carbonatite-derived fluid and HREE-enriched apatite mineralisation as well as LREE-enriched synchysite-(Ce). The close proximity and similar age of the large Mauze nepheline syenite suggests it may have acted as a heat source driving a hydrothermal system that has differentiated Songwe Hill from other Chilwa carbonatites.
DS1991-0163
1991
Brady, J.Brady, J.Professional ethics and the public goodAustralian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 7, December pp. 65-67GlobalLegal, Ethics
DS1860-0884
1895
Brady, J.G.Brady, J.G.Diamonds in Alaska; March, 1895Letter To G.F. Kunz From Sitka Alaska., MARCH 2ND.United States, AlaskaDiamond Occurrence
DS201312-0923
2013
Braga, R.Tribuzio, R., Henjes-Kunst, F., Braga, R., Tiepolo, M.Boninite derived mafic ultramafic intrusives from northern Victoria Land ( Antarctica): implications for mantle source metasomatism.Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractAntarcticaBoninites
DS201706-1063
2017
Braga, R.Bianchini, G., Bodinier, J-L., Braga, R., Wilson, M.Crust-mantle and lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundaries.Geological Society of America, SPE 526, 200p.Mantlebook
DS201708-1567
2017
Braga, R.Blanchini, G., Bodinier, J-L., Braga, R., Wilson, M.The crust mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries: insights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies. 2 Chapters citedGeological Society of London, book - cost approx. 43 lbsMantlexenoliths
DS201312-0093
2013
Bragagni, A.Bragagni, A., Luguet, A., Pearson, D.G., Fonseca, R.O.C., Kjarsgaard, B.A.Insight on formation and evolution of cratonic mantle: Re-Os dating of single sulfides from Somerset mantle xenoliths ( Rae Craton) Canada.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractCanada, NunavutGeochronolgy
DS201706-1064
2017
Bragagni, A.Bragagni, A., Luguet, A., Fonsecca, R.O.C., Pearson, D.G., Lorand, D.G., Nowell, G.M., Kjarsgaard, B.A.The geological record of base metal sulfides in the cratonic mantle: a microscale 187Os/188/Os study of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island, Rae craton,( Canada).Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 49p.Canada, Nunavut, Somerset Islandperidotite

Abstract: We report detailed petrographic investigations along with 187Os/188Os data in Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) on four cratonic mantle xenoliths from Somerset Island (Rae Craton, Canada). The results shed light on the processes affecting the Re-Os systematics and provide time constraints on the formation and evolution of the cratonic lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae craton. When devoid of alteration, BMS grains mainly consist of pentlandite + pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite. The relatively high BMS modal abundance of the four investigated xenoliths cannot be reconciled with the residual nature of these peridotites, but requires addition of metasomatic BMS. This is especially evident in the two peridotites with the highest bulk Pd/Ir and Pd/Pt. Metasomatic BMS likely formed during melt/fluid percolation in the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) as well as during infiltration of the host kimberlite magma, when djerfisherite crystallized around older Fe-Ni-sulfides. On the whole-rock scale, kimberlite metasomatism is visible in a subset of bulk xenoliths, which defines a Re-Os errorchron that dates the host magma emplacement. The 187Os/188Os measured in the twenty analysed BMS grains vary from 0.1084 to >0.17 and it shows no systematic variation depending on the sulfide mineralogical assemblage. The largest range in 187Os/188Os is observed in BMS grains from the two xenoliths with the highest Pd/Ir, Pd/Pt, and sulfide modal abundance. The whole-rock TRD ages of these two samples underestimate the melting age obtained from BMS, demonstrating that bulk Re-Os model ages from peridotites with clear evidence of metasomatism should be treated with caution. The TRD ages determined in BMS grains are clustered around 2.8-2.7, ~2.2 and ~1.9 Ga. The 2.8-2.7 Ga TRD ages document the main SCLM building event in the Rae craton, which is likely related to the formation of the local greenstone belts in a continental rift setting. The Paleoproterozoic TRD ages can be explained by addition of metasomatic BMS during (i) major lithospheric rifting at ~2.2 Ga and (ii) the Taltson-Thelon orogeny at ~1.9 Ga. The data suggest that even metasomatic BMS can inherit 187Os/188Os from their original mantle source. The lack of isotopic equilibration, even at the micro-scale, allowed the preservation of different populations of BMS grains with distinct 187Os/188Os, providing age information on multiple magmatic events that affected the SCLM.
DS201710-2217
2017
Bragagni, A.Bragagni, A., Luguet, A., Fonseca, R.O.C., Pearson, D.G.,Lorand, J-P., Nowell, G.M., Kjarsgaard, B.A.The geological record of base metal sulfides in the cratonic mantle: a microscale 187Os/188Os study of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island, Rae Craton ( Canada).Geochimica et Cosmochimia Acta, Vol. 216, pp. 264-285.Canada, Nunavut, Somerset IslandGeochronology

Abstract: We report detailed petrographic investigations along with 187Os/188Os data in Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) on four cratonic mantle xenoliths from Somerset Island (Rae Craton, Canada). The results shed light on the processes affecting the Re-Os systematics and provide time constraints on the formation and evolution of the cratonic lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae craton. When devoid of alteration, BMS grains mainly consist of pentlandite + pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite. The relatively high BMS modal abundance of the four investigated xenoliths cannot be reconciled with the residual nature of these peridotites, but requires addition of metasomatic BMS. This is especially evident in the two peridotites with the highest bulk Pd/Ir and Pd/Pt. Metasomatic BMS likely formed during melt/fluid percolation in the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) as well as during infiltration of the host kimberlite magma, when djerfisherite crystallized around older Fe-Ni-sulfides. On the whole-rock scale, kimberlite metasomatism is visible in a subset of bulk xenoliths, which defines a Re-Os errorchron that dates the host magma emplacement. The 187Os/188Os measured in the twenty analysed BMS grains vary from 0.1084 to >0.17 and it shows no systematic variation depending on the sulfide mineralogical assemblage. The largest range in 187Os/188Os is observed in BMS grains from the two xenoliths with the highest Pd/Ir, Pd/Pt, and sulfide modal abundance. The whole-rock TRD ages of these two samples underestimate the melting age obtained from BMS, demonstrating that bulk Re-Os model ages from peridotites with clear evidence of metasomatism should be treated with caution. The TRD ages determined in BMS grains are clustered around 2.8-2.7, ~2.2 and ~1.9 Ga. The 2.8-2.7 Ga TRD ages document the main SCLM building event in the Rae craton, which is likely related to the formation of the local greenstone belts in a continental rift setting. The Paleoproterozoic TRD ages can be explained by addition of metasomatic BMS during (i) major lithospheric rifting at ~2.2 Ga and (ii) the Taltson-Thelon orogeny at ~1.9 Ga. The data suggest that even metasomatic BMS can inherit 187Os/188Os from their original mantle source. The lack of isotopic equilibration, even at the micro-scale, allowed the preservation of different populations of BMS grains with distinct 187Os/188Os, providing age information on multiple magmatic events that affected the SCLM.
DS200812-0135
2008
Bragmann, G.A.E.A.Bragmann, G.A.E.A., Ryabchikov, I.A.D.A., Kogarko, L.A.N.A.Os isotope geochemistry of mantle peridotites from Sal Island, Cape Verde Archipelago.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 419, 2, pp. 325-328.EuropeGeochronology
DS201809-2000
2018
Brahimi, S.Brahimi, S., Ligeois, J-P., Ghienne, J-F., Munschy, M., Bourmatte, A.The Tuareg shield terranes revisited and extended towards the northern Gondwana margin: magnetic and gravimetric constraints.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 185, Doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev. 2018.07.002Africa, AlgeriaGondwanaland

Abstract: Kimberlite is the host rock of diamonds and varies widely in geological and mineralogical features as well as color, processing capability, and dewatering characteristics. This study investigated the dewatering behavior of problematic Angolan kimberlites. The presence of clay minerals in kimberlite causes difficulties in dewatering due to high flocculant demand, poor supernatant clarity, and low settling rates. Identifying critical parameters governing the settling behavior will assist in managing the settling behavior of different kimberlite slurries. The influence of particle size, pH of the kimberlite slurry, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percentage, and smectite content of the kimberlite on the settling rate were investigated for 18 different African kimberlite samples. The settling rate and slurry bed compaction during natural settling were also measured for the kimberlite slurries. Seventeen different Angolan clay-rich kimberlites and one South African clay-rich kimberlite were tested, and, except for two kimberlites, colloidal stability was experienced during natural settling. The pH values of the kimberlite slurries ranged between 9 and 11, which is similar to the pH band where colloidal stability was found during earlier research. The results indicate that colloidal stable slurries were experienced with kimberlites that had exchangeable sodium percentages as low as 0.7%. The cation exchange capacity of the various kimberlites differentiated more distinctly between colloidal stability and instability. A new model is proposed whereby clay-rich kimberlites with a cation exchange capacity of more than 10cmol/kg will experience colloidal stability if the pH of the solvent solution is within the prescribed pH range of 9-11.The Trans-Saharan Belt is one of the most important orogenic systems constitutive of the Pan-African cycle, which, at the end of the Neoproterozoic, led to the formation of the Gondwana Supercontinent. It is marked by the opening and closing of oceanic domains, collision of continental blocks and the deformation of thick synorogenic sedimentary basins. It extends from north to south over a distance of 3000?km in Africa, including the Nigerian Shield and the Tuareg Shield as well as their counterparts beneath the Phanerozoic oil-rich North- and South-Saharan sedimentary basins. In this study, we take advantage of potential field methods (magnetism and gravity) to analyze the crustal-scale structures of the Tuareg Shield terranes and to track these Pan-African structures below the sedimentary basins, offering a new, >1000?km extent. The map interpretations are based on the classical potential field transforms and two-dimensional forward modeling. We have identified geophysical units and first-order bounding lineaments essentially defined owing to magnetic and gravimetric anomaly signatures. In particular, we are able to highlight curved terminations, which in the Trans-Saharan context have been still poorly documented. We provide for the first time a rheological map showing a categorization of contrasted basement units from the south of the Tuareg Shield up to the Atlas Belt. These units highlight the contrasted rheological behavior of the Tuareg tectonostratigraphic terranes during (i) the northerly Pan-African tectonic escape characteristic of the Trans-Saharan Belt and (ii) the North Sahara basin development, especially during intraplate reworking tied to the Variscan event. The discovery of a relatively rigid E-W oriented unit to the south of the Atlas system, and on which the escaping Pan-African terranes were blocked, offers a new perspective on the structural framework of the north-Gondwana margin. It will help to understand how occurred the rendezvous of the N-S oriented Pan-African terranes and the E-W oriented Cadomian peri-Gondwanan terranes.
DS1986-0099
1986
Brahkov, Yu.P.Brahkov, Yu.P., Marshintsev, V.K.Crystallization trends of ilmenite from kimberlites of YakutiaDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 278, No. 1-6, April, pp. 158-161RussiaMineralogy
DS1984-0626
1984
Brahmam, N.K.Sakuntala, S., Brahmam, N.K.Diamond Mines Near RaichurGeological Society INDIA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 12, DECEMBER PP. 780-786.India, KarnatakaDiamond Occurrences
DS1975-1207
1979
Brahman, N.K.Sakuntala, S., Brahman, N.K.Some New Locales for Diamond Exploration in Andhra PradeshInstitute INDIAN PENINSULAR GEOLOGY, HYDERABAD., PP. 120-131.India, Andhra PradeshDiamond Prospecting, Occurrences
DS1975-0251
1976
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W.Seismological Studies of the Crust and Upper Mantle in the Mid-continent Region.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 8, No. 4, P. 467. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0529
1977
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.A Tectonic Overview of the Central MidcontinentNational Technical Information Service NUREG 0382, 63P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0556
1977
Braile, L.W.Lidiak, E.G., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J.Rifting in the Midcontinent #1Eos, Vol. 59, No. 4, PP. 227-228. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0762
1978
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Regional Tectonics of the Central Midcontinent, United StateGeological Association of Canada (GAC); Geological Society of America (GSA); MINERAL. Association CAN., Vol. 10, No. 7, P. 422. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0778
1978
Braile, L.W.Keller, G.R., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Lidiak, E.G.A Tectonic Overview of the Central Mid-continentEos, Vol. 59, No. 4, P. 230. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0798
1978
Braile, L.W.Lidiak, E.G., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J.Rifting in the Midcontinent #2Los Alamos Sci. Lab. Conference Proceedings, No. 7487, PP. 51-53. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0961
1979
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.The Northeastern Extension of the New Madrid Seismic ZoneNational Technical Information Service NUREG CR/1014, PP. 74-99.GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-1098
1979
Braile, L.W.Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., Morgan, P.Crustal Structure, Geophysical Models and Contemporary Tectonism of the Colorado Plateau.Tectonophysics, Vol. 61, PP. 131-147.United States, Colorado PlateauTectonics
DS1975-1231
1979
Braile, L.W.Soderberg, R.K., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., et al.A Gravity and Tectonic Study of the Rough Creek Fault Zone And Related Features.National Technical Information Service NUREG CR/1014, PP. 134-164.GlobalMid Continent, New Madrid
DS1980-0074
1980
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Sexton, J.L., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.An Integrated Geophysical and Geological Study of the TectonNational Technical Information Service NUREG CR 0977, PP. 17-28.GlobalMid-continent
DS1980-0175
1980
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Models for Mid-continent TectonismIn: Continental Tectonics, Nat. Acad. Sciences Wash., PP. 73-83.GlobalMid-continent
DS1980-0287
1980
Braile, L.W.Reed, J.E., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Russell, D.R.Enhanced Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Maps of the East Central Midcontintent.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 12, No. 5, P. 254. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1981-0236
1981
Braile, L.W.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W.The Role of Rifting in the Tectonic Development of the Midcontinent #1Lpi Contrib., No. 457, PP. 51-52.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0114
1982
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Sexton, J.L., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.Seismicity and Tectonics of the Midcontinent United StatesU.s. Nat. Science Foundation Proceedings of The Third International, Vol. 1, PP. 25-38.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0115
1982
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Sexton, J.L., Keller, G.R., Lidiak.A Tectonic Study of the Extension of the New Madrid Fault Zone Near its intersection with the 38th Parallel Lineament.National Technical Information Service NUREG CR/2741, 84P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0116
1982
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Hinze, W.J., Lidiak, E.G.An Ancient Rift Complex and its Relation to Contempory Seismicity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone.Tectonics, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 225-237.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0560
1982
Braile, L.W.Sexton, J.L., Hinze, W.J., Von frese, R.R.B., Braile, L.W.Long-wavelength Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of the Conterminous United States.Geology, Vol. 10, No. 7, PP. 364-369.GlobalMid-continent, Mississippi Embayment, Geophysics, Magsat
DS1982-0623
1982
Braile, L.W.Von frese, R.R.B., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W.Regional North American Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Correlations.Roy. Astron. Soc. Geophys. Journal, Vol. 69, PP. 745-761.United States, CanadaRegional Geophysics
DS1983-0143
1983
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Vonfrese, R.R.B., Keller, G.R.Seismic Properties of the Crust and Uppermost Mantle of North America.National Technical Information Service NASA CR-175134, 48P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0305
1983
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Geophysical Geological Studies of Possible Extensions of The New Madrid Fault Zone.National Technical Information Service NUREG/CR 3174-V1, 101P.GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0307
1983
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Lidiak, E.G., Reed, J.E., Keller, E.G., Braile, L.W.Geologic Significance of Regional Gravity and Magnetic Anomalies in the East Central Midcontinent.Geophysics, Vol. 48, No. 4, P. 449. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0350
1983
Braile, L.W.Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G., Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W.The Role of Rifting in the Tectonic Development of the Midcontinent, Usa #2Tectonophysics, Vol. 94, PP. 391-412.GlobalMid-continent
DS1986-0100
1986
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G., Sexton, J.L.Tectonic development of the new Madrid rift complex Mississippi North AmericaTectonophysics, Vol. 131, No. 1/2, November 15, pp. 1-22MidcontinentTectonics
DS1986-0725
1986
Braile, L.W.Sexton, J.L., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Campbell, M.J.Seismic reflection profiling studies of a buried Precambrian rift beneath the Wabash Valley fault zoneGeophysics, Vol. 51, No. 3, March pp. 640-660GlobalMississippi embayment, Geophysics
DS1988-0307
1988
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Lidiak, E.G.Models for midcontinent tectonism: an updateReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 26, No. 4, November pp. 699-717Arkansas, MidcontinentGeophysics, Tectonics
DS1989-0168
1989
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J.Structure and tectonics of the MidcontinentGeological Society of America (GSA) North Central Section, Notre Dame Indiana April, Symposia being heldMidcontinentStructure, Ad in GSA News Jan 89 on
DS1989-0757
1989
Braile, L.W.Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W., McMechan, G.A., Thomas, W.A., HarderPaleozoic continent-ocean transition in the Ouachita Mountains imaged from PASSCAL wide angle seismic reflection- refractiondataGeology, Vol. 17, No. 2, February pp. 119-122Arkansas, LouisianaTectonics
DS1990-0232
1990
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., et al.Preliminary new models of the crustal structure beneath the Kenya Rift From the KRISP 90 seismic refraction profilesEos, Vol. 71, No. 43, October 23, p. 1450 AbstractKenyaGeophysics -seismics, Tectonics
DS1990-0701
1990
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Braile, L.W., Chandler, V.W.A geophysical profile of the southern margin of The midcontinent Rift system in western Lake SuperiorTectonics, Vol. 9, No. 2, April pp. 303-310MidcontinentGeophysics, Midcontinent Rift
DS1995-0023
1995
Braile, L.W.Allen, D.J., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Mariano, J.The midcontinent rift system United States (US): a major Proterozoic continental riftContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 375-408Michigan, Wisconsin, Kansas, Lake Superior regionGeophysics - seismics, gravity, Structure
DS1995-0024
1995
Braile, L.W.Allen, D.J., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Mariano, J.The midcontinent rift system United States (US): a major Proterozoic continental riftContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 375-408.Michigan, Wisconsin, Kansas, Lake Superior regionGeophysics - seismics, gravity, Structure
DS1995-0097
1995
Braile, L.W.Baldridge, W.S., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W.Continental rifting: a final perspectiveContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 453-461MantleMagmatism, mantle plumes, MOHO, Tectonics
DS1995-0098
1995
Braile, L.W.Baldridge, W.S., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W.Continental rifting: a final perspectiveContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 453-461.MantleMagmatism, mantle plumes, MOHO, Tectonics
DS1995-0196
1995
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Mueller, S., Prodehl, C.Methods of investigation: seismic techniquesContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 61-92North AmericaSeismics -reflection, refraction
DS1995-0197
1995
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Mueller, S., Prodehl, C.Methods of investigation: seismic techniquesContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 61-92.North AmericaSeismics -reflection, refraction
DS1995-0198
1995
Braile, L.W.Braile, L.W., Keller, G.R., Wendlandt, R.F., Morgan, P.The East African rift systemContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 213-232Kenya, Ethiopia, East AfricaGeophysics, Basin structure
DS1995-0803
1995
Braile, L.W.Hinze, W.J., Allen, D.J., Braile, L.W., Mariano, J.The Midcontinent rift system: an overviewBasement Tectonics 10, held Minnesota Aug 92, pp. 3-6.MidcontinentTectonics
DS1999-0583
1999
Braile, L.W.Ravat, D., Lu, Z., Braile, L.W.Velocity density relationships and modeling the lithospheric density variations of the Kenya Rift.Tectonophysics, Vol. 301, No. 3-4, Jan. 30, pp. 225-40.KenyaTectonics - rifting, Lithosphere
DS1982-0117
1982
Braille, L.W.Braille, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Vonfrese, R.R.B.Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Dat a AnalysisNational Technical Information Service NASA CR 169504, 1P.United StatesMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1991-0164
1991
Braille, L.W.Braille, L.W.Seismic studies of the Earth's crustReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 29, pt. 2, pp. 680-687.supplement SeismologyGlobalMantle, Geophysics -seismics
DS201012-0586
2010
Braitenberg, C.Pinto, L.G.R.,Banik de Padua, M., Ussami, N., Vitorello, I., Padilha, A.L., Braitenberg, C.Magnetotelluric deep soundings, gravity and geoid in the south Sao Francisco craton: geophysical indicators of cratonic lithosphere rejuvenation and underplating.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 297, pp. 423-434.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201012-0633
2010
Braitenberg, C.Rodrigues Pinto, L.G., Banik de Padua, M., Ussami, N., Vitorello, I., Lopes Padhilha, A., Braitenberg, C.Magnetotelluric deep soundings, gravity and geoid in the south Sao Francisco craton: geophysical indicators of cratonic lithosphere rejuvenation and crustal underplating.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 297, 3-4, pp. 423-434.South America, BrazilGeophysics - magnetotellurics
DS201012-0634
2010
Braitenberg, C.Rodrigues Pinto, L.G., Banik de Padua, M., Ussami, N., Vitorello, I., Lopes Padhilha, A., Braitenberg, C.Magnetotelluric deep soundings, gravity and geoid in the south Sao Francisco craton: geophysical indicators of cratonic lithosphere rejuvenation and crustal underplating.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 297, 3-4, pp. 423-434.South America, BrazilGeophysics - magnetotellurics
DS201904-0721
2019
Braithwaite, J.Braithwaite, J., Stixrude, L.Melting of CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 4, pp. 2037-2044.Mantlemelting

Abstract: Silicate melting is a major agent of thermal and chemical evolution of the Earth and other rocky planets. The melting temperature of Calcium silicate perovskite, a mineral that exists in Earth's lower mantle, is unknown over most of the pressure range that occurs in the mantle of Earth and super-Earth exoplanets. We use advanced quantum mechanical simulations to predict the melting temperature of this material. We find that the melting temperature increases with increasing pressure but at a rate that diminishes continuously. The liquid and crystal have very similar volumes in the deep portions of planetary mantles, supporting the view that crystals may float at great depth.
DS2001-0131
2001
Braithwaite, R.Braithwaite, R.Exploration drillingMining Annual Review, 5p.GlobalExploration drilling - technology, Overview - brief
DS1990-0233
1990
Braithwaite, R.W.Braithwaite, R.W.Importance of borehole surveying for mineral exploration, borehole planning and prospect evaluationTransactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM), Vol. 99, Sect. A., pp. A110-A113GlobalBorehole survey tools, Methodology
DS200612-1169
2006
Brajkovic, A.Rolandi, V., Brajkovic, A., Adamo, I., Landonio, M.Diamonds from Udachnaya pipe, Yakutia. Their morphology, optical and Raman characteristics, FTIR and CL features.Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 22, no. 9 Jan-Mar, pp.RussiaDiamond morphology
DS201012-0072
2009
Brajkovic, A.Brajkovic, A., Rolandi, V., Scotti, R.Argyle type 1a brown diamonds gemmological properties FTIR, UV-VIS, Cl and ESR features.Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 23, 12, p.AustraliaDeposit - Argyle
DS200712-0191
2006
Brake, I.Clark, M.E., Brake, I., Huls, B.J., Smith, B.E., Yu, M.Creating value through application of flotation science and technology. ( mentions BHP diamonds)Minerals Engineering, Vol. 19, 5-6, May-July pp. 758-765.TechnologyMineral processing
DS1986-0101
1986
Brakfogel, F.F.Brakfogel, F.F., Belov, E.N., Fainshtein, G.Kh., et al.Geology of the upper Paleozoic diamond bearing formations of TunguskaTransactions of the Institute of Institute Geologiya i Geofizika Akademii Nauk, Vol. 646, pp. 93-122RussiaBlank
DS1995-0112
1995
Brakfogel, F.F.Barton, E.S., Brakfogel, F.F., Williams, I.S.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) zircon age for carbonatite and alkali picrite pipes Or to Yiargafield.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 37.Russia, YakutiaCarbonatite, Deposit -Orto-Yiarga
DS1995-2115
1995
Brakfogel, F.F.Zaitsev, A.I., Safronov, A.F., Brakfogel, F.F.Rubidium strontium isotope geochemistry of kimberlites and deep seated xenoliths of the Kharamai field.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 678-679.Russia, Siberia, AnabarGeochemistry, Deposit -Kharamai region
DS1995-0958
1995
Brakhfogel, F.E.Kinny, P.D., Griffin, B.J., Brakhfogel, F.E.SHRIMP uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) ages of perovskite and zircon from Yajutian kimberlitesProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 275-276.Russia, YakutiaGeochronology -SHRIMP, Deposit -Udachnaya, Polayrnaya, Dalnaya
DS1970-0736
1973
Brakhfogel, F.F.Koval'skiy, V.V., Brakhfogel, F.F., Nikishov, K.N.Cambrian Fauna in Xenoliths from Kimberlite Pipes of the East Flank of the Anabar Uplift.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 211, No. 1-6, PP. 101-104.RussiaKimberlite
DS1995-0199
1995
Brakhfogel, F.F.Brakhfogel, F.F., Zaitsev, A.I., Nenashev, N.I.Isotopic dating of kimberlite and related rocks in the N-E the SiberianPlatformProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 63-65.Russia, YakutiaGeochronology
DS1996-1288
1996
Brakhfogel, F.F.Shamshina, E.A., Brakhfogel, F.F.The age of kimberlitic magmatites of Yakutia and indicator minerals in sedimentary northeast Siberian PlatformInternational Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 387.Russia, SiberiaAlluvials, Geochronology
DS201112-0477
2011
BramJanse, A.J.A, BramMystery diamonds - from alluvial deposits.GIA International Symposium 2011, Gems & Gemology, Summer abstract p. 110.GlobalAlluvials
DS1993-0157
1993
Bram, K.Bram, K., raxler, J.K.KTB Report on basic research and borehole geophysics in the KTB OberplfalzHB deep borehole... 4512.0 -6018.0 M.Ktb Report, No. 93-1, 93-2, table of contents available *requestGermanyBorehole, Super Deep drilling
DS1991-0223
1991
Braman, D.R.Carlisle, D.B., Braman, D.R.Nanometer size diamonds in the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary clay ofAlbertaNature, Vol. 352, No. 6337, August 22, pp. 708-709AlbertaMicro-diamonds, Meteorites
DS1991-0165
1991
Branagan, D.F.Branagan, D.F., Gibbons, G.S., Williams, K.L.The geological mapping of two southern continentsEdgeworth David Socity Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of, Australia, AntarcticaBook -ad, Geological mapping
DS2003-1117
2003
Branch, G.M.Pulfrich, A., Parkins, C.A., Branch, G.M.The effects of shore based diamond diving on intertidal and subtidal biologicalAquatic Conservation, Vol. 13, 3, pp. 233-56. Ingenta 1032281873NamibiaEnvironment
DS2003-1118
2003
Branch, G.M.Pulfrich, A., Parkins, C.A., Branch, G.M., Bustamante, R.H., Velasquez, C.R.The effects of sediment deposits from Namibian diamond mines on intertidal andAquatic Conservation, Vol. 13, 3, pp. 257-78. Ingenta 1032281872NamibiaEnvironment
DS200412-1599
2003
Branch, G.M.Pulfrich, A., Parkins, C.A., Branch, G.M.The effects of shore based diamond diving on intertidal and subtidal biological communities and rock lobsters in southern NamibiAquatic Conservation, Vol. 13, 3, pp. 233-56. Ingenta 1032281873Africa, NamibiaEnvironment
DS200412-1600
2003
Branch, G.M.Pulfrich, A., Parkins, C.A., Branch, G.M., Bustamante, R.H., Velasquez, C.R.The effects of sediment deposits from Namibian diamond mines on intertidal and subtidal reefs and rock lobster populations.Aquatic Conservation, Vol. 13, 3, pp. 257-78. Ingenta 1032281872Africa, NamibiaEnvironment
DS1960-0023
1960
Branch, H.Branch, H.A 6.45 Carat Diamond from ArkansawGems And Gemology, Vol. 23, SPRING, PP. 7-9.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaDiamonds Notable
DS1993-0158
1993
Branchu, P.Branchu, P., Faure, O.K., et al.Africa as source and sink for atmospheric carbon dioxideSpecial issue, pp. 41-50AfricaMantle, Degassing
DS1986-0102
1986
Branco, R.Branco, R., Mariano, G. Castelo.Geologic aspects of Brazilian kimberlites.(in Portugese)Rem. Revista Escola de Minas, (in Portugese)., Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 28-36BrazilBlank
DS1860-0837
1894
Branco, W.Branco, W.Schwabens 125 Vulkan-embryonen und Deren Tufferfuellte Ausbruchsrohren, das Grosste Gebiet Ehemaliger Maare Auf der Erde.Stuttgart: Jahr. Ver. Natk., Vol. XV, 816P.Europe, GermanyGeomorphology, Diatreme
DS201412-0067
2014
Brand, C.J.Brand, N.W., Brand, C.J.Performance comparison of portable XRF instruments.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 14, 2, pp. 125-138.TechnologyXRF
DS201609-1748
2016
Brand, N.B.Tappe, S., Brand, N.B., Stracke, A., van Acken, D., Liu, C-Z., Strauss, H., Wu, F-Y., Luguet, A., Mitchell, R.H.Plates or plumes in the origin of kimberlites: U/PB perovskite and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os-C-O isotope constraints from the Superior craton ( Canada).Chemical Geology, in press available 85p.Canada, QuebecDeposit - Renard, Wemindji

Abstract: Neoproterozoic kimberlite, ultramafic lamprophyre, and carbonatite magmatic activity was widespread across the Canadian-Greenland Shield. Models to explain the preponderance of this deeply-derived CO2-rich magmatism between 680-540 Ma range from impingement of multiple mantle plumes to rifting activity linked to the breakout of the Laurentian plate from the Rodinia supercontinent configuration. We add to the debate about the origin of kimberlite magmas and evaluate possible mantle sources of the 655 Ma ‘diamond-rich’ Renard (new SIMS U/Pb perovskite ages) and 629 Ma ‘barren’ Wemindji kimberlites on the eastern Superior craton in Quebec, Canada. Our Sr-Nd-Hf and carbon isotope data (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70241-0.70442; eNdi = + 0.2 to + 4.8; eHfi = + 0.3 to + 6.5; d13C = - 5.6 to - 3.9‰) suggest a common and moderately depleted convecting upper mantle source region for both the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites, which occur 400-km apart in the interior of the Superior craton. In contrast, the low Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Osi = 0.11078-0.12620; ?Osi = - 13.7 to - 1.6) and unfractionated chondritic relative HSE abundances (Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) indicate significant involvement of ancient refractory cratonic mantle material in kimberlite magma formation. Our model calculations suggest that for both the diamond-rich Renard and the barren Wemindji kimberlite magmas up to 30% of the Os was derived from refractory cratonic peridotites. This material might have been assimilated by originally more CO2-rich carbonated silicate melts derived from the asthenosphere. We also show that the geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic compositions of the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites do not require significant input from melts derived from olivine-poor cratonic mantle lithologies such as MARID-type veins and pyroxenites/eclogites. This contrasts with the petrogenesis of deeply-derived volatile-rich potassic magmas found along the peripheries of cratons (e.g., ultramafic lamprophyres, kamafugites, and olivine lamproites), a setting where abundant non-peridotitic components have been added to the lithospheric mantle over the course of continent evolution. Provided that CO2-rich melts, such as proto-kimberlites, occur near the solidus of volatile-fluxed peridotites, no excess mantle heat is required in their formation. This important but often overlooked constraint, together with the observation that there exist no spatial or temporal relationships between the Superior craton kimberlites and Large Igneous Provinces during the Late Neoproterozoic, suggests that kimberlite magmatic activity was tectonically controlled. In our preferred model, ubiquitous CO2-rich proto-kimberlite melts form during volatile-controlled redox melting processes at ambient mantle temperatures in a thermal boundary layer directly beneath thick cratonic lithosphere. The success rate of ‘evolving’ hybrid kimberlite magmas reaching Earth’s surface increases when tensile stresses propagate into the > 200 km thick keels of continental lithosphere. These conditions are frequently met during fast and changing plate motions associated with the assembly and breakup of supercontinents.
DS201612-2341
2016
Brand, N.B.Tappe, S., Brand, N.B., Strackc, A., van Acken, D., Lie, C-Z., Strausf, H., Wu, F-Y., Luguet, A., Mitchell, R.H.Plates or plumes in the origin of kimberlites: U/PB perovskite and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os-C-O isotope constraints from the Superior craton ( Canada).Chemical Geology, on line August 27p.Canada, QuebecDeposit - Renard, Wemindji

Abstract: Neoproterozoic kimberlite, ultramafic lamprophyre, and carbonatite magmatic activity was widespread across the Canadian-Greenland Shield. Models to explain the preponderance of this deeply-derived CO2-rich magmatism between 680-540 Ma range from impingement of multiple mantle plumes to rifting activity linked to the breakout of the Laurentian plate from the Rodinia supercontinent configuration. We add to the debate about the origin of kimberlite magmas and evaluate possible mantle sources of the 655 Ma ‘diamond-rich’ Renard (new SIMS U/Pb perovskite ages) and 629 Ma ‘barren’ Wemindji kimberlites on the eastern Superior craton in Quebec, Canada. Our Sr-Nd-Hf and carbon isotope data (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70241-0.70442; eNdi = + 0.2 to + 4.8; eHfi = + 0.3 to + 6.5; d13C = - 5.6 to - 3.9‰) suggest a common and moderately depleted convecting upper mantle source region for both the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites, which occur 400 km apart in the interior of the Superior craton. In contrast, the low Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Osi = 0.11078-0.12620; ?Osi = - 13.7 to - 1.6) and unfractionated chondritic relative HSE abundances (Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) indicate significant involvement of ancient refractory cratonic mantle material in kimberlite magma formation. Our model calculations suggest that for both the diamond-rich Renard and the barren Wemindji kimberlite magmas up to 30% of the Os was derived from refractory cratonic peridotites. This material might have been assimilated by originally more CO2-rich carbonated silicate melts derived from the asthenosphere. We also show that the geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic compositions of the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites do not require significant input from melts derived from olivine-poor cratonic mantle lithologies such as MARID-type veins and pyroxenites/eclogites. This contrasts with the petrogenesis of deeply-derived volatile-rich potassic magmas found along the peripheries of cratons (e.g., ultramafic lamprophyres, kamafugites, and olivine lamproites), a setting where abundant non-peridotitic components have been added to the lithospheric mantle over the course of continent evolution. Provided that CO2-rich melts, such as proto-kimberlites, occur near the solidus of volatile-fluxed peridotites, no excess mantle heat is required in their formation. This important but often overlooked constraint, together with the observation that there exist no spatial or temporal relationships between the Superior craton kimberlites and Large Igneous Provinces during the Late Neoproterozoic, suggests that kimberlite magmatic activity was tectonically controlled. In our preferred model, ubiquitous CO2-rich proto-kimberlite melts form during volatile-controlled redox melting processes at ambient mantle temperatures in a thermal boundary layer directly beneath thick cratonic lithosphere. The success rate of ‘evolving’ hybrid kimberlite magmas reaching Earth’s surface increases when tensile stresses propagate into the > 200 km thick keels of continental lithosphere. These conditions are frequently met during fast and changing plate motions associated with the assembly and breakup of supercontinents.
DS201707-1375
2017
Brand, N.B.Tappe, S., Brand, N.B., Stracke, A., van Acken, D., Liu, C-Z., Strauss, H., Wu, F-Y., Luguet, A., Mitchell, R.H.Plates or plumes in the origin of kimberlites: U/pb perovskite and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os-C-O isotope contraints from the Superior craton ( Canada).Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 57-83.Canadadeposit - Renard, Wemndiji

Abstract: Neoproterozoic kimberlite, ultramafic lamprophyre, and carbonatite magmatic activity was widespread across the Canadian-Greenland Shield. Models to explain the preponderance of this deeply-derived CO2-rich magmatism between 680–540 Ma range from impingement of multiple mantle plumes to rifting activity linked to the breakout of the Laurentian plate from the Rodinia supercontinent configuration. We add to the debate about the origin of kimberlite magmas and evaluate possible mantle sources of the 655 Ma ‘diamond-rich’ Renard (new SIMS U/Pb perovskite ages) and 629 Ma ‘barren’ Wemindji kimberlites on the eastern Superior craton in Quebec, Canada. Our Sr-Nd-Hf and carbon isotope data (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70241–0.70442; eNdi = + 0.2 to + 4.8; eHfi = + 0.3 to + 6.5; d13C = - 5.6 to - 3.9‰) suggest a common and moderately depleted convecting upper mantle source region for both the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites, which occur 400 km apart in the interior of the Superior craton. In contrast, the low Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Osi = 0.11078–0.12620; ?Osi = - 13.7 to - 1.6) and unfractionated chondritic relative HSE abundances (Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) indicate significant involvement of ancient refractory cratonic mantle material in kimberlite magma formation. Our model calculations suggest that for both the diamond-rich Renard and the barren Wemindji kimberlite magmas up to 30% of the Os was derived from refractory cratonic peridotites. This material might have been assimilated by originally more CO2-rich carbonated silicate melts derived from the asthenosphere. We also show that the geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic compositions of the Renard and Wemindji kimberlites do not require significant input from melts derived from olivine-poor cratonic mantle lithologies such as MARID-type veins and pyroxenites/eclogites. This contrasts with the petrogenesis of deeply-derived volatile-rich potassic magmas found along the peripheries of cratons (e.g., ultramafic lamprophyres, kamafugites, and olivine lamproites), a setting where abundant non-peridotitic components have been added to the lithospheric mantle over the course of continent evolution. Provided that CO2-rich melts, such as proto-kimberlites, occur near the solidus of volatile-fluxed peridotites, no excess mantle heat is required in their formation. This important but often overlooked constraint, together with the observation that there exist no spatial or temporal relationships between the Superior craton kimberlites and Large Igneous Provinces during the Late Neoproterozoic, suggests that kimberlite magmatic activity was tectonically controlled. In our preferred model, ubiquitous CO2-rich proto-kimberlite melts form during volatile-controlled redox melting processes at ambient mantle temperatures in a thermal boundary layer directly beneath thick cratonic lithosphere. The success rate of ‘evolving’ hybrid kimberlite magmas reaching Earth’s surface increases when tensile stresses propagate into the > 200 km thick keels of continental lithosphere. These conditions are frequently met during fast and changing plate motions associated with the assembly and breakup of supercontinents.
DS201412-0067
2014
Brand, N.W.Brand, N.W., Brand, C.J.Performance comparison of portable XRF instruments.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 14, 2, pp. 125-138.TechnologyXRF
DS1999-0091
1999
Brand, U.Brand, U., Campbell, I.T.FugacityEncyclopedia Geochemistry, Marshall and Fairbridge, p. 256.GlobalFugacity - definition
DS1986-0103
1986
Brandeis, G.Brandeis, G., Jaupart, C.On the interaction between convection and crystallization in cooling magma chambersEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 77, No. 3-4, April pp. 345-361GlobalMantle
DS1993-0159
1993
Brandeis, G.Brandeis, G.Constraints on the formation of cyclic units in ultramafic zones of large basaltic chambersContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 112, pp. 312-328GlobalMagma chambers, Petrology, theory
DS200512-0494
2005
Brandeis, G.Jurine, D., Jaupart, C., Brandeis, G., Tackley, P.J.Penetration of mantle plumes through depleted lithosphere.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, B10, B 10104 10.1029/2005 JB003751MantleTectonics
DS200712-0049
2007
Brandenburg, J.P.Ballentine, C.J., Brandenburg, J.P., Van Keken, P.E., Holland, G.Seawater recycling into the deep mantle - and the source of 3He.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A56.MantleNoble gases
DS200712-0099
2007
Brandenburg, J.P.Brandenburg, J.P., Van Keken, P.E.Deep storage of oceanic crust in a vigourously convecting mantle.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, B 6, B06403MantleConvection
DS200712-0100
2007
Brandenburg, J.P.Brandenburg, J.P., Van Keken, P.E.Deep storage of oceanic crust in a vigorously convecting mantle.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, B6 B06403MantleConvection
DS200712-0422
2007
Brandenburg, J.P.Hauri, E.H., Brandenburg, J.P., Van Keken, P.E.What comes around goes around: mantle convection and the meaning of mantle isochrons.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A385.MantleGeochronology
DS1995-0200
1995
Brandl, G.Brandl, G.Reactivation of certain faults in the Limpopo Belt during the QuaternaryCentennial Geocongress (1995) Extended abstracts, Vol. 1, p. 442-444. abstractZimbabwe, BotswanaCraton, Tectonics -structure
DS1995-0201
1995
Brandl, G.Brandl, G., McCarthy, T.S., Andreoli, M.A.G., AndersenTectonic and lineament investigations of the Vaalputs area, Namaqualand, South Africa: implications rifting..Centennial Geocongress (1995) Extended abstracts, Vol. 1, p. 445-448. abstractSouth AfricaTectonics
DS200812-0960
2008
Brandl, G.Rigby, M., Mouri, H., Brandl, G.A review of the pressure temperature time evolution of the Limpopo Belt: contraints for a tectonic model.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 50, 2-4, pp. 120-132.Africa, South AfricaTectonics
DS201112-1122
2011
Brandl, G.Wu, F-Y., Yang, Y-H.,Li, Q-L., Mitchell, R.H., Dawson, J.B., Brandl, G., Yuhara, M.In situ determination of U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Phalaborwa carbonatites complex, South Africa.Lithos, Vol. 127, 1-2, pp. 309-322.Africa, South AfricaCarbonatite, geochronology, Palaborwa
DS202003-0373
2020
Brandl, G.Yin, A., Brandl, G., Kroner, A.Plate tectonics processes at ca 2.0 Ga: evidence from >600 km of plate convergence. Limpopo beltGeology, Vol. 48, pp. 103-107.Africa, South Africatectonics

Abstract: We addressed when plate-tectonic processes first started on Earth by examining the ca. 2.0 Ga Limpopo orogenic belt in southern Africa. We show through palinspastic reconstruction that the Limpopo orogen originated from >600 km of west-directed thrusting, and the thrust sheet was subsequently folded by north-south compression. The common 2.7-2.6 Ga felsic plutons in the Limpopo thrust sheet and the absence of an arc immediately predating the 2.0 Ga Limpopo thrusting require the Limpopo belt to be an intracontinental structure. The similar duration (~40 m.y.), slip magnitude (>600 km), slip rate (>15 mm/yr), tectonic setting (intracontinental), and widespread anatexis to those of the Himalayan orogen lead us to propose the Limpopo belt to have developed by continent-continent collision. Specifically, the combined Zimbabwe-Kaapvaal craton (ZKC, named in this study) in the west (present coordinates) was subducting eastward below an outboard craton (OC), which carried an arc equivalent to the Gangdese batholith in southern Tibet prior to the India-Asia collision. The ZKC-OC collision at ca. 2.0 Ga triggered a westward jump in the plate convergence boundary, from the initial suture zone to the Limpopo thrust within the ZKC. Subsequent thrusting accommodated >600 km of plate convergence, possibly driven by ridge push from the west side of the ZKC. As intracontinental plate convergence is a key modern plate-tectonic process, the development of the Limpopo belt implies that the operation of plate tectonics, at least at a local scale, was ongoing by ca. 2.0 Ga on Earth.
DS200612-0163
2006
Brandon, A.Brandon, A.Mantle-core interactions.Goldschmidt Conference 16th. Annual, S4-04 theme abstract 1/8p. goldschmidt2006.orgMantleMineral chemistry
DS201607-1333
2016
Brandon, A.Brandon, A.Mapping off-craton subcontinental mantle lithosphere growth and destruction in the southwest United States using Os isotopes.IGC 35th., Session A Dynamic Earth 1p. AbstractUnited StatesGeochronology
DS201610-1848
2016
Brandon, A.Brandon, A.Tectonics: changing of the plates.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 731-732.MantleMelting

Abstract: The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.
DS201910-2295
2019
Brandon, A.Rizo, H., Abdrault, D., Bennett, N.R., Humayun, M., Brandon, A., Vlastelic, I., Moine, B., Poirier, A., Bouhifd, M.A., Murphy, D.T.182W evidence for core-mantle interaction in the source of mantle plumes.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 11, pp. 6-11.Mantlemantle plumes, hotspots

Abstract: Tungsten isotopes are the ideal tracers of core-mantle chemical interaction. Given that W is moderately siderophile, it preferentially partitioned into the Earth’s core during its segregation, leaving the mantle depleted in this element. In contrast, Hf is lithophile, and its short-lived radioactive isotope 182Hf decayed entirely to 182W in the mantle after metal-silicate segregation. Therefore, the 182W isotopic composition of the Earth’s mantle and its core are expected to differ by about 200 ppm. Here, we report new high precision W isotope data for mantle-derived rock samples from the Paleoarchean Pilbara Craton, and the Réunion Island and the Kerguelen Archipelago hotspots. Together with other available data, they reveal a temporal shift in the 182W isotopic composition of the mantle that is best explained by core-mantle chemical interaction. Core-mantle exchange might be facilitated by diffusive isotope exchange at the core-mantle boundary, or the exsolution of W-rich, Si-Mg-Fe oxides from the core into the mantle. Tungsten-182 isotope compositions of mantle-derived magmas are similar from 4.3 to 2.7 Ga and decrease afterwards. This change could be related to the onset of the crystallisation of the inner core or to the initiation of post-Archean deep slab subduction that more efficiently mixed the mantle.
DS1996-0166
1996
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D., Draper, D.S.Contraints on the origin of the oxidation state of mantle overlying subduction zones: an example from Simcoe Washington, USAGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 60, No. 10, pp. 1739-49.GlobalTectonics - subduction
DS1998-0158
1998
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D., Walker, Morgan, Snow190 Pc 186 Os isotopic systematics of the upper mantle and some plumesMineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 227-8.MantleConvection, Chromitites, peridotites
DS2003-0783
2003
Brandon, A.D.Lee, C.T., Brandon, A.D., Norman, M.Vanadium in peridotites as a proxy for paleo f02 during partial meltingGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 67, 16, pp. 3045-64.GlobalPeridotites
DS200412-1100
2003
Brandon, A.D.Lee, C.T., Brandon, A.D., Norman, M.Vanadium in peridotites as a proxy for paleo f02 during partial melting.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 67, 16, pp. 3045-64.TechnologyPeridotite
DS200412-1598
2004
Brandon, A.D.Puchtel, I.S., Brandon, A.D., Humayun, M.Precise Pt Re O isotope systematics of the mantle from 2.7 Ga komatiites.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 224, 1-2, pp. 157-174.MantleGeochronology
DS200512-0109
2005
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D., Walker, R.J.The debate over the core-mantle interaction.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 232, 3-4, April 15, pp. 211-225.MantleIsotope systematics, boundary, geochronology
DS200512-0881
2005
Brandon, A.D.Puchtel, I.S., Brandon, A.D., Humayun, M., Walker, R.J.Evidence for the early differentiation of the core from Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics of 2.8 Ga komatiites.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 237, 1-2, Aug, 30, pp. 118-134.Europe, Baltic ShieldGeochronology, core-mantle interaction
DS200612-0164
2006
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D.Mantle core interactions overview: the Os isotope perspective.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.MantleGeochronology
DS200612-0165
2006
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D., Walker, R.J., Puchtel, I.S.Platinum osmium isotope evolution of the Earth's mantle: constraints from chondrites and Os rich alloys.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In pressMantleKomatiitie, chondrites, PGE, geochronology
DS200612-1502
2006
Brandon, A.D.Walker, R.J., Ireland, T., Brandon, A.D.The search for evidence of chemical interactions between the core and mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 2, abstract only.MantleGeochemistry
DS200712-0101
2007
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D., Graham, D.W., Waight, T., Gautason, B.188 Os amd 187 Os enrichments and high 3He 4He sources in the Earth's mantle evidence from Iclandic picrites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 71, 18, Sept. pp. 4570-91.Europe, IcelandPicrite
DS200712-0102
2007
Brandon, A.D.Brandon, A.D., Graham, D.W., Waight, T., Gautason, B.Os He isotope systematics of Iceland picrites: evidence for a deep origin of the Iceland plume.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A119.Europe, IcelandPicrite
DS200712-1127
2007
Brandon, A.D.Waight, T., Brandon, A.D., Graham, D.W., Gautason, B.Isotopic constraints on picritic magmatism, Iceland.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A1078.Europe, IcelandPicrite
DS200812-0104
2007
Brandon, A.D.Bennett, V.C., Brandon, A.D., Nutman, A.P.Coupled 142 Nd- 143 Nd isotopic evidence for Hadean mantle dynamics.Science, Vol. 318, no. 5858 Dec. 21, pp. 1907-1909.MantleGeochronology
DS201012-0522
2009
Brandon, A.D.Murphy, D.T., Brandon, A.D., Debaille, V., Burgess, R., Ballentine, C.In search of a hidden long term isolated sub-chondritic 142 Nd 144Nd reservoir in the deep mantle: implications for the Nd isotope systematics of the Earth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 74, 2, pp. 738-750.MantleGeochronology
DS201312-0202
2013
Brandon, A.D.DeBaille, V., O'Neill, C., Brandon, A.D., Haenecour, P., Yin, Q-Z., Mattielli, N., Trieman, A.H.Stagnant lid tectonics in early Earth revealed bu 142 Nd variations in late Archean rocks.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 373, pp. 83-92.MantleConvection
DS201412-0015
2014
Brandon, A.D.Armytage, R.M.G., Brandon, A.D., Peslier, A.H., Lapen, T.J.Osmium isotope evidence for Early to Middle Proterozoic mantle lithosphere stabilization and concommitant production of juvenile crust in Dish Hill, CA peridotite xenoliths.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 137, pp. 113-133.United States, CaliforniaSCLM, subduction
DS201412-0208
2014
Brandon, A.D.Doucet, L.S., Peslier, A.H., Ionov, D.A., Brandon, A.D., Golovin, A.V., Goncharov, A.G., Ashchepkov, I.V.High water contents in the Siberian cratonic mantle linked to metasomatism: an FTIR study of Udachnaya peridotite xenoliths.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press availableRussia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS202011-2047
2020
Brandon, A.D.Kilgore, M.L., Peslier, A.H., Brandon, A.D., Schaffer, L.A., Morris, R.V., Graff, T.G., Agresti, D.G., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, D.G., Barry, K.G., Shaulis, J.Metasomatic control of hydrogen contents in the layered cratonic mantle lithosphere sampled by Lac de Gras xenoliths in the central Slave Craton, Canada.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 286, pp. 29-83. pdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesxenoliths

Abstract: Whether hydrogen incorporated in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals plays a role in the strength and longevity of the thick cratonic lithosphere is a matter of debate. In particular, the percolation of hydrogen-bearing melts and fluids could potentially add hydrogen to the mantle lithosphere, weaken its olivines (the dominant mineral in mantle peridotite), and cause delamination of the lithosphere's base. The influence of metasomatism on hydrogen contents of cratonic mantle minerals can be tested in mantle xenoliths from the Slave Craton (Canada) because they show extensive evidence for metasomatism of a layered cratonic mantle. Minerals from mantle xenoliths from the Diavik mine in the Lac de Gras kimberlite area located at the center of the Archean Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR for hydrogen contents. The 18 peridotites, two pyroxenites, one websterite and one wehrlite span an equilibration pressure range from 3.1 to 6.6 GPa and include samples from the shallow (=145?km), oxidized ultra-depleted layer; the deeper (~145-180?km), reduced less depleted layer; and an ultra-deep (=180?km) layer near the base of the lithosphere. Olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites contain 30-145, 110-225, 105-285, 2-105?ppm H2O, respectively. Within each deep and ultra-deep layer, correlations of hydrogen contents in minerals and tracers of metasomatism (for example light over heavy rare-earth-element ratio (LREE/HREE), high-field-strength-element (HFSE) content with equilibration pressure) can be explained by a chromatographic process occurring during the percolation of kimberlite-like melts through garnet peridotite. The hydrogen content of peridotite minerals is controlled by the compositions of the evolving melt and of the minerals and by mineral/melt partition coefficients. At the beginning of the process, clinopyroxene scavenges most of the hydrogen and garnet most of the HFSE. As the melt evolves and becomes enriched in hydrogen and LREE, olivine and garnet start to incorporate hydrogen and pyroxenes become enriched in LREE. The hydrogen content of peridotite increases with decreasing depth, overall (e.g., from 75 to 138?ppm H2O in the deep peridotites). Effective viscosity calculated using olivine hydrogen content for the deepest xenoliths near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary overlaps with estimates of asthenospheric viscosities. These xenoliths cannot be representative of the overall cratonic root because the lack of viscosity contrast would have caused basal erosion of lithosphere. Instead, metasomatism must be confined in narrow zones channeling kimberlite melts through the lithosphere and from where xenoliths are preferentially sampled. Such localized metasomatism by hydrogen-bearing melts therefore does not necessarily result in delamination of the cratonic root.
DS1860-0221
1874
Brandon, J.Brandon, J.Taillerie Francaise de DiamantsParis:, GlobalDiamond Jewellers
DS202008-1422
2020
Brandon, L.A.McKensie, L., Kilgore, A.H., Peslier, A.D., Brandon, L.A., Schaffer, R.V., Graff, T.G., Agresti, D.G., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, D.G., Hangi, K., Shaulis, B.J.Metasomatic control of hydrogen contents in the layered cratonic mantle lithosphere sampled by Lac de Gras xenoliths in the central Slave craton, Canada.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available, doi.org/101016 /j.gca.2020.07.013 45p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Lac de Gras

Abstract: Whether hydrogen incorporated in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals plays a role in the strength and longevity of the thick cratonic lithosphere is a matter of debate. In particular, the percolation of hydrogen-bearing melts and fluids could potentially add hydrogen to the mantle lithosphere, weaken its olivines (the dominant mineral in mantle peridotite), and cause delamination of the lithosphere's base. The influence of metasomatism on hydrogen contents of cratonic mantle minerals can be tested in mantle xenoliths from the Slave Craton (Canada) because they show extensive evidence for metasomatism of a layered cratonic mantle. Minerals from mantle xenoliths from the Diavik mine in the Lac de Gras kimberlite area located at the center of the Archean Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR for hydrogen contents. The 18 peridotites, two pyroxenites, one websterite and one wehrlite span an equilibration pressure range from 3.1 to 6.6 GPa and include samples from the shallow (= 145 km), oxidized ultra-depleted layer; the deeper (~145-180 km), reduced less depleted layer; and an ultra-deep (= 180 km) layer near the base of the lithosphere. Olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites contain 30 - 145, 110 - 225, 105 - 285, 2 - 105 ppm H2O, respectively. Within each deep and ultra-deep layer, correlations of hydrogen contents in minerals and tracers of metasomatism (for example light over heavy rare-earth-element ratio (LREE/HREE), high-field-strength-element (HFSE) content with equilibration pressure) can be explained by a chromatographic process occurring during the percolation of kimberlite-like melts through garnet peridotite. The hydrogen content of peridotite minerals is controlled by the compositions of the evolving melt and of the minerals and by mineral/melt partition coefficients. At the beginning of the process, clinopyroxene scavenges most of the hydrogen and garnet most of the HFSE. As the melt evolves and becomes enriched in hydrogen and LREE, olivine and garnet start to incorporate hydrogen and pyroxenes become enriched in LREE. The hydrogen content of peridotite increases with decreasing depth, overall (e.g., from 75 to 138 ppm H2O in the deep peridotites). Effective viscosity calculated using olivine hydrogen content for the deepest xenoliths near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary overlaps with estimates of asthenospheric viscosities. These xenoliths cannot be representative of the overall cratonic root because the lack of viscosity contrast would have caused basal erosion of lithosphere. Instead, metasomatism must be confined in narrow zones channeling kimberlite melts through the lithosphere and from where xenoliths are preferentially sampled. Such localized metasomatism by hydrogen-bearing melts therefore does not necessarily result in delamination of the cratonic root.
DS2002-0937
2002
Brandon, M.Levin, V., Park, J., Brandon, M., Lees, J., Peyton, V., Gordeev, E., Ozerv, A.Crust and upper mantle of Kamchatka from teleseismic receiver functionsTectonophysics, Vol. 358, 1-4, pp. 233-265.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-0497
2005
Brandon, M.Katayama, I., Karato, S-I., Brandon, M.Evidence of high water content in the deep upper mantle inferred from deformation microstructures.Geology, Vol. 33, 7, July pp. 613-616.Europe, NorwayMajorite garnet
DS1990-1273
1990
Brandon, M.T.Rubin, C.M., Saleeby, J.B., Cowan, D.S., Brandon, M.T., McGroderRegionally extensive mid-Cretaceous west-vergent thrust system in the northwestern Cordillera: implications for continent-margin tectonisM.Geology, Vol. 18, No. 3, March pp. 276-280British ColumbiaTectonics, Thrust system
DS1993-0160
1993
Brandon, M.T.Brandon, M.T., Paterson, S.R.Applications of strain: from microstructures to orogenic beltsGsa Today, Vol. 3, No. 7, July pp. 174-175GlobalOrogeny, Tectonics
DS1994-0351
1994
Brandon, M.T.Cowan, D.S., Brandon, M.T.A symmetry based method for kinetc analysis of large slip brittle faultzonesAmerican Journal of Science, Vol. March pp. 257-306GlobalGeometry, Structure -fault systems
DS1994-1462
1994
Brandon, M.T.Ring, U., Brandon, M.T.Kinematic dat a for the Coast Range fault and implications for exhumation Of the Franciscan complexGeology, Vol. 22, No. 8, August pp. 735-738California, CordilleraTectonics, Subduction -Franciscan complex
DS1995-0202
1995
Brandon, M.T.Brandon, M.T., Ring, U.Exhumation processes: normal faulting, ductile flow, and erosionGsa Today, Vol. 5, No. 12, Dec. pp. 242-243GlobalStructure, Faults
DS1997-0123
1997
Brandon, M.T.Brandon, M.T., Ring, U.Exhumation processes: normal faulting, ductile flow and erosionGsa Today, Vol. 7, No. 5, May pp. 17-20GlobalPenrose Conference report, Exhumation processes
DS2002-0120
2002
Brandon, M.T.Batt, G.E., Brandon, M.T.Lateral thinking: 2 D interpretation of thermochronology in convergent orogenic settingsTectonophysics, Vol. 349, No. 1-4, pp. 185-201.GlobalGeochronology, Tectonics
DS2002-1712
2002
Brandon, M.T.Willett, S.D., Brandon, M.T.On steady states in mountain beltsGeology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Feb. pp.175-8.GlobalOrogeny - model, Subduction driven
DS2003-1155
2003
Brandon, M.T.Reiners, P.W., Zhou, Z., Ehlers, T.A., Xu, C., Brandon, M.T., Donelick, R.A.Post orogenic evolution of the Dabie Shan, eastern Chin a ( U Th) He and fission trackAmerican Journal of Science, Vol. 303, 6, pp. 489-518.ChinaGeothermometry, UHP
DS200412-1652
2003
Brandon, M.T.Reiners, P.W., Zhou, Z., Ehlers, T.A., Xu, C., Brandon, M.T., Donelick, R.A., Nicolescu, S.Post orogenic evolution of the Dabie Shan, eastern Chin a ( U Th) He and fission track thermochronology.American Journal of Science, Vol. 303, 6, pp. 489-518.ChinaGeothermometry UHP
DS201212-0536
2012
Brandon, M.T.Paczkowski, K., Bercovici, D., Landuyt, W., Brandon, M.T.Drip instabilities of continental lithosphere: acceleration and entrainment by damage.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableMantleRheology
DS2002-1252
2002
BrandstatterPetersen, O.V., Giester, G., Brandstatter, NiedermayrNabesite, new mineral species from Ilmaussaq alkaline complex, south GreenlandCanadian Mineralogist, Vol.40,1,Feb.pp. 173-81.GreenlandAlkaline rocks
DS201212-0086
2011
Brandt, M.B.Brandt, M.B., Grand, S.P., Nyblade, A.A., Dirks, P.H.G.Upper mantle seismic structure beneath southern Africa: constraints on the bouyancy supporting the African Superswell.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 169, 4, pp. 595-614.Africa, South AfricaMantle - geophysics
DS1975-0470
1977
Brandt, M.L.Brandt, M.L.Geophysical Investigations of a Portion of the Mid-continent Gravity High in Carver and Mcleod Counties, Minnesota.Msc. Thesis, University Minnesota., GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1984-0491
1984
Brandt, S.Maslovskaya, M.N., Yegorov, K.N., Kolosnitsyna, T.I., Brandt, S.Strontium Isotope Distribution Rubidium Strontium Age and Rare Alkalies of Micas from Yakutian Kimberlites.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 266, No. 1-6, MAY PP. 149-152.RussiaGeochronology, Mir, Udachnaya
DS2003-0152
2003
Brandt, S.Brandt, S., Klemd, R., Okrusch, M.Ultrahigh temperature metamorphism and multistage evolution of garnet orthopyroxeneJournal of Petrology, Vol. 44,6,pp. 1121-44.NamibiaBlank
DS200412-0200
2003
Brandt, S.Brandt, S., Klemd, R., Okrusch, M.Ultrahigh temperature metamorphism and multistage evolution of garnet orthopyroxene granulites from the Proterozoic Epupa CompleJournal of Petrology, Vol. 44,6,pp. 1121-44.Africa, NamibiaUHP
DS1982-0118
1982
Brandt, S.B.Brandt, S.B., Vladimirov, B.M., et al.Strontium Isotopic Systematics in Kimberlites of YakutiaSoviet Geology, No. 1, PP. 94-103.RussiaGeochemistry, Isotopes, Kimberlite
DS1991-1630
1991
Brandt, S.B.Solovjeva, L.V., Dneprovskaya, M.N., Brandt, S.B.Oxygen, Carbon and Strontium isotopic composition of calcites in garnet megacrysts and carbonatized granulitic xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe, YakutiaProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June, pp. 558-559RussiaGeochronology, Calcites
DS1983-0366
1983
Brandt, S.S.Kostrovitskii, S.I., Dneprovskaid, L.V., Brandt, S.S., et al.The Correlation of Strontium, Carbon, and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions in car Bonate Components of Yakutian Kimberlites.Doklady Academy of Sciences AKAD. NAUK SSSR., Vol. 272, No. 5, PP. 1223-1225.RussiaIsotope, Geochronology
DS1983-0370
1983
Brandt, S.S.Kostrovitskiy, S.I., Dneprovskaya, L.V., Brandt, S.S., Maslovskaya.Correlations Between Isotopic Compositions of Strontium, Carbon, AndDoklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 272, No. 5, pp. 1223-1225RussiaGeochronology, Strontium, Lead, Carbonate
DS1985-0359
1985
Brandt, S.S.Kostrovitsky, S.I., Dneprovskaya, L.V., Brandt, S.S., Maslovska.Correlation of Strontium, Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Distributions in Carbonates from Kimberlite Pipes of Yakutia.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 272, No. 1-6, MARCH PP. 205-208.RussiaGeochemistry
DS1989-1029
1989
Brannan, M.Miller, R.D., Steeples, D.W., Brannan, M.Mapping a bedrock surface under dry alluvium with shallow seismicreflectionsGeophysics, Vol. 54, No. 12, December pp. 1528-1534GlobalGeophysics -seismics, Alluvium -general applica
DS1975-0609
1977
Brannan, P.A.Sabater, A., Brannan, P.A.Localization of Probability Zones for Gold and Diamond Prospecting in Venezuelan Guyana Using Radar Imagery, Slar.Venezuela Dir. Geol. Bol. Geological Publishing Esp., No. 7, TOMO 4, PP. 2613-2633.VenezuelaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1920-0326
1927
Branner, G.C.Branner, G.C.Outlines of Arkansaw Mineral ResourcesArkansaw STATE Geological Survey, 352P.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasBlank
DS1920-0431
1929
Branner, G.C.Branner, G.C.Geology of Americas Diamond FieldsPan. American Geol. (des Moines), Vol. 51, No. 5, PP. 339-353.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Pennsylvania, Great LakesDiamond Occurrences, Geology, History
DS1930-0292
1939
Branner, G.C.Branner, G.C.Wealth of ArkansawArkansaw Geological Survey, 135P.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasDiamond Industry Discussed Briefly
DS1930-0293
1939
Branner, G.C.Branner, G.C.State Mineral Survey of ArkansawEconomic Geology, Vol. 34, No. 8, P. 941. (abstract.).United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasDiamond Occurrence, Geology
DS1940-0042
1942
Branner, G.C.Branner, G.C.Mineral Resources of ArkansawArkansaw Geological Survey Bulletin., No. 6, 101P.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasDiamond Occurrences
DS1860-0619
1889
Branner, J.C.Branner, J.C.The Age of Crystalline Rocks of ArkansasAmerican Association Advanced Science, Vol. 37, P. 188. (abstract.).United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaGeochronology
DS1860-0620
1889
Branner, J.C.Branner, J.C., Brackett, R.N.The Peridotite of Pike County, Arkansas Prarie CreekAmerican Journal of Science, SER. 3, Vol. 38, PP. 50-59. United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaMineralogy, Petrology
DS1900-0740
1909
Branner, J.C.Branner, J.C.Bibliography of the Geology of ArkansasArkansas Geological Survey Bulletin., PP. 97-164.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasBibliography
DS1900-0741
1909
Branner, J.C.Branner, J.C.Some Facts and Corrections Regarding the Diamond Region of Arkansas.Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 87, PP. 371-372.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaGeology, History
DS202004-0538
2020
Branney, M.J.Taylor, R.N., Favila-Harris, P., Branney, M.J., Farley, E.M.R., Gernon, T.M., Palmer, M.R.Dynamics of chemically pulsing mantle plume.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 537, 116182 14p. PdfMantlehotspot

Abstract: Upwelling plumes from the deep mantle have an impact on the Earth's surface for tens to hundreds of millions of years. During the lifetime of a mantle plume, periodic fluctuations in its composition and temperature have the potential to generate changes in the nature and volume of surface volcanism. We constrain the spatial and temporal scale of compositional changes in a plume using high-resolution Pb isotopes, which identify chemical pulses emerging from the Canary Islands hotspot over the last ~15 million years (Myr). Surface volcanism spanning ~ 400 km along the island chain changes composition systematically and synchronously, representing a replenishment of the plume head by a distinct mantle flavour on timescales of 3-5 Myr. These low-frequency compositional changes are also recorded by individual volcanoes, and comprise a sequence of closely-spaced isotopic trajectories. Each trajectory is maintained for ~1 Myr and is preceded and followed by ~0.3 Myr transitions to magmas with distinct isotope ratios. Relatively sharp transitions between periods of sustained isotopic stability require discrete yet coherent heterogeneities rising at speeds of ~100-200 km Myr-1 and extending for ~150 km vertically in the conduit. The long-term synchronous changes require larger scale isotopic domains extending ~600 km vertically through in the plume stem. These observations demonstrate that plumes can chemically “pulse” over short and long-timescales reflecting the characteristics and recycling history of the deep mantle.
DS1950-0469
1959
Brannock, W.W.Faul, H., Eldmore, P.L.D., Brannock, W.W.Age of the Fen Carbonatite and its Relation to the Oslo Region.Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 17, PP. 153-156.Norway, ScandinaviaUltramafic And Related Rocks
DS1960-0529
1965
Brannock, W.W.Coleman, R.G., Lee, D.E., Beatty, L.B., Brannock, W.W.Eclogites and Eclogites -- their Differences and SimilaritieGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 76, No. 5, PP. 483-508.GlobalEclogites
DS1983-0264
1983
Brannon, J.G.Green, J.C., Brannon, J.G.Physical Volcanology of a Proterozoic Continental Rift: The keweenawan North Shore Volcanics, Minnesota.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 15, No. 6, P. 586. (abstract.).GlobalMid Continent
DS201811-2573
2015
Branquet, Y.Giuliani, G., Branquet, Y., Fallick, A.E., Groat, L.A., Marshall, D.Emerald deposits around the world, their similarities and differences.InColor, December pp. 56-69.Globalemeralds
DS201906-1277
2019
Branquet, Y.Boulvais, P., Ntiharirizwa, S., Branquet, Y., Poujol, M., Moreli, C., Ntungwanayo, J., Midende, G.Geology and U-Th dating of the Gakara REE deposit.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 64.Africa, BurundiREE

Abstract: The Gakara Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposit is one of the world’s highest grade REE deposits, likely linked to a carbonatitic magmatic-hydrothermal activity. It is located near Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, along the western branch of the East African Rift. Field observations suggest that the mineralized veins formed in the upper crust. Previous structures inherited from the Kibaran orogeny may have been reused during the mineralizing event. The paragenetic sequence and the geochronological data show that the Gakara mineralization occurred in successive stages in a continuous hydrothermal history. The primary mineralization in bastnaesite was followed by an alteration stage into monazite. The U-Th-Pb ages obtained on bastnaesite (602 ± 7 Ma) and on monazite (589 ± 8 Ma) belong to the Pan-African cycle. The emplacement of the Gakara REE mineralization most likely took place during a pre-collisional event in the Pan-African belt, probably in an extensional context.
DS1996-0167
1996
Branson, J.Branson, J., Brown, A.K., Gregory, K.J.Global continental changes: the context of paleohydrologyGeological Society of London, No. 115, 280p. approx. $98.00 United StatesGlobalPaleohydrology, Book -ad
DS1975-0471
1977
Brant, A.D.Brant, A.D.The Diary of Helena MorleyNew York: The Ecco Press, 281P.GlobalKimberley, Janlib, History
DS1995-0203
1995
Brantley, S.L.Brantley, S.L., Koepenick, K.W.Measured carbon dioxide emissions from Oldoinyo Lengai and the skewed distribution of passive volcanic fluxesGeology, Vol. 23, No. 10, October pp. 933-936.TanzaniaCarbonatite, Deposit -Oldoinyo Lengai
DS201112-0107
2011
Brantley, S.L.Brantley, S.L., Lebedeva, M.Learning to read the chemistry of regolith to understand the critical zone.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 39, pp. 387-416.TechnologyRegolith - geochemistry
DS201312-0172
2013
Braschi, E.Contincelli, S., Avanzinelli, R., Poli, G., Braschi, E., Giordano, G.Shift from lamproite-like to leucitic rocks: Sr-Nd-Pb isotope dat a from the Monte Cimino volcanic complex vs the Vico stratovolcano, central Italy.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 246-266.Europe, ItalyLeucites
DS201312-0194
2013
Braschi, E.Conticelli, S., Avanzinelli, R., Poli, G., Braschi, E., Giordano, G.Shift from lamproite-like to leucitic rocks: Sr-Nd-Pb isotope dat a from the Monte Cimino volcanic complex vs the Vico stratovolcano, central Italy.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 246-266.Europe, ItalyLamproite
DS200612-0822
2005
Brasier, M.D.Lindsay, J.F., Brasier, M.D., McLoughlin, N., Green, O.R., Fogel, M., Steele, A., Mertzman, S.A.The problem of deep carbon - an Archean paradox.Precambrian Research, Vol. 143,1-4, Dec. 15, pp. 1-22.AustraliaCarbon dykes, geochronology
DS1997-0124
1997
Brasil Depart. Navional de Producao MineralBrasil Depart. Navional de Producao MineralDiamante - statistics and operationsBrasil Depart. Navional de Producao Mineral, pp. 42-43.BrazilDiamond production
DS2003-0153
2003
Brasilica Mining CorporationBrasilica Mining CorporationEnvironmental permit granted on the Baliza area diamond concessions, BrazilBrasilica Mining Corporation, May 29, 1p.Brazil, GoiasPress release
DS200412-0201
2003
Brasilica Mining CorporationBrasilica Mining CorporationEnvironmental permit granted on the Baliza area diamond concessions, Brazil. Araguaia River.Brasilica Mining Corporation, May 29, 1p.South America, Brazil, GoiasNews item - press release
DS200612-0166
2005
Brassines, S.Brassines, S., Balaganskaya, E., Demaiffe, D.Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi ( Kola Peninsula) Russia, A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite.Lithos, Vol. 85, 1-4, Nov-Dec. pp. 76-92Russia, Kola PeninsulaMagmatism
DS200512-0110
2005
Brassinnes, S.Brassinnes, S., Balaganskaya, E., Demaiffe, D.Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi, Kola Peninsula, Russia, A LA ICP MS study of apatite.Lithos, Advanced in pressRussia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS200512-0111
2003
Brassinnes, S.Brassinnes, S., DeMaiffe, D., Balaganskaya, E., Downes, H.New mineralogical and geochemical dat a on the Vuorijarvi ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex ( Kola Region, NW Russia).Periodico di Mineralogia, (in english), Vol. LXX11, 1. April, pp. 79-86.Russia, Kola PeninsulaMelilite
DS201312-0204
2013
Brassinnes, S.Demaiffe, D., Wiszniewska, J., Krzeminska, E., Williams, I.S., Stein, H., Brassinnes, S., Ohnenstetter, D., Deloule, E.A hidden alkaline and carbonatite province of Early Carboniferous age in northeast Poland: zircon U-Pb and pyrrhotite Re-Os geochronology.Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, 1, pp. 91-104.Europe, PolandCarbonatite
DS1986-0104
1986
Brastad, K.Brastad, K.Relationships between peridotites, anorthosites and eclogites to Bjorkedalen Western NorwayThe Caledonide Orogen-Scandinavia and Related areas, Gee, D.G. Sturt, B.A., pp. 843-872NorwayEclogites, Peridotite
DS1980-0253
1980
Bratosin, I.Nikitin, I., Bratosin, I.Deformation of Wallrocks During Kimberlite Pipe FormationIzvest. Akad. Nauk Sssr Geol. Ser., Vol. 1980, No. 11, PP. 41-49.RussiaBlank
DS1987-0077
1987
Bratus, M.D.Bratus, M.D., Tatarini, V.I., Sakhno, B.E.Composition of fluid inclusions in the quenched particles from the explosive ring like structures and kimberlite pipes.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 11, November pp. 1563-1568RussiaBlank
DS1990-0234
1990
Bratus, M.D.Bratus, M.D., Zinchuk, N.N., Argunov, K.P., Svoren, Y.M.Composition of fluid inclusions in Yakutian diamond crystals.(Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 12, No. 4, August pp. 49-56RussiaDiamond morphology, Diamond inclusions
DS1991-0166
1991
Bratus, M.D.Bratus, M.D., Svoren, I.M., Zinchuk, N.N., Argunov, K.P.Fluid inclusion gas components in the different morphological types Of diamonds from Yakutia.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 11, pp. 1586-1595Russia, YakutiaDiamond morphology, Geochemistry, inclusions
DS1992-0158
1992
Bratus, M.D.Bratus, M.D., Svoren, Y.M., Zinchuk, N.N., Argunov, K.P.Gas components of inclusions in Yakutian diamondsGeochemistry International, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 69-78Russia, YakutiaDiamond inclusions, Geochemistry
DS1997-0125
1997
Bratus, M.D.Bratus, M.D., Zinchuk, N.N., Svoren, I.M., Argunov, K.Gases from Yakutian polycrystalline diamondsDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 355, No. 5, Jun-July pp. 757-9.Russia, YakutiaDiamond inclusions
DS1998-0159
1998
Bratus, M.D.Bratus, M.D., Zinchuk, N.N., Krouse, G.R., Vityk, M.O.Crystallization conditions and sulfur, carbon and oxygen isotopic systematics of sulfide calcite AssociationGeochemistry International, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 222-228.Russia, YakutiaGeology, diamond morphology, fluid inclusions, Deposit - Udachnaya, Geochronology
DS201112-0522
2011
Brauch, K.Klaudis, J., Symons, G., Burton, D., Brauch, K.The application of airborne, ground and borehole geophysics to the exploration of the Lofdal carbonatite complex.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterAfrica, NamibiaCarbonatite
DS201412-0038
2014
Braucher, R.Barreto, H.N., Varajao, C.A.C., Braucher, R., Bourles, D.L., Salgado, A.A.R, Varajao, A.F.D.C.The impact of diamond extraction on natural denudation rates in the Diamantin a Plateau ( Min as Gerais, Brazil).Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol 56, pp. 357-364.South America, BrazilMining
DS200812-0136
2007
Brauer, B.Brauer, B., Ryberg, T., Lindeque, A.S.Shallow seismic velocity structure of the Karoo Basin, South Africa.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 110, 2-3, Sept. pp. 439-448.Africa, South AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201908-1772
2019
Braukmuller, N.Braukmuller, N., Wombacher, F., Funk, C., Munker, C.Earth's volatile element depletion pattern inherited from a carbonaceous chondrite-like source.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 12, 7, pp. 564-568.Mantlechondrite

Abstract: Earth’s volatile element abundances (for example, sulfur, zinc, indium and lead) provide constraints on fundamental processes, such as planetary accretion, differentiation and the delivery of volatile species, like water, which contributed to Earth becoming a habitable planet. The composition of the silicate Earth suggests a chemical affinity but isotopic disparity to carbonaceous chondrites—meteorites that record the early element fractionations in the protoplanetary disk. However, the volatile element depletion pattern of the silicate Earth is obscured by core formation. Another key problem is the overabundance of indium, which could not be reconciled with any known chondrite group. Here we complement recently published volatile element abundances for carbonaceous chondrites with high-precision sulfur, selenium and tellurium data. We show that both Earth and carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a unique hockey stick volatile element depletion pattern in which volatile elements with low condensation temperatures (750-500?K) are unfractionated from each other. This abundance plateau accounts for the apparent overabundance of indium in the silicate Earth without the need of exotic building materials or vaporization from precursors or during the Moon-forming impact and suggests the accretion of 10-15?wt% CI-like material before core formation ceased. Finally, more accurate estimates of volatile element abundances in the core and bulk Earth can now be provided.
DS200412-0298
2004
Braun, I.Cenki, B., Braun, I., Brocker, M.Evolution of the continental crust in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southernmost India: evidence from Nd isotope mapping, U Pb andPrecambrian Research, Vol. 134, 3-4, Oct. 22, pp. 275-292.IndiaMetamorphism, Geochronology
DS200612-1449
2006
Braun, I.Upadhyay, D., John-Awe, S., Pin, C., Paquette, J.L., Braun, I.Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism at Sivamalai, southern India.Gondwana Research, Vol. 10, 1-2, August pp. 156-166.IndiaAlkalic
DS1994-0437
1994
Braun, I.V.Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Braun, I.V., Sheskel, G.G., Podkuiko, Y.A.Geology and structure of diamond bearing rocks of the Kokchetav Massif, Kazahkstan.Tectonophysics, Vol. 233, No. 3-4, May 30, pp. 293-313.Russia, KazahkstanStructure, Diamondiferous rocks
DS1989-0169
1989
Braun, J.Braun, J., Beaumont, C.A physical explanation of the relation between flank uplifts and the breakup unconformity at rifted continental marginsGeology, Vol. 17, No. 8, August pp. 760-764GlobalTectonics, Rift
DS1991-0167
1991
Braun, J.Braun, J., McQueen, H., Etheridge, M.A fresh look at the late Paleozoic tectonic history of western centralAustralia8th. Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (ASEG) Conference, Vol. 22, No. 1, March pp. 49-54AustraliaTectonics, Geophysics
DS1992-0159
1992
Braun, J.Braun, J.Post extensional mantle healing and episodic extension in the CanningBasinJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B6, June 10, pp. 8927-8936AustraliaMantle tectonics, Canning Basin
DS1992-0216
1992
Braun, J.Caritat, P., Braun, J.Cyclic development of sedimentary basins at convergent plate margins -1.structural and tectonothermal evolution of some Gondwana basins of easternAustraliaJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 16, No. 4, December pp. 241-AustraliaGondwanaland, Basins
DS1992-0349
1992
Braun, J.De Caritat, P., Braun, J.Cyclic development of sedimentary basins at convergent plate margins - 1.structural and tectono-thermal evolution of some Gondwana Basins of easternAustraliaJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 241-282AustraliaBasins, Structure
DS1995-0204
1995
Braun, J.Braun, J., Beaumont, C.Three dimensional numerical experiments of strain partitioning at oblique plate boundaries:Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. B9, pp. 18, 059-74.California, New ZealandTectonics
DS1998-0160
1998
Braun, J.Braun, J., Dooley, J., Goleby, B., Van der Hilst et al.Structure and evolution of the Australian continentAmerican Geophysical Union (AGU) Geodynamic Series, Vol. 26, 186p. app. $ 42.00AustraliaMantle - lithosphere, structure, Tectonics
DS1998-0161
1998
Braun, J.Braun, J., Shaw, R.Extension in the Fitsroy Trough, western Asutralia: an example of reactivation tectonics.Structure EVol. Austral., American Geophysical Union (AGU) geodynamics Vol. 26, pp. 157-174.AustraliaTectonics
DS2001-0132
2001
Braun, J.Braun, J., Shaw, R.A thin plate model of Paleozoic deformation of Australian lithosphere: implications for cratonizationGeological Society of London Special Publication, Special Paper 184, pp.AustraliaTectonics, Orogenesis, reactivation, reworking
DS2001-0334
2001
Braun, J.Fredericksen, S., Braun, J.Numerical modelling of strain localisation during extension of the continental lithosphere.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 188, No. 1, May 30, pp. 241-51.MantleModeling - tectonics
DS200612-0167
2006
Braun, J.Braun, J., Van der Beek, P., Batt, G.Quantitative thermochronology. Numerical methods for the interpretation of thermochronologic data. Case studies, review of isotopic ages.cambridge.org/us/earth, 232p. $ 100.00 ISBN 10-0521830575TechnologyBook - geochronology, geothermometry
DS200912-0071
2009
Braun, J.Braun, J., Burbidge, D.R., Gesto, Sandford, Gleadow, Kohn, CumminsConstraints on the current rate of deformation and surface uplift of the Australian continent from a new seismic database and low T thermochronological data.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 56, 2, pp. 99-110.AustraliaGeophysics - seismic
DS201412-0068
2014
Braun, J.Braun, J., Guillocheau, F., Robin, C., Baby, Guillaume, JelsmaRapid erosion of the southern African plateau as it climbs over a mantle superswell.Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 119, 7, pp. 6093-6112.Africa, southern AfricaGeomorphology
DS2003-0154
2003
Braun, M.G.Braun, M.G., Sohn, R.A.Melt migration in plume ridge systemsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 213, 3-4, pp. 417-30.GlobalTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-0202
2003
Braun, M.G.Braun, M.G., Sohn, R.A.Melt migration in plume ridge systems.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 213, 3-4, pp. 417-30.GlobalTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS200712-0103
2007
Braunb, A.Braunb, A., Kim, H-R., Csatho, B., Von Frese, R.R.B.Gravity inferred crustal thickness of Greenland.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 262, 1-2, pp. 138-158.Europe, GreenlandGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-0523
2011
Braunch, K.Klaudius, J., Braunch, K.The application of airborne, ground and borehole geophysics to the exploration for rare earth elements associated with the Lofdal carbonatite complex, NamibiaPeralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.69. (very brief no info)Africa, NamibiaGeophysics
DS201112-0524
2011
Braunch, K.Klaudius, J., Braunch, K.The application of airborne, ground and borehole geophysics to the exploration for rare earth elements associated with the Lofdal carbonatite complex, NamibiaPeralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.69. (very brief no info)Africa, NamibiaGeophysics
DS200812-0993
2007
Braundedr, K.Sader, J.S., Hamilton, S.M., Hattori, K.H., Braundedr, K.Project unit: 07-32. Surface media geochemical sampling at the Victor kimberlite region, northern Ontario and the Kirkland Lake region northeastern Ontario.Ontario Geological Survey Open File, No. 6213, pp. 19-1-6.Canada, OntarioOverview field work
DS201112-0897
2011
Brauneder, K.Sader, J.A., Hattori, K.H., Kong, J.M., Hamilton, S.M., Brauneder, K.Geochemical responses in peat groundwater over Attawapiskat kimberlites, James Bay Lowlands, Canada and their application to diamond exploration.Geochemistry, Exploration, Environment, Analysis:, Vol. 11, pp. 193-210.Canada, Ontario, James Bay LowlandsGeochemistry
DS201312-0769
2013
Brauneder, K.Sader, J.A., Hattori, K., Brauneder, K., Hamilton, S.M.The influence of buried kimberlite on methane production in overlying sediment, Attawapiskat region, James Bay lowlands, Ontario.Chemical Geology, Vol. 360-361, pp. 173-185.Canada, Ontario, AttawapiskatMethane
DS201811-2617
2018
Braunger, S.Walter, B.F., Parsapoor, A., Braunger, S., Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Martin, M., Markl, G.Pyrochlore as a monitor for magmatic and hydrothermal processes in carbonatites from the Kaiserstuhl volcanic complex ( SW Germany).Chemical Geology, Vol. 498, pp. 1-16.Europe, Germanycarbonatite

Abstract: Pyrochlore from the Kaiserstuhl volcanic complex (SW Germany) shows textural and compositional differences between various coarse-grained calcite-carbonatite bodies (Badberg, Degenmatt, Haselschacher Buck, Orberg) and extrusive carbonatites (Henkenberg, Kirchberg). Oscillatory-zoned F-rich pyrochlore with up to 69?wt% Nb2O5 is common in all coarse-grained calcite-carbonatite bodies and probably formed during magmatic conditions. However, only in some of the samples from the Badberg, partly resorbed U- and Ta-enriched pyrochlore cores with up to 22?wt% UO2 and 9?wt% Ta2O5 have been identified, which are interpreted as being inherited from underlying nosean syenites. Pyrochlore data from a drill core penetrating the Badberg indicate increasing contents of REE, U, and Ta with depth, while Nb, F and Na contents decrease. This may reflect the combined effects of fractional crystallization and assimilation (AFC) or indicates a multi-stage emplacement of the carbonatitic magma. Patchy-zoned ceriopyrochlore and REE- and Th-enriched pyrochlore with up to 19?wt% total REE2O3 and 6.5?wt% ThO2 is largely restricted to samples from the Orberg and probably formed during hydrothermal conditions. This can be related to the relatively evolved character of the Orberg carbonatites, based on their relatively high whole-rock Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf mass ratios. This study demonstrates that the textural and compositional variation of pyrochlore in carbonatites is a powerful tool to distinguish magmatic, hydrothermal and weathering processes in carbonatitic systems.
DS201909-2024
2019
Braunger, S.Braunger, S., Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Chmyz, L., Azzone, R.G., Markl, G.Carbonatite-alkaline silica rock complexes reflect highly oxidized conditions in their Upper Mantle source.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Alkaline complexes consist of variable mantle-derived silicate rocks, ranging from primitive alkali basalts, melilitites, nephelinites and basanites towards tephrites and more evolved phonolites, respectively their plutonic equivalents. This lithological variance is also expressed by a wide range of redox conditions that vary by several log units around the synthetic fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. However, only some of these complexes are characterized by the occurrence of carbonatites which must be related to specific formation conditions. Based on textural, mineralogical and geochemical observations, we calculated the redox conditions of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks for seven alkaline complexes (Kaiserstuhl, Sokli, Kovdor, Palabora, Magnet Cove, Oka, Jacupiranga) which are considered to represent typical carbonatite-alkaline silicate rock associations. In combination with a comprehensive literature review, we demonstrate that carbonatite-bearing alkaline complexes formed under highly oxidized conditions and hence, belong to the most oxidized alkaline rocks at all. This is consistent with the prerequisite of a carbonated mantle as the source region for carbonatite complexes, which requires redox conditions distinctively above that for mean lithospheric or asthenospheric mantle. Carbonatitemetasomatized peridotites also show high redox conditions and might not only reflect an interaction between peridotite and carbonatitic melts/fluids, but at least partly represent the carbonated mantle source for crustally emplaced carbonatite complexes. We therefore suggest that the oxidation state of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks provides direct information about an extraordinary oxidized parental mantle source.
DS201909-2042
2019
Braunger, S.Giebel, R.J., Parsapoor, A., Walter, B.F., Braunger, S., Marks, M.A.W.Evidence for magma-wall rock interaction in carbonatites from the Kaiserstuhl volcanic complex ( southwest Germany).Journal of Petrology , Vol. 60, 6, pp. 1163-1194.Europe, Germanycarbonatite

Abstract: The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the four major sövite bodies (Badberg, Degenmatt, Haselschacher Buck and Orberg), calcite foidolite/nosean syenite xenoliths (enclosed in the Badberg sövite only) and rare extrusive carbonatites of the Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex in Southern Germany provide evidence for contamination processes in the carbonatitic magma system of the Kaiserstuhl. Based on textures and composition, garnet and clinopyroxene in extrusive carbonatites represent xenocrysts entrained from the associated silicate rocks. In contrast, forsterite, monticellite and mica in sövites from Degenmatt, Haselschacher Buck and Orberg probably crystallized from the carbonatitic magma. Clinopyroxene and abundant mica crystallization in the Badberg sövite, however, was induced by the interaction between calcite foidolite xenoliths and the carbonatite melt. Apatite and micas in the various sövite bodies reveal clear compositional differences: apatite from Badberg is higher in REE, Si and Sr than apatite from the other sövite bodies. Mica from Badberg is biotite- and comparatively Fe2+-rich (Mg# = 72-88). Mica from the other sövites, however, is phlogopite (Mg# up to 97), as is typical of carbonatites in general. The typical enrichment of Ba due to the kinoshitalite substitution is observed in all sövites, although it is subordinate in the Badberg samples. Instead, Badberg biotites are strongly enriched in IVAl (eastonite substitution) which is less important in the other sövites. The compositional variations of apatite and mica within and between the different sövite bodies reflect the combined effects of fractional crystallization and carbonatite-wall rock interaction during emplacement. The latter process is especially important for the Badberg sövites, where metasomatic interaction released significant amounts of K, Fe, Ti, Al and Si from earlier crystallized nosean syenites. This resulted in a number of mineral reactions that transformed these rocks into calcite foidolites. Moreover, this triggered the crystallization of compositionally distinct mica and clinopyroxene crystals around the xenoliths and within the Badberg sövite itself. Thus, the presence and composition of clinopyroxene and mica in carbonatites may be useful indicators for contamination processes during their emplacement. Moreover, the local increase of silica activity during contamination enabled strong REE enrichment in apatite via a coupled substitution involving Si, which demonstrates the influence of contamination on REE mineralization in carbonatites.
DS201909-2061
2019
Braunger, S.Marks, M.A.W., Giebel, R.J., Walter, B.F., Braunger, S., Wenzel, T., Markl, G.Evidence for wall-rock assimilation in carbonatites from the Kaiserstuhl (German).Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractEurope, Germanydeposit - Kaiserstuhl

Abstract: Contamination of carbonatites with crustal or cogenetic intrusive rocks is generally not considered to play an important role during carbonatite magmatism, because carbonatitic melts have low densities and viscosities, enabling them to rapidly ascend. Potential contamination by silicate rocks in carbonatites cannot easily be detected by means of radiogenic isotope data (such as Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data) as carbonatites often show high concentrations of these elements and their isotope systems are thereby “buffered” against contamination with silicate rocks. Textural, mineralogical and geochemical observations in carbonatites from the Kaiserstuhl (Germany) provide evidence for the interaction of carbonatitic magma with previously emplaced nosean syenites. This caused replacement of alkali feldspar by haüyne and recrystallization of garnet and clinopyroxene in the xenoliths, which released larger amounts of K, Al, Si and Fe. As a result, blackwall-like mica seams around the xenoliths formed and and compositionally distinct mica and clinopyroxene crystallized in the surrounding carbonatite. Moreover, the local increase of silica activity during contamination enabled strong REE enrichment in apatite via a coupled substitution involving Si, which demonstrates the potential influence of Si contamination on REE mineralization in carbonatites. We further suggest that the presence and composition of clinopyroxene and mica in carbonatites may be useful indicators for contamination processes during their emplacement. Mass-balance calculations based on experimental constraints for the solubility of Al and Si in carbonatitic magmas suggest that only minor amounts of mica can form from carbonatitic melt. Therefore, larger amounts of mica and mica-dominated lithologies (glimmerites) as observed in many carbonatite complexes suggest that some Si and Al in carbonatites may be sourced from surrounding host rocks. We hypothesize that assimilation and contamination processes in carbonatites may be the rule rather than an exception.
DS202002-0168
2020
Braunger, S.Braunger, S., Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Chmyz, L., Azzone, R.G., Markl, G.Do carbonatites and alkaline rocks reflect variable redox conditions in their upper mantle source? ( metasomatism)Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 533, 11p. PdfMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: A detailed investigation on seven carbonatites and associated alkaline rock complexes (Kaiserstuhl, Sokli, Kovdor, Palabora, Oka, Magnet Cove, Jacupiranga), together with a world-wide comparison between carbonatites, alkaline silicate rocks and mantle xenoliths, implies peculiar redox conditions for carbonatite-bearing alkaline complexes: Carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks in continental settings crystallize from relatively oxidized magmas, on average 1.4 log units () and 1.3 log units () above the synthetic fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. In contrast, alkaline rocks in continental settings that lack associated carbonatites reveal rather reduced conditions (mean ; ). The calculated redox conditions for carbonatites and associated silicate rocks demonstrate that these crystallize from relatively oxidized mantle-derived melts compared to the general range found for alkaline rocks in continental settings.
DS1996-0168
1996
Braunmiller, J.Braunmiller, J., Nabalek, J.Geometry of continental normal faults: seismological constraintsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 181, No. B2, Feb. 10, pp. 3045-52GlobalTectonics, Continental faults
DS1996-0169
1996
Braunmiller, J.Braunmiller, J., Nabelek, J.Geometry of continental normal faults: seismological constraintsJournal of Geophysics Research, Vol. 101, No. 2, Feb. 10, pp. 3045-52.GlobalStructure -faults, Continental faults
DS200712-0104
2006
Braunmiller, J.Braunmiller, J., Van der Lee, S., Doermann, L.Mantle transition zone thickness in the central South American subduction zone.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, No. 168, pp. 215-224.South AmericaSubduction
DS2001-0143
2001
Brauns, C.M.Buhn, B., Dorr, W., Brauns, C.M.Petrology and age of Otjisazu carbonatite complex: implications pre- and syJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan. pp. 1-18.NamibiaCarbonatite
DS1988-0081
1988
Braunstein, J.Braunstein, J., Huddlestun, P., Biel, R.Gulf Coast regionCosuna, Correlation Of Stratigraphic Units Of North America Project, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Cat. No. 710, COSUNA No. 10, 1, 41 X 55 $10MidcontinentStratigraphy, Map
DS1998-0162
1998
Brawn, J.Brawn, J., et al.Structure and evolution of the Australian continentAmerican Geophysical Union (AGU) geodynamics series, Vol. 26, 186p. $ 42.00AustraliaTable of contents, Geodynamics - tectonics
DS2002-1377
2002
Bray, G.P.Ryabchikov, I.D., Solovova, I.P., Kogarko, L.N., Bray, G.P., Ntaflos, Th.Thermodynamic parameters of generation of meymechites and alkaline picrites in theGeochemistry International, Vol. 40, 11, pp. 1031-41.RussiaPicrites, meymechites
DS1996-0170
1996
Bray, J.Bray, J.Business security outlook 1996International Gold Mining Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan. pp. 10-13GlobalCountry ranking, Economics
DS1996-0171
1996
Bray, J.Bray, J.Political risk assessment in global miningMining Engineering, Vol. 48, No. 1, Jan. p. 9GlobalEconomics, Legal, political
DS2000-0106
2000
Brazier, R.A.Brazier, R.A., Nyblade, A.A., Owens, T.J.Pn wave velocities beneath the Tanzania Craton and adjacent rifted mobile belts, East Africa.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 16, Aug. 15, pp. 2365-8.TanzaniaGeophysics - seismic, Tectonics - rifting
DS2002-1167
2002
Brazier, R.A.Nyblade, A.A., Brazier, R.A.Precambrian lithospheric controls on the development of the East African rift systemGeology, Vol.30,8,Aug.pp.755-8.Africa, East AfricaTectonics
DS2003-0155
2003
Brazier, R.A.Brazier, R.A., Nyblade, A.A.Upper mantle P velocity structure beneath the Baikal Rift from modeling regionalGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, 4, Feb. 15, DOI 10.1029/2002GLO16115RussiaTectonics
DS200412-0203
2003
Brazier, R.A.Brazier, R.A., Nyblade, A.A.Upper mantle P velocity structure beneath the Baikal Rift from modeling regional seismic data.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, 4, Feb. 15, DOI 10.1029/2002 GLO16115RussiaGeophysics - seismics Tectonics
DS201502-0045
2014
Brazil diamond mapBrazil diamond mapMap of diamonds from the Patos Meeting.Mapa Simposio APL Diamantes A3 QT.pdf, pdf available 12306KSouth America, BrazilDiamond locations in A.P.
DS1970-0252
1971
Brazul'kina, V.A.Brazul'kina, V.A.Chemical Composition of Kimberlites. #1Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya)., No. 1.RussiaBlank
DS200712-0105
2007
BRC Diamond CorporationBRC Diamond CorporationBRC Diamond and Diamond Core update merger progress.BDRC Diamond Corporation, Sept. 7, 1p.Africa, Democratic Republic of CongoNews item - press release, Diamond Core
DS200612-0222
2006
Breakspear, R.M.D.Carling, P.A., Breakspear, R.M.D.Placer formation in gravel bedded rivers: a review.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 28, 4, pp. 377-401.GlobalAlluvials, heavy minerals, bedforms, principles
DS2003-0219
2003
Bream, B.R.Carrigan, C.W., Miller, C.F., Fullagar, P.D., Bream, B.R., Hatcher, R.D., CoathIon microprobe age and geochemistry of southern Appalachian basement, withPrecambrian Research, Vol. 120, 1-2, pp. 1-36.Appalachia, United StatesGeochronology
DS200412-0285
2003
Bream, B.R.Carrigan, C.W., Miller, C.F., Fullagar, P.D., Bream, B.R., Hatcher, R.D., Coath, C.D.Ion microprobe age and geochemistry of southern Appalachian basement, with implications for Proterozoic and Paleozoic reconstrucPrecambrian Research, Vol. 120, 1-2, pp. 1-36.United StatesGeochronology
DS200812-0452
2007
Bream, B.R.Hatcher, R.D., Bream, B.R., Merschat, A.J.Tectonic map of the southern and central Appalachians: a tale of three orogens and a complete Wilson cycle.Geological Society of America, Memoir, No. 200, pp. 595-632.United States, AppalachiaTectonics
DS1992-0160
1992
Brearley, A.J.Brearley, A.J., Rubie, D.C.Mechanisms of the transformation of modified spinel to spinel at highpressureGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts with programs, 1992 Annual, Vol. 24, No. 7, abstract p. A258MantleSpinel, Transition zone
DS1994-1493
1994
Brearley, A.J.Rubie, D.C., Brearley, A.J.Phase transitions between magnesium iron SiO4 in the earth's mantle: mechanisms and rheological implications.Science, Vol. 264, No. 5164, June 3, pp. 1445-1447.MantleBlank
DS1999-0092
1999
Brearley, A.J.Brearley, A.J.Origin of graphite carbon and pentlandite in matrix olivines in the Allendemeteorite.Science, Vol. 285, No. 5432, Aug. 27, pp. 1380-1.GlobalMeteorites, Sulphides, olivines
DS200712-0969
2007
Brearley, A.J.Sharp, Z.D., Barnes, J.D., Brearley, A.J., Chaussidon, M., Fischer, T.P., Kamenetsky, V.S.Chlorine isotope homogeneity of the mantle, crust and carbonaceous chondrites.Nature, Vol. 446, 7139, pp. 1062-1065.MantleGeochronology
DS1984-0173
1984
Brearley, M.Brearley, M., Scarfe, C.M.Amphibole in a Spinel Lherzolite Xenolith - Evidence for Volatiles and Partial Melting in the Upper Mantle Beneath Southern British Columbia.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 9, SEPTEMBER PP. 1067-1072.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1984-0174
1984
Brearley, M.Brearley, M., Scarfe, C.M., Fujii, T.The Petrology of Ultramafic Xenoliths from Summit Lake, Near Prince George British Columbia.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 88, PP. 53-63.Canada, British ColumbiaBasanite, Microprobe Analyses, Nodules, Spinel Lherzolite, Wehrlite
DS1986-0105
1986
Brearley, M.Brearley, M., Scarfe, C.Dissolution rates of upper mantle minerals in an alkali basalt melt at high pressure: an experimental study and implications for ultramafic xenolithsurvivalJournal of Petrology, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 1157-1182South AfricaHawaii, Roberts Victor
DS1987-0084
1987
Brearley, M.Canil, D., Brearley, M., Scarfe, C.M.Petrology of ultramafic xenoliths from Rayfield River southcentral British ColumbiaCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 8, August pp. 1679-1687British ColumbiaMantle, Heat flow
DS2001-0798
2001
Breddam, K.Moreira, M., Breddam, K., Curtice, J., Kurz, M.D.Solar neon in the Icelandic mantle: new evidence for an under gassed lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 185, No. 1-2, Feb.15, pp. 15-23.GlobalMantle - geochemistry, geochronology
DS2002-0201
2002
Breddam, K.Breddam, K.Kistufell: primitive melt from the Iceland mantle plumeJournal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 345-74.IcelandPlume, hot spot
DS200412-1513
2004
Breddam, K.Peate, D.W., Baker, J.A., Breddam, K., Waight, T.E., Skovgaard, A.C., Stecher, O., Prestvik, T., JonassonPb isotope heterogeneity of the mantle beneath Iceland.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13th Goldschmidt Conference held Copenhagen Denmark, Vol. 68, 11 Supp. July, ABSTRACT p.A569.Europe, IcelandGeochronology
DS200712-0824
2006
Breddam, K.Peate, D.W., Breddam, K., Baker, J.A., Kurz, M., Grassineau, N., Barker, A.K.Compositional features of enriched Icelandic mantle components.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In press availableEurope, IcelandGeochemistry
DS1995-0205
1995
Bredikhin, A.V.Bredikhin, A.V., Panin, A.V.Experience in the development and use of a geology geomorphology block in a geographic information systemMapping Sciences and Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan-Mar pp. 50-58RussiaRemote Sensing, GIS
DS201112-0108
2011
Breeding, C.Breeding, C.Hydrogen rich diamonds from Zimbabwe with natural radiation features.GIA International Symposium 2011, Gems & Gemology summer issue Poster session abs. p.129.Africa, ZimbabweTechnology
DS201412-0069
2014
Breeding, C.Breeding, C.Characterization of gem diamonds from eastern Zimbabwe.ima2014.co.za, PosterAfrica, ZimbabweMineralogy
DS201601-0007
2015
Breeding, C.Breeding, C.Diamond bearing eclogite xenoliths from the Ardo So Ver dykes. ( Kimberley area)Gems & Gemology News International, Vol. 51, 2, summer 2p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Ardo so Ver
DS200412-1804
2004
Breeding, C.M.Shigley, J.E., McClure, S.F., Breeding, C.M., Hsi-tien Shen, A., Muhlmeister, S.M.Lab grown coloured diamonds from Chatham created gems. Identifying characteristics of yellow, blue, green and pink synthetic diaGems & Gemology, Vol. 40, 2, Summer, pp.128-145.ChinaDiamond synthesis
DS200512-0979
2004
Breeding, C.M.Shigley, J. E., Breeding, C.M., Hsi-Tien Shen, A.An updated chart on the characteristics of HPHT grown synthetic diamonds.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 40, 4, Winter, pp. 312.Synthetic diamond identification
DS200512-1167
2005
Breeding, C.M.Wang, W., Smith, C.P., Hall, M.S., Breeding, C.M., Moses, T.M.Treated color pink to red diamonds from Lucent Diamonds Inc.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, 1, Spring pp. 6-19.Diamond - treatment, Lucent
DS200612-0168
2005
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E., Shen, A.H.As grown green synthetic diamonds.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 29, 7/8, pp. 387-394.Technology
DS200612-0169
2006
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M.High energy ultraviolet luminescence imaging applications of the DTC diamodnView for gem identification.GIA Gemological Research Conference abstract volume, Held August 26-27, p. 25. 1/2p.TechnologyUV fluorescence
DS200612-0521
2006
Breeding, C.M.Hainschwang, T., Notari, F., Fritsch, E., Massi, L., Breeding, C.M., Rondeau, B.Natural CO2 rich colored diamonds.GIA Gemological Research Conference abstract volume, Held August 26-27, p. 33. 1/2p.TechnologySpectroscopy
DS200812-0310
2007
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana, S., Post, J.E., Heaney, P.J., Walters, R.A., Breeding, C.M., Butler, J.E.Fluorescence spectra of colored diamonds using a rapid, mobile spectrometer.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 43, 4, Winter pp. 332-351.TechnologyType 1 a diamonds
DS200812-1176
2008
Breeding, C.M.Titkov, S.V., Shigley, J.E., Breeding, C.M., Mineeva, R.M., Zudin, N.G., Sergeev, A.M.Natural color purple diamonds from Siberia. Mir field.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 44, 1, spring pp. 56-64.Russia, SiberiaDiamond - purple
DS200812-1238
2007
Breeding, C.M.Wang, W., Hall, M., Breeding, C.M.Natural TYPE 1A diamond with green yellow colour due to Ni related defects.Gems & Gemology, Fall, pp. 240-243.TechnologyDiamond - IA
DS200912-0072
2009
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.The 'type' classification system of diamonds and its importance in gemology. A guide to determining diamond type, and its implications for identifying treated andGems & Gemology, Vol. 45, 2, Summer, pp. 96-111.TechnologyDiamond classification Type 1 and type 11; synthetics
DS201212-0664
2012
Breeding, C.M.Skalwold, E.A., Renfro, N.,Shigley, J.E., Breeding, C.M.Characterization of a synthetic nano-polycrustalline diamond gemstone.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, 3, pp. 188-192.TechnologySynthetics
DS201312-0557
2013
Breeding, C.M.Luo, Y., Breeding, C.M.Fluorescence produced by optical defects in diamond: measurement, characterization, and challenges.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 49, 2, Summer pp. 82-97.TechnologyDiamond colour - spectra
DS201312-0813
2013
Breeding, C.M.Shigley, J.E., Breeding, C.M.Optical defects in diamond: a quick reference chart.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 49, 2, Summer pp. 107-111.Diamond colour - spectra
DS201412-0070
2014
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M., Wang, WuyiA spectroscopic look at green and blue gem diamonds colored by artificial irradiation treatment.Geological Society of America Conference Vancouver Oct. 19-22, 1p. AbstractTechnologyIrradiated diamonds
DS201412-0965
2014
Breeding, C.M.Wang, Wuyi, D'Haenens-Johansson, U., Smit, K., Breeding, C.M., Stern, R.Carbon isotope analysis of CVD synthetic gem diamonds.Geological Society of America Conference Vancouver Oct. 19-22, 1p. AbstractTechnologySynthetics
DS201506-0295
2015
Breeding, C.M.Shigley, J.E., Breeding, C.M.Visible absorption spectra of colored diamonds.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 51, 1, pp. 41-43.TechnologyColoured diamonds
DS201512-1968
2015
Breeding, C.M.Shor, R., Weldon, R., Janse, A.J.A., Breeding, C.M., Shirey, S.B.Diamonds from the Letseng mine. Explores the history, geology, and current production of this unique source of large diamonds. Letseng La TeraeGems & Gemology, Vol. 51, 3, pp. 280-299.Africa, LesothoDeposit - Letseng
DS201606-1082
2016
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana, S., Breeding, C.M.An introduction to photoluminescence spectroscopy for diamond and its application in gemology.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 52, 1, pp. 2-17.TechnologyIdentification of treated and synthetic diamonds.

Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is frequently mentioned in the gemological literature, but its relevance to the wider trade audience is rarely discussed. Due to the possibility of an undisclosed treatment or a synthetic origin, all type II diamonds (both colorless and fancy-color) and colorless type IaB diamonds submitted to gemological laboratories should ideally be tested using PL spectroscopy. Although the proportion of samples that require this testing is small, the failure to properly identify treated and synthetic diamonds could destabilize the diamond industry. This article seeks to clarify the underlying physics and methodology of this important tool for gemologists.
DS201608-1393
2016
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M.The art and science of diamond fluorescence: what it tells us about the growth history of natural and synthetic gem diamonds.GSA Annual Meeting, Abstract, 1p.TechnologyFluorescence

Abstract: Gem diamonds are highly valued for their color, or the absence of it. However, the myriad of colors and patterns that are revealed when a diamond is exposed to ultraviolet light are often more impressive than the stones themselves. High energy (i.e., ultra-shortwave <230 nm) UV light from the DiamondView instrument excites fluorescence from natural and synthetic diamonds that not only provides a tremendous amount of information about defect incorporation during growth, but also stunningly artistic designs. Fluorescence patterns reveal details about the original morphology of a diamond even after all of the natural surfaces are removed. In addition, concentrations of luminescent centers along structurally controlled planes in a natural diamond lattice provide information about the original distribution of impurities and other defects and the thermal and deformational history of diamonds as they spend millions (or billions) of years in the Earth’s mantle and then are rapidly erupted in a kimberlite magma. Likewise, the distribution of nitrogen, boron, and nickel-related luminescence in synthetic diamonds give clues to the temperature, pressure, and catalytic conditions under which they were grown in a laboratory. Evaluation of the fluorescence patterns from diamonds helps the scientist better understand the incorporation and migration of atomic level defects in the diamond structure while allowing the artist to appreciate some of the most unusual and amazing patterns that nature produces.
DS201609-1742
2016
Breeding, C.M.Shigley, J.E., Shor, R., Padua, P., Breeding, C.M., Shirey, S.B., Ashbury, D.Mining diamonds in the Canadian Arctic: the Diavik mine.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 52, no. 2, Summer, pp. 104-131.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS201712-2684
2017
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana, S., Shigley, J.E., Breeding, C.M.Observations on HPHT-grown synthetic diamonds: a review.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 53, 3, pp. 262-285.Technologysynthetics

Abstract: his article presents statistical data and distinctive features for several thousand HPHT-grown synthetic diamonds examined by GIA from 2007 through 2016. This study, the first comprehensive summary published on such a large number and wide variety of samples, describes the reliable means of identifying them, with a focus on material currently marketed for jewelry use. The color of HPHT synthetic diamonds analyzed by GIA has shifted noticeably during this time—in the early years, orange-yellow, yellow, and yellow-orange samples comprised the overwhelming majority, while colorless and blue samples are much more prevalent today. HPHT synthetics are making inroads into the large diamond market, with cut stones larger than 10 carats, as well as the colorless melee market, where small HPHT synthetics are being mass-produced in China. HPHT synthetics can be identified by their distinctive fluorescence patterns using the DiamondView luminescence imaging instrument, the lack of “strain” (anomalous birefringence) when viewed through crossed polarizers, and to a lesser extent by the detection of various features in photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. This material may also display magnetism and a short-wave fluorescence and phosphorescence reaction that are inconsistent with similarly colored natural diamonds.
DS201806-1214
2018
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M., Eaton-Magana, S., Shigley, J.E.Natural color green diamonds: a beautiful conundrum.Gems& Gemology, Vol. 54, 1, spring pp. 2-27.South America, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyanadiamonds - green review

Abstract: Among fancy-color diamonds, natural-color green stones with saturated hues are some of the rarest and most sought after. These diamonds are colored either by simple structural defects produced by radiation exposure or by more complex defects involving nitrogen, hydrogen, or nickel impurities. Most of the world’s current production of fine natural green diamonds comes from South America or Africa. Laboratory irradiation treatments have been used commercially since the late 1940s to create green color in diamond and closely mimic the effects of natural radiation exposure, causing tremendous difficulty in gemological identification. Compounding that problem is a distinct paucity of published information on these diamonds due to their rarity. Four different coloring mechanisms—absorption by GR1 defects due to radiation damage, green luminescence from H3 defects, and absorptions caused by hydrogen- and nickel-related defects—can be identified in green diamonds. Careful microscopic observation, gemological testing, and spectroscopy performed at GIA over the last decade allows an unprecedented characterization of these beautiful natural stones. By leveraging GIA’s vast database of diamond information, we have compiled data representative of tens of thousands of samples to offer a look at natural green diamonds that has never before been possible.
DS201809-2017
2018
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana, S., Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.Natural color blue, gray, and violet diamonds: allure of the deep.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 54, 2, pp. 112-131.Africa, South Africa, Australiadiamond - colour

Abstract: Natural-color blue diamonds are among the rarest and most valuable gemstones. Gray and violet diamonds are also included here, as these diamonds can coexist on a color continuum with blue diamonds. More so than most other fancy colors, many diamonds in this color range are sourced from specific locations-the Cullinan mine in South Africa and the Argyle mine in Australia. Although blue color is often associated with boron impurities, the color of diamonds in this range (including gray and violet) also originates from simple structural defects produced by radiation exposure or from more complex defects involving hydrogen. These different mechanisms can be characterized by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. A fourth mechanism-micro-inclusions of grayish clouds or tiny graphite particles in gray diamonds-can be distinguished through microscopy. In this article, we summarize prior research as well as collected data such as color and carat weight on more than 15,000 naturally colored blue/gray/violet diamonds from the GIA database (along with an analysis of spectroscopic data on a subset of 500 randomly selected samples) to provide an unprecedented description of these beautiful gemstones.
DS201901-0009
2018
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M.Colored diamonds: the rarity and beauty of imperfection.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 275.Globaldiamond color

Abstract: Diamond is often romanticized as a symbol of purity and perfection, with values that exceed all other gemstones. However, even the most flawless and colorless natural diamonds have atomic-level imperfections. Somewhat ironically, the rarest and most valuable gem diamonds are those that contain abundant impurities or certain atomic defects that produce beautiful fancy colors such as red, blue, or green—stones that can sell for millions of dollars per carat. Atomic defects can consist of impurities such as nitrogen or boron that substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond atomic structure (resulting in classifications such as type Ia, type Ib, type IIa, and type IIb) or missing or misaligned carbon atoms. Some defects are created during diamond growth, while others are generated over millions to billions of years as the diamond sits deep in the earth at high temperatures and pressures. Defects may be created when the diamond is rapidly transported to the earth’s surface or by interaction with radioactive fluids very near the earth’s surface. Each defect selectively absorbs different wavelengths of light to produce eye-visible colors. Absorptions from these color-producing defects (or color centers) are detected and identified using the gemological spectroscope or more sensitive absorption spectrometers such as Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) or ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR; figure 1). Some defects not only absorb light but also produce their own luminescence, called fluorescence. For example, the same defect that produces “cape” yellow diamonds also generates blue fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light. In some cases, the fluorescence generated by defects can be strong enough to affect the color of gem diamonds. With the exception of most natural white and black diamonds, where the color is a product of inclusions, colored diamonds owe their hues to either a single type of defect or a combination of several color centers. More than one type of defect can produce a particular color, however. Table 1 provides a list of the most common causes of color in diamond. Subtle differences in atomic defects can drastically affect a diamond’s color. For example, isolated atoms of nitrogen impurities usually produce strong yellow color (“canary” yellow diamonds). If those individual nitrogen atoms occur together in pairs, no color is generated and the diamond is colorless. If instead the individual nitrogen atoms occur adjacent to missing carbon atoms (vacancies), the color tends to be pink to red. Rearrangement of diamond defects is the foundation of using treatments to change the color of diamond. Identification of treatments and separation of natural and synthetic diamond requires a thorough understanding of the atomic-level imperfections that give rise to diamond color and value.
DS201903-0505
2018
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana, S., Ardon, T., Smit, K.V., Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.Natural color pink, purple, red and brown diamonds: band of many colors.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 352-377.Global, Australiadiamond colour

Abstract: Diamond is one of Earth’s most extraordinary materials. It represents the pinnacle for several material and physical properties. As a gem, however, it is the near-perfect examples—diamonds attaining the D-Flawless distinction—and those with imperfections resulting in a vibrant or surprising color that create the most enduring impressions. Fancy-color natural diamonds are among the most highly valued gemstones due to their attractiveness and great rarity. The 18.96 ct Winston Pink Legacy, with a color grade of Fancy Vivid pink, recently made history by selling at over $50 million, its $2.6 million per carat price an all-time high for a pink diamond (Christie’s, 2018).
DS202001-0009
2019
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana, S., Ardon, T., Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.Natural color fancy white and fancy black diamonds: where color and clarity converge.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 3, pp. 320-336.Globalreview

Abstract: Natural Fancy white and Fancy black diamonds are not routinely submitted to GIA for grading (fewer than 2,000 since 2008). These fancy-color diamonds are distinctive since the causes of color generally are not atomic-scale defects, but nanometer- to micrometer-sized inclusions that reduce the diamond’s transparency by scattering or absorbing light (some exceptions exist among Fancy black diamonds). To clarify, Fancy white diamonds are those rare stones colored by inclusions that give a “whitish” appearance, and are distinct from “colorless” diamonds on the D-to-Z scale. These two colors, often thought of as opposites in the color world, are grouped here as outliers within the colored diamond world. Both can be colored by inclusions so numerous the stone would fall below the I3 grade on the clarity scale, demonstrating that inclusions, often perceived as a negative quality factor, can create a distinctive appearance. Among the Fancy white diamonds examined for this study, the vast majority (82%) were type IaB, making them a rare subset of a rare diamond type. Based on prior geological research, these are surmised to be mostly sublithospheric in origin (i.e., forming more than 250 km below the earth’s surface). The Fancy white diamonds generally have a different chemistry from D-to-Z type IaB diamonds, with greater quantities of several hydrogen- and nickel-related defects. Among Fancy black diamonds, the major causes of color are either micrometer-sized dark crystal inclusions, nanometer-sized inclusions clustered into clouds, or a combination of the two. For these two colors of diamond, we summarize their gemological properties along with the absorption and luminescence spectra of a representative subset of diamonds from each color, examining how they deviate from the standard grading methodology. Because of their rarity, there has been very little systematic study of either of these color categories, and never a sample set of this quantity, which includes data for ~500 Fancy white and ~1,200 Fancy black diamonds.
DS202002-0199
2020
Breeding, C.M.Lai, M.Y., Breeding, C.M., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A.Spectroscopic features of natural and HPHT treated yellow diamonds. EkatiDiamonds & Related Materials, Vol. 101, 107642, 8p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Ekati

Abstract: High pressure high temperature (HPHT) treatment has long been applied in the gem trade for changing the body colour of diamonds. The identification of HPHT-treated diamonds is a field of on-going research in gemological laboratories, as different parameters of treatment will result in either the creation or the destruction of a variety of lattice defects in diamonds. Some features that exist in treated diamonds can also be found in natural diamonds, and consequently must not be employed for the separation of treated and natural diamonds. In this research, we investigated the properties of 11 natural yellow diamonds (directly obtained from the Ekati Diamond Mine to ensure that they are untreated) before and after HPHT treatment, conducted at a temperature of 2100 °C and a pressure of 6 GPa for 10 min. We report spectroscopic data and fluorescence characteristics, collected using PL mapping, FTIR mapping and fluorescence imaging showing the distribution of lattice defects and internal growth structures. PL mapping indicates SiV defects exist in one of the nitrogen-rich natural diamonds prior to treatment. Silicon-related defects can also be created by HPHT treatment, and they seem to show a relationship with pre-existing NV- centres. SIMS analysis was conducted to confirm the presence of silicon in these diamonds. The increase in the hydrogen-related infrared absorption peak at 3107 cm-1 (VN3H) is very strong in some diamonds that do not form B-centres during treatment. NVH was observed in our HPHT-treated natural diamonds, so it is possible that this strong increase in VN3H suppresses the aggregation of A- to B-centres as the newly formed A-centres were captured by NVH lattice defects to form VN3H. HPHT-altered and HPHT-induced platelet peaks are different from their natural counterparts in peak width and shape. Strong green fluorescence over a large area of a diamond, which is linked to relatively high concentration of H3 centres, was produced after HPHT treatment. We are confident that the unusual platelet peaks and strong emission of H3 centres are reliable indicators for HPHT-treated diamonds as they are not observed in untreated natural diamonds.
DS202003-0344
2019
Breeding, C.M.Katsuke, Y., Sun, Z., Breeding, C.M., Dutrow, B.L.Geographic origin of Paraiba tourmaline.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 648-659.South America, Braziltourmaline

Abstract: Vivid blue to green copper-bearing tourmalines, known as Paraíba tourmalines, are recovered from deposits in Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique. These tourmalines are sought after for their intense colors. Prices are based, in part, on the geographic origin of a stone, and determining provenance is thus an important aspect for Paraíba tourmaline. However, their geographic origin cannot be established by standard gemological testing and/or qualitative chemical analyses. GIA has established sophisticated criteria requiring quantitative chemical analyses to determine geographic origin for these tourmalines. These criteria were based on several hundred samples from known sources spanning the three countries. Highly accurate and precise quantitative elemental concentrations for Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Sn, and Pb are acquired with laser ablationinductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). These data can then be plotted as a function of elemental concentration for accurate geographic origin determination.
DS202003-0347
2020
Breeding, C.M.Lai, M.Y., Stachel, T., Breeding, C.M., Stern, R.A.Yellow diamonds with colourless cores - evidence for episodic diamond growth beneath Chidliak and Ekati mine, Canada.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 13p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Chidliak, Ekati

Abstract: Yellow diamonds from the CH-7 (Chidliak) and the Misery (Ekati Mine) kimberlites in northern Canada are characterised for their nitrogen characteristics, visible light absorption, internal growth textures, and carbon isotope compositions. The diamonds are generally nitrogen-rich, with median N contents of 1230 (CH-7) and 1030 at.ppm (Misery). Normally a rare feature in natural diamonds, single substitutional nitrogen (C centres) and related features are detected in infrared absorption spectra of 64% of the studied diamonds from CH-7 and 87% from Misery and are considered as the major factor responsible for their yellow colouration. Episodically grown diamonds, characterised by colourless cores containing some nitrogen in the fully aggregated form (B centres) and yellow outer layers containing C centres, occur at both localities. Carbon isotope compositions and N contents also are significantly different in such core and rim zones, documenting growth during at least two temporally distinct events and involving different diamond forming fluids. Based on their nitrogen characteristics, both the yellow diamonds and yellow rims must have crystallized in close temporal proximity (<<1 Ma) to kimberlite activity at CH-7 and Misery.
DS202006-0918
2020
Breeding, C.M.Eaton-Magana. S., McElhenny, G., Breeding, C.M., Ardon, T.Comparison of gemological and spectroscopic features in type IIa and Ia natural pink diamonds.Diamonds & Related Materials, Vol. 105, 13p. PdfMantlenitrogen

Abstract: The majority of natural pink diamonds have a color origin due to absorption from a broad 550?nm band that has been associated with plastic deformation. One consistent feature in the photoluminescence spectra of these pink diamonds is a wide emission band extending from ~600 to 750?nm, with a series of smaller oscillations overlaid on the larger emission band. This "pink emission band" is seen in diamonds colored by the 550?nm absorption band; the absorption band often, but not always, shows similar oscillations at ~600?nm (called the 609?nm system by previous researchers). This emission band served as a proxy for the 550?nm absorption band as we performed spatial mapping to chronicle the differences between the uniform coloration in type IIa pink diamonds and the pronounced banding in type Ia pink diamonds. We also used Raman spectroscopy to identify the internal crystal inclusions present in type IIa pink diamonds and determined that the majority have a sub-lithospheric origin.
DS202012-2208
2020
Breeding, C.M.Breeding, C.M., Eaton-Magana, S., Shigley, J.E.Naturallly colored yellow and orange gem diamonds: the nitrogen factor.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 56. 2. summer pp. 194-219. pdfGlobalnitrogen

Abstract: Natural yellow gem diamonds are the most common of the fancy-color diamonds, while orange diamonds are among the rarest when they have unmodified hues. Both categories owe their coloration to atomic-level lattice defects associated with nitrogen impurities in the diamond structure. Four major groups of defects are responsible for the color in nearly all yellow and orange diamonds: cape defects (N3 and associated absorptions), isolated nitrogen defects, the 480 nm visible absorption band, and H3 defects. Nitrogen-bearing diamonds are thought to incorporate isolated nitrogen during growth by substitution for carbon, meaning that natural diamonds start out with yellow to orange color. However, only the very rare type Ib diamonds maintain that original color. With time at high temperatures deep in the earth, the nitrogen atoms in most diamonds aggregate, resulting in either near-colorless stones or yellow diamonds colored by cape defects. Yellow and orange diamonds can be grown in a laboratory or created by color treatments, so a thorough understanding of the defects responsible for color in the natural stones is critical for identification. Yellow diamonds serve as the best ambassador to the colored diamond world due to their abundance and may be the only colored diamond many people will ever see in a jewelry store.
DS201804-0675
2018
Breeding, M.Breeding, M.Diamond defects, diamond colour treatment, and its identification.4th International Diamond School: Diamonds, Geology, Gemology and Exploration Bressanone Italy Jan. 29-Feb. 2nd., pp. 11-13. abstractTechnologydiamond -color centers
DS201901-0095
2018
Breeze, B.G.Zhao, J., Breeze, B.G., Green, B.L., Diggle, P.L., Newton, M.E.Fluorescence, phosphoresence, thermoluminesence, and charge tranfer in synthetic diamond.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 266.GlobalFluoresence

Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) and phosphorescence underpin many of the discrimination techniques used to separate natural from synthetic diamond. PL is at the heart of many new quantum technologies based on color centers in lab-grown diamonds. In HPHT synthetic diamond, the phosphorescence observed is explained in terms of donor-acceptor pair recombination. The thermal activation of electrons to neutral boron acceptors shows that boron plays a key role in the phosphorescence process. However, there are a number of things we struggle to explain. For example, the phosphorescence peak positions are not fully explained, and there is no conclusive link between the emission and charge transfer involving the substitutional nitrogen donor. Secondly, the origin of the phosphorescence observed in some synthetic diamond samples grown by the CVD process is unclear. Although we now have evidence for unintentional boron impurity incorporation at stop-start growth boundaries in some CVD syn- thetic samples, it is possible that some of the observed phosphorescence does not involve boron impurities. In this paper we report on the results of combined fluorescence, phosphorescence, thermoluminescence, and quantitative charge transfer investigations undertaken on both HPHT and CVD synthetic diamond, with the objective of identifying which defects are involved in the fluorescence and phosphorescence processes.
DS1991-0168
1991
Brehaut, H.Brehaut, H.It isn't easy being green - or becoming -greenCrs Perspectives, No. 37, October pp. 6-11CanadaEnvironmental, Laws
DS1991-0169
1991
Brehaut, H.Brehaut, H.Environmental management from a corporate perspectiveThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) , Special Feature on environment, Vol. 84, No. 952, August pp. 63-66CanadaLegal -environment, Company -Placer Dome
DS201608-1419
2016
Brehme, I.Maia, M., Sichel, S., Briais, A., Brunelli, D., Ligi, M., Ferreira, N., Campos, T., Mougel, B., Brehme, I., Hemond, C., Motoki, A., Moura, D., Scalabrin, C., Pessanha, I., Alves, E., Ayres, A., Oliveira, P.Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, 8, pp. 619-623.MantleRidges

Abstract: Mantle exhumation at slow-spreading ridges is favoured by extensional tectonics through low-angle detachment faults1, 2, 3, 4, and, along transforms, by transtension due to changes in ridge/transform geometry5, 6. Less common, exhumation by compressive stresses has been proposed for the large-offset transforms of the equatorial Atlantic7, 8. Here we show, using high-resolution bathymetry, seismic and gravity data, that the northern transform fault of the St Paul system has been controlled by compressive deformation since ~10?million years ago. The long-lived transpression resulted from ridge overlap due to the propagation of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment into the transform domain, which induced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault creating restraining stepovers. An anticlockwise change in plate motion at ~11?million years ago5 initially favoured extension in the left-stepping transform, triggering the formation of a transverse ridge, later uplifted through transpression, forming the St Peter and St Paul islets. Enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis due to the nearby Sierra Leone thermo chemical anomaly9 is responsible for the robust response of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment to the kinematic change. The long-lived process at the origin of the compressive stresses is directly linked to the nature of the underlying mantle and not to a change in the far-field stress regime.
DS201903-0542
2019
Breikreuz, C.Schmiedel, T., Gailland, O., Haug, O.T., Dumazer, G., Breikreuz, C.Coulomb failure of Earth's brittle crust controls growth, emplacement and shapes of igneous sills, saucer-shaped sills and laccoliths.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 510, pp. 161-172.MantleMagmatism

Abstract: Tabular intrusions are common features in the Earth's brittle crust. They exhibit a broad variety of shapes, ranging from thin sheet intrusions (sills, saucer-shaped sills, cone sheets), to more massive intrusions (domed and punched laccoliths, stocks). Such a diversity of intrusion shapes reflects different emplacement mechanisms caused by contrasting host rock and magma rheologies. Most current models of tabular intrusion emplacement assume that the host rock behaves purely elastically, whereas numerous observations show that shear failure plays a major role. In this study, we investigate the effects of the host rock's Coulomb properties on magma emplacement by integrating (1) laboratory models using dry Coulomb granular model hosts of variable strength (cohesion) and (2) limit analysis numerical models. Our results show that both sheet and massive tabular intrusions initiate as a sill, which triggers shear failure of its overburden along an inclined shear damage zone at a critical sill radius, which depends on the emplacement depth and the overburden's cohesion. Two scenarios are then possible: (1) if the cohesion of the overburden is significant, opening of a planar fracture along the precursory weakened shear damage zones to accommodate magma flow, leads to the formation of inclined sheets, or (2) if the cohesion of the overburden is negligible, the sill inflates and lifts up the overburden, which is dissected by several faults that control the growth of a massive intrusion. Finally, we derive a theoretical scaling that predicts the thickness-to-radius aspect ratios of the laboratory sheet intrusions. This theoretical prediction shows how sheet intrusion morphologies are controlled by a mechanical equilibrium between the flowing viscous magma and Coulomb shear failure of the overburden. Our study suggests that the emplacement of sheet and massive tabular intrusions are parts of the same mechanical regime, in which the Coulomb behavior of the Earth's brittle crust plays an essential role.
DS1993-0063
1993
Breitkreuz, C.Bahlburg, H., Breitkreuz, C.Differential response of a Devonian Carboniferous platform deeper basin systen to sea-level change and tectonics N. Chilean AndesBasin Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, March pp. 21-40ChileBasin, Platform successions
DS200612-0170
2006
Breivik, A.J.Breivik, A.J., Mjelde, R., Faleide, Jl., Murai, Y.Rates of continental breakup magmatism and seafloor spreading in the Norway Basin Iceland plume interaction.Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 111, B7, B7102,Europe, Iceland, NorwayMagmatism
DS200512-0112
2005
Bremen, J.Bremen, J., Lawrence, A.Taking it to the bank - making your mining project bankable.Engineering and Mining Journal, Sept. pp. 80-83.GlobalEconomics - feasibility studies
DS1920-0409
1928
Bremer, B.Twenhofel, W.H., Bremer, B.An Extension of the Rose Dome Intrusives, KansasAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 12, No. 7, PP. 757-762.KansasKimberlite, Central States, Wilson, Woodson
DS1970-0593
1972
Bremme.Rogers, J., Summerhayes, C.P., Dingle, R.V., Birch, G.F., Bremme.Distribution of Minerals on the Seabed Around South Africa And Problems in Their Exploration and Eventual Exploitation.Eng. Com. Oceanogr. Res. Symposium Held Stellenbosch, S71, 8P.Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamonds, Mining Methods
DS1986-0106
1986
Bremmer, J.M.Bremmer, J.M.Diamonds, 1986Sagittarius, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 4-7South AfricaPopular geology
DS1970-0639
1973
Bremner, J.M.Bremner, J.M.The Texture and Composition of Surficial Sediments between Sylvia Hill 25 S and Walvis Bay 23 S.Tech. Report Mar. Geol. Prog. Geological Survey of South Africa And University, Vol. 5, PP. 89-93.Southwest Africa, NamibiaGeomorphology
DS1989-0170
1989
Bremner, J.M.Bremner, J.M.Diamond concession areas 3A and 3B, Port NollothDepartment of Mineral and Energy Affairs, Annual technical report of Geol., pp. 172-173South AfricaProspecting activities, Diamond concessions
DS1989-0171
1989
Brenan, J.M.Brenan, J.M., Watson, E.B.Partioning of rare earth elements (REE)'s Berylium, Barium, Calsium and Strontium between clino-pyroxene, olivine and carbonate melt at mantle conditionsGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. A105. AbstractGlobalCarbonatite, rare earth elements (REE).
DS1991-0170
1991
Brenan, J.M.Brenan, J.M., Watson, E.B.Partitioning of trace elements between carbonate melt and clinopyroxene and olivine at mantle P-T conditionsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 53, pp. 2203-2214GlobalGeochemistry, Carbonate rich melts, lherzolites
DS1995-0206
1995
Brenan, J.M.Brenan, J.M., Shaw, H.F., Phinney, D.L.Mineral aequeous fluid partitioning of trace elements at 900C 2.0 GPa:constraints on trace elements -mantleGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 59, No. 16, August 1, pp. 3331-50MantleGeochemistry
DS1995-0207
1995
Brenan, J.M.Brenan, J.M., Shaw, H.F., Ryerson, PhinneyMineral aequeous fluid partitioning of trace elements at 900 and 2.0 GPa:constraints - chemistry....Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 59, No. 16, pp. 3331-50.MantleMineral chemistry, Deep crustal fluids
DS1998-0163
1998
Brenan, J.M.Brenan, J.M., Neroda, et al.Behaviour of boron, beryillium and lithium during melting andcrystallization: constraints from mineral melt partitioning experiments.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 12, pp. 2129-41.MantleMelting
DS1999-0093
1999
Brenan, J.M.Brenan, J.M., Ryerson, F.J., Shaw, H.F.The role of aqueous fluids in slab to mantle transfer of boron, berylliumand lithium during subduction....Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 19-10, Oct. 1, pp. 3337-49.MantleSubduction, Fluidization
DS2003-1237
2003
Brenan, J.M.Schulze, D.J., Harte, B., Valley, J.W., Brenan, J.M., DeR. Channer, D.M.Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite diamondNature, No. 6935, May 1, p. 68-69.GlobalGeochronology
DS200412-1767
2003
Brenan, J.M.Schulze, D.J., Harte, B., Valley, J.W., Brenan, J.M., DeR Channer, D.M.Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite diamond.Nature, No. 6935, May 1, p. 68-69.TechnologyGeochronology
DS201112-0133
2011
Brenan, J.M.Caciagli, N., Brenan, J.M., McDonough, W.F., Phinney, D.Mineral fluid partitioning of lithium and implications for slab-mantle interaction.Chemical Geology, Vol. 280, 3-4, pp. 384-398.MantleGeochemistry
DS1950-0260
1956
Brendler, W.Brendler, W.Gruene Diamanten aus SuedafrikaAufschluss, Vol. 7, PP. 2-4.Southwest Africa, Namibia, South AfricaDiamond, Morphology, Colour
DS200612-0097
2006
Brenizer, J.Bass, J.D., Sanchez-Valle, C., Lakshtanov, D.L., Brenizer, J., Wang, J., Matas, J.Elastic properties of high pressure phases and implications for the temperature and mineralogy of Earth's lower mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.MantleGeothermometry
DS1995-0208
1995
Brenker, F.Brenker, F., Muller, W.F., Brey, G.Microstructural minerals from the garnet lherzolite body Alpe Arami -mantle conditions and uplift history.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 66-68.GlobalLherzolites, Mantle
DS200712-1170
2007
Brenker, F.Wirth, R., Vollmer, C., Brenker, F., Matsyuk, S., Kaminsky, F.Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminum silicate 'phase egg' in superdeep diamonds from Juin a ( Mato Grosso State, Brazil).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 259, 3-4, pp. 384-399.South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDiamond - mineralogy
DS200712-1171
2007
Brenker, F.Wirth, R., Vollmer, C., Brenker, F., Matsyuk, S., Kaminsky, F.Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminum silicate 'phase egg' in superdeep diamonds from Juin a ( Mato Grosso State, Brazil).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 259, 3-4, pp. 384-399.South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDiamond - mineralogy
DS201012-0073
2010
Brenker, F.Brenker, F.Trapped high density fluids in superdeep diamonds.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, AbstractTechnologyUHP
DS201412-0668
2014
Brenker, F.Pearson, D.G., Brenker, F., Nestola, F., McNeil, J., Nasdala, L., Hutchison, M., Mateev, S., Mather, K., Silversmit, G., Schmitz, S., Vekemans, B., Vinczw=e, L.A hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ring woodite included within diamond.Goldschmidt Conference 2014, 1p. AbstractMantleDiamond inclusion
DS2000-0782
2000
Brenker, F. HartePrior, D.J., Wheeler, J., Brenker, F. Harte, MatthewsCrystal plasticity of natural garnet: new microstructural evidenceGeology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Nov. pp. 1003-6.MantleGarnets, xenoliths, kelphite, Microscopy
DS2002-0202
2002
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Kaminsky, F., Joswig, W.Polytypes of CaSiO3 walstromite in diamonds from Juina: an indicator of retrograde reaction from CaSIO3 perovskite.18th. International Mineralogical Association Sept. 1-6, Edinburgh, abstract p.78. (poster)BrazilUHP mineralogy
DS2002-0203
2002
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W.Exhumation of lower mantle inclusions in diamond: ATEM investigation of retrograde phase transitions, reactionEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.198,1-2,pp.1-9., Vol.198,1-2,pp.1-9.MantleMineralogy - diamond inclusions
DS2002-0204
2002
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W.Exhumation of lower mantle inclusions in diamond: ATEM investigation of retrograde phase transitions, reactionEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.198,1-2,pp.1-9., Vol.198,1-2,pp.1-9.MantleMineralogy - diamond inclusions
DS2003-0156
2003
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Meibom, A., Frei, R.On the formation of peridotite derived Os rich PGE alloysAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 88, pp. 1731-40.MantleMagmatism - peridotites
DS2003-0157
2003
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W.TEM analysis of inclusions in diamonds from the lower mantle and transition zone8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractGuineaDiamonds - inclusions
DS200412-0204
2003
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Meibom, A., Frei, R.On the formation of peridotite derived Os rich PGE alloys.American Mineralogist, Vol. 88, pp. 1731-40.MantleMagmatism - peridotites
DS200412-1406
2003
Brenker, F.E.Nasdala, L., Brenker, F.E., Glinnemann, J., Hofmeister, W., Gasparik, T., Harris, J.W., Stachel, T., Reese, I.Spectroscopic 2D tomography: residual pressure and strain around mineral inclusions in diamonds.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.15, 6, pp. 931-36.TechnologyTechnology - tomography inclusions
DS200512-0113
2005
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Vincze, L., Velemans, Nasdala, Stachel, Vollmer, Kersten, Somogyi, Adams, Joswig, HarrisDetection of a Ca rich lithology in the Earth's deep ( >300km) convecting mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 236, 3-4, pp. 579-587.Africa, GuineaKankan, diamond inclusions, spectroscopy
DS200612-0171
2006
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Vollmer, C., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Szymanski, A., Janssens, K., Szaloki, I., Nasdala, L., Joswig, W., Kaminsky, F.CO2 recycling to the deep convecting mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.MantleConvection
DS200712-0106
2007
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Vollmer, C., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Szymanski, Janssens, Szaloki, Nasdala, Joswig, KaminskyCarbonates from the lower part of transition zone or even the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, 1-2, pp. 1-9.MantleCarbonates
DS200712-0107
2007
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Vollmer, C., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Szymanski, Janssens, Szaloki, Nasdala, Joswig, KaminskyCarbonates from the lower part of transition zone or even the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, 1-2, pp. 1-9.MantleCarbonates
DS200712-0108
2007
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Vollmer, Vincze, Vekemans, Szymanski, Janssens, Szaloki, Nasdala, Joswig, KaminskyCarbonates from the lower part of transition zone or even the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, 1-2, pp. 1-9.MantleCarbonates
DS201112-0961
2011
Brenker, F.E.Silversmit, G., Vekemans, B., Appel, K., Schmitz, S., Schoonjans, T., Brenker, F.E., Kaminsky, F., Vincze, L.Three dimensional Fe speciation of an inclusion cloud within an ultradeep diamond by confocal u-x-ray absortion near edge structure: evidence for late stageAnalytical Chemistry, Vol. 83, pp. 6294-6299.South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoJuina, Rio Soriso, diamond overprint
DS201412-0669
2014
Brenker, F.E.Pearson, D.G., Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F., McNeill, J., Nasdala, L., Hutchinson, M.T., Mateev, S., Mather, K., Silversmit, G., Schmitz, S., Vekemans, B., Vincze, L.Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ring woodite included in diamond.Nature, Vol. 507, March 13, pp. 221-224.Mantle, South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDiamond inclusion - water storage capacity, magmatism
DS201611-2095
2016
Brenker, F.E.Anzolini, C., Angel, R.J., Merlini, M., Derzsi, M., Tokar, K., Milani, S., Krebs, M.Y., Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F., Harris, J.W.Depth of formation of CaSi)3 - walstromite included in super -deep diamonds.Lithos, in press available 43p.South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDeposit - Juina

Abstract: "Super-deep" diamonds are thought to crystallize between 300 and 800 km depth because some of the inclusions trapped within them are considered to be the products of retrograde transformation from lower mantle or transition zone precursors. In particular, single inclusion CaSiO3-walstromite is believed to derive from CaSiO3-perovskite, although its real depth of origin has never been proven. Our aim is therefore to determine for the first time the pressure of formation of the diamond-CaSiO3-walstromite pair by “single-inclusion elastic barometry” and to determine whether CaSiO3-walstromite derives from CaSiO3-perovskite or not. We investigated several single phases and assemblages of Ca-silicate inclusions still trapped in a diamond coming from Juina (Brazil) by in-situ analyses (single-crystal X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy) and we obtained a minimum entrapment pressure of ~ 5.7 GPa (~ 180 km) at 1500 K. However, the observed coexistence of CaSiO3-walstromite, larnite (ß-Ca2SiO4) and CaSi2O5-titanite in one multiphase inclusion within the same diamond indicates that the sample investigated is sub-lithospheric with entrapment pressure between ~ 9.5 and ~ 11.5 GPa at 1500 K, based on experimentally-determined phase equilibria. In addition, thermodynamic calculations suggested that, within a diamond, single inclusions of CaSiO3-walstromite cannot derive from CaSiO3-perovskite, unless the diamond around the inclusion expands by ~ 30% in volume.
DS201611-2135
2016
Brenker, F.E.Rudloff-Grund, J., Brenker, F.E., Marquardt, K., Howell, D., Schrieber, A., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Kaminsky, F.V.Nitrogen nanoinclusions in milky diamonds from Juin a area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.Lithos, in press available 34p.South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDeposit - Juina
DS201802-0219
2018
Brenker, F.E.Anzolini, C., Prencipe, M., Alvaro, M., Romano, C., Vona, A., Lorenzon, S., Smith, E.M., Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F.Depth of formation of super deep diamonds: Raman barometry of CaSiO3 walstromite inclusions.American Mineralogist, Vol. 103, pp. 69-74.Mantlegeobarometry

Abstract: “Super-deep” diamonds are thought to have a sub-lithospheric origin (i.e., below ~300 km depth) because some of the mineral phases entrapped within them as inclusions are considered to be the products of retrograde transformation from lower-mantle or transition-zone precursors. CaSiO3-walstromite, the most abundant Ca-bearing mineral inclusion found in super-deep diamonds, is believed to derive from CaSiO3-perovskite, which is stable only below ~600 km depth, although its real depth of origin is controversial. The remnant pressure (Pinc) retained by an inclusion, combined with the thermoelastic parameters of the mineral inclusion and the diamond host, allows calculation of the entrapment pressure of the diamond-inclusion pair. Raman spectroscopy, together with X-ray diffraction, is the most commonly used method for measuring the Pinc without damaging the diamond host. In the present study we provide, for the first time, a calibration curve to determine the Pinc of a CaSiO3-walstromite inclusion by means of Raman spectroscopy without breaking the diamond. To do so, we performed high-pressure micro-Raman investigations on a CaSiO3-walstromite crystal under hydrostatic stress conditions within a diamond-anvil cell. We additionally calculated the Raman spectrum of CaSiO3-walstromite by ab initio methods both under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress conditions to avoid misinterpretation of the results caused by the possible presence of deviatoric stresses causing anomalous shift of CaSiO3-walstromite Raman peaks. Last, we applied single-inclusion elastic barometry to estimate the minimum entrapment pressure of a CaSiO3-walstromite inclusion trapped in a natural diamond, which is ~9 GPa (~260 km) at 1800 K. These results suggest that the diamond investigated is certainly sub-lithospheric and endorse the hypothesis that the presence of CaSiO3-walstromite is a strong indication of super-deep origin.
DS201809-2001
2018
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Koch, T.E., Prior, D.J., Lilly, K., Krot, A.N., Bizzarro, M., Frost, D.Fe rich Ferropericlase in super deep diamonds and the stability of high FeO wadsleyite. Implications on the composition and temperature of the Earth's transition zone.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractMantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: The high amount of Fe-rich ferropericlase inclusions found in diamonds of a potential super-deep origin questions the bulk chemical model of the Earth [e.g., 1]. Although this might be due to a biased sampling of the lower mantle, it is worth to further address this discrepancy. A limiting factor of the Fe-content of the Earth´s deep mantle (TZ and lower mantle) is a correlation of the depths of the observed main mantle discontinuities with the (Fe,Mg)SiO4 phase diagram. In particular, the 520 kmdiscontinuity is related to the phase transformation of wadsleyite (assuming Fa10) to ringwoodite. The existing phase diagrams suggest a stability limit of wadsleyite =Fa40 [e.g., 2,3], which limits the Fe-content of the Earth´s transition zone. Here we report on a discovery of Fe-rich wadsleyite grains (up to Fa56) in the high-pressure silicate melt droplets within Fe,Ni-metal in shock veins of the CB (Bencubbin-like) metal-rich carbonaceous chondrite QC 001 [4], which were identified using HR-EDX, nano-EBSD and TEM. Although the existence of such Fe-rich wadsleyite in shock veins may be due to the kinetic reasons, new theoretical and experimental studies of the stability of (Fe,Mg)SiO4 at high temperature (> 1800 K) are clearly needed. This may have significant impact on the temperature and chemical estimates of the Earth´s transition zone.
DS201908-1799
2019
Brenker, F.E.Nestola, F., Lorenzon, S., Nimis, P., Anzolini, C., Brenker, F.E.In-situ, ambien analysis of diamond-captured transition-zone and lower mantle minerals.www.minsocam.org/ MSA/Centennial/ MSA_Centennial _Symposium.html The next 100 years of mineral science, June 20-21, p. 21. AbstractMantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: Inclusions in diamonds can tell us much of the deep and inaccessible portions of our planet including its mineralogy and the deeper effects of plate tectonics. Recently, great attention has been given in particular to those inclusions which classify their diamond hosts as “super-deep” or “sublithospheric” diamonds, which comprise only ~ 1% of the entire world diamond population (Stachel and Harris 2008). Compared to lithospheric diamonds, which form between about 120 km and 250 km depth, super-deep diamonds are believed to have formed at depths as high as 800 km. But what is the actual depth of formation of superdeep diamonds? Do they come from the Transition Zone (410-660 km depth) and Lower Mantle (below 660 km depth) or some of them form in the Upper Mantle (down to 410 km depth)? Recent advances in X-ray crystallography and theoretical understanding of mineral elasticity now allow us to answer these questions by analyzing inclusions trapped within them. Among these we can mention: jeffbenite, (Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12 (Nestola et al. 2016; previously known as TAPP), breyite, CaSiO3 (Brenker et al. 2018; previously known as CaSiO3-walstromite, Joswig et al. 1999, Stachel et al. 2000), ringwoodite, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (Pearson et al. 2014), CaSi2O5 with titanite structure (Stachel et al. 2000, Brenker et al. 2005, 2007), CaSiO3 with perovskite structure (Nestola et al. 2018). Other inclusions are typically found in super-deep diamonds but, if taken alone, they cannot be unambiguously assigned to specific depth: ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O, which is the most common inclusion in super-deep diamonds (e.g. Brey et al. 2004, Harte 2010), majoritic garnet, Mg3(Mg,Fe,Al,Si)2Si3O12 (Moore and Gurney 1985, Stachel et al. 2005, Walter et al. 2011), low-Ni enstatite (i.e. enstatite with very low NiO content close to 0.02 wt%, considered to be retrogressed bridgmanite, as opposed to typical Upper Mantle enstatite with 0.1-0.2 % , is, Stachel et al. 2000) and larnite, Ca2SiO4 (e.g. Brenker et al. 2005). These 9 types of inclusions are not the only ones found in super-deep diamonds, but they certainly are the most representative and abundant ones. Here, we want to provide an overview on the real significance of such important inclusions as depth markers. In particular, we will discuss which inclusion types can definitively prove a Transition-Zone or Lower-Mantle origin of super-deep diamonds, giving mineralogy a new relevance for the understanding of the deepest reaches of our planet.
DS201912-2825
2020
Brenker, F.E.Shirey, S.B., Smit, K.V., Pearson, D.G., Walter, M.J., Aulbach, S., Brenker, F.E., Bureau, H., Burnham, A.D., Cartigny, P., Chacko, T., Frost, D.J., Hauri, E.H., Jacob, D.E., Jacobsen, S.D., Kohn, S.C., Luth, R.W., Mikhail, S., Navon, O., Nestola, F., NimDiamonds and the mantle geodynamics of carbon: deep mantle carbon and evolution from the diamond record.IN: Deep carbon: past to present, Orcutt, Daniel, Dasgupta eds., pp. 89-128.Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
DS202001-0039
2020
Brenker, F.E.Shirey, S.B., Smit, K.V., Pearson, D.G., Walter, M.J., Aulbach, S., Brenker, F.E., Bureau, H., Burnham, A.D., Cartigny, P., Chacko, T., Frost, D.J., Hauri, E.H., Jacob, D.E., Jacobsen, S.D., Kohn, S.C., Luth, R.W., Mikhail, S., Navon, O., Nestola, F., NimDiamonds and mantle geodynamics of carbon: IN: Deep Carbon: past to present. Editors Orcutt, Danielle, Dasgupta, pp. 89-128.Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
DS202004-0519
2020
Brenker, F.E.Howell, D., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A., Pearson, D.G., Nestola, F., Hardman, M.F., Harris, J.W., Jaques, A.L., Shirery, S.B., Cartigny, P., Smit, K.V., Aulbach, S., Brenker, F.E., Jacob, D.E., Thomassot, E., Walter, M.J., Navon, O.Deep carbon through time: Earth's diamond record and its implications for carbon cycling and fluid speciation in the mantle.(peridotite and eclogite used)Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 275, pp. 99-122.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: Diamonds are unrivalled in their ability to record the mantle carbon cycle and mantle fO2 over a vast portion of Earth’s history. Diamonds’ inertness and antiquity means their carbon isotopic characteristics directly reflect their growth environment within the mantle as far back as ~3.5 Ga. This paper reports the results of a thorough secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) carbon isotope and nitrogen concentration study, carried out on fragments of 144 diamond samples from various locations, from ~3.5 to 1.4 Ga for P [peridotitic]-type diamonds and 3.0 to 1.0 Ga for E [eclogitic]-type diamonds. The majority of the studied samples were from diamonds used to establish formation ages and thus provide a direct connection between the carbon isotope values, nitrogen contents and the formation ages. In total, 908 carbon isotope and nitrogen concentration measurements were obtained. The total d¹³C data range from -17.1 to -1.9 ‰ (P = -8.4 to -1.9 ‰; E = -17.1 to -2.1‰) and N contents range from 0 to 3073 at. ppm (P = 0 to 3073 at. ppm; E = 1 to 2661 at. ppm). In general, there is no systematic variation with time in the mantle carbon isotope record since > 3 Ga. The mode in d¹³C of peridotitic diamonds has been at -5 (±2) ‰ since the earliest diamond growth ~3.5 Ga, and this mode is also observed in the eclogitic diamond record since ~3 Ga. The skewness of eclogitic diamonds’ d¹³C distributions to more negative values, which the data establishes began around 3 Ga, is also consistent through time, with no global trends apparent. No isotopic and concentration trends were recorded within individual samples, indicating that, firstly, closed system fractionation trends are rare. This implies that diamonds typically grow in systems with high excess of carbon in the fluid (i.e. relative to the mass of the growing diamond). Any minerals included into diamond during the growth process are more likely to be isotopically reset at the time of diamond formation, meaning inclusion ages would be representative of the diamond growth event irrespective of whether they are syngenetic or protogenetic. Secondly, the lack of significant variation seen in the peridotitic diamonds studied is in keeping with modeling of Rayleigh isotopic fractionation in multicomponent systems (RIFMS) during isochemical diamond precipitation in harzburgitic mantle. The RIFMS model not only showed that in water-maximum fluids at constant depths along a geotherm, fractionation can only account for variations of <1‰, but also that the principal d¹³C mode of -5 ± 1‰ in the global harzburgitic diamond record occurs if the variation in fO2 is only 0.4 log units. Due to the wide age distribution of P-type diamonds, this leads to the conclusion that the speciation and oxygen fugacity of diamond forming fluids has been relatively consistent. The deep mantle has therefore generated fluids with near constant carbon speciation for 3.5 Ga.
DS202009-1613
2020
Brenker, F.E.Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F., Brenker, L., Peruzzo, L., Harris, J.W.Origin, properties and structure of breyite: the second most abundant mineral inclusion in super-deep diamonds. The American Mineralogist, in press available, 21p. PdfMantlebreyite
DS202009-1613
2020
Brenker, L.Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F., Brenker, L., Peruzzo, L., Harris, J.W.Origin, properties and structure of breyite: the second most abundant mineral inclusion in super-deep diamonds. The American Mineralogist, in press available, 21p. PdfMantlebreyite
DS201805-0979
2018
Brenna, M.Song, W., Xi, C., Smith, M.P., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Brenna, M., Kynicky, J., Chen, W., Yang, Y., Tang, H.Genesis of the world's largest rare earth element deposit, Bayan Obo, China: protracted mineralization evolution over ~ 1.b.y.Geology, Vol. 48, 4, pp. 323-326.Chinadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The unique, giant, rare earth element (REE) deposit at Bayan Obo, northern China, is the world’s largest REE deposit. It is geologically complex, and its genesis is still debated. Here, we report in situ Th-Pb dating and Nd isotope ratios for monazite and Sr isotope ratios for dolomite and apatite from fresh drill cores. The measured monazite ages (361-913 Ma) and previously reported whole-rock Sm-Nd data show a linear relationship with the initial Nd isotope ratio, suggesting a single-stage evolution from a Sm-Nd source that was formed before 913 Ma. All monazites show consistent eNd(1.3Ga) values (0.3 ± 0.6) close to those of the adjacent 1.3 Ga carbonatite and mafic dikes. The primary dolomite and apatite show lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7024-0.7030) than the recrystallized dolomite (0.7038-0.7097). The REE ores at Bayan Obo are interpreted to have originally formed as products of ca. 1.3 Ga carbonatitic magmatism and to have undergone subsequent thermal perturbations induced by Sr-rich, but REE-poor, metamorphic fluids derived from nearby sedimentary rocks.
DS201906-1363
2019
Brenna, M.Wei, C.W., Xu, C., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Brenna, M., Kynicky, J., Song, W.L.Petrogenesi of dolomite and calcite carbonatites in orogenic belts.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 194.Chinadeposit - Caotan

Abstract: Subduction zones are an important way for crustal materials to enter deep parts of the Earth. Therefore, carbonatites in orogenic belt are of great significance in revealing deep carbon cycling pathways. To date, mantle-derived carbonatites have been identified in many orogenic belts, and their origin is considered to be related to subducted sediments. However, almost all orogenic carbonatites are composed of calcite, and their C isotopic compositions show typical mantle values, lacking any evidence of sedimentary origin. Here, we report decoupling of C and Sr isotopes between intimately associated dolomite and forsterite-calcite carbonatites from Caotan in the Qinling orogen, central China. The dolomite carbonatite is mainly composed of dolomite (plus minor apatite and magnetite), which has elevated d13CPDB values (-3.1 to -3.6 ‰) and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7026-0.7042). The forsterite-calcite carbonatite consists of calcite (60-65 vol. %), forsterite and its replacement products (30-35 vol. %), and magnetite. The calcite shows mantle-like d13CPDB (-6.2 to -7.2 ‰) but high initial 87Sr/86Sr values (0.7053-0.7076). Neodymium and Pb isotopic compositions are comparable in the two carbonatite types. The forsterite-calcite carbonatite is interpreted to have formed by metasomatic interaction of primary dolomitic melts with eclogite in thickened lower crust during collision of the North and South China cratons. The reaction resulted in decarbonation and depletion of the carbonatitic magma in 13C. Because of its initially low REE and Pb contents, the Nd-Pb isotopic signature of the primary dolomitic melt was preserved in the forsterite-calcite carbonatite. We propose that some orogenic calcite carbonatites may not be primary mantle-derived rocks and their mantle-like d13CPDB values may be misleading.
DS202008-1416
2018
Brennan, M.Lobatlamang, S., Brennan, M., Davidson, J., Rogers, A.Discovery of the KX36 kimberlite.Botswana Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 29-34. pdfAfrica, Botswanadeposit - KX36

Abstract: The KX36 kimberlite pipe is situated in the southeastern part of Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), Botswana, approximately 60 km from the known Gope and Kikao kimberlite fields (see figure 1).The kimberlite is covered by 75m of Kalahari sand, has a surface area of 3.6 Ha at the base of the sand cover and was discovered by Petra Diamonds Botswana (Pty) Ltd in 2008. Application of modern geophysical techniques (Ultra hi-resolution low level flying Xcalibur magnetics) and improved sampling method led to the discovery of KX36.The kimberlite was emplaced into the Karoo Supergroup, which comprised the older sedimentary rocks (300 - 185 Ma) overlain by the flood basalts (185Ma). The Karoo Supergroup rocks are overlain by approximately 80m of Kalahari Group sediments.
DS1993-0161
1993
Brennand, T.A.Brennand, T.A., Sharpe, D.R.Ice sheet dynamics and subglacial melt water regime inferred from form and sedimentology of glaciofluvial systems: Victoria IslandCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 5, May pp. 928-944Northwest TerritoriesGeomorphology
DS201312-0094
2013
Brenner, J.Brenner, J.Diamonds: overview from commodities session.PDAC 2013, abstract only.GlobalOverview
DS201312-0095
2013
Brenner, J.Brenner, J.A diamantaire/miner's view of the diamond market.Diamonds in Canada Magazine, Northern Miner, May pp. 10-11.Africa, South AfricaMarkets and Rockwell
DS1994-0206
1994
Brenner, M.Brenner, M., Subrahmanyam, M.G.A simple approach to option valuation and hedging in the Black-ScholesmodelFinancial Analysts Journal, March-April pp. 25-28GlobalEconomics, Options
DS1975-0870
1978
Brennesholtx, R.Smith, J.V., Brennesholtx, R.Chemistry of Micas from Kimberlites and Xenoliths. Pt. I. Micaceous Kimberlites.Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 42, PP. 959-971.South AfricaCape Province, Orange Free State, Saltpeterpan, New Elands, Dyke
DS201706-1105
2017
Brent, T.A.St. Onge, M.R., Harrison, J.C., Paul, D., Tella, S., Brent, T.A., Jauer, C.D., MacleanTectonic map of Arctic Canada (TeMAC): a first derivative product from Canada in 3-D geological compilation work.GAC annual meeting, 1p. AbstractCanadatectonics
DS201912-2786
2019
Brenton, K.Gostlin, K., Brenton, K., Liu, W., Clark, L.Gahcho Kue mine update.Yellowknife Forum NWTgeoscience.ca, abstract volume p. 57.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Gahcho Kue

Abstract: Gahcho Kué Mine is owned as a joint venture between Mountain Province Diamonds Inc. and De Beers Canada Inc. Located about 280 km northeast of Yellowknife, it is Canada’s newest diamond mine and the world’s largest in the last 14 years. After two years of construction, commercial operations began in September 2016. As the mine enters into its fourth year of operation, De Beers is pleased to provide an update on the current mine operations, updated mine plan, safety, environment, and social performance.
DS200412-0709
2004
Breon, F-M.Grant, I.F., Heyraud, C., Breon, F-M.Continentral scale hotspot observations of Australia at sub-degree anular resolution from POLDER.International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, 18, Sept. pp. 3625-36.AustraliaGeophysics - remote sensing
DS1983-0144
1983
Breshears, T.L.Breshears, T.L.Regional Gravity Effects of Igneous Intrusions, Central Arkansas.Msc. Thesis, University Missouri, United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, OklahomaGeophysics
DS1983-0145
1983
Breshears, T.L.Breshears, T.L.Regional Gravity Effects of Igneous Intrusions Central Arkansas.Missouri Acad. Science, Transactions, Vol. 17, P. 201. (abstract.).United States, Oklahoma, ArkansasGeophysics
DS201809-2060
2018
Bretschneider, L.Liu, J., Brin, L.E., Pearson, D.G., Bretschneider, L., Luguet, A., van Acken, D., Kjarsgaard, B., Riches, A., Miskovic, A.Diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic mantle roots beneath Arctic Canada: a study of mantle xenoliths from Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2018.08.010 78p.Canada, Nunavut, Parry Peninsula. Central Victoria Islandxenoliths

Abstract: While the mantle roots directly beneath Archean cratons have been relatively well studied because of their economic importance, much less is known about the genesis, age, composition and thickness of the mantle lithosphere beneath the regions that surround the cratons. Despite this knowledge gap, it is fundamentally important to establish the nature of relationships between this circum-cratonic mantle and that beneath the cratons, including the diamond potential of circum-cratonic regions. Here we present mineral and bulk elemental and isotopic compositions for kimberlite-borne mantle xenoliths from the Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island, Arctic Canada. These xenoliths provide key windows into the lithospheric mantle underpinning regions to the North and Northwest of the Archean Slave craton, where the presence of cratonic material has been proposed. The mantle xenolith data are supplemented by mineral concentrate data obtained during diamond exploration. The mineral and whole rock chemistry of peridotites from both localities is indistinguishable from that of typical cratonic mantle lithosphere. The cool mantle paleogeotherms defined by mineral thermobarometry reveal that the lithospheric mantle beneath the Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island terranes extended well into the diamond stability field at the time of kimberlite eruption, and this is consistent with the recovery of diamonds from both kimberlite fields. Bulk xenolith Se and Te contents, and highly siderophile element (including Os, Ir, Pt, Pd and Re) abundance systematics, plus corresponding depletion ages derived from Re-Os isotope data suggest that the mantle beneath these parts of Arctic Canada formed in the Paleoproterozoic Era, at ~2?Ga, rather than in the Archean. The presence of a diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic mantle root is part of the growing body of global evidence for diamond generation in mantle roots that stabilized well after the Archean. In the context of regional tectonics, we interpret the highly depleted mantle compositions beneath both studied regions as formed by mantle melting associated with hydrous metasomatism in the major Paleoproterozoic Wopmay-Great Bear-Hottah arc systems. These ~2?Ga arc systems were subsequently accreted along the margin of the Slave craton to form a craton-like thick lithosphere with diamond potential thereby demonstrating the importance of subduction accretion in building up Earth’s long-lived continental terranes.
DS201809-2062
2018
Bretschneider, L.Liu, J., Pearson, D.G., Bretschneider, L., Luguet, A., Van Acken, D., Kjarsgaard, B., Riches, A., Miskovic, A.Diamondiferous Proterozoic mantle roots beneath Arctic Canada.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractCanada, Parry Peninsula, Victoria Islandxenoliths

Abstract: The mantle roots directly beneath Archean cratons have been relatively well studied because of their economic importance, yet much less is known about the genesis, age, composition and thickness of the mantle lithosphere beneath the regions surrounding these cratons. However, it is critically important to establish the nature of the relationship between this circum-cratonic mantle and that beneath the cratons, including the diamond potential of circum-cratonic regions. Here we present mineral and bulk elemental and isotopic compositions for kimberlite-borne mantle xenoliths from the Parry Peninsula (PP) and Central Victoria Island (CVI), Arctic Canada. These xenoliths provide key windows into the lithospheric mantle underpinning regions to the North and Northwest of the Slave craton, where the presence of cratonic mantle has been proposed. The mineral and whole rock chemistry of peridotites from both localities is indistinguishable from that of typical cratonic mantle lithosphere. The cool mantle geotherms defined by mineral thermobarometry reveal that the lithospheric mantle beneath the PP and CVI terranes extended well into the diamond stability field at the time of kimberlite eruption, consistent with the recovery of diamonds from both kimberlite fields. Bulk Se, Te, and highly siderophile element abundance systematics, plus Re-Os isotope age data suggest that the mantle beneath these parts of Arctic Canada formed at ~2 Ga, rather than in the Archean. The presence of a diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic mantle root is part of the growing body of evidence for peridotitic diamond generation in mantle roots that stabilized well after the Archean. In the context of regional tectonics, the highly depleted mantle compositions beneath both regions developed during mantle melting associated with hydrous metasomatism in the major Paleoproterozoic Wopmay- Great Bear-Hottah arc systems. These terranes were subsequently accreted along the margin of the Slave craton to form a craton-like thick lithosphere with significant diamond potential.
DS1950-0474
1959
Brett, B.A.Hartwell, J.W., Brett, B.A.Gem Stones; United States Geological Survey (usgs), 1958United States Geological Survey (USGS) MINERALS YEARBOOK, FOR 1958, PP. 467-478.Canada, British Columbia, South America, Brazil, GuyanaReview Of Current Activites
DS1960-0056
1960
Brett, B.A.Hartwell, J.W., Brett, B.A.Gem Stones; United States Geological Survey (usgs), 1960United States Geological Survey (USGS) MINERALS YEARBOOK, FOR 1959, PP. 471-483.Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela, Russia, India, Israel, GuineaReview Of Current Activities
DS1960-0151
1961
Brett, B.A.Hartwell, J.W., Brett, B.A.Gem Stones; Minerals Yearbook: Metals and Minerals, 1961Minerals Yearbook: Metals And Minerals, Vol. 1, PP. 585-596.United States, Canada, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Pennsylvania, Russia, Brazil, TanzaniaProduction, Imports, Review
DS1960-0248
1962
Brett, B.A.Hartwell, J.W., Brett, B.A.Gems StonesUnited States Bureau of Mines MINERALS YEARBOOK FOR 1962, Vol. 1, P. 586.United States, Great LakesDiamond Occurrence
DS200912-0073
2009
Brett, C.Brett, C., Russell, J.K.Kimberlite ascent: insights from olivine.GAC/MAC/AGU Meeting held May 23-27 Toronto, Abstract onlyTechnologyChemical changes - melt
DS201412-0759
2014
Brett, C.Russell, K., Brett, C., Jones, T., Andrews, G., Porritt, L.Kimberlite ascent.Goldschmidt Conference 2014, 1p. AbstractMantleKimberlite genesis
DS201608-1394
2015
Brett, C.Brett, C.The scent of kimberlitic magmas.Geology Today, Vol. 31, 5, pp. 171-173.TechnologyKimberlite origin
DS201708-1603
2017
Brett, C.Brett, C.Petrology of the White River Diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic intrusive rocks.11th. International Kimberlite Conference, PosterCanada, Ontariodeposit - White River
DS201805-0937
2018
Brett, C.Brett, C.Petrology of the White River Diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic intrusive rocks and constraining the timing of destruction of the southern Superior cratonic rocks.Vancouver Kimberlite Cluster, May 3, 1p. AbstractCanada, OntarioWawa

Abstract: Diamond-bearing kimberlitic rocks have been identified as occurring within the Oskabukuta property,15km west of the town of White River, Northwestern Ontario. These rocks were emplaced within Neo-to-Mesoarchean (2.5 to 3.4 Ga) crystalline rock of the Wawa Subprovince, located within the Superior Province of North America. The emplacement age of the dyke is dated at 1945.3 ± 1.9 Ma (1s) (U-Pb in perovskite). The diamond-bearing, kimberlitic intrusion has been mapped at surface for over a 900 m strike, and is referred to as the Rabbit Foot occurrence. Geothermobarometry of the nearby Proterozoic (2.7 Ga) aged diamondiferous metaconglomerate in Wawa (90 km SE) reported a maximum geothermal gradient range between 39 and 41 mW/m2 corresponding to a minimum lithospheric thickness of the Superior Craton of 190-220 km (Miller et al., 2012). In contrast, the study highlight that younger kimberlite (e.g. ~1.1 Ga Wawa kimberlite) within the Southern Superior record a substantially warmer conductive geotherm (46 mW/m2; Kaminsky et al., 2002) and maximum depth of garnet sampled of 150 km. Miller et al. (2012) interpret the apparent heating of the mantle is likely to have resulted from the Midcontinent Rift, which is broadly coeval with the Wawa kimberlite age. Pressure-Temperature estimates calculated using garnet and clinopyroxene xenocryst mineral compositions extracted from Rabbit Foot Model are consistent with model conductive heat flow of between 38-41 mW-m-2. These data support the interpretation of Miller et al. (2012) and further constrain the presence of a cool and thick Southern Superior keel at 1945 Ma. In fact, several of our garnet compositions support a minimum lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary of 250 km in depth and suggest (along with the presence of diamond) that the Rabbit Foot intrusion transected and sampled a significant portion of depleted and diamond stable lithospheric mantle at ~1945 Ma. A later thermal event, likely related to the Mid-continental rift, has subsequently heated and thinned the Southern Superior Craton, thereby constraining timing of the cessation of diamond fertile sublithospheric mantle in the region.
DS1998-0263
1998
Brett, J.Coates, H.J., Coate, M., Brett, J.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report on the Mustang Peace River District, Alberta.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19980012AlbertaExploration - assessment, CYR, International Butec
DS2000-0107
2000
Brett, J.S.Brett, J.S., Mason, R., Smith, P.H.Geophysical exploration of the Kalahari Suture ZoneJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 30, No.3, pp. 489-97.BotswanaTectonics, Geophysics
DS1970-0300
1971
Brett, R.Guppy, D.J., Brett, R., Milton, D.J.Liverpool and Strangways Craters, Northern Territory. Two Structures of Probable Impact Origin.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 78, No. 23, PP. 5387-5393.Australia, Northern TerritoryCryptoexplosion, Kimberlite
DS200812-0137
2007
Brett, R.C.Brett, R.C., Russell, J.K.Origin of olivine in kimberlite: phenocryst or imposter?35th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Abstracts only p.5-6 .Canada, Northwest TerritoriesPetrology - Diavik
DS200812-0138
2008
Brett, R.C.Brett, R.C., Russell, J.K., Moss, S.Origins of olivine in kimberlite: phenocryst or imposter?9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS200912-0074
2009
Brett, R.C.Brett, R.C., Russell, J.K., Moss, S.Origin of olivine in kimberlite: phenocryst or imposter?Lithos, In press available 49p.MantleMineral chemistry
DS201012-0517
2009
Brett, R.C.Moss, S., Russell, J.K., Brett, R.C., Andrews, G.D.M.Spatial and temporal evolution of kimberlite magma at A154N, Diavik, Northwest Territories, Canada.Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 541-552.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesEmplacement model
DS201012-0518
2010
Brett, R.C.Moss, S., Russell, J.K., Scott Smith, B.H., Brett, R.C.Olivine crystal size distributions in kimberlite.American Mineralogist, Vol. 95, 4, April pp. 527-536.TechnologyOlivine, morphology
DS201212-0087
2012
Brett, R.C.Brett, R.C., Russell, J.K., Andrews, G.Kimberlite ascent: chronicles of olivine.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractMantleDiamond genesis
DS201507-0305
2015
Brett, R.C.Brett, R.C.The ascent of kimberlite: insights from olivine.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 424, pp. 119-131.Canada, Northwest Territories, Africa, TanzaniaDeposit - Diavik, Igwisi Hills

Abstract: Olivine xenocrysts are ubiquitous in kimberlite deposits worldwide and derive from the disaggregation of mantle-derived peridotitic xenoliths. Here, we provide descriptions of textural features in xenocrystic olivine from kimberlite deposits at the Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada and at Igwisi Hills volcano, Tanzania. We establish a relative sequence of textural events recorded by olivine during magma ascent through the cratonic mantle lithosphere, including: xenolith disaggregation, decompression fracturing expressed as mineral- and fluid-inclusion-rich sealed and healed cracks, grain size and shape modification by chemical dissolution and abrasion, late-stage crystallization of overgrowths on olivine xenocrysts, and lastly, mechanical milling and rounding of the olivine cargo prior to emplacement. Ascent through the lithosphere operates as a "kimberlite factory" wherein progressive upward dyke propagation of the initial carbonatitic melt fractures the overlying mantle to entrain and disaggregate mantle xenoliths. Preferential assimilation of orthopyroxene (Opx) xenocrysts by the silica-undersaturated carbonatitic melt leads to deep-seated exsolution of CO2-rich fluid generating buoyancy and supporting rapid ascent. Concomitant dissolution of olivine produces irregular-shaped relict grains preserved as cores to most kimberlitic olivine. Multiple generations of decompression cracks in olivine provide evidence for a progression in ambient fluid compositions (e.g., from carbonatitic to silicic) during ascent. Numerical modelling predicts tensile failure of xenoliths (disaggregation) and olivine (cracks) over ascent distances of 2-7 km and 15-25 km, respectively, at velocities of 0.1 to >4 m?s-1. Efficient assimilation of Opx during ascent results in a silica-enriched, olivine-saturated kimberlitic melt (i.e. SiO2 >20 wt.%) that crystallizes overgrowths on partially digested and abraded olivine xenocrysts. Olivine saturation is constrained to occur at pressures <1 GPa; an absence of decompression cracks within olivine overgrowths suggests depths <25 km. Late stage (<25 km) resurfacing and reshaping of olivine by particle-particle milling is indicative of turbulent flow conditions within a fully fluidized, gas-charged, crystal-rich magma.
DS201812-2782
2018
Brett, R.C.Brett, R.C., Kinakin, Y., Howell, D., Davy, A.T.Diavik deposit: Exploration history and discovery of the Diavik diamond deposits, Northwest Territories, Canada.Society of Economic Geology Geoscience and Exploration of the Argyle, Bunder, Diavik, and Murowa Diamond Deposits, Special Publication no. 20, pp. 253-266.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Diavik
DS201112-0109
2009
Brett, S.C.Brett, S.C.Kimberlitic olivine.Thesis: University of British Columbia Msc., 86p.Thesis - note availability based on request to author
DS1950-0016
1950
Bretz, J.H.Bretz, J.H.Origin of the Filled Sink Structures and Circle Deposits Ofmissouri.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 61, PP. 789-834.GlobalMid-continent
DS1995-0209
1995
Breuer, D.Breuer, D., Spohn, T.Possible flush instability in mantle convection at the Archean Proterozoictransition.Nature, Vol. 378, Dec. 7, pp. 608-610.MantleCraton, Archean, Mantle convection
DS201902-0311
2018
Breuer, D.Reudas, T., Breuer, D.Isocrater impacts: conditions and mantle dynamical responses for different impactor types.Icarus, Vol. 306, 1, pp. 94-115.Mantleimpact craters

Abstract: Impactors of different types and sizes can produce a final crater of the same diameter on a planet under certain conditions. We derive the condition for such “isocrater impacts” from scaling laws, as well as relations that describe how the different impactors affect the interior of the target planet; these relations are also valid for impacts that are too small to affect the mantle. The analysis reveals that in a given isocrater impact, asteroidal impactors produce anomalies in the interior of smaller spatial extent than cometary or similar impactors. The differences in the interior could be useful for characterizing the projectile that formed a given crater on the basis of geophysical observations and potentially offer a possibility to help constrain the demographics of the ancient impactor population. A series of numerical models of basin-forming impacts on Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars illustrates the dynamical effects of the different impactor types on different planets. It shows that the signature of large impacts may be preserved to the present in Mars, the Moon, and Mercury, where convection is less vigorous and much of the anomaly merges with the growing lid. On the other hand, their signature will long have been destroyed in Venus, whose vigorous convection and recurring lithospheric instabilities obliterate larger coherent anomalies.
DS1996-0172
1996
Breunig, M.Breunig, M.Integration of spatial information for geo-information systemsSpringer Verlag, 171pGlobalGeo-Information systems, Book -ad
DS1981-0098
1981
Brewer, J.A.Brewer, J.A., Good, R., Brown, L.D., Oliver, J.E., Kaufman, S.Cocorp Seismic Reflection Traverse Across the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 13, No. 7, P. 416. (abstract.).OklahomaMid-continent
DS1981-0099
1981
Brewer, J.A.Brewer, J.A., Steiner, R., Oliver, J.E., Kaufman, F., Denison, R.Proterozoic Basin in the Southern Mid-continent of the United States Revealed by Cocorp Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling.Geology, Vol. 9, No. 12, PP. 569-575.OklahomaMid-continent
DS1982-0119
1982
Brewer, J.A.Brewer, J.A., Good, R., Oliver, J.E., Brown, L.D., Kaufman, S.Cocorp Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 14, No. 3, P. 106. (abstract.).OklahomaMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1982-0460
1982
Brewer, J.A.Nelson, B.K., Lillie, R.J., De voogd, B., Brewer, J.A., Oliver.Cocorp Seismic Reflection Profiling in the Ouachita MountainTectonics, Vol. 1, No. 5, PP. 413-430.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasBlank
DS1983-0146
1983
Brewer, J.A.Brewer, J.A.Profiling Continental Basement: the Key to Understanding Structures in the Sedimentary Cover.First Break, Vol. 1, No. 6, JUNE PP. 25-31.GlobalMid Continent
DS1983-0147
1983
Brewer, J.A.Brewer, J.A., Good, R., Oliver, J.E., Brown, L.D., Kaufman, S.Cocorp Profiling Across the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen: Over thrusting of the Wichita Mountains and Compression Within The Anadarko Basin.Geology, Vol. 11, No. 2, PP. 109-114.OklahomaMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1983-0408
1983
Brewer, J.A.Lillie, R.J., Nelson, K.D., De voogd, B., Brewer, J.A., Oliver.Crustal Structure of Ouachita Mountains Arkansaw; a Model Based OnAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 67, No. 6, PP. 907-931.GlobalMid-continent
DS1994-0207
1994
Brewer, K.J.Brewer, K.J.The mining industry in Canada: competive aspectsCanadian Institute 1994 Canadian Mining Symposium, Preprint, 41pCanadaEconomics, Mining industry -overview
DS1996-0173
1996
Brewer, K.J.Brewer, K.J., Hull, D.L.Canada's mining industry a global perspectiveNat. Res. Canada, April 120pCanadaEconomics, Exploration, mining, discoveries, legal
DS1997-0126
1997
Brewer, K.J.Brewer, K.J.Canada's global position in mining... Canadian financing of the International Mining Industry4th. Conference Finance for Global Metals Industry, May 7-9, 53pCanadaEconomics, Exploration, mining, discoveries, legal
DS1997-0127
1997
Brewer, K.J.Brewer, K.J., Bergevin, G., Arseneau, L.P.Lessons from Canadian mineral taxation: an international contextInternational Seminar on mining legislation, UN Econ. Europe, March 13-14, update June 57pCanadaEconomics, Exploration, mining, discoveries, legal
DS1975-1154
1979
Brewer, T.H.Minter, W.E.L., Brewer, T.H.Report on the Kalahari Gravel Deposits Overlying JwanengAnglo American South Africa Ltd. Geol. Records Department, South Africa, BotswanaGeomorphology
DS1992-0161
1992
Brewer, T.S.Brewer, T.S., Hergt, J.M., Hawkesworth, C.J., et al.Coats Land dolerites and the generation of Antarctic continental floodbasaltsGeological Society Special Publication Magmatism and the causes of the continental, No. 68, pp. 185-208AntarcticaBasalts, Geochemistry, signatures
DS1996-0174
1996
Brewer, T.S.Brewer, T.S.Precambrian crustal evolution in the North Atlantic regionGeological Society of London, No. 112, 390pCanada, Labrador, Baltic Shield, Sweden, Norway, ScotlandArchean mantle, paleoproterozoic, Table of contents
DS2000-0009
2000
Brewer, T.S.Ahall, K.I., Connelly, J.N., Brewer, T.S.Episodic rapakivi magmatism due to distal orogenesis? correlation of 1.69-1.50 Ga orogenic and inboard....Geology, Vol. 28, No. 9, Sept. pp. 823-6.Baltic Shield, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, KolaMagmatism, Orogenic growth
DS2001-0010
2001
Brewer, T.S.Ahall, K.I., Brewer, T.S., Connelly, J.N.Deciphering the complex accretionary growth history of the Baltic Shield between 1.7 - 1.5 Ga and links...Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 26, p.1, abstract.Baltic Shield, Baltica, LaurentiaMagmatism - intracontinental
DS2002-0205
2002
Brewer, T.S.Brewer, T.S., Ahall, K.I., Darbyshire, D., Menuge, J.Geochemistry of late Mesoproterozoic volcanism in southwestern Scandinavia: implications for ...plate..Journal of Geological Society of London, Vol. 159, 2, pp. 129-44.ScandinaviaSveconorwegian Grenvillian plate tectonic models, Tectonics
DS1859-0049
1835
Brewster, D.Brewster, D.Observations Relative to the Structure and Origin of the Diamond.Geological Society of London Transactions, 2ND. SER. Vol. 3, PP. 455-459.GlobalDiamond Genesis, Morphology
DS1859-0052
1836
Brewster, D.Brewster, D.Diamond, Matric of EtchsAmerican Journal of Science , Vol. 29, No. 2, PP. 360-GlobalGenesis
DS1988-0082
1988
Brewster, D.Brewster, D., O'Reilly, W.Magnetic properties of synthetic analogs of the altered olivines of igneousrocksGeophysic. Journal, Vol. 95, No. 2, November pp. 421-432GlobalGeothermometry, Igneous rocks
DS1989-0172
1989
Brewster, D.Brewster, D., O'Reilly, W.Thermoremanent magnetization carried by synthetic analogues of the altered olivines of igneous rocksEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 93, pp. 123-132. Database # 17941GlobalExperimental petrology, Deuteric alteration
DS1989-0173
1989
Brewster, D.Brewster, D., O'Reilly, W.Thermoremanent magnetization carries by synthetic analogues of the altered olivines of igneous rocksEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 93, 123-132GlobalGeothermometry -alteration, Olivines
DS2002-1156
2002
Brewster, N.Novak, N., Brewster, N.Gremlins, promoters, financiers, diamonds, kimberlites and other beasts. a tale of diamond exploration LowlandProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) 2002, 2p. abstractOntario, James Bay LowlandsGeology, overview, Deposit - Spider
DS1995-1110
1995
BreyLorenz, V., Kurzlaukis, S., Stachel, T., Brey, StanistreetVolcanology of the diatreme rich carbonatitic Gross Brukkaros volcanicfield and of the near by Gibeon K.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 333-335.NamibiaCarbonatite, Deposit -Gross Brukkaros, Gibeon
DS2001-0618
2001
BreyKogarko, L.N., Ryabchikov, I.D., Brey, Santin, PachecoMantle rocks uplifted to crustal levels: diffusion profiles in minerals spinel plagioclase lherzolitesGeochemistry International, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 311-26.GlobalLherzolites, Tallante area
DS1975-0704
1978
Brey, G.Brey, G.Origin of Olivine Melilitites- Chemical and Experimental Constraints.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 3, PP. 61-68.Hawaii, Texas, Germany, South Africa, Cape ProvinceMelilite
DS1983-0148
1983
Brey, G.Brey, G., Brice, W.R., et al.Pyroxene Carbonate Reactions in the Upper MantleEarth Planet. Sci. Letters, Vol. 62, No. 1, PP. 63-74.GlobalKimberlitic Magmas, Mineralogy, Melilitite
DS1984-0175
1984
Brey, G.Brey, G., Huth, J.The Enstatite Diopside Solvus to 60 KbarProceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, PP. 257-264.GlobalChemical Composition, Genesis
DS1989-0174
1989
Brey, G.Brey, G., Kohler, T., Nickel, K.Geothermobarometry in natural four-phase lherzolites:experimentsfrom10-60kb, new thermo barometers and applicationDiamond Workshop, International Geological Congress, July 15-16th. editors, pp. 8-10. AbstractSouth AfricaGeothermometry, Geobarometry Kaapval crat
DS1989-1319
1989
Brey, G.Ryabchikov, I.D., Brey, G., Kogarko, L.N., Bulatov, V.K.Partial melting of carbonated peridotite at 50 KBAR.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 1, pp. 3-9RussiaCarbonatite, Peridotite
DS1989-1320
1989
Brey, G.Ryabchikov, I.D., Brey, G., Kogarko, L.N., Bulatov, V.K.Partial melting of carbonatized peridotite at 50 kbarGeochemistry International, Vol. 26, No. 8, pp. 1-6RussiaLherzolite, Experimental petrology
DS1991-0477
1991
Brey, G.Fett, A., Brey, G.Significance of aluminum, calcium, chromium, zirconium, niobium and iron concentrations in rutile from high pressure rocksProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 92-93GlobalGeobarometry, Eclogite
DS1992-0457
1992
Brey, G.Fett, A., Brey, G., Otter, M., Harris, J.Trace elements in rutiles from diamonds: comparison with rutiles fromeclogites, granulites and amphibolites and influence of pressure andtemperatureTerra Abstracts, supplement to Terra Nova, Vol. 4, IVth International Symposium Exp. Petrology, p. 17Wyoming, AustraliaMicroscopy
DS1994-0530
1994
Brey, G.Foley, S., Hofer, H., Brey, G.high pressure synthesis of Priderite and members of Lindsleyite-mathiasite and hawthornite-Yimengite seriesContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 117, No. 2, July, pp. 164-174.GlobalMineralogy, Priderite
DS1995-0208
1995
Brey, G.Brenker, F., Muller, W.F., Brey, G.Microstructural minerals from the garnet lherzolite body Alpe Arami -mantle conditions and uplift history.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 66-68.GlobalLherzolites, Mantle
DS1995-0441
1995
Brey, G.Dreibus, G., Brey, G., Girnis, A.The role of carbon dioxide in the generation and emplacement of kimberlitemagmas: new exp. dat a on CO2Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 138-40.GlobalPetrology -experimental -CO2, Kimberlite magmas
DS1995-1041
1995
Brey, G.Kurszlaukis, S., Franz, L., Brey, G., Smith, C.B.Geochemistry and evolution of the ultrabasic blue hills intrusive Namibia.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 308-310.NamibiaGeochemistry, carbonatite, Blue Hills Complex
DS1995-1816
1995
Brey, G.Stachel, T., Brey, G., Lorenz, V.Carbonatite magmatism and fenitization of the epiclastic caldera fill at gross Brukkaros (Namibia).Bulletin. Volcanology, Vol. 57, pp. 185-196.NamibiaCarbonatite, Deposit -Gros Brukkaros
DS1998-0514
1998
Brey, G.Girnis, A.V., Stachel, T., Brey, G., Harris, J., PhilipInternally consistent geothermobarometers for garnet harzburgites7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 253-5.GlobalGeothermometry, Garnet harzburgite compositions
DS1998-1400
1998
Brey, G.Stalder, R., Foley, S.F., Brey, G., Horn, I.Mineral aqueous fluid partitioning of trace elements at 900 1200 C and 3.0- 5.7 GPa: garnet, clinopyroxeneGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 10, pp. 1781-1801.MantleMetasomatism, Petrology - experimental
DS2002-0084
2002
Brey, G.Aulbach, S., Stachel, T., Vijoen, K., Brey, G., HarrisEclogitic and websteritic diamond sources beneath the Limpopo Belt - is slab melting the link?Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol.143, 1, Feb.pp.56-70.South AfricaDiamond - inclusions, mineralogy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Deposit - Venetia
DS2003-0180
2003
Brey, G.Buhre, S., Steinberg, H., Brey, G., Clark, S.Trace element solubility and reaction kinetics in the CAS system8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 6, POSTER abstractGlobalBlank
DS200412-0236
2004
Brey, G.Buhre, S., Brey, G.Al, Li and REE solubility and partitioning between CAS phases.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S15. abstractSouth America, Brazil, Africa, Guinea, Tanzania, South Africa, RussiaTool to determine ascent path and origin of diamonds
DS200412-0237
2003
Brey, G.Buhre, S., Steinberg, H., Brey, G., Clark, S.Trace element solubility and reaction kinetics in the CAS system.8 IKC Program, Session 6, POSTER abstractTechnologyMantle petrology
DS200412-1907
1992
Brey, G.Stachel, T., Brey, G.The olivine and leucite lamproite pipes of the Ellendale volcanic field ( Western Australia).Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Geowissenschaften , Vol. 143, pp. 133-158.AustraliaPetrology
DS200412-1908
1995
Brey, G.Stachel, T., Brey, G., Stanistreet, I.Gross Brukkaros (Namibia) - petrography and geochemistry of the intra-caldera sediments and their magmatic components.Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia 1993/1994, pp. 23-42.Africa, NamibiaGeochemistry
DS200612-0172
2006
Brey, G.Brey, G., Bulatov, V., Girnis, A.Redox melting and composition of near liquidus melts of C O H bearing peridotite.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.MantleRedox melting
DS200612-0776
2006
Brey, G.Lazarov, M., Brey, G., Lahaye, Y.Mapping of the Kaapvaal craton lithosphere with garnets from a polymict peridotite.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 345. abstract only.Africa, South AfricaGeochemistry - garnets
DS200712-0410
2007
Brey, G.Hanrahan, M., Brey, G.Li as a barometer for bimineralic eclogites.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A379.MantleEclogite - marjorites
DS200912-0276
2009
Brey, G.Hannahan, M., Brey, G., Woodland, A., Altherr, R., Seitz, H-M.Li as a barometer for bimineralic eclogites: experiments in CMAS.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available 16p.MantleEclogite - barometry
DS200912-0277
2009
Brey, G.Hannahan, M., Brey, G., Woodland, A., Seitz, H-M., Ludwig, T.Li as a barometer for bimineralic eclogites: experiments in natural systems.Lithos, In press available, 34p.TechnologyDeposit - Roberts Victor
DS201012-0459
2010
Brey, G.Luchs, T., Brey, G., Gerdes, A.Insights on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle underneath the Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia.Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, posterAfrica, NamibiaDeposit - Gibeon
DS201012-0544
2010
Brey, G.Nuber, N., Gerdes, A., Brey, G., Grutter, H.Zircons from kimberlites at Lac de Gras, Canada - a section through the continental crust.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 561.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDiamond morphology - size distribution
DS201012-0706
2010
Brey, G.Shu, Q., Brey, G., Aulbach, S.History of lithospheric mantle beneath western Kaapvaal Craton: signatures from subcalcic garnets.Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, abstractAfrica, South AfricaGarnet mineralogy
DS201112-0624
2011
Brey, G.Luchs, T., Brey, G., Gerdes, A.Chronological and thermal history of the lithospheric mantle underneath the Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1364.Africa, NamibiaRehoboth, Hanaus, Gibeon
DS201212-0238
2012
Brey, G.Ghobadi, M., Gerdes, A., Kogarko, L., Brey, G.New dat a on the composition and hafnium isotopes of zircons from carbonatites of the Khibiny Massif.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 446, 1, pp. 1083-1085.RussiaCarbonatite
DS201412-0071
2014
Brey, G.Brey, G.Geochronology of the lithospheric mantle underneath the Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia.ima2014.co.za, AbstractAfrica, NamibiaDeposit - Gibeon
DS201708-1604
2017
Brey, G.Brey, G.The birth, growth and ageing of the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle.11th. International Kimberlite Conference, OralAfrica, Southern AfricaSubduction, metasomatism
DS201810-2321
2018
Brey, G.Ghobadi, M., Gerdes, A., Kogarko, L., Hoefer, H., Brey, G.In situ LA-ICPMS isotopic and geochronological studies on carbonatites and phoscorites from the Guli Massif, Maymecha-Kotuy, polar Siberia.Geochemistry International, Vol. 56, 8, pp. 766-783.Russia, Siberiacarbonatite

Abstract: In this study we present a fresh isotopic data, as well as U-Pb ages from different REE-minerals in carbonatites and phoscorites of Guli massif using in situ LA-ICPMS technique. The analyses were conducted on apatites and perovskites from calcio-carbonatite and phoscorite units, as well as on pyrochlores and baddeleyites from the carbonatites. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios obtained from apatites and perovskites from the phoscorites are 0.70308-0.70314 and 0.70306-0.70313, respectively; and 0.70310-0.70325 and 0.70314-0.70327, for the pyrochlores and apatites from the carbonatites, respectively. Furthermore, the in situ laser ablation analyses of apatites and perovskites from the phoscorite yield eNd from 3.6 (±1) to 5.1 (±0.5) and from 3.8 (±0.5) to 4.9 (±0.5), respectively; eNd of apatites, perovskites and pyrochlores from carbonatite ranges from 3.2 (±0.7) to 4.9 (±0.9), 3.9 (±0.6) to 4.5 (±0.8) and 3.2 (±0.4) to 4.4 (±0.8), respectively. Laser ablation analyses of baddeleyites yielded an eHf(t)d of +8.5 (± 0.18); prior to this study Hf isotopic characteristic of Guli massif was not known. Our new in situ eNd, 87Sr/86Sr and eHf data on minerals in the Guli carbonatites imply a depleted source with a long time integrated high Lu/Hf, Sm/Nd, Sr/Rb ratios. In situ U-Pb age determination was performed on perovskites from the carbonatites and phoscorites and also on pyrochlores and baddeleyites from carbonatites. The co-existing pyrochlores, perovskites and baddeleyites in carbonatites yielded ages of 252.3 ± 1.9, 252.5 ± 1.5 and 250.8 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The perovskites from the phoscorites yielded an age of 253.8 ± 1.9 Ma. The obtained age for Guli carbonatites and phoscorites lies within the range of ages previously reported for the Siberian Flood Basalts and suggest essentially synchronous emplacement with the Permian-Triassic boundary.
DS201910-2299
2019
Brey, G.Shu, Q., Brey, G., Fichtner, C., Guelius, D.Nature and mechanisms of mantle metasomatism.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractMantlemetasomatism

Abstract: The interaction between hydrous fluids and melts with dry pre-existing mantle rocks alters the physocochemical porperties of the deep lithosphere. Here we present new insight into mantle metasomatism based on petrology, geochemistry, and Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution modelling using mantle xenoliths from various eruption centres in the Cenozoic Tariat volcanic field, Mongolia. These centres include the Horgo, Tsagan, Zala, Haer and Shavaryn-Tsaram lava flows that vary in composition and age between alkali basalts to trachybasalts to tephrite basanites and 4 ka to 1.5 Ma, respectively. Our sample suite contains xenolith from the lower crust and underlying mantle with a size range of individual xenoliths between 3 cm and 8 cm. Based on the clinopyroxene REE concentration pattern, the investigated xenoliths can be divided in two groups, characterized by LREE depletion (Group 1) and enrichment (Group 2) relative to primitive mantle. Group 1 xenoliths display well-preserved deformation textures and are considered to represent the sub-continental lithosphere prior to Cenozoic rejuvenation. In contrast, Group 2 samples are marked by partial annealing of pre-existing textures. REE distribution modelling between clinopyroxene and inferred chemically enriched basaltic melt suggests that the observed REE pattern do not reconcile with a simple mixing model but reflect chromatographic fractionation during reactive melt flow. In addition, the clinopyroxene core-rim REE variation in some of the xenoliths suggests interaction with at least one other melt of distinct chemical composition.
DS1975-0731
1978
Brey, G.P.Duncan, R.A., Hargraves, R.B., Brey, G.P.Age, Palaeomagnetism and Chemistry of Melilite Basalts in The Southern Cape, South Africa.Geology Magazine., Vol. 115, PP. 317-396.South AfricaRelated Rocks, Geochronology, Geochemistry
DS1986-0107
1986
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Kogarko, L.Solubility of CO2 in kimberlitic and carbonatitic meltsProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, p. 163GlobalBlank
DS1986-0108
1986
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Nickel, K.G.Experimental calibration of geothermobarometers in natural lherzolitic systems at high pressureProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, p. 228GlobalGeobarometry
DS1986-0109
1986
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Nickel, K.G., Kogarko, L.Garnet pyroxene equilibration temperatures in the system CaO MgO Al2O3 SiO2(CMAS)prospects for simplified T-independent lherzolite barometry and an eclogitebarometerContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 92, No. 4, pp. 448-455GlobalLherzolite, Eclogite
DS1986-0301
1986
Brey, G.P.Green, D.H., Falloon, T.J., Brey, G.P., Nickel, K.G.Peridotite melting to GPa and genesis of primary mantle derived magmasProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 181-183GlobalMantle
DS1990-0235
1990
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Kohler, T.Geothermobarometry in four phase Lherzolites II. New thermobarometers, and practical assessment of existing thermobarometersJournal of Petrology, Vol. 31, pt. 6, pp. 1353-1378GlobalGeothermobarometry, Lherzolites
DS1990-0236
1990
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Kohler, T., Nickel, K.New pyroxene geothermobarometers and testing of existing calibrationsTerra, Abstracts of Experimental mineralogy, petrology and, Vol. 2, December abstracts p. 67GlobalGeothermobarometers, Lherzolites
DS1990-0237
1990
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Kohler, T., Nickel, K.G.Geothermobarometry in four phase lherzolites I. experimental results from10 to 60 kbJournal of Petrology, Vol. 31, pt. 6, pp. 1313-1352GlobalGeothermobarometry, Lherzolites
DS1990-0855
1990
Brey, G.P.Kohler, T.P., Brey, G.P.Calcium exchange between olivine and clinopyroxene calibrated as a geothermobarometer for natural peridotites from 2 to 60 kb with applicationsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 54, pp. 2375-2388GlobalGeothermobarometry, Experimental peridotite
DS1991-0171
1991
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P.Fictive conductive geotherms beneath the KaapvaalProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 23-25South AfricaXenoliths, Potassium, lamproites, minettes, alkali basalts, Matsoku, Bultfontein, Shaba Putsoa
DS1991-0172
1991
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Doroshev, A., Kogarko, L.The join pyrope knorringite-experimental constraints for a new geothermo barometer for coexisting garnet and spinelProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 26-28GlobalMineralogy
DS1991-0173
1991
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Kogarko, L.N., Ryabchik, I.D.Carbon dioxide in kimberlitic meltsNeues Jarhb. Min, No. 4, pp. 159-168GlobalExperimental petrology, CO2
DS1991-0195
1991
Brey, G.P.Bulatov, V., Brey, G.P., Foley, S.F.Origin of low Calcium, high chromium garnets by recrystallization of low pressure harzburgitesProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June, pp. 29-31GlobalExperimental petrology, Harzburgites -garnets
DS1991-0498
1991
Brey, G.P.Foley, S.F., Hoefer, H., Brey, G.P.The stability of priderite, lindsleyite-mathiasite andyimengite-hawthornite under lower continental lithosphere conditions:experiments at 35 to 50 KbarProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 106-108South Africa, Russia, AustraliaMicroprobe analyses, LIMA.
DS1992-0162
1992
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., et al.Kimberlite-peridotite equilibration temperatures at high pressureProceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress. Held Japan August 1992, Vol. 2, abstract p. 570GlobalExperimental petrology, Kimberlite
DS1994-0208
1994
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Ryabchikov, I.D.Carbon dioxide in strongly silica undersaturated melts and origin Of kimberlite magmas.Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, No. 10, Oct. pp. 449-463.MantleOlivine melilitite, kimberlite, Kimberlite genesis-magmas
DS1995-0231
1995
Brey, G.P.Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V., Brey, G.P.Anhydrous partial melting of spinel lherzolites from 3.5 to 20 KBAR:composition of partial melts.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 80-82.RussiaLherzolites
DS1995-0561
1995
Brey, G.P.Franz, L., Brey, G.P., Okrusch, M.Metasomatic reequilibration of mantle xenoliths from the Gibeon kimberliteprovince.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 169-71.NamibiaXenoliths, Blue Hills, Hanaus, Anis Kubub, Hanus, Lourentsia, Gibeon
DS1995-0638
1995
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Brey, G.P., Ryabchikov, I.D.Origin of Group 1a kimberlites: fluid saturated melting experiments at45-55 kbar.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 134, No. 3-4, Sept. 1, pp. 283-296.South AfricaKimberlites, Petrochemistry
DS1995-0879
1995
Brey, G.P.Jarick, J., Brey, G.P., Keller, J.Isotopic and chemical composition of mega and phenocrysts: evidence for the petrogenesis of Hegau volProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 263-265.EuropeAlkaline rocks
DS1995-1937
1995
Brey, G.P.Turkin, A.I., Brey, G.P., Gusak, S.N.Stability field of ferric ferrous garnet skiagiteProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 643-645.GlobalMineralogy, Garnet -pyrope
DS1996-0466
1996
Brey, G.P.Franz, L., Brey, G.P., Okrusch, M.Reequilibration of ultramafic xenoliths from Namibia by Metasomatic processes at the mantle boundary.Journal of Geology, Vol. 104, No. 5, Sept. pp. 599-615.NamibiaMantle xenoliths, Gibeon kimberlite -Hanaus and Anis Kubub pipes
DS1997-0285
1997
Brey, G.P.Doroshev, A.M., Brey, G.P., Girnis, A.V., Turkin, A.I.Pyrope - knorringite garnets in the Earth's mantle: experimental in the MgOAl2O3 SiO2 Cr2O3 systemRussian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 559-586.MantleGarnets, Petrochemistry
DS1998-1396
1998
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.Rare and unusual mineral inclusions in diamonds from Mwadui, TanzaniaContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 132, No. 1, pp. 34-47.TanzaniaDiamond inclusions, Deposit - Mwadui
DS1998-1397
1998
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.Inclusions in diamonds from Mwadui- chemical mush in the source7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 859-61.TanzaniaMineral inclusions, Deposit - Mwadui
DS1998-1399
1998
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Viljoen, K.S., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.rare earth elements (REE) patterms of garnets from diamonds and Diamondiferous geochemical signatures7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 862-4.South Africa, GhanaDiamond source, Deposit - Roberts Victor, BiriM.
DS1998-1401
1998
Brey, G.P.Stalder, R., Foley, S.F., Brey, G.P., Forsythe, HornFirst results from a new experimental technique to determine fluid/solidtrace element partition coeffic.Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie Abh., Vol. 172, No. 1, pp. 117-132.GlobalPetrology - experimental, Diamond aggregates
DS1999-0100
1999
Brey, G.P.Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V., Brey, G.P.Experimental melting of spinel lherzolites and the problem of the primary magma genesis of oceanic basaltsPetrology, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb. pp. 21-31.MantleMagma, Lherzolite - experimental petrology
DS1999-0385
1999
Brey, G.P.Kurszlaukis, S., Franz, L., Brey, G.P.The Blue Hills intrusive complex in southern Namibia - relationships between carbonatites and monticellite...Chemical Geology, Vol 160, No. 1-2, July 29, pp. 1-18.NamibiaCarbonatite, Picrites
DS1999-0707
1999
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.rare earth elements (REE) patterns of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusions in diamonds from Mwadui ( Tanzania).7th International Kimberlite Conference Nixon, Vol. 2, pp. 829-35.TanzaniaDiamond - inclusions, geochemistry, lherzolite garnet, Deposit - Mwadui
DS2000-0922
2000
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W.Kankan diamonds I. from the lithosphere down to the transition zoneContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 140, No. 1, pp. 1-15.GuineaDiamond genesis, Deposit - Kankan
DS2001-1122
2001
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Tappert, R., Brey, G.P.Peridotitic inclusions in diamonds from the Slave and Kaapvaal cratons - afirst comparison.Slave-Kaapvaal Workshop, Sept. Ottawa, 4p. abstractNorthwest Territories, South AfricaDiamond - inclusions, Geochemistry - major and trace elements Panda
DS2002-0222
2002
Brey, G.P.Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V., Brey, G.P.Experimental melting of a modally heterogeneous mantleMineralogy and Petrology, Vol.75,3-4, pp.131-52.MantleMelt
DS2002-1579
2002
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.Composition of mineral inclusions from Brazilian diamondsGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.116., p.116.BrazilAlluvials, Deposit - Aranapolis, Canastra
DS2002-1580
2002
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.Composition of mineral inclusions from Brazilian diamondsGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.116., p.116.BrazilAlluvials, Deposit - Aranapolis, Canastra
DS2003-0158
2003
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V., Girnis, A., Harris, J., Stachel, T.Ferropericlase - a lower mantle phase in the upper mantle8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 6, AbstractGuineaMantle petrology
DS2003-0549
2003
Brey, G.P.Hanrahan, M., Stachel. T., Brey, G.P., Lahaye, Y.Garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Koffiefontein mine, South Africa8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 6, POSTER abstractSouth AfricaDeposit - Koffiefontein
DS2003-0594
2003
Brey, G.P.Hoeferm H.E., Brey, G.P., Woodland, A.B.Iron oxidation state of mantle minerals determined from L emission spectra by the8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 6, POSTER abstractGlobalBlank
DS2003-0770
2003
Brey, G.P.Lahaye, Y., Brey, G.P.Scale and timing constraints on chemical redistribution between minerals of a composite8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 4, POSTER abstractSouth AfricaMantle geochemistry, Deposit - Kimberley
DS2003-0795
2003
Brey, G.P.Leost, I., Stachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Ryabchikov, I.D.Diamond formation and source carbonation: mineral associations in diamonds fromContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 145, 1, pp. 15-24.NamibiaDiamond genesis
DS2003-0796
2003
Brey, G.P.Leost, I., Tachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W.An unusual suite of inclusions in diamonds from Namibia8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, AbstractNamibiaDiamonds, Diamond - inclusions
DS2003-0797
2003
Brey, G.P.Leost, J., Stachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Ryabichikov, I.D.Diamond formation and source carbonation: mineral associations in diamonds fromContribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, NamibiaDiamond mineralogy, morphology, genesis
DS2003-1248
2003
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H.M., Brey, G.P., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W.Li abundances in inclusions in diamonds from the upper and lower mantleChemical Geology, Vol. 201, 3-4, Nov. 28, pp. 307-318.MantleEclogites, peridotites, diamond
DS2003-1249
2003
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H.M., Brey, G.P., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W.Lithium abundances in inclusions in diamonds from the upper and lower mantle8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 4, POSTER abstractMantleMantle geochemistry, Diamond - inclusions
DS2003-1250
2003
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H-M., Brey, G.P., Stahel, T., Harris, J.W.Li abundances in inclusions in diamonds from the upper and lower mantleChemical Geology, Vol. 201, 3-4, Nov. 28, pp. 307-318.MantleBlank
DS2003-1324
2003
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Aulbavh, S., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Leost, I., Tappert, R., ViljoenDiamond formation and mantle metasomatism: a trace element perspective8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, AbstractGlobalDiamonds, database REE 135 peridotite garnet inclusions, Review - genesis
DS2003-1325
2003
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Tappert, R., Brey, G.P.Peridotitic diamonds from the Slave and the Kaapvaal cratons similarities andLithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 489-503.South Africa, Northwest Territories, NunavutMineral chemistry
DS2003-1359
2003
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the PAnd a kimberlite, Slave Province, Canada8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractNorthwest TerritoriesDiamonds - inclusions, Deposit - Panda
DS200412-0205
2003
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V., Girnis, A., Harris, J., Stachel, T.Ferropericlase - a lower mantle phase in the upper mantle.8 IKC Program, Session 6, AbstractAfrica, GuineaMantle petrology
DS200412-0206
2004
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V., Girnis, A., Harris, J.W., Stachel, T.Ferropericlase - a lower mantle phase in the upper mantle.Lithos, Vol. 77, 1-4, Sept. pp. 655-663.South America, BrazilUHP, diamond inclusions, olivine, San Luiz
DS200412-0784
2003
Brey, G.P.Hanrahan, M., Stachel,T., Brey, G.P., Lahaye, Y.Garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Koffiefontein mine, South Africa.8 IKC Program, Session 6, POSTER abstractAfrica, South AfricaMantle petrology Deposit - Koffiefontein
DS200412-0798
2004
Brey, G.P.Harris, J.W., Stachel, T., Leost, I., Brey, G.P.Peridotitic diamonds from Namibia: constraints on the composition and evolution of their mantle source.Lithos, Vol. 77, 1-4, Sept. pp. 209-223.Africa, NamibiaPlacer, alluvials, diamond inclusions, metasomatism,REE
DS200412-0840
2003
Brey, G.P.Hoefer, H.E., Brey, G.P., Woodland, A.B.Iron oxidation state of mantle minerals determined from L emission spectra by the electron microprobe.8 IKC Program, Session 6, POSTER abstractTechnologyMantle petrology
DS200412-0933
1999
Brey, G.P.Joswig, W., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Baur, W.H., Brey, G.P.New Ca silicate inclusions in diamonds - tracers from the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 173, pp. 1-6.TechnologyDiamond inclusions
DS200412-1116
2003
Brey, G.P.Leost, I., Stachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Ryabchikov, I.D.Diamond formation and source carbonation: mineral associations in diamonds from Namibia.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 145, 1, pp. 15-24.Africa, NamibiaDiamond genesis
DS200412-1117
2003
Brey, G.P.Leost, I., Tachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W.An unusual suite of inclusions in diamonds from Namibia.8 IKC Program, Session 3, AbstractAfrica, NamibiaDiamonds Diamond - inclusions
DS200412-1784
2003
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H-M., Brey, G.P., Stahel, T., Harris, J.W.Li abundances in inclusions in diamonds from the upper and lower mantle.Chemical Geology, Vol. 201, 3-4, Nov. 28, pp. 307-318.MantleDiamond inclusions, eclogites, peridotites, websterite.
DS200412-1905
2004
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Aulbach, S., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Leost, I., Tappert, R., Vijoen, K.S.The trace element composition of silicate inclusions in diamonds: a review.Lithos, Vol. 77, 1-4, Sept. pp. 1-19.MantleDiamond inclusion, REE, metasomatism, lithosphere, garn
DS200412-1906
2003
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Aulbavh, S., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Leost, I., Tappert, R., Viljoen, K.S.Diamond formation and mantle metasomatism: a trace element perspective.8 IKC Program, Session 3, AbstractTechnologyDiamonds, database REE 135 peridotite garnet inclusions Review - genesis
DS200412-1910
2003
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Tappert, R., Brey, G.P.Peridotitic diamonds from the Slave and the Kaapvaal cratons similarities and differences based on a preliminary dat a set.Lithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 489-503.Africa, South Africa, Northwest Territories, NunavutMineral chemistry
DS200412-1923
2004
Brey, G.P.Steinberg, H.K., Brey, G.P.Solubility of potassium and phosphorous in Ca silicates from 2 13 GPas.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S107. abstractTechnologyDiamond inclusions
DS200412-1964
2004
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P., Ludwig, T.Messingers from the sublithospheric mantle: diamonds and their mineral inclusions from the Jagersfontein kimberlite ( South AfriGeological Association of Canada Abstract Volume, May 12-14, SS14-11 p. 270.abstractAfrica, South AfricaDiamond inclusions, morphology
DS200412-2179
2004
Brey, G.P.Yaxley, G.M., Brey, G.P.Phase relations of carbonate bearing eclogite assemblages from 2.5 to 5.5 GPa: implications for petrogenesis of carbonatites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 146, 5, pp. 606-619.TechnologyCarbonatite, mineralogy
DS200512-0341
2005
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Brey, G.P.Transition from kimberlite to carbonatite melt under mantle parameters: an experimental study.Petrology, Vol. 13, 1, pp. 1-15.Melting - kimberlite/carbonatite
DS200512-0960
2004
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H-M., Brey, G.P., Lahaye, Y., Durali, S., Weyer, S.Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and pyroxenes.Chemical Geology, Vol. 212, 1-2, pp. 163-177.MantlePetrology - not specific to diamonds
DS200512-1039
2005
Brey, G.P.Stachel, T., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W.Inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds: glimpses of deep Earth.Elements, Vol. 1, 2, March pp. 73-79.MantleDiamond inclusion, majorite, perovskite, subduction
DS200512-1074
2005
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Shimizu, N., Brey, G.P.Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the PAnd a kimberlite, Slave Province, Canada.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 17, 3, pp. 423-440.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesMineralogy - Panda
DS200612-0464
2006
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Lahaye, Y., Brey, G.P.Partitioning of trace elements between carbonate silicate melts and mantle minerals: experiment and petrological consequences.Petrology, Vol. 14, 5, pp. 492-514.MantleMelts
DS200612-0592
2006
Brey, G.P.Hofer, H.E., Brey, G.P., Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J.Iron oxidation state determination in garnets by EPMA and XANES.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 256. abstract only.TechnologyGarnet geochemistry
DS200612-0708
2006
Brey, G.P.Klama, K., Lahaye, Y., Weyer, S., Brey, G.P.Episodic versus long tern recycling processes within the Archean South African crust.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 21. abstract only.Africa, South AfricaSubduction
DS200612-1241
2006
Brey, G.P.Schmidt, A., Weyer, S., Brey, G.P.BSE reservoirs: insights from Nb/Ta of rutile bearing eclogites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 10, abstract only.MantleEclogite - niobium, tantalum
DS200612-1260
2006
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H.M., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Ludwig, T.Lithium isotope composition of lower mantle ferropericlase inclusions in diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 17. abstract only.South America, BrazilDeposit - Sao Luiz, diamond inclusions
DS200612-1412
2006
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Muehlenbachs, K., Brey, G.P.Placer diamonds from Brazil: indicators of the composition of the Earth's mantle and the distance to their kimberlitic sources.Economic Geology, Vol. 101, 2, pp. 543-470.South America, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Minas GeraisDiamond morphology, inclusions
DS200612-1413
2005
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Muehlenbachs, K., Ludwig, T., Brey, G.P.Diamonds from Jagersfontein (South Africa): messengers from the sublithopheric mantle.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 150, 5, pp. 505-522.Africa, South AfricaDiamond inclusions
DS200612-1414
2006
Brey, G.P.Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Muehlenbachs, K., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P.Alluvial diamonds from Brazil: where and what are their sources?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 4. abstract onlySouth America, BrazilDiamond genesis
DS200612-1523
2006
Brey, G.P.Weyer, S., Ionov, D.A., Hellebrand, E., Woodland, A.B., Brey, G.P.Iron isotope fractionation as indicator of mantle processes.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 16 abstract only.MantleGeochemistry - iron
DS200712-0601
2007
Brey, G.P.Lazarov, M., Brey, G.P., HHHarris, J.W., Weyer, S.Timing of mantle depletion and enrichment from single subcalcic garnet grains (Finsch mine, SA).Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A551.Africa, South AfricaFinsch
DS200712-0952
2007
Brey, G.P.Schmidt, A., Weyer, S., Xiao, Y., Hoefs, J., Brey, G.P.Lu Hf geochronology of eclogites from the Dabie Sulu terrain: constraints on the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A894.ChinaUHP
DS200712-1202
2007
Brey, G.P.Yaxley, G.M., Spandler, C.S., Green, D.H., Rosenthal, A., Brey, G.P.The influence of minor elements on melting of eclogite in the mantle.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A1143.MantleMelting
DS200812-0139
2007
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V.Geobarometry for peridotites: experiments in simple and natural systems from 6 to 10 GPa.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 49, 1, pp. 3-24.TechnologyGarnet
DS200812-0140
2008
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V.Experimental melting of magnesite bearing peridotite with H2O and F at 6 - 10 GPa, and implications for the genesis of kimberlites.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractMantleMelting
DS200812-0141
2008
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V., Lahaye, Y.Experimental melting of carbonated peridotite at 6-10 GPa.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 49, 4, pp. 797-821.MantleMelting
DS200812-0484
2008
Brey, G.P.Hopp, J., Trieloff, M., Brey, G.P., Woodland, A.B., Simon, N.S.C., Wijbrans, J.R., Siebel, W., Reitter, E.40 Ar 39 Ar ages of phlogopite in mantle xenoliths from South African kimberlites: evidence for metasomatic mantle impregnation during Kilbaran orogenic cycle.Lithos, Vol. 106, no. 3-4, pp. 351-364.Africa, South Africa, LesothoDeposit - Bultfontein, Letseng, Liqhobong
DS200812-0624
2008
Brey, G.P.Lahaye, Y., Kogarko, L.N., Brey, G.P.Isotopic (Nd, Hf, Sr) composition of super large rare metal deposits from the Kola Peninsula using in-situ LA MC ICPMS9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussia, Kola PeninsulaDeposit - Khibina, Lovosero
DS200812-1019
2008
Brey, G.P.Schmidt, A., Weyer, S., John, T., Brey, G.P.Nb Ta systematics of orogenic eclogites.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A833.MantleEclogite
DS200812-1020
2008
Brey, G.P.Schmidt, A., Weyer, S., Mezger, K., Scherer, E.E., Xiao, Y., Hoefs, J., Brey, G.P.Rapid eclogization of the Dabie Sulu UHP terrane: constraints from Lu Hf garnet geochronology.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 273, 1-2, Aug. 30, pp. 203-213.ChinaUHP
DS200812-1021
2008
Brey, G.P.Schmidt, A., Weyer, S., Mezger, K., Scherer, E.E., Xiao, Y., Hoefs, J., Brey, G.P.Rapid eclogitization of the Dabie Sulu UHP terrane: constraints from Lu Hf garnet geochronology.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, In press available, 49p.ChinaUHP
DS200812-1035
2008
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H-M., Brey, G.P.Lithium abundances and Li isotope compositions of the Roberts Victor kimberlite and its olivines.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - Roberts Victor
DS200912-0075
2009
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulato, V.K., Girnis, A.V.Influence of water and fluorine on melting of carbonated peridotite at 6 and 10 GPa.Lithos, In press availableMantleMelting
DS200912-0084
2009
Brey, G.P.Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V., Brey, G.P.Experimental melting of carbonated K rich garnet harzburgite and origin of kimberlite melts.alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractTechnologyMelting
DS200912-0252
2009
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Brey, G.P.Influence of melt compositions on Fe, Mn and Ni partitioning between carbonate silicate melts and mantle minerals: experiments and applications.....alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractTechnologyGenesis of kimberlites and inclusions in diamonds
DS200912-0307
2009
Brey, G.P.Hofer, H.E., Lazarov, M., Brey, G.P., Woodland, A.B.Oxygen fugacity of the metasomatizing melt in a polymict peridotite from Kimberley.Lithos, In press - available 25p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Kimberley
DS200912-0393
2009
Brey, G.P.Kogarko,N.,Lahaye, Y., Brey, G.P.Plume related mantle source of super large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibin a massifs on the Kola Peninsula, east Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd, Hf isotope ssytematics.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press availableEurope, Baltic Shield, Kola PeninsulaAlkalic
DS200912-0428
2009
Brey, G.P.Lazarov, M., Brey, G.P., Weyer, S.Time steps of depletion and enrichment in the Kaapvaal Craton as recorded by subcalcic garnets from Finsch (SA).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 279, 1-2, pp. 1-10.Africa, South AfricaGeochronology deposit - Finsch
DS200912-0674
2009
Brey, G.P.Schmidt, A., Weyer, S., John, T., Brey, G.P.HFSE systematics of rutile bearing eclogites: new insights into subduction zone processes and implications for the Earth's HPSE budget.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 73, 2, pp. 455-468.MantleSubduction
DS201012-0426
2009
Brey, G.P.Lazarov, M., Woodland, A.B., Brey, G.P.Thermal state and redox conditions of the Kaapvaal mantle: a study of the Finsch mine, South Africa.Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 913-923.Africa, South AfricaGeothermometry
DS201112-0110
2011
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V.K., Girnis, A.V.Melting of K rich carbonated peridotite at 6 - 10 GPa and the stability of K phases in the upper mantle.Chemical Geology, Vol. 281, 3-4, pp. 333-342.MantleCratonic geothermometry
DS201112-0364
2011
Brey, G.P.Ghobadi, M., Gerdes, A., Brey, G.P., Hofer, H & E., Keller, J.In situ trace element and U Pb and Sr and Nd isotope analysis of accessory phases in Kaiserstuhl carbonatites.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.48-50.Europe, GermanyKaiserstuhl
DS201112-0365
2011
Brey, G.P.Ghobadi, M., Gerdes, A., Brey, G.P., Hofer, H & E., Keller, J.In situ trace element and U Pb and Sr and Nd isotope analysis of accessory phases in Kaiserstuhl carbonatites.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.48-50.Europe, GermanyKaiserstuhl
DS201112-0366
2011
Brey, G.P.Ghobadi, M., Gerdes, A., Brey, G.P., Hofer, H.E., Keller, J.In-situ trace element and U-Pb, Sr and Nd isotope analysis of accessory phases in Kaiserstuhl cabonatites.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterEurope, GermanyCarbonatite
DS201112-0371
2011
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Brey, G.P.Formation of primary kimberlite melts - constraints from experiments at 6-12 GPa and variable CO2/H2O.Lithos, In press available, 42p.TechnologyMelting
DS201112-0372
2011
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Brey, G.P.Formation of primary kimberlite melts - constraints from experiments at 6-12 GPa and variable CO2/H2O.Lithos, Vol. 127, 3-4, Dec. pp. 401-413.TechnologyMelting
DS201112-0956
2011
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P.Ultra depleted eclogites: residues of TTG melting.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1866.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bellsbank
DS201212-0041
2012
Brey, G.P.Aulbach, S., Stachel, T., Seitz, H-M., Brey, G.P.Chalcophile and siderophile elements in sulphide inclusions in eclogitic diamonds and metal cycling in a Paleoproterozoic subduction zone.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol 93, Sept. 15, pp. 278-299.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS201212-0088
2012
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Luchs, T., Shu, Q., Lazarov, M., Becker, H.Combined trace element, SM-ND, Luf-Hf and Re-Os studies constrain the age, origin and the development of the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, South AfricaGeochemistry
DS201212-0089
2012
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Weyer, S.Evolution of the South Africa mantle - a case study of garnet peridotites from the Finsch diamond mine ( Kaapvaal craton) part 2: multiple depletion and re-enrichment processes.Lithos, In press available 49p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Finsch
DS201212-0237
2012
Brey, G.P.Ghobadi, M., Gerdes, A., Brey, G.P., Hofer, H.E., Keller, J.In situ trace element and U Pb and Sr Nd isotope analysis of accessory phases in Kaiserstuhl carbonatites.emc2012 @ uni-frankfurt.de, 1p. AbstractEurope, GermanyCarbonatite
DS201212-0398
2012
Brey, G.P.Lazarov, M., Brey, G.P., Weyer, S.Evolution of the South Africa mantle - a case study of garnet peridotites from the Finsch diamond mine ( Kaapvaal craton) part 1: inter-mineral trace element and isotopic equilibrium.Lithos, in press available 55p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Finsch
DS201212-0424
2012
Brey, G.P.Luchs, T., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hoefer, H.E.Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology and geothermobarmetry of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, NamibiaDeposit - Gibeon
DS201212-0652
2012
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hoefer, H.E.Ultra depleted eclogites: residues of TTG melting.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - Bellsbank
DS201212-0653
2012
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hofer, H.E., Seitz, H.M.Eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from the mantle: their age and ageing- two point isochrons, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf closure temperatures, model ages.emc2012 @ uni-frankfurt.de, 1p. AbstractAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - Bellsbank
DS201312-0040
2013
Brey, G.P.Aulbach, S., Luchs, T., Brey, G.P.Distribution and behaviour during metasomatism of PGE-Re and Os isotopes in off-craton mantle xenoliths from Namibia. Lithos, Vol. 184-187, pp. 478-490.Africa, NamibiaGibeon field
DS201312-0096
2013
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P.Storage of Hadean Oceanic crust in the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, South AfricaHadean
DS201312-0097
2013
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P.Geochronology of the lithospheric mantle underneath the Gibeon kimberlite field, Namibia.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, NamibiaGibeon
DS201312-0312
2013
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hofer, H.E.Trace element partitioning between mantle minerals and silico-carbonate melts at 6-12 Gpa and applications to mantle metasomatism and kimberlite genesis.Lithos, Vol. 160-161, pp. 183-200.MantleKimberlite genesis, melting
DS201312-0555
2013
Brey, G.P.Luchs, T., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hofer, H.E.The lithospheric mantle underneath the Gibeon kimberlite field ( Namibia): a mix of old and young components - evidence from Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics.Precambrian Research, Vol. 231, pp. 263-276.Africa, NamibiaDeposit - Gibeon
DS201312-0722
2013
Brey, G.P.Purwin, H., Lauterbach, S., Brey, G.P., Woodland, A.B., Kleebe, H-J.An experimental study of Fe oxidation states in garnet and clinopyroxene as a function of temperature in the system CaO FeO Fe2O3 MgO Al2O3 SiO2: implications for garnet-clinopyroxene geothermometry.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 164, 4, pp. 623-639.TechnologyGeobarometry
DS201312-0820
2013
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hoefer, H.E.Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the formation and evolution of the mantle beneath the Kaapvaal craton: Lu Hf and Sm Nd systematics of subcalcic garnets from highly depleted peridotites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 113, pp. 1-20.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Roberst Victor, Lace
DS201312-0821
2013
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hoefer, H.E.Simultaneous mantle metasomatism, diamond growth and crustal events in the Archean and Proterozoic of South Africa.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, South AfricaMetasomatism
DS201312-0824
2013
Brey, G.P.Sieber, M., Brey, G.P., Seitz, H-M., Gerdes, A., Hoefer, H.E.The age of eclogitisation underneath the Kaapvaal craton - a composite xenolith from Roberts Victor.Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - Roberts Victor
DS201412-0559
2014
Brey, G.P.Matjuschkin, V., Brey, G.P.The influence of Fe3+ on garnet-orthopy roxene and garnet-olivine geothermometers.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 167, pp. 972- ( 11p).TechnologyGeothermometry
DS201412-0822
2014
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Gerdes, A., Hoefer, H.E.Mantle eclogites and garnet pyroxenites - the meaning of two point isochrons, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf closure temperatures and the cooling of the subcratonic mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 389, pp. 143-154.MantleGeochronology
DS201504-0217
2015
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P.Ancient mantle metsomatism recorded in subcalcic garnet xenocrysts: temporal links between mantle metasomatism, diamond growth and crustal tectonomagmatism.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 418, pp. 27-39.MantleMetasomatism
DS201509-0386
2015
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Girnis, A.V., Bulatov, V.K., Hofer, H.E., Gerdes, A., Woodland, A.B.Reduced sediment melting at 7.5-12 Gpa: phase relations, geochemical signals and diamond nucleation.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 170, 25p.TechnologyExperimental petrology

Abstract: Melting of carbonated sediment in the presence of graphite or diamond was experimentally investigated at 7.5–12 GPa and 800–1600 °C in a multianvil apparatus. Two starting materials similar to GLOSS of Plank and Langmuir (Chem Geol 145:325–394, 1998) were prepared from oxides, carbonates, hydroxides and graphite. One mixture (Na-gloss) was identical in major element composition to GLOSS, and the other was poorer in Na and richer in K (K-gloss). Both starting mixtures contained ~6 wt% CO2 and 7 wt% H2O and were doped at a ~100 ppm level with a number of trace elements, including REE, LILE and HFSE. The near-solidus mineral assemblage contained a silica polymorph (coesite or stishovite), garnet, kyanite, clinopyroxene, carbonates (aragonite and magnesite-siderite solid solution), zircon, rutile, bearthite and hydrous phases (phengite and lawsonite at <9 GPa and the hydrous aluminosilicates topaz-OH and phase egg at >10 GPa). Hydrous phases disappear at ~900 °C, and carbonates persist up to 1000-1100 °C. At temperatures >1200 °C, the mineral assemblage consists of coesite or stishovite, kyanite and garnet. Clinopyroxene stability depends strongly on the Na content in the starting mixture; it remains in the Na-gloss composition up to 1600 °C at 12 GPa, but was not observed in K-gloss experiments above 1200 °C. The composition of melt or fluid changes gradually with increasing temperature from hydrous carbonate-rich (<10 wt% SiO2) at 800-1000 °C to volatile-rich silicate liquids (up to 40 wt% SiO2) at high temperatures. Trace elements were analyzed in melts and crystalline phases by LA ICP MS. The garnet-melt and clinopyroxene-melt partition coefficients are in general consistent with results from the literature for volatile-free systems and silicocarbonate melts derived by melting carbonated peridotites. Most trace elements are strongly incompatible in kyanite and silica polymorphs (D < 0.01), except for V, Cr and Ni, which are slightly compatible in kyanite (D > 1). Aragonite and Fe-Mg carbonate have very different REE partition coefficients (D Mst-Sd/L ~ 0.01 and D Arg/L ~ 1). Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf are strongly incompatible in both carbonates. The bearthite/melt partition coefficients are very high for LREE (>10) and decrease to ~1 for HREE. All HFSE are strongly incompatible in bearthite. In contrast, Ta, Nb, Zr and Hf are moderately to strongly compatible in ZrSiO4 and TiO2 phases. Based on the obtained partition coefficients, the composition of a mobile phase derived by sediment melting in deep subduction zones was calculated. This phase is strongly enriched in incompatible elements and displays a pronounced negative Ta-Nb anomaly but no Zr-Hf anomaly. Although all experiments were conducted in the diamond stability field, only graphite was observed in low-temperature experiments. Spontaneous diamond nucleation and the complete transformation of graphite to diamond were observed at temperatures above 1200-1300 °C. We speculate that the observed character of graphite-diamond transformation is controlled by relationships between the kinetics of metastable graphite dissolution and diamond nucleation in a hydrous silicocarbonate melt that is oversaturated in C.
DS201603-0420
2016
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Hoefer, H.E., Zhao, Z., Pearson, D.G.Kyanite/corundum eclogites from the Kaapvaal craton: subducted troctolites and layered gabbros from the Mid- to Early Archean.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 171, 11, 24p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bellsbank

Abstract: An oceanic crustal origin is the commonly accepted paradigm for mantle-derived eclogites. However, the significance of the aluminous members of the eclogite suite, containing kyanite and corundum, has long been underrated and their role neglected in genetic models of cratonic evolution. Here, we present a geochemical and petrological study of a suite of kyanite- and corundum-bearing eclogites from the Bellsbank kimberlite, S. Africa, which originate from depths between 150 and 200 km. Although clearly of high-pressure provenance, these rocks had a low-pressure cumulative origin with plagioclase and olivine as major cumulate phases. This is shown by the very pronounced positive Eu anomalies, low REE abundances, and d 18O values lower than the Earth’s mantle. Many chemical features are identical to modern-day troctolitic cumulates including a light REE depletion akin to MORB, but there are also distinguishing features in that the eclogites are richer in Na, Fe, and Ni. Two of the eclogites have a minimum age of ~3.2 Ga, defined by the extremely unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (0.7007) in clinopyroxene. Phase equilibria indicate that the parent melts were formed by partial melting below an Archean volcanic center that generated (alkali-)picritic to high-alumina tholeiitic melts from a mantle whose oxygen fugacity was lower than today. Fractional crystallization produced troctolites with immiscible sulfide melt droplets within the mafic crust. Instability of the mafic crust led to deep subduction and re-equilibration at 4 6 GPa. Phase relationships plus the presence of a sample with appreciable modal corundum but no Eu anomaly suggest that kyanite- and corundum-bearing eclogites may also originate as plagioclase-free, higher pressure cumulates of highly aluminous clinopyroxene, spinel, and olivine. This is consistent with the crystallizing phase assemblage from an olivine tholeiitic to picritic magma deeper in the Archean oceanic crust or uppermost mantle. We postulate that the magmatic and subduction processes driving modern plate tectonics already existed in the Meso- to Early Archean.
DS201805-0945
2018
Brey, G.P.Girnis, A.V., Brey, G.P., Bulatov, V.K., Hofer, H.E., Woodland, A.B.Graphite to diamond transformation during sediment-peridotite interaction at 7.5 and 10.5 Gpa.Lithos, in press available 42p.Mantleperidotites

Abstract: Diamond nucleation and growth were investigated experimentally at 7.5 and 10.5?GPa and temperatures up to 1500?°C. Samples consisted of two layers: i) H2O- and CO2-bearing model sediment and ii) graphite-bearing garnet harzburgite comprising natural minerals. Two experimental series were conducted, one under a controlled temperature gradient with the sedimentary layer usually in the cold zone and the other under isothermal conditions. In the latter case, diamond seeds were added to the sedimentary mixture. During the experiments, the sedimentary layer partially or completely melted, with the melt percolating and interacting with the adjacent harzburgite. The graphite-to-diamond transition in the peridotite was observed above 1300?°C at 7.5?GPa and 1200?°C at 10.5?GPa in the temperature-gradient experiments, and at temperatures ~100?°C lower in the isothermal experiments with diamond seeds. Newly formed diamond occurs mostly as individual grains up to 10?µm in size and is separate from graphite aggregates. In some cases, an association of diamond with magnesite was observed. Diamond nucleation occurs in hydrous and CO2-bearing silicate melt following graphite dissolution and recrystallization. In the case of the diamond-magnesite association, diamond was probably formed through carbonate reduction coupled with graphite oxidation. The composition of the melts ranged from “carbonatitic” with ~10?wt% SiO2 and?>?50?wt% volatiles to hydrous silicate with ~40?wt% SiO2 and?
DS201806-1248
2018
Brey, G.P.Seitz, H-M., Brey, G.P., Harris, J.W., Durali-Muller, S., Ludwig, T., Hofer, H.E.Ferropericlase inclusions in ultradeep diamonds from Sao Luiz ( Brazil): high Li abundances and diverse Li-isotope and trace element compositions suggest an origin from a subduction melange.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 10p.South America, Brazil, Juinadeposit - Sao Luiz

Abstract: The most remarkable feature of the inclusion suite in ultradeep alluvial and kimberlitic diamonds from Sao Luiz (Juina area in Brazil) is the enormous range in Mg# [100xMg/(Mg?+?Fe)] of the ferropericlases (fper). The Mg-richer ferropericlases are from the boundary to the lower mantle or from the lower mantle itself when they coexist with ringwoodite or Mg- perovskite (bridgmanite). This, however, is not an explanation for the more Fe-rich members and a lowermost mantle or a “D” layer origin has been proposed for them. Such a suggested ultra-deep origin separates the Fe-rich fper-bearing diamonds from the rest of the Sao Luiz ultradeep diamond inclusion suite, which also contains Ca-rich phases. These are now thought to have an origin in the uppermost lower mantle and in the transition zone and to belong either to a peridotitic or mafic (subducted oceanic crust) protolith lithology. We analysed a new set of more Fe-rich ferropericlase inclusions from 10 Sao Luiz ultradeep alluvial diamonds for their Li isotope composition by solution MC-ICP-MS (multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), their major and minor elements by EPMA (electron probe micro-analyser) and their Li-contents by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry), with the aim to understand the origin of the ferropericlase protoliths. Our new data confirm the wide range of ferropericlase Mg# that were reported before and augment the known lack of correlation between major and minor elements. Four pooled ferropericlase inclusions from four diamonds provided sufficient material to determine for the first time their Li isotope composition, which ranges from d7Li?+?9.6 ‰ to -3.9 ‰. This wide Li isotopic range encompasses that of serpentinized ocean floor peridotites including rodingites and ophicarbonates, fresh and altered MORB (mid ocean ridge basalt), seafloor sediments and of eclogites. This large range in Li isotopic composition, up to 5 times higher than ‘primitive upper mantle’ Li-abundances, and an extremely large and incoherent range in Mg# and Cr, Ni, Mn, Na contents in the ferropericlase inclusions suggests that their protoliths were members of the above lithologies. This mélange of altered rocks originally contained a variety of carbonates (calcite, magnesite, dolomite, siderite) and brucite as the secondary products in veins and as patches and Ca-rich members like rodingites and ophicarbonates. Dehydration and redox reactions during or after deep subduction into the transition zone and the upper parts of the lower mantle led to the formation of diamond and ferropericlase inclusions with variable compositions and a predominance of the Ca-rich, high-pressure silicate inclusions. We suggest that the latter originated from peridotites, mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks as redox products between calcite and SiO2.
DS201807-1480
2018
Brey, G.P.Brey, G.P., Shu, Q.The birth, growth and ageing of the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle.Mineralogy and Petrology, 10.1007/ s00710-018- 0577-8, 19p. Africametasomatism, subduction, geobarometry

Abstract: The Kaapvaal craton and its underlying mantle is probably one of the best studied Archean entity in the world. Despite that, discussion is still vivid on important aspects. A major debate over the last few decades is the depth of melting that generated the mantle nuclei of cratons. Our new evaluation of melting parameters in peridotite residues shows that the Cr2O3/Al2O3 ratio is the most useful pressure sensitive melting barometer. It irrevocably constrains the pressure of melting (melt separation) to less than 2 GPa with olivine (ol), orthopyroxene (opx) and spinel (sp) as residual phases. Garnet (grt) grows at increasing pressure during lithosphere thickening and subduction via the reaction opx?+?sp ? grt?+?ol. The time of partial melting is constrained by Re-depletion model ages (TRD) mainly to the Archean (Pearson and Wittig 2008). However, only 3% of the ages are older than 3.1 Ga while crustal ages lie mainly between 3.1 to 2.8 Ga for the W- and 3.7 to 2.8 Ga for the E-block. Many TRD-ages are probably falsified by metasomatism and the main partial melting period was older than 3.1 Ga. Also, Nd- and Hf- model ages of peridotitic lithologies from the W-block are 3.2 to 3.6 Ga old. The corresponding very negative eNd (-40) and eHf values (-65) signal the presence of subducted crustal components in these old mantle portions. Subducted components diversify the mantle in its chemistry and thermal structure. Adjustment towards a stable configuration occurs by fluid transfer, metasomatism, partial melting and heat transfer. Ages of metasomatism from the Lu-Hf isotope system are 3.2 Ga (Lace), 2.9 Ga (Roberts Victor) and 2.62 Ga (Finsch) coinciding with the collision of cratonic blocks, the growth of diamonds, metamorphism of eclogites and of Ventersdoorp magmatism. The cratonic lithosphere was stabilized thermally by the end of the Archean and cooled since then with a rate of 0.07 °C/Ma.
DS201807-1525
2018
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q., Brey, G.P., Pearson, D.G.Eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from Kimberley, Kaapvaal craton, South Africa: their diverse origins and complex metasomatic signatures.Mineralogy and Petrology, June 14, DOI:10.1007/ s00710-018 -0595-6, 16p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Boshof

Abstract: We describe the petrography and mineral chemistry of sixteen eclogite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the reworked Boshof road dump (Kimberley) and define three groups that stem from different depths. Group A, the shallowest derived, has low HREE (heavy rare earth element) abundances, flat middle to heavy REE patterns and high Mg# [= 100•Mg/(Mg?+?Fe)]. Their protoliths probably were higher pressure cumulates (~ 0.7 GPa) of mainly clinopyroxene (cpx) and subordinate orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine (ol). Group B1 xenoliths, derived from the graphite/diamond boundary and below show similarities to present-day N-MORB that were modified by partial melting (higher Mg# and positively inclined MREE (middle REE) and HREE (heavy REE) patterns of calculated bulk rocks). Group B2 samples from greatest depth are unique amongst eclogites reported so far worldwide. The calculated bulk rocks have humped REE patterns with very low La and Lu and prominent maxima at Sm or Eu and anomalously high Na2O (up to 5 wt%) which makes protolith identification difficult. The complex trace element signatures of the full spectrum of Kimberley eclogites belie a multi-stage history of melt depletion and metasomatism with the introduction of new phases especially of phlogopite (phlog). Phlogopite appears to be characteristic for Kimberley eclogites and garnet peridotites. Modelling the metasomatic overprint indicates that groups A and B1 were overprinted by volatile- and potassium-rich melts probably by a process of chromatographic fractionation. Using constraints from other metasomatized Kimberley mantle rocks suggest that much of the metasomatic phlogopite in the eclogites formed during an intense episode of metasomatism that affected the mantle beneath this region 1.1 Gyr ago.
DS201908-1815
2019
Brey, G.P.Shu, Q, Brey, G.P., Pearson, G., Liu, J., Gibson, S.A., Becker, H.The evolution of the Kaapvaal craton: a multi-isotopic perspective from lithospheric peridotites from Finsch diamond mine.Precambrian Research, 105380, 21p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Finsch

Abstract: Accurately dating the formation and modification of Earth’s sub-cratonic mantle still faces many challenges, primarily due to the long and complex history of depletion and subsequent metasomatism of this reservoir. In an attempt to improve this, we carried out the first study on peridotites from the Kaapvaal craton (Finsch Mine) that integrates results from Re-Os, Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd and Sr-isotope systems together with analyses of major-, trace- and platinum-group elements. The Finsch peridotites are well-suited for such a study because certain compositional features reflect they were highly depleted residues of shallow melting (1.5?GPa) at ambient Archean mantle temperatures. Yet, many of them have overabundant orthopyroxene, garnet and clinopyroxene compared to expected modal amounts for residues from partial melting. Finsch peridotites exhibit a wide range of rhenium depletion ages (TRD) from present day to 2.7?Ga, with a prominent mode at 2.5?Ga. This age overlaps well with a Lu-Hf isochron of 2.64?Ga (eHf (t)?=?+26) which records silico-carbonatitic metasomatism of the refractory residues. This late Archean metasomatism is manifested by positive correlations of Pt/Ir and Pd/Ir with 187Os/188Os ratios and good correlations of modal amounts of silicates, especially garnet, with Os isotope ratios. These correlations suggest that the Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) and incompatible element reenrichment and modal metasomatism result from one single major metasomatic event at late Archean. Our detailed study of Finsch peridotites highlights the importance of using multiple isotopic systems, to constrain the ages of events defining the evolution of lithospheric mantle. The Re-Os isotope system is very effective in documenting the presence of Archean lithosphere, but only the oldest TRD ages may accurately date or closely approach the age of the last major partial melting event. For a meaningful interpretation of the Re-Os isotope systematics the data must be combined with HSE patterns, trace-element compositions and ideally other isotopic systems, e.g. Lu-Hf. This is highlighted by the widespread evidence in Finsch peridotites of Pt, Pd and Re enrichment through significant Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) addition (mainly in the range of 0.002-0.08?wt%) that systematically shifts the mode of TRD model ages to younger ages.
DS1900-0109
1902
Brezina, A.Brezina, A., Cohen, E.Ueber Ein Meteoreisen von Mukerop, Bezirk Gibeon, Grossnamaland. Ueber Ein Meteoreisen von Mukerop, Bezirk Gibeon, Gross Namaland.Jh. Ver. Vaterl. Naturk. Wuertt., Vol. 58, PP. 292-302. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie 1903 BD. 1, PPSouthwest Africa, Namibia, JerusalemMeteorite, Brukkaros
DS201608-1419
2016
Briais, A.Maia, M., Sichel, S., Briais, A., Brunelli, D., Ligi, M., Ferreira, N., Campos, T., Mougel, B., Brehme, I., Hemond, C., Motoki, A., Moura, D., Scalabrin, C., Pessanha, I., Alves, E., Ayres, A., Oliveira, P.Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, 8, pp. 619-623.MantleRidges

Abstract: Mantle exhumation at slow-spreading ridges is favoured by extensional tectonics through low-angle detachment faults1, 2, 3, 4, and, along transforms, by transtension due to changes in ridge/transform geometry5, 6. Less common, exhumation by compressive stresses has been proposed for the large-offset transforms of the equatorial Atlantic7, 8. Here we show, using high-resolution bathymetry, seismic and gravity data, that the northern transform fault of the St Paul system has been controlled by compressive deformation since ~10?million years ago. The long-lived transpression resulted from ridge overlap due to the propagation of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment into the transform domain, which induced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault creating restraining stepovers. An anticlockwise change in plate motion at ~11?million years ago5 initially favoured extension in the left-stepping transform, triggering the formation of a transverse ridge, later uplifted through transpression, forming the St Peter and St Paul islets. Enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis due to the nearby Sierra Leone thermo chemical anomaly9 is responsible for the robust response of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment to the kinematic change. The long-lived process at the origin of the compressive stresses is directly linked to the nature of the underlying mantle and not to a change in the far-field stress regime.
DS201312-0088
2013
Briand, X.Bou, P., Poli, P., Campillo, M., Pedersen, H., Briand, X., Roux, P.Teleseismic correlations of ambient seismic noise for deep global imaging of the Earth.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 194, 2, pp. 844-848.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS2000-0108
2000
Brice, T.Brice, T.Acquisition and processing of single sensor seismic dataPreview ( Australia Exploration Geophys), Aug. pp. 21-23, 4.GlobalGeophysics - seismics, Not specific to diamonds
DS1990-0238
1990
Brice, W.C.Brice, W.C., Lehmann, E.K., Beck, J.W., Knoll, A.Mining in Minnesota: balancing environmental protection and economicdevelopmentAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, No. 90-26, 10pMinnesotaLaw, Mining regulations
DS1991-0174
1991
Brice, W.C.Brice, W.C., Lewis, K.A.Exploration and development of minerals in MinnesotaSkillings Mining Review, Vol. 80, No. 40, October 5, pp. 4-7MinnesotaGeneral overview of exploration
DS1983-0148
1983
Brice, W.R.Brey, G., Brice, W.R., et al.Pyroxene Carbonate Reactions in the Upper MantleEarth Planet. Sci. Letters, Vol. 62, No. 1, PP. 63-74.GlobalKimberlitic Magmas, Mineralogy, Melilitite
DS1990-0239
1990
Briceno, H.Briceno, H., Schubert, C., Paolini, J.Table -mountain geology and surficial geochemistry: Chimanta Massif, Venezuelan Guyana ShieldJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 179-194VenezuelaShield, Geochemistry
DS1982-0120
1982
Briceno, H.O.Briceno, H.O.Application of Remote Sensing to Diamond Placer Explorationin a Tropical Jungle Environment Caroni River, Venezuela.Ph.d. Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 176P.South America, VenezuelaRegional Geology, Remote Sensing, Slar, Leaneaments, Kimberlite
DS1982-0121
1982
Briceno, H.O.Briceno, H.O., Lee, K.Application of Land sat Dat a to Geologic Mapping Tropical Jungle Environment, Caroni River Basin, Venezuela.International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment Proceedings, 16TH. Vol. 1, PP. 123-133.GlobalSide, Scanning Radar, Diamonds
DS1985-0084
1985
Briceno, H.O.Briceno, H.O.Genesis of Venezuelan Ore Deposits. 2. Diamond Placers of San Salvador de Paul.Act. Cient., Vol. 36, No. 2, PP. 154-158.South America, VenezuelaGeomorphology, Mineralogy
DS1992-1500
1992
Brich, W.D.Sutherland, F.L., Hollis, J.D., Brich, W.D.Xenolith samples of a young mantle crust magma chamber, related to the Newer basalts of western VIC and relevant to the southeast Australia geotherm.11th. Australian Geol. Convention Held Ballarat University College, Jan., Listing of papers to be given attempting to get volAustraliaMantle, Xenoliths
DS1981-0100
1981
Brichta, A.Brichta, A.Sedimentology and Genesis of Diamondiferous Conglomerates Of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Lower Proterozoic Eastern Brasil.Freiburg: Ph.d. Thesis, University Freiburg, 48P. 6 TABLES, 20 PL. BGR-1981 B 1693.Brazil, Minas GeraisSedimentology, Genesis, Precambrian Conglomerate
DS201312-0098
2013
Brick, R.Brick, R.World's oldest eclogites? equilibration temperatures constraints on 2 Ga metalpelitic hosted eclogites from the Usagaran Orogen, Tanzania.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, TanzaniaEclogite
DS201312-0948
2013
Brick, R.Walsh, A., Hand, M., Collins, A., Brick, R.World's oldest eclogites? Phase equilibration temperatures constraints on 2 Ga metaleitic hosted eclogites frm the Usagaran orogen, Tanzania.Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractAfrica, TanzaniaEclogite
DS1988-0083
1988
Briddon, P.Briddon, P., Jones, R., Lister, G.M.S.Hydrogen in diamondJournal of Phys. Cond.: Solid State Physics, Vol. 21, No. 30, pp. L1027-L1031GlobalDiamond morphology
DS2003-0487
2003
Briddon, P.R.Goss, J.P., Coomer, B.J., Jones, R., Fall, C.J., Briddon, P.R., Oberg, S.Extended defects in diamond: the interstitial plateletPhysical Review, Vol. 67, 16, 15p.GlobalBlank
DS200412-0700
2003
Briddon, P.R.Goss, J.P., Coomer, B.J., Jones, R., Fall, C.J., Briddon, P.R., Oberg, S.Extended defects in diamond: the interstitial platelet.Physical Review Letters, Vol. 67, 16, 15p.TechnologyDiamond - morphology
DS200512-0355
2004
Briddon, P.R.Goss, J.P., Briddon, P.R., Papagiannidis, S., Jones, R.Interstitial nitrogen and its complexes in diamond.Physical Review Letters, Vol. 70, 23, pp. 235208.Diamond inclusions
DS200612-0082
2006
Briddon, P.R.Bangert, U., Barnes, R., Hounsome, L.S., Jones, R., Blumenau, A.T., Briddon, P.R., Shaw, M.J., Oberg, S.Electron energy loss spectroscopic studies of brown diamonds.Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 86, no. 29/31, pp. 4757-4780.TechnologyBrown diamonds
DS200612-0604
2006
Briddon, P.R.Hounsome, L.S., Jones, R., Martineau, P.M., Fisher, D., Shaw, M.J., Briddon, P.R., Oberg, S.Origin of brown coloration in diamond.Physical Review Letters, Vol. 73, 12, pp. 125203 ( 8 pages)TechnologyDiamond - colour
DS200712-0051
2006
Briddon, P.R.Bangert, U., Barnes, R., Hounsome, L.S., Jones, R., Bhumenau, A.T., Briddon, P.R., Shaw, M.J., Oberg, S.Electron energy loss spectroscopic studies of brown diamonds.Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 86, no. 29-31, pp. 4757-4779.TechnologyType IIa diamonds
DS200712-0387
2007
Briddon, P.R.Gross, J.P., Briddon, P.R., Shaw, M.J.Density functional simulations of silicon containing point defects in diamond.Physical Review Letters, Vol. 76, 7, pp. 075204. Ingenta 1074186736TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS201112-0382
2011
Briddon, P.R.Goss, J.P., Ewels, C.P., Briddon, P.R., Fritsch, E.Bistable N2-H complexes: the first proprosed structure of a H-related colour causing defect in diamond.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 20, 7, pp. 896-901.TechnologyDiamond chameleon
DS1981-0101
1981
Briden, J.C.Briden, J.C., Whitcombe, D.N., Stuart, G.W., Fairhead, J.D.Depth of Geological Contact Across the West African Craton Margin.Nature., Vol. 292, JULY 9TH., PP. 123-128.West Africa, Senegal, GuineaTectonics
DS1997-1229
1997
Bridge, G.Warhurst, A., Bridge, G.Economic liberalisation, innovation, and technology transfer: opportunities for cleaner production..Nat. Res. forum, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1-12GlobalEconomics, Mining industry - production, environmental, legal
DS1930-0018
1930
Bridge, J.Bridge, J.Geology of the Eminence and Cardareva QuadranglesMissouri Bureau of Geology And Mines, SER. 2, Vol. 24, No. 228, 4P.Missouri, United States, Central StatesAlnoite, Related Rocks, Avon Diatreme
DS1993-0162
1993
Bridge, J.S.Bridge, J.S.Description and interpretation of fluvial deposits: a critical perspective #1Sedimentology, Vol. 40, No. 4, August, pp. 801-810GlobalAlluvial deposits, Review -brief of fluvial deposits
DS1994-0209
1994
Bridge, J.S.Bridge, J.S.The interaction between channel geometry, water flow, sediment transportand deposition in braided riversBest, and Bristow, Braided Rivers Geological Society of London, No. 75, pp. 13-71GlobalSedimentology, Geomorphology, Channel geometry
DS1950-0128
1953
Bridge, T.Bridge, T.The Petrology and Petrography of the Igneous Rocks of Rileycounty, Kansas.Msc. Thesis, Kansas State University, GlobalKimberlite, Mineralogy, Petrology
DS201604-0626
2016
Bridges, D.L.Shavers, E.J., Ghulam, A., Encarnacion, J., Bridges, D.L., Luetemeyer, P.B.Carbonatite associated with the ultramafic diatremes in the Avon volcanic district, Missouri, USA: field, petrographic and geochemical constraints.Lithos, Vol. 248, pp. 506-516.United States, MissouriCarbonatite

Abstract: Here we report field, petrographic, and geochemical analyses of the southeast Missouri Avon Volcanic District intrusive rocks and present the first combined textural and geochemical evidence for the presence of a primary magmatic carbonatite phase among ultramafic dikes, pipes, and diatremes of olivine melilitite, alnöite, and calciocarbonatite. The d13CVPDB values measured for primary calciocarbonatite as well as carbonates in olivine melilitite and alnöite rocks range from - 3.8‰ to - 8.2‰, which are within the typical range of mantle values and are distinct from values of the carbonate country rocks, 0.0‰ to - 1.3‰. The carbonate oxygen isotope compositions for the intrusive lithologies are in the range of 21.5‰ to 26.2‰ (VSMOW), consistent with post-emplacement low temperature hydrothermal alteration or kinetic fractionation effects associated with decompression and devolatilization. Metasomatized country rock and breccia-contaminated igneous lithologies have carbonate d13CVPDB values gradational between primary carbonatite values and country rock values. Unaltered sedimentary dolomite breccia and mafic spheroids entrained by calciocarbonatite and the lack of microstratigraphic crystal growth typical of carbonate replacement, also exclude the possibility of hydrothermal replacement as the cause of the magmatic-textured carbonates. Rare earth element (REE) patterns for the alnöite, olivine melilitite, and carbonatite are similar to each other with strong light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion relative to MORB. These patterns are distinct from those of country rock rhyolite and sedimentary carbonate. These data suggest that rocks of the Avon Volcanic District represent a single ultramafic-carbonatite intrusive complex possibly derived from a single mantle source.
DS201610-1861
2016
Bridges, D.L.Freeman, Z.W., Hames, W., Bridges, D.L.The Devonian Avon alkaline province, Missouri: characterization of subcontinental mantle source and evolution from olivine phenocrysts.GSA Annual Meeting, 1/2p. abstractUnited States, MissouriAlnoite, melilitite

Abstract: We present new data on the crystallization age of, and composition of olivine phenocrysts within, an alnöite and olivine melilitite of the Avon Alkalic Igneous Province (AAIP) of Missouri. The AAIP is an ultramafic igneous province consisting of more than 80 known lithologically and texturally diverse intrusions, cropping out in northeastern flank of the St. Francois Mtn. Terrane. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of biotite phenocrysts constrains emplacement to 386 +/- 1 Ma. Xenocrystic biotite from one sample yields 40Ar/39Ar age spectra characteristic of episodic loss, indicating crystallization at ca. 1.3 Ga followed by partial loss in the ultramafic magma at 386 Ma. Olivines within the alnöite are subhedral, variably serpentinized, and embayed. Olivines within the melilitite are euhedral, but extensively serpentinized. Disequilibrium textures observed in alnöite olivine are consistent with resorption of magmatic olivine as a result of decompression during crystallization. Euhedral olivine within the melilitite appear to have remained in equilibrium with melt, suggesting derivation of alnöite and melilitite from unique magmas. Major and trace elemental abundances of olivine from the alnöite were characterized with electron probe microanalysis. Olivines are Mg-rich (Fo86.9-Fo89.9), and exhibit systematic variation in trace element (e.g., Ni (1627 to 3580 ppm), Cr (97 to 1603 ppm), Co (149 to 259 ppm), Ti (11 to 267 ppm), Al (undetectable to 923 ppm), and P (undetectable to 433 ppm)) abundances with decreasing forsterite content consistent with fractional crystallization. All geothermometers yield a range in temperature, e.g., the Al in olivine (De Hoog et al., 2009) yield temperatures of 1087° to 1313° C at depths of 80 km to 180 km (modern-day midcontinental LAB). Olivine trace element discrimination diagrams indicate AAIP magmas were derived from mantle sources with an alkalic affinity, similar to other continental alkaline rocks and kimberlite. A mantle origin via partial melting of carbonated peridotite mantle is suggested due to the high Mg content, results of geothermometric modeling, and high Ca and Ti abundance within olivine phenocrysts. Melting of the mantle may have ben triggered by "Acadian" tectonic events.
DS1990-0240
1990
Bridges, S.R.Bridges, S.R.The future of desk top computers in geophysicsLeading Edge of Exploration (Geophysics News letter), Vol. 9, No. 3, March pp. 17-21GlobalComputers, Geophysics
DS1991-0175
1991
Bridgett, I.S.Bridgett, I.S., Miller, T.R.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Library /SIGCAT CD-ROM compendiuMUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 91-0040, 171p. paper copy $ 26.50GlobalLibrary, Compendium of CD-ROM.
DS1999-0797
1999
BridgewaterWilligers, B.J.A., Mengel, F.C., Bridgewater, WijbransMafic dike swarms as absolute time markers in high grade terranes: 40Ar39Ar geochronological constraintsGeology, Vol. 27, No. 9, Sept. pp. 775-8.GreenlandKangamiut dikes, Geochronology
DS1989-0175
1989
Bridgewater, D.Bridgewater, D.Fluid movements - element transport and the composition of the deepKluwer Academic Publ, 395pGlobalCrust -fluid, Mantle
DS1989-1142
1989
Bridgewater, D.Nutman, A.P., Fryer, B.J., Bridgewater, D.The Early Archean Nulliak (supracrustal assemblage, northern Labrador)Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 2159-68.Labrador, QuebecRegional setting
DS1989-1353
1989
Bridgewater, D.Schiotte, L., Compston, W., Bridgewater, D.Ion probe uranium-thorium-lead-zircon dating of polymetamorphic orthogneisses from northern Labrador.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 1533-56.Labrador, QuebecGeochronology
DS1989-1354
1989
Bridgewater, D.Schiotte, L., Compston, W., Bridgewater, D.Uranium-thorium-lead ages of single zircons in Archean supracrustals from Nain Labrador.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 2636-44.Labrador, QuebecGeochronology
DS1997-0971
1997
Bridgewater, D.Romer, R.L., Bridgewater, D.Geochronologic significance of lead lines from old cratonsChemical Geology, Vol. 136, No. 1/2, March 27, pp. 125-134.Craton, Geochronology
DS1994-1884
1994
Bridgewaterm D.Wardle, R.J., Bridgewaterm D., Menegl, Cambell, et al.Mapping in the Torngat Orogen, no. 3 the Nain Craton.. ultramafic dyke occurrences in northern most LabradorNewfld. Department of Mines, Report, No. 94-1, pp. 399-407.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorNain Craton
DS2003-1468
2003
Bridgland, D.Westaway, R., Bridgland, D., Mishra, S.Rheological differences between Archean and younger crust can determine rates ofTerra Nova, Vol. 15, pp. 287-298.South Africa, AustraliaTectonics, geomorphology
DS200412-2102
2003
Bridgland, D.Westaway, R., Bridgland, D., Mishra, S.Rheological differences between Archean and younger crust can determine rates of Quaternary vertical motions revealed by fluvialTerra Nova, Vol. 15, pp. 287-298.Africa, South Africa, AustraliaTectonics, geomorphology
DS1910-0460
1915
Bridgman, H.B.Bridgman, H.B.Gems; Brooklyn: Priv. Publishing, 1915Brooklyn: Priv. Publishing, 117P.GlobalKimberley, Diamonds
DS1991-0176
1991
Bridgwater, D.Bridgwater, D.The Anabar shield field conference July 17-27 Siberia 1990Geoscience Canada, Vol. 18, No. 1, March pp. 28-32RussiaPrecambrian shield, Conference report
DS1996-1213
1996
Bridgwater, D.Rosing, M.T., Rose, N.M., Bridgwater, D., Thomsen, H.S.Earliest part of Earth's stratigraphic record: a reappraisal of the >3.7 GaIsua supracrustal sequenceGeology, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan. pp. 43-46GreenlandArchean crust, Stratigraphy
DS201412-0072
2014
Briers, C.Briers, C.The importance of asset management systems in Rockwell Diamonds.GSSA Kimberley Diamond Symposium and Trade Show provisional programme, Sept. 10-12, POSTERAfrica, South AfricaMetallurgy
DS200612-0675
2006
BriesacherKeller, G.R., Hildenbrand, Kucks, Webring, Briesacher, Rujawitz, Hittleman, Roman, Winester, Aldouri et al.A community effort to construct a gravity database for the United States and an associated Web portal.In: Sinha, A.K. Geoinformatics: data to knowledge, GSA Special Paper, 397, 397, pp.21-34 rUnited StatesGeophysics - gravity data
DS200512-0114
2005
Brietkreuz, C.Brietkreuz, C., Petford, N.Physical geology of high level magmatic systems.Geological Society of London, SP 234, 262p.Mantle, Europe, PolandBook - magmatism, laccoliths, sills
DS2003-0345
2003
Brietsprecher, K.Dostal, J., Brietsprecher, K., Church, B.N., Thorkelson, D., Hamilton, T.S.Eocene melting of Precambrian lithospheric mantle: analcime bearing volcanic rocksJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 126, 3-4, Aug. 20, pp. 303-326.British ColumbiaMetasomatism
DS200412-0471
2003
Brietsprecher, K.Dostal, J., Brietsprecher, K., Church, B.N., Thorkelson, D., Hamilton, T.S.Eocene melting of Precambrian lithospheric mantle: analcime bearing volcanic rocks from the Challis Kam loops belt of south centrJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 126, 3-4, Aug. 20, pp. 303-326.Canada, British ColumbiaMetasomatism
DS200512-1086
2004
Brietsprecher, K.Thorkelson, D.J., Brietsprecher, K.Partial melting of slab window margins: genesis of adakitic and non-adalitic magmas.Lithos, Vol. 79, pp. 25-41.MantleSubduction, magmatism, dynamic melting
DS2003-0159
2003
Brigadier Gold LimitedBrigadier Gold LimitedAnnounces major expansion.... Kirkland Lake Larder Lake diamond projectBrigadier Gold Ltd., January, 6p.OntarioPress release
DS1993-0163
1993
Brigatti, M.F.Brigatti, M.F., Contini, S., Capedri, S., Poppi, L.Crystal chemistry and cation ordering in pseudobrookite and armalcolite from Spanish lamproitesEuropean Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 5, pp. 73-84GlobalLamproites, Geochemistry
DS1996-0175
1996
Brigatti, M.F.Brigatti, M.F., Medici, L., Saccani, E., Vaccaro, C.Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of iron rich phlogopite From the Tapira carbonatite complex.American Mineralogist, Vol. 81, July-Aug. pp. 913-927.BrazilCarbonatite, Deposit -Tapira
DS2001-0133
2001
Brigatti, M.F.Brigatti, M.F., Medici, L., Poppi, VaccaroCrystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas 1M from the Alto Paranaiba igneous provinceCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 39, No. 5, Oct. pp. 1333-46.BrazilAlkaline rocks, Carbonatite
DS200412-0207
2004
Brigatti, M.R.Brigatti, M.R., Malferrari, D., Medici, L., Ottolini, L., Poppi, L.Crystal chemistry of apatites from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 16, 4,pp. 677-685.South America, BrazilMineral chemistry
DS1985-0085
1985
Brigaud, F.Brigaud, F., Lucazeau, F., Ly, S., Sauvage, J.F.Heat Flow from the West African ShieldGeophysical Research. LETTERS, Vol. 12, No. 9, SEPTEMBER PP. 549-552.West AfricaBlank
DS201807-1507
2018
Briggs, R.Levandowski, W., Herrmann, R.B., Briggs, R., Boyd, O., Gold, R.An updated stress map of the continental United States reveals heterogeneous intraplate stress. TectonicsNature Geoscience, Vol. 11, 6, pp. 433-437.United Statesgeodynamics

Abstract: Knowledge of the state of stress in Earth’s crust is key to understanding the forces and processes responsible for earthquakes. Historically, low rates of natural seismicity in the central and eastern United States have complicated efforts to understand intraplate stress, but recent improvements in seismic networks and the spread of human-induced seismicity have greatly improved data coverage. Here, we compile a nationwide stress map based on formal inversions of focal mechanisms that challenges the idea that deformation in continental interiors is driven primarily by broad, uniform stress fields derived from distant plate boundaries. Despite plate-boundary compression, extension dominates roughly half of the continent, and second-order forces related to lithospheric structure appear to control extension directions. We also show that the states of stress in several active eastern United States seismic zones differ significantly from those of surrounding areas and that these anomalies cannot be explained by transient processes, suggesting that earthquakes are focused by persistent, locally derived sources of stress. Such spatially variable intraplate stress appears to justify the current, spatially variable estimates of seismic hazard. Future work to quantify sources of stress, stressing-rate magnitudes and their relationship with strain and earthquake rates could allow prospective mapping of intraplate hazard.
DS201904-0719
2019
Briggs, R.Boulard, E., Harmand, M., Guyot, F., Lelong, G., Morard, D., Cabaret, D., Boccato, S., Rosa, A.D., Briggs, R., Pascarelli, S., Fiquet, G.Ferrous iron under oxygen rich conditions in the deep mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 1348-1356.MantleUHP

Abstract: Iron oxides are important end-members of the complex materials that constitute the Earth's interior. Among them, FeO and Fe2O3 have long been considered as the main end-members of the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) states of iron, respectively. All geochemical models assume that high oxygen concentrations are systematically associated to the formation of ferric iron in minerals. The recent discovery of O22- peroxide ions in a phase of chemical formula FeO2Hx stable under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions challenges this general concept. However, up to now, the valences of iron and oxygen in FeO2Hx have only been indirectly inferred from a structural analogy with pyrite FeS2. Here we compressed goethite (FeOOH), an Fe3+-bearing mineral, at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions by using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells, and we probed the iron oxidation state upon transformation of FeOOH in the pressure-temperature stability field of FeO2Hx using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The data demonstrate that upon this transformation iron has transformed into ferrous Fe2+. Such reduced iron despite high oxygen concentrations suggests that our current views of oxidized and reduced species in the lower mantle of the Earth should be reconsidered.
DS1983-0149
1983
Briggs, R.P.Briggs, R.P.Comment and Reply on "concentrically Zoned Pattern in the Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Northeastern North America".Geology, Vol. 11, No. 5, P. 318.GlobalMid-continent
DS1992-0163
1992
Briggs, W.Briggs, W., Foster, C.T.Pressure-temperature conditions of Early Proterozoic metamorphism During the Trans-Hudson Orogen as determined rocks straddling the Flin Flon-KisseynewboundaryCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 11, November, pp. 2497-2507ManitobaMetamorphic terrain, Proterozoic
DS1940-0004
1940
Bright, E.Baumann, G., Bright, E.The Lost Republic. the Biography of a Land SurveyorLondon: Faber And Faber Ltd., 269P.South Africa, Orange Free StateKimberlite
DS1997-0128
1997
Bright, J.H.Bright, J.H.Discovery of ore deposits.... teams, luck..Mining Engineering, Vol. 49, No. 10, Oct. pp. 88, 93GlobalEconomics, discoveries, success, Deposits
DS1995-0004
1995
Brighton-Grette, J.Aber, J.S., Bluemle, J.P., Brighton-Grette, J., et al.Glaciotectonic map of North AmericaGeological Society of America (GSA) Map, No. MCHO79, 1: 6, 500, 000 $ 21.00Canada, United StatesMap, Glaciology, glacial, structures
DS1996-0675
1996
Brigueu, L.Jakni, B., Dautria, J-M., Liotard, J-M., Brigueu, L.Evidence of the presence of a carbonated mantle beneath Bas-Languedoc:peridotitic xenoliths Grand Magnon...C.r. Academy Of Science Paris., *french, Vol. 323, iia, pp. 33-40.FranceXenoliths, Basanites, Leucito-nephelinites
DS201112-0391
2011
BrilliGuarino, V., Azzone, Brotzu, De Barros, Melluso, L., Morbidelli, Ruberti, Tassinari, BrilliMagmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium alkaline carbonatitic complex of Ipanema, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available,South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201212-0267
2012
Brilli, M.Guarino, V., Guitarrari Azzone, R., Brotzu, P., Celso de Barros Gomes, Melluso, L., Morbidelli, L.,Ruberti, E.,Tassinari, C., Brilli, M.Magmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium-alkaline-carbonatitic complex of Ipanema Sao Paulo State, Brazil.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 104, 1-2, pp. 43-61.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201709-1994
2017
Brilli, M.Guarino, V., Wu, F-Y., Melluso, L., de Barros Gomes, C., Tassinari, C.C.G., Ruberti, E., Brilli, M.U Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogeneis of the Catalao II carbonatitic complex ( Alto Paranaiba igneous province, Brazil): implucations for regional scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 106, 6, pp. 1963-1989.South America, Brazilcarbonatite - Catalao II

Abstract: The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U–Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri= 0.70503–0.70599; eNdi= -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248–0.28249; eHfi= -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (d13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids (s.l.). The Sr–Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.
DS1997-0129
1997
Brimhall, G.H.Brimhall, G.H., Gustafson, L.B.Maintaining compatibility of mining and the environmentSociety of Economic Geologist, Publishing 70p. $ 10.00United StatesBook - table of contents, Mining, exploration, industry, economics, discoveries
DS1998-1055
1998
Brimhall, G.H. jr.Murphy, J.B., Oppliger, G.L., Brimhall, G.H. jr.Plume modified orogeny: an example from the western United StatesGeology, Vol. 26, No. 8, Aug. pp. 731-4.CordilleraTectonics, Magmatism
DS1975-0041
1975
Brimmer, A.R.Brimmer, A.R., Franklin, C.D.Commissioning of a Process Control Computer at Consolidated diamond Mines.Journal of MIN. MET. SOC. STH. AFR., Vol. 76, PP. 176-178.South Africa, Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamond Mining Recovery, Littoral Placers
DS201312-0099
2013
Brin, L.Brin, L.Age and origin of lithospheric mantle beneath central Victoria Island and Darnley Bay.GEM Diamond Workshop Feb. 21-22, Noted onlyCanada, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Victoria IslandGeochronology
DS201312-0692
2013
Brin, L.Pearson, D.G., Brin, L., Liu, J., Riches, A., Stachel, T., Mather, K.A., Kjarsgaard, B.A.Canada's Arctic cratons: how many, how old, how come?2013 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts, p. 49-50.Canada, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Victoria Island, Parry PeninsulaGeochronology - mantle peridotites
DS201112-0111
2011
Brin, L.E.Brin, L.E., Pearson, D.G., Riches, A.J.V., Miskovic, A., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Kienlen, B., Reford, S.W.Evaluating the northerly extent of the Slave Craton in the Canadian Arctic.Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts for 2011, Poster abstract p. 95.Canada, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Victoria Island, Parry PeninsulaKimberlite borne - xenoliths -
DS201809-2060
2018
Brin, L.E.Liu, J., Brin, L.E., Pearson, D.G., Bretschneider, L., Luguet, A., van Acken, D., Kjarsgaard, B., Riches, A., Miskovic, A.Diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic mantle roots beneath Arctic Canada: a study of mantle xenoliths from Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2018.08.010 78p.Canada, Nunavut, Parry Peninsula. Central Victoria Islandxenoliths

Abstract: While the mantle roots directly beneath Archean cratons have been relatively well studied because of their economic importance, much less is known about the genesis, age, composition and thickness of the mantle lithosphere beneath the regions that surround the cratons. Despite this knowledge gap, it is fundamentally important to establish the nature of relationships between this circum-cratonic mantle and that beneath the cratons, including the diamond potential of circum-cratonic regions. Here we present mineral and bulk elemental and isotopic compositions for kimberlite-borne mantle xenoliths from the Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island, Arctic Canada. These xenoliths provide key windows into the lithospheric mantle underpinning regions to the North and Northwest of the Archean Slave craton, where the presence of cratonic material has been proposed. The mantle xenolith data are supplemented by mineral concentrate data obtained during diamond exploration. The mineral and whole rock chemistry of peridotites from both localities is indistinguishable from that of typical cratonic mantle lithosphere. The cool mantle paleogeotherms defined by mineral thermobarometry reveal that the lithospheric mantle beneath the Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island terranes extended well into the diamond stability field at the time of kimberlite eruption, and this is consistent with the recovery of diamonds from both kimberlite fields. Bulk xenolith Se and Te contents, and highly siderophile element (including Os, Ir, Pt, Pd and Re) abundance systematics, plus corresponding depletion ages derived from Re-Os isotope data suggest that the mantle beneath these parts of Arctic Canada formed in the Paleoproterozoic Era, at ~2?Ga, rather than in the Archean. The presence of a diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic mantle root is part of the growing body of global evidence for diamond generation in mantle roots that stabilized well after the Archean. In the context of regional tectonics, we interpret the highly depleted mantle compositions beneath both studied regions as formed by mantle melting associated with hydrous metasomatism in the major Paleoproterozoic Wopmay-Great Bear-Hottah arc systems. These ~2?Ga arc systems were subsequently accreted along the margin of the Slave craton to form a craton-like thick lithosphere with diamond potential thereby demonstrating the importance of subduction accretion in building up Earth’s long-lived continental terranes.
DS200812-0117
2008
Bringezu, S.Bleischwitz, R., Bringezu, S.Global governance for sustainable resource management.Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 28, 2, pp. 84-101.GlobalGovernance
DS1910-0461
1915
Brink, A.Brink, A.Arend Brink on the Establishment of the Diamond Cutting Industry in South Africa: a Seductive But Impractical Proposition.Kimberley: Diamond Fields Advertiser., 24P.South AfricaHistory
DS1960-0127
1961
Brink, A.B.A.Brink, A.B.A.Report and Geochemical Map of Proposed Trunk Route Marientel to Asab, Southwest Africa.Pretoria: Brink Associates, Southwest Africa, NamibiaKimberlite Occurrences, Kimberley
DS1982-0264
1982
Brink, C.Hausel, W.D., Albert, K., Brink, C., Roberts, J.Report on Investigations Related to Prospecting for Diamond bearing Kimberlite and Related Placer Deposits in Wyoming.Wyoming Geological Survey Open File Report, No. 82-1, 48P.United States, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky Mountains, Green River BasinGeochemistry, Prospecting
DS1983-0150
1983
Brink, C.Brink, C., Albert, K.C., Hausel, W.D.Stream Sediment Sampling for Kimberlite in Colorado-wyoming, and Techniques of Diamond Extraction.Wyoming Geological Survey Public Inf. Circular, No. 19, PP. 40-41.United States, State Line, Colorado, WyomingProspecting, Sampling
DS201212-0598
2012
Brink, F.Rosenthal, A., Green, D.H., Kovacs, I., Hibberson, W.O., Yaxley, G.M., Brink, F.Experimental study of the role of water in the uppermost mantle.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractMantleWater
DS201412-0312
2014
Brink, F.Green, D.H., Hibberson, W.O., Rosenthal, A., Kovasc, I., Yaxley, G.M., Falloon, T.J., Brink, F.Experimental study of the influence of water on melting and phase assemblages in the upper mantle.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 55, 10, pp. 2067-2096.MantleMelting
DS202009-1633
2020
Brink, F.Jaques, A.L., Brink, F., Chen, J.Magmatic haggertyite in olivine lamproites of the West Kimberley region, western Australia.The American Mineralogist, in press available, 31p. PdfAustralialamproites
DS202012-2222
2020
Brink, F.Jaques, A.L., Brink, F., Chen, J.Magmatic haggertyite in olivine lamproites of the West Kimberley region, Western Australia.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 1724-1733.Australialamproites

Abstract: We report the first occurrence of magmatic haggertyite (BaFe6Ti5MgO19) from the Miocene lamproites of the West Kimberley region of Western Australia. This contrasts with the metasomatic formation reported in an olivine lamproite host at the type locality, Prairie Creek, Arkansas. Haggertyite occurs in the groundmass of a diamondiferous olivine lamproite pipe in the Ellendale field, and within the large zoned Walgidee Hills lamproite where it forms part of an extensive suite of Ba- and K-bearing titanate and Ti-rich silicate minerals. The haggertyite co-exists with chromian spinel, perovskite, and ilmenite in the Ellendale lamproite, and with priderite and perovskite and, in one locality, with priderite, jeppeite, ilmenite, and perovskite, in the Walgidee Hills lamproite. Unlike priderite and perovskite, which are common groundmass phases in the Ellendale olivine lamproites and present throughout the Walgidee Hills lamproite, haggertyite appears restricted in its occurrence and crystallization interval, with sparse ilmenite apparently mostly crystallizing as an alternative phase. In the Walgidee Hills lamproite the haggertyite-bearing assemblage is succeeded by the Ba-titanate assemblage priderite plus jeppeite in the evolved central part of the body. The haggertyite in the main zone of the Walgidee Hills lamproite has an average composition of (Ba0.7K0.3)1.0(Ti5.0Fe3+2.1Cr0.1Fe2+3.8Mn0.2Mg0.6Na0.1)12O19 and is thus very similar to the original haggertyite described from xenoliths in the Prairie Creek lamproite apart from being poorer in Cr and Ni. Haggertyite in the groundmass of the Ellendale olivine lamproite and the central zone of the Walgidee Hills lamproite, in addition to variations in Mg and Cr, show significant variation in Ti and Fe contents and in calculated Fe3+ and Fe2+. A linear inverse relationship between Ti and Fe, and Ti and Fe3+, indicates that Fe3+ is accommodated by the coupled substitution Ti4+ + Fe2+ ? 2 Fe3+. A marked trend to higher Fe3+ in the haggertyite in Ellendale 9 olivine lamproite is ascribed to increasing oxidation during crystallization, with fO2 estimated from the olivine-spinel thermometer and oxygen barometer at Dlog FMQ = -1 to +3 at temperatures of 790-660 °C. The haggertyite in the central zone of the Walgidee Hills lamproite, in contrast, shows a marked trend to Fe2+ enrichment, which is associated with decreasing Fe in perovskite. This is inferred to indicate formation under more reducing conditions, but sufficiently oxidized to permit Fe3+ in co-existing priderite and jeppeite. Trace-element analysis by LA-ICP-MS shows the Walgidee Hills haggertyite contains minor amounts of Na, Si, Ca, V, Co, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, and Pb, and only traces of Al, P, Sc, Rb, REE, Hf, and Ta. Moreover, the haggertyite is preferentially enriched in certain lithophile (Ba, Sr), siderophile (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), and chalcophile (Zn, Pb) elements relative to co-existing priderite. Haggertyite crystallization appears to be a consequence not only of the very high Ba, Ti, and K contents of the lamproite, but of relatively high-Fe concentrations and low temperatures in evolved olivine lamproite magma with the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio determined by the prevailing fO2. The new data suggest that haggertyite might also be present but previously unrecognized in the evolved groundmass of other olivine lamproites. Haggertyite is one of an increasing number of new minerals in upper mantle rocks and volcanics derived from the upper mantle hosting large-ion-lithophile and high field strength cations.
DS1997-0130
1997
Brink, M.C.Brink, M.C., Waanders, F.B., Bischoff, A.A.Vredefort: a model for the anatomy of an astroblemeTectonophysics, Vol. 270, No. 1, 2, Feb. 28, pp. 83-114.South AfricaAstrobleme, Model
DS1991-0177
1991
Brink, S.Brink, S., Saini-Eidukat, B., Earley, D.III, Blake, R.Application of petrographic techniques to assess in situ leaching miningpotentialUnited States Bureau of Mines I.C., No. IC 9295, 14pUnited StatesMining -in-situ, Petrography
DS1995-0210
1995
Brinkman, R.Brinkman, R., Lotze, F.Geology of central Europe**IN GERMANSchweizerbart'sche Verlag, Fifth editionEuropeBook -ad
DS1992-0164
1992
Brinsden, W.Brinsden, W.Innovate or perish. Mining and metallurgy conference reportAustralian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 3, May pp. 13-16GlobalMining, Conference report
DS201112-1026
2011
Brinza, O.Tallaire, A., Barjon, J., Brinza, O., Achard, Silva, Mille, Issaoui, Tardieu, GicquelDislocations and impurities introduced from etch-pitts at the epitaxial growth resumption of diamond.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 20, 7, pp. 875-881.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS201212-0060
2012
Brisbourne, A.M.Bastow, I.D., Kendall, J.M., Brisbourne, A.M., Snyder, D.B., Thompson, D., Hawthorne, D., Hefffrich, G.R., Wookey, J., Horleston, A., Eaton, D.The Hudson Bay lithospheric experiment.Astronomy and Geophysics, pp. 6.21-6.24.Canada, Ontario, QuebecGeophysics - seismics
DS1998-1539
1998
Brisebois, D.Verpaelst, P., Perreault, S., Brisebois, D., BoudriasGeologie de la region de la riviere Koroc, Grand NordQuebec Department of Mines, DV 98-05, p. 35.QuebecGeology
DS201312-0295
2013
Brisson, E.Garapic, G., Faul, U.H., Brisson, E.High resolution imaging of the melt distribution in partially molten upper mantle rocks: evidence for wetted two grain boundaries.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 14, 3, pp. 556-566.MantleMelting
DS1991-0434
1991
BristowEldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Harris, J.W., BristowIsotope evidence for the involvement of recycled sediments in diamondformationNature, Vol. 353, Oct. 17, pp. 649-653GlobalGeochronology - isotopes, Diamond genesis
DS200612-1212
2006
Bristow, C.Sambrook Smith, G., Best, J., Bristow, C., Petts, G.E.Braided rivers.Blackwell Pubisher, 396p. $ 150.00Asia, EuropeBook - geomorphology
DS1993-0113
1993
Bristow, C.S.Best, J.L., Bristow, C.S.Braided riversGeological Society of London Special Publication, No. 75, 420pGermany, Switzerland, Spain, New Zealand, South AfricaBook -table of contents, Sedimentology -braided rivers
DS1994-0210
1994
Bristow, C.S.Bristow, C.S., Best, J.L.Braided rivers: perspectives and problemsBest, and Bristow, Braided Rivers Geological Society of London, No. 75, pp. 1-11.GlobalGeomorphology, Braided rivers
DS1994-0211
1994
Bristow, C.S.Bristow, C.S., Best, J.L.Braided rivers: perspectives and problemsBest, and Bristow, Braided Rivers Geological Society of London, No. 75, pp. 1-11GlobalSedimentology, Geomorphology, Braided rivers
DS2003-0160
2003
Bristow, C.S.Bristow, C.S., Jol., H.M.Ground penetrating radar in sedimentsGeological Society of London Publ., http://bookshop.geolsoc.org.uk, SP 211, 338p. approx. $ 135.USGlobalBook - GPR - general interest
DS2003-0161
2003
Bristow, C.S.Bristow, C.S., Lancaster, N., Duller, G.A.Combining ground penetrating radar and optical dating to determine dune migration inGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.300.NamibiaGPR, geomorphology
DS200412-0208
2003
Bristow, C.S.Bristow, C.S., Jol, H.M.Ground penetrating radar in sediments.Geological Society of London , SP 211, 338p. approx. $ 135.USTechnologyBook - GPR
DS200412-0209
2003
Bristow, C.S.Bristow, C.S., lancaster, N.,Duller, G.A.Combining ground penetrating radar and optical dating to determine dune migration in Namibia.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.300.Africa, NamibiaGPR, geomorphology
DS1993-0164
1993
Bristow, et. al.Bristow, et. al.Symposium - layering in igneous complexes.. field excursion to the BushveldComplexSymposium on Layering in Igneous Complexes, Excurs. Guide, 60pSouth AfricaGuidebook, Deposit -Bushveld Complex
DS1986-0442
1986
Bristow, J.Kinny, P.D., Williams, I.S., Compston, W., Bristow, J.Archean zircon xenocrysts from the Jwaneng kimberlite pipe, BotswanaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 267-269BotswanaBlank
DS1987-0078
1987
Bristow, J.Bristow, J., Allsopp, H., Skinner, E.M.W.Exciting signatures from the earth's mantleIndiaqua, No. 47, 1987/II, pp. 31-32, 34, 37, 38GlobalIsotope, Geochronology
DS1989-0085
1989
Bristow, J.Barton, E.S., Bristow, J., Hallbauer, D.K.Provenance ages for the Witwatersrand supergroup: constrainst from uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb)ages of detrital zircons in the Orange Grove quartzite and the VentersdorpcontacTectonics Division and Western Transvaal Branch of the Geological Society South, 1p. (abstract.)South AfricaGeochronology, Witwatersrand research
DS1990-0441
1990
Bristow, J.Eldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Bristow, J., HarrisCrustal recycling as recorded in sulfide inclusions from diamonds: a SHRIMP sulfur and lead isotopic studyGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A26Southern AfricaDiamond inclusions, SHRIMP geochronology
DS1995-0211
1995
Bristow, J.Bristow, J., Moloi, N., Solomon, M., Rocha, J.Minerals and mining in South Africa: past, present and futureProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Reprint, 8pSouth AfricaEconomics, Mining industry, legal
DS1996-1410
1996
Bristow, J.Taylor, W.R., Bristow, J.Kimberlites, lamproites and alkaline rocksAustralia Nat. University of Diamond Workshop July 29, 30., 6p.GlobalClassification, nomenclature, tectonics, age, Alkaline series summary
DS1996-1544
1996
Bristow, J.Williams, I.S., Eldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Bristow, J.Contributions of SHRIMP micro-isotopic analysis to understanding Kimberlite and diamond genesis.Australia Nat. University of Diamond Workshop July 29, 30., 2p.GlobalDiamond genesis, Geochemistry, mircoprobe, SHRIMP
DS1997-0962
1997
Bristow, J.Rocha, J., Bristow, J.Mine downscaling and closure: an integral part of sustainable developmentJournal of Mineral Policy, Business and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 15-20Ontario, South AfricaEnvironment, closures, Deposit - Sudbury, Kimberley
DS1997-0963
1997
Bristow, J.Rocha, J., Bristow, J.Mine downscaling and closure: an integral part of sustainable developmentJournal of Mineral Policy, Business and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 15-20.South AfricaClosures, downscaling, economics, Deposit - Kimberley area
DS1998-0164
1998
Bristow, J.Bristow, J.Diamonds - industry outlook.. tough trading conditions will persistHuysamer Stals, Analysts report, Feb. 28, 27p.GlobalEconomics - industry outlook, CSO
DS1998-0165
1998
Bristow, J.Bristow, J.India - back to the cradle... polishing industry, kimberlites - newpotential.Abn-ambro, 16p.IndiaBrochure - analysts report, Diamond industry, history, current activity
DS1998-1448
1998
Bristow, J.Taylor, W.R., Bristow, J.Cyclcity of continental alkaline magmatism in the geological record7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 886-7.GlobalAlkaline rocks, Geochronology
DS200712-0109
2007
Bristow, J.Bristow, J., Van Wyk, H., Norton, G., Stevens, G., Oosterveldt, T.Alluvial diamond deposits of the Lower Vaal and Middle Orange Rivers (MOR) and their exploitation. Rockwell Diamonds Inc. promotional presentation.Diamonds in Kimberley Symposium & Trade Show, Bristow and De Wit held August 23-24, Kimberley, South Africa, GSSA Diamond Workshop CD slides 27Africa, South AfricaProjects
DS200812-0142
2008
Bristow, J.Bristow, J.African diamond exploration & development.GSSA-SEG Meeting Held July, Johannesburg, 16 Power point slidesAfricaOverview - brief
DS201602-0194
2016
Bristow, J.Bristow, J.Changes, consolidation and the future of the international diamond business.PDAC 2016, 1p. abstractGlobalDiamond market
DS201607-1334
2016
Bristow, J.Bristow, J.The international diamond business: the role of southern African producers in change and consolidation.IGC 35th., Session Mineral Exploration 1p. AbstractAfrica, South AfricaDiamond markets
DS1980-0075
1980
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.The Geochronology and Geochemistry of Karoo Volcanics in The Lebombo and Adjacent Areas.Ph.d. Thesis, University Cape Town., South Africa, Botswana, Swaziland, LesothoBasaltic Rocks
DS1980-0121
1980
Bristow, J.W.Erlank, A.J., Allsopp, H.I., Duncan, A.R., Bristow, J.W.Mantle Heterogeneity Beneath Southern Africa: Evidence From a Volcanic Record.Royal Society of London PHIL. Transactions, Vol. 297, No. 1431, PP. 295-308.South AfricaTectonic
DS1982-0122
1982
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Lebombo Picrite Basalts ( Southern Africa) and the Role of Mantle MetasomatismGeological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 14, No. 7, P. 452, (abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Lherzolite
DS1982-0123
1982
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.The Current Status of Diamond Exploration in the UsaCalifornia Mining Journal, Vol. No. PP. 60-69.United StatesKimberlite, Diamond
DS1983-0151
1983
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.Diamond Exploration-usaIndiaqua., No. 34, 1983/1, PP. 27-32.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsTravelogue
DS1983-0152
1983
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W., Saggerson, E.P.A General Account of Karoo Vulcanicity in Southern AfricaGeologische Rundschau, Vol. 72, No. 3, PP. 1015-1060.South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, ZimbabweRegional Geology
DS1985-0006
1985
Bristow, J.W.Allsopp, H.L., Bristow, J.W., Skinner, E.M.W., Scott Smith.Rbsr Geochronology of Some Miocene West Australian LamproitesTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, pt. 2, May-August pp. 341-345AustraliaLamproite, Geochronology
DS1985-0008
1985
Bristow, J.W.Allsopp, J.W., Bristow, J.W., Skinner, E.M.W.The Rubidium-Strontium geochronology of the Colossus kimberlite pipe,ZimbabweTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, pt. 2, May-August pp. 245-248ZimbabweGeochronology, Kimberlites
DS1985-0086
1985
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.Alkaline and Alkaline Ultramafic Rocks and their XenolithsTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, No. 2, seperate references enteredGlobalBlank
DS1985-0621
1985
Bristow, J.W.Skinner, E.M.W., Smith, C.B., Bristow, J.W., Scott smith, B.H., Dawson.Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites and a preliminary age for the Argyle lamproite pipe, western AustraliaTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, pt. 2, May-August pp. 335-340AustraliaLamproite
DS1986-0016
1986
Bristow, J.W.Allsopp, H.L., Smith, C.B., Bristow, J.W., Brown, R., Kramers, J.D.A review of radiometric dating methods applicable to kimberlites And related rocksProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 109-111South AfricaGeochronology
DS1986-0110
1986
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W., Smithm, C.B., Allsopp, H.L., Shee, S.R., SkinnerSetting, geochronology and geochemical characteristics of 160 my kimberlites and related rocks from the Kuruman Province, SouthAfricaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 112-114South AfricaGeochronology
DS1986-0730
1986
Bristow, J.W.Shee, S.R., Bristow, J.W., Shee, P.B.S., Bell, D.R.The petrology of kimberlites, related rocks and associated mantle xenoliths from the Kuruman province, South Africa #1Proceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held, No. 16, pp. 90-92South AfricaPetrology
DS1988-0084
1988
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.Synopsis of some major historical events of the Northern CapeGeoBulletin, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 35-39South AfricaChronological listing
DS1988-0085
1988
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.De Beers 100- a special feature. History..GeoBulletin, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring quarter pp. 24-28South AfricaBlank
DS1988-0086
1988
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W., Shee, S.R.Kuruman kimberlites- the world's oldest known kimberlite intrusionsGeoBulletin, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 40-41South AfricaBlank
DS1989-0021
1989
Bristow, J.W.Allsopp, H.L., Bristow, J.W., Smith, C.B., Brown, R., GleadowA summary of radiometric dating methods applicable To kimberlites and realted rocksGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 343-357Southern AfricaAge emplacement, Radiometric, Geochronolog
DS1989-0185
1989
Bristow, J.W.Brown, R.W., Allsopp, H.L., Bristow, J.W., Smith, C.B.Improved precision of rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) dating of kimberliticmicas: an assessment ofa leaching techniqueChemical Geology, Vol. 79, pp. 125-136South AfricaMakganyene Kimberlite, Geochronology
DS1989-0236
1989
Bristow, J.W.Cawthorn, R.G., Bristow, J.W., Groves, D.I.Magnesian ilmenite in picritic basalts from the KarooprovinceSouthAfricaMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 53, No. 370, pp. 245-252South AfricaPicrite, Ilmenite
DS1989-0276
1989
Bristow, J.W.Colgan, E.A., Clark, T.C., Bristow, J.W., Allsopp, H.Geological setting, petrography and petrogenesis of olivine melilitites Of the Natal coast, South AfricaGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 419-435South AfricaMelilitite, Petrology
DS1989-0782
1989
Bristow, J.W.Kinny, P.D., Compston, W., Bristow, J.W., Williams, I.S.Archean mantle xenocrysts in a Permian kimberlite: two generations Of kimberlitic zircon in Jwaneng DK2,southern BotswanaGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 2, pp. 833-842BotswanaMantle xenoliths, Geochronology
DS1989-1284
1989
Bristow, J.W.Robey, J.V.A., Bristow, J.W., Marx, M.R., Joyce, J., Danchin, R.V.Alkaline ultrabasic dikes near Norseman, western AustraliaGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 382-391AustraliaGeochronology, Lamprophyre
DS1989-1379
1989
Bristow, J.W.Shee, S.R., Bristow, J.W., Bell, D.R., Smith, C.B., Allsopp, H.L.The petrology of kimberlites, related rocks and associated mantle xenoliths from the Kuruman province, South Africa #2Geological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 60-82South AfricaMantle, Petrology
DS1991-0284
1991
Bristow, J.W.Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Kinny, P.D., Bristow, J.W., HarrisA SHRIMP ion microprobe investigation into the timing, sources and processes involved in diamond formationGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract Volume, Vol. 23, No. 5, San Diego, p. A 102South AfricaMicroprobe, Diamond morphology
DS1991-1396
1991
Bristow, J.W.Ramos, Z., Skinner, E.M.W., Bristow, J.W., Robinson, D.N.Kimberlites and the mantle in South AfricaXiii International Gemmological Conference Held South Africa, Stellenbosch, 2p.abstractSouth AfricaMantle, Diamond genesis
DS1994-1627
1994
Bristow, J.W.Smith, C.B., Clark, T.C., Barton, E.S., Bristow, J.W.Emplacement ages of kimberlite occurrences in the Prieska region, southwest border of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa.Chemical Geology, Vol. 113, No. 1-2, March 1, pp. 149-169.South AfricaGeochronology, Emplacement ages, Prieska area
DS1995-0212
1995
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.The Proterozoic: its role in diamond petrogenesis and the emplacement of mantle derived intrusives.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 69-70.GlobalProterozoic, Diamond genesis
DS1995-0213
1995
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.Diamondiferous intrusives and diamonds in Proterozoic settings:implications for exploration.Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Preprint, 4p.GlobalProterozoic, Off-craton settings
DS1996-0176
1996
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W.Angola: untapped mineral wealth and mine fieldsProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Annual Meeting, p. 67. abstract.AngolaOverview, Political, legal, resources
DS1998-0321
1998
Bristow, J.W.De Meillon, L., Bristow, J.W.Some characteristics of high level Tertiary age alluvial terraces along the Orange River ..7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 193-4.South Africa, Northern Cape ProvinceAlluvials, Deposit - Douglas area
DS201412-0073
2014
Bristow, J.W.Bristow, J.W., De Meillon, L.The Middle Orange River diamond sink.GSSA Kimberley Diamond Symposium and Trade Show provisional programme, Sept. 11, title onlyAfrica, South AfricaMiddle Orange River
DS1986-0672
1986
Bristowm J.W., Marxm M.R.Robey, J.V.A., Bristowm J.W., Marxm M.R., Joyce, J., Danchin, R.V.Alkalic ultrabasic dykes of the southeast Yilgarn margin,WesternAustraliaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 142-144AustraliaBlank
DS1981-0005
1981
Bristown, J.W.Allsop, H.L., Bristown, J.W., Manton, W.I., Cleverly, R.W.Rubidium-strontium Geochronology of the Lebombo VolcanicsGeocongress '81, South African Geodynamics Project., ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 1-2.GlobalDokolwayo, Lembo Volcanics
DS1985-0087
1985
British Columbia Ministry of EnergyBritish Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum ResourcesHugo Claims/British Columbia Min. Mines, P. 126.Canada, British Columbia, Golden Mining DistrictGeochemistry, Diatreme
DS1992-0165
1992
British Columbia Ministry of EnergyBritish Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum ResourcesReforming environmental assessment in British Columbia: a legislation discussion paperBritish Columbia Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resources, 40pBritish ColumbiaMineral exploration, legal, Environmental assessment
DS1992-0166
1992
British Columbia Ministry of EnergyBritish Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum ResourcesGuidelines for mineral exploration: environmental, reclamation and approvalrequirementsBritish Columbia Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resources, January 1992, 57pBritish ColumbiaMineral exploration, legal, Guidelines
DS1989-0176
1989
British Columbia ReportBritish Columbia ReportDraft acid rain drainage technical guide, Volume 1 British Columbia acidmine drainage task force reportBritish Columbia Report, 260p. $ 16.00British ColumbiaAcid rain, Drainage report
DS1985-0088
1985
British Geological SurveyBritish Geological SurveyWorld Mineral Statistics 1979-1983. Production: Exports:importsBritish Geological Survey, 150P. DIAMONDS P. 61.GlobalDiamond Production Statistics
DS1991-0178
1991
British Geological SurveyBritish Geological SurveyWorld mineral statistics 1985-1989. Published 1991 -issued 1992British Geological Survey, World Mineral Statistics, pp. 82-87GlobalDiamonds, Production, exports, imports
DS1996-0177
1996
British Geological SurveyBritish Geological SurveyWorld Mineral statistics.. diamondBritish Geological Survey World Mineral Statistics 1990-94, pp. 77-83.GlobalDiamond production, Diamond exports
DS1940-0203
1949
British Guiana Geological SurveyBritish Guiana Geological SurveyThe Geology of the Aurora District Cuyuni River.. Sheet No. D 4Geological Survey British Guiana, Bulletin. No. 21, pp. 23-4, map.GlobalDukwarri Area
DS200912-0387
2009
BritoKlein, E.L., Luzardo, R., Moura, Lobato, Brito, ArmstrongGeochronology, Nd isotopes and reconnaissance geochemistry of volcanic and metavolcanic rocks of Sao Luis Craton, northern Brazil: tectonics and crustalJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, 2-3, pp. 129-145.South America, BrazilGeochronology
DS1999-0094
1999
Brito, D.Brito, D., Aurnou, J., Olson, P.Can heterogeneous core mantle electromagnetic coupling control geomagneticreversals?Physical Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 112, No. 3-4, Apr. 16, pp. 159-170.MantleGeomagnetics, tectonics, structure, torque
DS200412-0210
2004
Brito, D.Brito, D., Aurnou, J., Cardin, P.Turbulent viscosity measurements relevant to planetary core mantle dynamics.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 141,1, pp.3-8.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS2003-0429
2003
Brito Neves, B.Fuck, Reinhardt, A., Brito Neves, B., Schobbenhaus Filo, C.Search for Rodinia in South America: geological records and problemsGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.301.BrazilTectonics
DS200412-0589
2003
Brito Neves, B.Fuck, Reinhardt, A., Brito Neves, B., Schobbenhaus Filo, C.Search for Rodinia in South America: geological records and problems.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.301.South America, BrazilTectonics
DS1992-0167
1992
Brito Neves, B.B.Brito Neves, B.B.The middle Proterozoic of Brasil: an overview of the knowledge andproblems.(in Portugese).Revista Brasileira de Geociencas, (in Portugese)., Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec. pp. 449-461BrazilProterozoic, Overview
DS2000-0403
2000
Brito Neves, B.B.Heilbron, M., Brito Neves, B.B., Pimentel, M.M., et al.Neoproterozoic orogenic systems in eastern, central and northeastern Brasil,and evolution of Gondwana.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, West AfricaTectonics - Craton, orogeny
DS2003-0281
2003
Brito Neves, B.B.Cordiani, U.G., D'Agrella Filho, M.S., Brito Neves, B.B., Trindada, R.I.Tearing up Rodinia: the Neoproterozoic paleogeorgraphy of South American cratonicTerra Nova, Vol. 15, 5, pp. 350-359.South America, Rodinia, GondwanaTectonics, craton
DS200412-0364
2003
Brito Neves, B.B.Cordiani, U.G., D'Agrella Filho, M.S., Brito Neves, B.B., Trindada, R.I.Tearing up Rodinia: the Neoproterozoic paleogeorgraphy of South American cratonic fragments.Terra Nova, Vol. 15, 5, pp. 350-359.South America, Rodinia, GondwanaTectonics, craton
DS200612-1438
2006
Brito Neves, B.B.Trindade, R.I.F., D'Agrella-Filho, M.S., Epof, I., Brito Neves, B.B.Paleomagnetism of Early Cambrian Itabaiana mafic dikes ( NE Brazil) and the final assembly of Gondwana.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 244, 1-2, Apr. 15, pp. 361-377.South America, BrazilDike swarms
DS1998-0166
1998
Brito Neves, B.B.D.Brito Neves, B.B.D., De Almeida, F.F.M., Carneiro, C.D.Origin and evolution of the South American PlatformJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, 1A, p. 37. AbstractBrazilGondwana, Tectonics
DS1998-0279
1998
Brito-Neves, B.B.D.Coutinho, J.M.V., Brito-Neves, B.B.D.Questions of the southern portion of Brasil/Africa correlationJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, 1A, p. 221. AbstractBrazil, AfricaTectonics
DS1900-0293
1905
Britsih AssociationBritsih AssociationDe Beers Consolidated Mines and the Winning of the DiamondsBritish Association Sth. Afr. Meeting Kimberley Handbook, PP. 42-52.Africa, South AfricaMining, Methods, Recovery, Kimberley
DS1900-0295
1905
Britsih AssociationBritsih AssociationSightseeing in KimberleyBritish Association Sth. Afr. Kimberley Meeting, Publishing By The Dia, 60P.South Africa, Cape Province, Kimberley AreaTravelogue, Kimberley
DS201212-0656
2012
Britto, R.S.Silveira, F.V., Britto, R.S., Matos, L., Araujo, D.P.Diamante Brasil project.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractSouth America, BrazilDeposit - Coromandel, Diamantina
DS202004-0504
2020
Britvich, G.I.Chernykh, S.V., Chernykh, A.V., Tarelkin, S., Didenko, S. ,Kondakov, M.N., Shcherbachev, K.D., Trifonova, E.V., Drozdova, T.E., Troschiev, S.Y., Prikhodko, D.D., Glybin, Y.N., Chubenko, A.P., Britvich, G.I., Kiselev, D.A., Polushin, N.I., Rabinovich, O.IHPHT single crystal diamond type IIa characterization for particle detectors.Physicsa Status Solidi , doi:10.1002/pssa.201900888GlobalHPHT

Abstract: Various samples of multisectoral high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) single-crystal diamond plate (IIa type) (4?×?4?×?0.53?mm) are tested for particle detection applications. The samples are investigated by X-ray diffractometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and visible/ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. High crystalline perfection and low impurity concentration (in the {100} growth sector) are observed. To investigate detector parameters, circular 1.0 and 1.5?mm diameter Pt Schottky barrier contacts are created on {111} and {100} growth sectors. On the backside, a Pt contact (3.5?×?3.5?mm) is produced. The {100} growth sector is proved to be a high-quality detector: the full width at half maximum energy resolution is 0.94% for the 5.489?MeV 226Ra a-line at an operational bias of +500?V. Therefore, it is concluded that the HPHT material {100} growth sector is used for radiation detector production, whose quality is not worse than the chemical vapor deposition method or specially selected natural diamond detectors.
DS201112-0812
2011
BritvinPolyakova, E.A., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Siidra ,Britvin, Petrov, Spratt, Williams, Stanley, ZaitsevFluorine, yttrium and lanthanide rich cerianite from carbonatitic rocks of the Kerimasi volcano and surrounding explosion craters, Gregory Rift.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201201-0861
2011
BritvinZaitsev, A.N., Chakmouradian, A.R., Sidra, O.I., Spratt, J., Williams, Stanley, Petrov, Britvin, PolyakaFlourine , yttrium and lanthaide rich cerianite (Ce) from carbonatitic rocks of the Kerimasi volcano and surrounding explosive craters Gregory Rift Tanzania.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 75, 6, pp. 2813-2822.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201012-0883
2010
Britvin, S.N.Zaitsev, N., Williams, C.T., Britvin,S.N., Kuznetsova, I.V., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., Keller, J.Kerimasite Ca3ZR2(Si)O12, a new garnet from carbonatites of Kerimasi volcano and surrounding explosion craters, northern Tanzania.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 74, pp. 803-820.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201112-0112
2011
Britvin, S.N.Britvin, S.N., Zaitsev, A.N.Layered sodium manganese phosphate from carbonatite lavas of Oldoinyo Lengai, Gregory Rift, Tanzania.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201609-1729
2016
Britvin, S.N.Lykova, I.S., Pekov, I.V., Chukanov, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Yapaskurt, V.O., Zubkova, N.V., Britvin, S.N., Giester, G.Calciomurmanite a new mineral from the Lovozero and Khibiny alkaline complexes, Kola Peninsula.European Journal of Minerlogy, in press avaialbe 15p.RussiaMineralogy
DS201706-1112
2017
Britvin, S.N.Zaitsev, A.N., Britvin, S.N., Kearsley, A., Wenzel, T., Kirk, C.Jorgkellerite, a new layered phosphate-carbonate mineral from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Gregory rift, northern Tanzania.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 111, 3, pp. 373-381.Africa, Tanzaniamineralogy

Abstract: Jörgkellerite, ideally Na3Mn3+ 3(PO4)2(CO3)O2•5H2O, is a new layered phosphate-carbonate from the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in the Gregory Rift (northern Tanzania). The mineral occurs as spherulites, up to 200 µm in diameter, consisting of plates up to 10 µm in thickness in shortite-calcite and calcite carbonatites. Jörgkellerite is brown with a vitreous lustre and has a perfect micaceous cleavage on {001}, Mohs hardness is 3. The calculated density is 2.56 g/cm3. Jörgkellerite is uniaxial (-), ? = 1.700(2), ? = 1.625(2) (Na light, 589 nm) with distinct pleochroism: O = dark brown, E = light brown. The empirical formula of the mineral (average of 10 electron microprobe analyses) is (Na2.46K0.28Ca0.08Sr0.04Ba0.02)S2.88(Mn3+ 2.39Fe3+ 0.56)S2.95((PO4)1.95(SiO4)0.05))S2.00(CO3)(O1.84(OH)0.16)S2.00•5H2O. The oxidation state of Mn has been determined by XANES. Jörgkellerite is trigonal, space group P-3, a = 11.201(2) Å, c = 10.969(2) Å, V = 1191.9(7) Å3 and Z = 3. The five strongest powder-diffraction lines [d in Å, (I/I o), (hkl)] are: 10.970 (100) (001), 5.597 (15) (002), 4.993 (8) (111), 2.796 (14) (220) and 2.724 (20) (004). The crystal structure is built up of the layers composed of disordered edge-sharing [MnO6] octahedra. Each fourth Mn site in octahedral layer is vacant that results in appearance of ordered system of hexagonal "holes" occupied by (CO3) groups. The overall composition of the layer can be expressed as [Mn3O8(CO3)]. These manganese-carbonate layers are linked in the third dimension by (PO4) tetrahedra and Na-polyhedra. The origin of jörgkellerite is related to low-temperature oxidative alteration of gregoryite-nyerereite carbonatites.
DS201803-0487
2018
Britvin, S.N.Yakovenchuk, V.N., Yu, G., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Panikorovskii, T.L., Britvin, S.N., Krivivichev, S.V., Shilovskikh, V.V., Bocharov, V.N.Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5,Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3.4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex ( Kola Peninsula) Russia.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 112, pp. 111-121.Russia, Kola Peninsulacarbonatite - Kovdor
DS201810-2305
2018
Britvin, S.N.Chukanov, N.V., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Kruszewski, L., Akensov, S.M., Rusakov, V., Britvin, S.N., Vozchikova, S.A.Siudaite, Na8(Mn2+2Na) Ca6Fe3+3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl.5H20: a new eudialyte group mineral from the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 45, pp. 745-758.Russia, Kola Peninsulaalkaline

Abstract: The new eudialyte-group mineral siudaite, ideally Na8(Mn2+2Na)Ca6Fe3+3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl•5H2O, was discovered in a peralkaline pegmatite situated at the Eveslogchorr Mt., Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The associated minerals are aegirine, albite, microcline, nepheline, astrophyllite, and loparite-(Ce). Siudaite forms yellow to brownish-yellow equant anhedral grains up to 1.5 cm across. Its lustre is vitreous, and the streak is white. Cleavage is none observed. The Mohs’ hardness is 4½. Density measured by hydrostatic weighing is 2.96(1) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.973 g/cm3. Siudaite is nonpleochroic, optically uniaxial, negative, with ??=?1.635(1) and e?=?1.626(1) (??=?589 nm). The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of siudaite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by HCN analysis): Na2O 8.40, K2O 0.62, CaO 9.81, La2O3 1.03, Ce2O3 1.62, Pr2O3 0.21, Nd2O3 0.29, MnO 6.45, Fe2O3 4.51. TiO2 0.54, ZrO2 11.67, HfO2 0.29, Nb2O5 2.76, SiO2 47.20, Cl 0.54, H2O 3.5, -O?=?Cl -?0.12, total 99.32. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, all iron is trivalent. The empirical formula (based on 24.5 Si atoms pfu, in accordance with structural data) is [Na7.57(H2O)1.43]S9(Mn1.11Na0.88Ce0.31La0.20Nd0.05Pr0.04K0.41)S3(H2O)1.8(C a5.46Mn0.54)S6(Fe3+1.76Mn2+1.19)S2.95Nb0.65(T i0.20Si0.50)S0.71(Zr2.95Hf0.04Ti0.01)S3Si24.00Cl0.47O70(OH)2Cl0.47•1.2H2O. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is trigonal, space group R3m, with a?=?14.1885(26) Å, c?=?29.831(7) Å, V?=?5200.8(23) Å3 and Z?=?3. Siudaite is chemically related to georgbarsanovite and is its analogue with Fe3+-dominant M2 site. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 6.38 (60) (-114), 4.29 (55) (-225), 3.389 (47) (131), 3.191 (63) (-228). 2.963 (100) (4-15), 2.843 (99) (-444), 2.577 (49) (3-39). Siudaite is named after the Polish mineralogist and geochemist Rafal Siuda (b. 1975).
DS201904-0766
2018
Britvin, S.N.Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Lykova, I.S., Chukanov, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Britvin, S.N., Turchkova, A.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Y.Alexhomyakovite, K6(Ca2Na) (CO3)5CI.6h2O, a new mineral from the Khibiny alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 31, pp. 13-143.Russia, Kola Peninsuladeposit - Khibiny

Abstract: The new mineral alexkhomyakovite K6(Ca2Na)(CO3)5Cl·6H2O (IMA2015-013) occurs in a peralkaline pegmatite at Mt. Koashva, Khibiny alkaline complex, Kola peninsula, Russia. It is a hydrothermal mineral associated with villiaumite, natrite, potassic feldspar, pectolite, sodalite, biotite, lamprophyllite, titanite, fluorapatite, wadeite, burbankite, rasvumite, djerfisherite, molybdenite and an incompletely characterized Na-Ca silicate. Alexkhomyakovite occurs as equant grains up to 0.2 mm, veinlets up to 3 cm long and up to 1 mm thick and fine-grained aggregates replacing delhayelite. Alexkhomyakovite is transparent to translucent, colourless, white or grey, with vitreous to greasy lustre. It is brittle, the Mohs hardness is ca. 3. No cleavage was observed, the fracture is uneven. D meas = 2.25(1), D calc = 2.196 g cm-3. Alexkhomyakovite is optically uniaxial (-), ? = 1.543(2), e = 1.476(2). The infrared spectrum is reported. The chemical composition [wt%, electron microprobe data, CO2 and H2O contents calculated for 5 (CO3) and 6 (H2O) per formula unit (pfu), respectively] is: Na2O 4.09, K2O 35.72, CaO 14.92, MnO 0.01, FeO 0.02, SO3 0.11, Cl 4.32, CO2 28.28, H2O 13.90, -O=Cl -0.98, total 100.39. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 9 metal cations pfu is K5.90Ca2.07Na1.03(CO3)5(SO4)0.01O0.05Cl0.95·6H2O. The numbers of CO3 groups and H2O molecules are based on structure data. Alexkhomyakovite is hexagonal, P63/mcm, a = 9.2691(2), c = 15.8419(4) Å, V = 1178.72(5) Å3 and Z = 2. The strongest reflections of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d Å(I)(hkl)] are: 7.96(27)(002), 3.486(35)(113), 3.011(100)(114), 2.977(32)(211), 2.676(36)(300), 2.626(42)(213, 115), 2.206(26)(311) and 1.982(17)(008). The crystal structure (solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, R = 0.0578) is unique. It is based on (001) heteropolyhedral layers of pentagonal bipyramids (Ca,Na)O5(H2O)2 interconnected via carbonate groups of two types, edge-sharing ones and vertex-sharing ones. Ca and Na are disordered. Ten-fold coordinated K cations centre KO6Cl(H2O)3 polyhedra on either side of the heteropolyhedral layer. A third type of carbonate group and Cl occupy the interlayer. The mineral is named in honour of the outstanding Russian mineralogist Alexander Petrovich Khomyakov (1933-2012).
DS202004-0532
2020
Britvin, S.N.Sharygin, V.V., Britvin, S.N., Kaminsky, F.V., Wirth, R., Nigmatulina, E.N., Yakovlev, G.A., Novoselov, K.A., Murashko, M.N.Ellinaite IMA No. 2019-091 mineral name( gravel of Sorriso creek, Aripuna River).European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 32, p. 211.Europe, Israel, South America, Brazil, Mato Grossodiamond inclusion
DS202011-2036
2020
Britvin, S.N.Chukanov, N.V., Aksenov, S.M., Pekov, I.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vozchikova, S.A., Britvin, S.N.Sergevanite, new eudialyte group mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula.The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 58, pp. 421-436.Russia, Kola Peninsuladeposit - Lovozero

Abstract: The new eudialyte-group mineral sergevanite, ideally Na15(Ca3Mn3)(Na2Fe)Zr3Si26O72(OH)3•H2O, was discovered in highly agpaitic foyaite from the Karnasurt Mountain, Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The associated minerals are microcline, albite, nepheline, arfvedsonite, aegirine, lamprophyllite, fluorapatite, steenstrupine-(Ce), ilmenite, and sphalerite. Sergevanite forms yellow to orange-yellow anhedral grains up to 1.5 mm across and the outer zones of some grains of associated eudialyte. Its luster is vitreous, and the streak is white. No cleavage is observed. The Mohs' hardness is 5. Density measured by equilibration in heavy liquids is 2.90(1) g/cm3. Calculated density is equal to 2.906 g/cm3. Sergevanite is nonpleochroic, optically uniaxial, positive, with ? = 1.604(2) and e = 1.607(2) (? = 589 nm). The infrared spectrum is given. The chemical composition of sergevanite is (wt.%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by HCN analysis): Na2O 13.69, K2O 1.40, CaO 7.66, La2O3 0.90, Ce2O3 1.41, Pr2O3 0.33, Nd2O3 0.64, Sm2O3 0.14, MnO 4.15, FeO 1.34, TiO2 1.19, ZrO2 10.67, HfO2 0.29, Nb2O5 1.63, SiO2 49.61, SO3 0.77, Cl 0.23, H2O 4.22, -O=Cl -0.05, total 100.22. The empirical formula (based on 25.5 Si atoms pfu, in accordance with structural data) is H14.46Na13.64K0.92Ca4.22Ce0.27La0.17Nd0.12Pr0.06Sm0.02Mn1.81Fe2+0.58Ti0.46Zr2.67Hf0.04Nb0.38Si25.5S0.30Cl0.20O81.35. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is trigonal, space group R3, with a = 14.2179(1) Å, c = 30.3492(3) Å, V = 5313.11(7) Å3, and Z = 3. In the structure of sergevanite, Ca and Mn are ordered in the six-membered ring of octahedra (at the sites M11 and M12), and Na dominates over Fe2+ at the M2 site. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 7.12 (70) (110), 5.711 (43) (202), 4.321 (72) (205), 3.806 (39) (033), 3.551 (39) (220, 027), 3.398 (39) (313), 2.978 (95) (?forumla?), 2.855 (100) (404). Sergevanite is named after the Sergevan' River, which is near the discovery locality.
DS2003-0162
2003
Brizi, E.Brizi, E., Nazzareni, S., Princivalle, F., et al.Clinopyroxene from mantle related xenocrysts in alkaline basalts from Hannuoba (Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 145, 5, August, pp. 578-584.ChinaGeothermometry, alkaline rocks
DS200412-0211
2003
Brizi, E.Brizi, E., Nazzareni, S., Princivalle, F., et al.Clinopyroxene from mantle related xenocrysts in alkaline basalts from Hannuoba ( China): augite pigeonite exsolutions and theirContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 145, 5, August, pp. 578-584.ChinaGeothermometry Alkaline rocks
DS2002-0206
2002
Broadbent, G.C.Broadbent, G.C., Andrews, S.J., Kelso, I.J.A decade of new ideas: geology and exploration history of the Century Zn Pb Ag deposit northeastern QueenslandSociety of Economic Geologists Special Publication, No.9,pp.119-40.Australia, QueenslandZinc, lead, silver. stratabound, Deposit - Century
DS1994-0212
1994
Broadfoot, W.Broadfoot, W., et al.Mineral deposits of the Kingdom of SwazilandCmmh Vol. 3, pp. 257-264GlobalMetallogeny, Overview
DS2001-0473
2001
Broadhurst, L.J.Heritage, G.L., Broadhurst, L.J., Birkhead, A.L.The influence of contemporary flow regime on the geomorphology of the Sabie River, South Africa.Geomorphology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, pp. 197-211.South AfricaAlluvial - river system
DS201912-2803
2019
BroadleyMarty, B., Bekaert, D.V., Broadley, Jaupart, C.Geochemical evidence for high volatile fluxes from the mantle at the end of the Archean. (water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and halogens)Nature, Vol. 575, pp. 485-488.Mantlemelting, convection

Abstract: The exchange of volatile species—water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and halogens—between the mantle and the surface of the Earth has been a key driver of environmental changes throughout Earth’s history. Degassing of the mantle requires partial melting and is therefore linked to mantle convection, whose regime and vigour in the Earth’s distant past remain poorly constrained1,2. Here we present direct geochemical constraints on the flux of volatiles from the mantle. Atmospheric xenon has a monoisotopic excess of 129Xe, produced by the decay of extinct 129I. This excess was mainly acquired during Earth’s formation and early evolution3, but mantle degassing has also contributed 129Xe to the atmosphere through geological time. Atmospheric xenon trapped in samples from the Archaean eon shows a slight depletion of 129Xe relative to the modern composition4,5, which tends to disappear in more recent samples5,6. To reconcile this deficit in the Archaean atmosphere by mantle degassing would require the degassing rate of Earth at the end of the Archaean to be at least one order of magnitude higher than today. We demonstrate that such an intense activity could not have occurred within a plate tectonics regime. The most likely scenario is a relatively short (about 300 million years) burst of mantle activity at the end of the Archaean (around 2.5 billion years ago). This lends credence to models advocating a magmatic origin for drastic environmental changes during the Neoarchaean era, such as the Great Oxidation Event.
DS201709-1963
2017
Broadley, M.W.Broadley, M.W., et al.Noble gases in diamond hosted fluid inclusions: sorting the deep from the dregs.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Russia, Siberiadeposit, Nyurbinskaya

Abstract: Fluid inclusions trapped during diamond formation provide pristine information into the nature of mantle volatile sources. The majority of diamonds are formed at the base of the lithosphere, which due to its non-convective nature is able to retain geochemical heterogeneities introduced through interactions with the upper and lower mantle, crustal, and subduction related sources. In order to evaluate the origin of diamond forming fluids in the lithosphere, we present noble gas isotopic data from a suite of cubic, coated and cloudy diamond from the Nyurbinskaya Kimberlite, Siberia. Noble gas signatures extracted from fluid inclusions by crushing show two distinct volatile components present within the Siberian lithosphere. Cubic diamonds have average 3 He/4 He of 10 RA, whilst the 3 He/4 He of the coated and cloudy diamonds is the 6 RA. The Ne isotopic data is also different between the diamonds with 20Ne/22Ne in the cubic diamonds (10.7) consistently higher that the coated and cloudy diamonds, which are dominated by an atmospheric component. The 3 He/4 He in fluids trapped in the coated and cloudy diamonds are typical of samples from the lithospheric mantle. Fluids trapped in the cubic diamonds have higher 3 He/4 He than lithospheric and MORB mantle sources, but are similar to values reported from the Siberian Flood Basalts (SFB), which are derived from a lower mantle source. Ne isotopic data from the cubic diamond also suggests these diamonds contain a lower mantle volatile component. Noble gases in diamond hosted fluid inclusions have shown the Siberian lithosphere contains both lihtospheric and lower mantle volatile compponents. The coexistence of lithospheric and lower mantle volatiles within diamonds originating from the same kimberlite indicates the Siberian lithosphere must have had at least two periods of diamond growth from two distinct diamond forming fluids.
DS201810-2299
2018
Broadley, M.W.Broadley, M.W., Barry, P.H., Ballentine, C.J., Taylor, L.A., Burgess, R.End-Permian extinction amplified by plume-induced release of recycled lithospheric volatiles.Nature Geoscience, 10.1038/s41561-018-0215-4 pp. 682-687.Russia, Siberiasubduction

Abstract: Magmatic volatile release to the atmosphere can lead to climatic changes and substantial environmental degradation including the production of acid rain, ocean acidification and ozone depletion, potentially resulting in the collapse of the biosphere. The largest recorded mass extinction in Earth’s history occurred at the end of the Permian, coinciding with the emplacement of the Siberian large igneous province, suggesting that large-scale magmatism is a key driver of global environmental change. However, the source and nature of volatiles in the Siberian large igneous province remain contentious. Here we present halogen compositions of sub-continental lithospheric mantle xenoliths emplaced before and after the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts. We show that the Siberian lithosphere is massively enriched in halogens from the infiltration of subducted seawater-derived volatiles and that a considerable amount (up to 70%) of lithospheric halogens are assimilated into the plume and released to the atmosphere during emplacement. Plume-lithosphere interaction is therefore a key process controlling the volatile content of large igneous provinces and thus the extent of environmental crises, leading to mass extinctions during their emplacement.
DS202005-0744
2020
Broadley, M.W.Labidi, J., Barry, P.H., Bekaert, D.V., Broadley, M.W., Marty, B., Giunta, T., Warr, O., Sherwood Lollar, B., Fischer, T.P., Avice, G., Caracusi, A., Ballentine, C.J., Halldorsson, S.A., Stefansson, A., Kurz, M.D., Kohl, I.E., Young, E.D.Hydrothermal 15N15N abundances constrain the origins of mantle nitrogen.Nature, Vol. 580, 7803 pp. 367-371. Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen is the main constituent of the Earth’s atmosphere, but its provenance in the Earth’s mantle remains uncertain. The relative contribution of primordial nitrogen inherited during the Earth’s accretion versus that subducted from the Earth’s surface is unclear1,2,3,4,5,6. Here we show that the mantle may have retained remnants of such primordial nitrogen. We use the rare 15N15N isotopologue of N2 as a new tracer of air contamination in volcanic gas effusions. By constraining air contamination in gases from Iceland, Eifel (Germany) and Yellowstone (USA), we derive estimates of mantle d15N (the fractional difference in 15N/14N from air), N2/36Ar and N2/3He. Our results show that negative d15N values observed in gases, previously regarded as indicating a mantle origin for nitrogen7,8,9,10, in fact represent dominantly air-derived N2 that experienced 15N/14N fractionation in hydrothermal systems. Using two-component mixing models to correct for this effect, the 15N15N data allow extrapolations that characterize mantle endmember d15N, N2/36Ar and N2/3He values. We show that the Eifel region has slightly increased d15N and N2/36Ar values relative to estimates for the convective mantle provided by mid-ocean-ridge basalts11, consistent with subducted nitrogen being added to the mantle source. In contrast, we find that whereas the Yellowstone plume has d15N values substantially greater than that of the convective mantle, resembling surface components12,13,14,15, its N2/36Ar and N2/3He ratios are indistinguishable from those of the convective mantle. This observation raises the possibility that the plume hosts a primordial component. We provide a test of the subduction hypothesis with a two-box model, describing the evolution of mantle and surface nitrogen through geological time. We show that the effect of subduction on the deep nitrogen cycle may be less important than has been suggested by previous investigations. We propose instead that high mid-ocean-ridge basalt and plume d15N values may both be dominantly primordial features.
DS200912-0758
2009
Brocher, T.Thurber, C., Zhang, H., Brocher, T., Langenheim, V.Regional three dimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, B01304.United States, CaliforniaGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-1219
2002
Brocher, T.M.Parsons, T., Blakely, R.J., Brocher, T.M.A simple algorithm for sequentially incorporating gravity observations in seismic traveltime tomography.International Geology Review, Vol. 43,12,pp. 1073-86., Vol. 43,12,pp. 1073-86.Mantle, WashingtonTomography, Gardner's rule - not specific to diamonds
DS2002-1220
2002
Brocher, T.M.Parsons, T., Blakely, R.J., Brocher, T.M.A simple algorithm for sequentially incorporating gravity observations in seismic traveltime tomography.International Geology Review, Vol. 43,12,pp. 1073-86., Vol. 43,12,pp. 1073-86.Mantle, WashingtonTomography, Gardner's rule - not specific to diamonds
DS2003-0163
2003
Brocher, T.M.Brocher, T.M., Parsons, T., Trehu, A.M., Snelson, C.M., Fisher, M.A.Seismic evidence for Wide spread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along theGeology, Vol. 31, 3, pp. 267-70.California, Oregon, Washington, CascadiaGeophysics - seismics, Subduction
DS2003-0164
2003
Brocher, T.M.Brocher, T.M., Parsons, T., Trehu, A.M., Snelson, C.M., Fisher, M.A.Seismic evidence for Wide spread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along theGeology, Vol. 31, 3, pp. 267-70.California, OregonGeophysics - seismics
DS2003-0165
2003
Brocher, T.M.Brocher, T.M., Parsons, T., Trehu, A.M., Snelson, C.M., Fisher, M.A.Seismic evidence for Wide spread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along theGeology, Vol. 31, 3, March, pp. 267-270.California, Oregon, CascadesGeophysics - seismics, Subduction, slabs
DS2003-0166
2003
Brocher, T.M.Brocher, T.M., Parsons, T., Trehu, A.M., Snelson, C.M., Fisher, M.A.Seismic evidence for Wide spread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along theGeology, Vol. 31, 3, March pp. 267-70.California, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0212
2003
Brocher, T.M.Brocher, T.M., Parsons, T., Trehu, A.M., Snelson, C.M., Fisher, M.A.Seismic evidence for Wide spread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along the Cascadia margin.Geology, Vol. 31, 3, March pp. 267-70.United States, CaliforniaGeophysics - seismics
DS1960-0454
1964
Brock, A.Gough, D.I., Brock, A.The Paleomagnetism of the Shawa IjoliteJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 69, No. 12, PP. 2489-2493.ZimbabweGeology, Related Rocks
DS1960-0455
1964
Brock, A.Gough, D.I., Brock, A.The Paleomagnetism of the Ring Complexes at Marangudzi and The Mateke Hills.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 69, No. 12, PP. 2499-2507.ZimbabweGeology, Related Rocks
DS1930-0185
1935
Brock, C.L.Brock, C.L.Titanium at Magnet Cove, ArkansawRocks And Minerals, Vol. 10, No. 11, NOVEMBER P. 169.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Hot Spring CountyBlank
DS1960-0558
1965
Brock, M.Heyl, A.V., Brock, M., Jolly, J.L., Wells, G.E.Regional Structure of Southeast Missouri and Illinois- Kentucky Mineral District.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 1202-B, 20P.United States, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Central StatesBlank
DS1960-0899
1967
Brock, M.E.Zartman, R.E., Brock, M.E., Heyl, A.V., Thomas, H.H.Potassium-argon and Rubidium-strontium Ages of Some Alkaline Intrusive rocks from Central and Eastern United States.American Journal of Science, VOL 265, PP. 838-870.United States, Appalachia, New York, Central StatesGeology, Related Rocks, Kimberlite, Geochronology
DS1960-0128
1961
Brock, M.R.Brock, M.R., Heyl, A.V.Jr.Post Cambrian Igneous Rocks of the Central Craton, Western Appalachian Mountains and Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States.United States Geological Survey (USGS) PROF. PAPER., No. 424-D, PP. D33-35.United States, Appalachia, New YorkRegional Geology
DS1960-0153
1961
Brock, M.R.Heyl, A.V., Brock, M.R.Structural Framework of the Illinois Kentucky Mining District and its Relation to Mineral Deposits.United States Geological Survey (USGS) PROF. PAPER., No. 424-D, PP. D3-D6.United States, Kentucky, AppalachiaTectonics, Structure, Regional Geology
DS1960-0256
1962
Brock, M.R.Kiilsgaard, T.H., Heyl, A.V., Brock, M.R.The Crooked Creek Disturbance Southeast MissouriUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) PROF. PAPER., No. 450-E, PP. E14-E19.Missouri, United States, Central StatesCryptoexplosion
DS1960-0559
1965
Brock, M.R.Heyl, A.V., Brock, M.R., Jolly, J.L., Wells, C.E.Regional Structure of the Southeast Missouri and Illinois Kentucky Mineral Districts.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 1202-B, 20P.GlobalMid Continent
DS1986-0362
1986
Brock, M.R.Heyl, A.V., Brock, M.R., Jolly, J.L.Phanerozoic igneous rocks, including kimberlites of the United States craton west of the Blue Ridge Mountains and east of the Rocky Mountains and their associated7th. IAGOD Symposium abstract volume, Held August 18-22, Lulea Sweden, pp. 407-408. (abstract.)Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, Montana, South DakotaBlank
DS1988-0303
1988
Brock, M.R.Heyl, A.V., Brock, M.R., Jolly, J.L.Phanerozoic igneous rocks, including kimberlites of the United States craton west of the Blue Ridge Mtns. &east of the Rocky Mountains and their Association mineral deposI.a.g.o.d., Proceedings Of The Seventh Quadrennial Iagod Symposium, Vol. 7, pp. 103-110Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Appalachia, MidcontinentMontana, South Dakota, Colorado, Wyoming, Tectonics
DS1991-0710
1991
Brock, M.R.Heyl, A.V., Brock, M.R.Mineral deposits related to Proterozoic alkalic igneous rocks of the central part of the United StatesGlobal Tectonics and Metallogeny, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2 September pp. 61-64. extended abstractMissouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Wyoming, State LineAlkaline rocks, Proterozoic
DS1910-0164
1911
Brock, R.W.Brock, R.W.Diamond Discovery in British ColumbiaOttawa Citizen., MARCH 16TH.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1910-0165
1911
Brock, R.W.Brock, R.W.Diamonds in British Columbia; May, 1911British Columbia Mining Engineering Rec., Vol. 16, MAY PP. 286-288.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1996-0178
1996
Brocker, M.Brocker, M., Klemd, R.Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism in the Snieznik Mountains: Sudetes Poland -geological implications.Journal of Geology, Vol. 104, pp. 417-33.GlobalMetamorphism - P-T constraints, Eclogites
DS1996-0179
1996
Brocker, M.Brocker, M., Klemd, R.Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism in the Snieznik Mountains: Sudetes Poland P- T constraints and geological implications.Journal of Geology, Vol. 104, pp. 417-33.Globalmetamorphism, Eclogites
DS200412-0298
2004
Brocker, M.Cenki, B., Braun, I., Brocker, M.Evolution of the continental crust in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southernmost India: evidence from Nd isotope mapping, U Pb andPrecambrian Research, Vol. 134, 3-4, Oct. 22, pp. 275-292.IndiaMetamorphism, Geochronology
DS1990-1130
1990
Brockner, M.Okrusch, M., Brockner, M.Eclogites associated with high-grade blueschists in the CycladesArchipelago, Greece- a reviewEuropean Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 451-478GlobalEclogites, Review
DS200712-0144
2007
BrodCarlson, R.W., Aruajo, Junqueira-Brod, Gaspar, Brod, Petrinovic, Hollanda, Pimentel, SichelChemical and isotopic relationships between peridotite xenoliths and mafic-ultrapotassic rocks from southern Brazil.Chemical Geology, Vol. 242, 3-4, pp. 418-437.South America, BrazilGeochemistry
DS200712-0145
2007
BrodCarlson, R.W., Aruajo, Junqueira-Brod, Gaspar, Brod, Petrinovic, Hollanda, Pimentel, SichelChemical and isotopic relationships between peridotite xenoliths and mafic-ultrapotassic rocks from southern Brazil.Chemical Geology, Vol. 242, 3-4, pp. 418-437.South America, BrazilGeochemistry
DS201112-0256
2011
BrodDe Oliveira Cordeiro, Brod, Palmieri, Gouveia de Oliveira, Soares Rocha Barbosa, Santos, Gaspar, AssisThe Catalao I niobium deposit, central Brazil: resources, geology and pyrochlore chemistry.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 41, pp. 112-121.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS2001-0134
2001
Brod, J.Brod, J., Gaspar, De Araujo, Gibson, Thompson, JunqueiraPhlogopite and tetra ferriphlogopite from Brazilian carbonatite complexes and implications for systematicsJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 3, Apr. pp.265-296.BrazilCarbonatite, Mineral chemistry systematics
DS2000-0109
2000
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Gibson, S.A., Thompson, R., Junqueira-BrodMineral chemistry fingerprints of liquid immiscibility and fractionation in the Tapira alkaline - carbonatiteIgc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, Minas GeraisCarbonatite - Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province
DS2000-0110
2000
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Gibson, S.A., Thompson, R., Junqueira-BrodKamafugite affinity of the Tapira alkaline carbonatite complex (Minas Gerais, Brasil).Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, Minas GeraisCarbonatite - Araxa, Serra Negra, Salitre, Catalao, Kamafugites
DS2000-0316
2000
Brod, J.A.Gaspar, J.C., Brod, J.A., Sgarbi, P.B.A., Brod, T.C.J.A review of the Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in western Minas Gerais and southern Goias.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, Minas GeraisAlkaline rocks
DS2003-0167
2003
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Gaspar, J.C., Diniz-Pinto, H.S., Junqueira-Brod, T.C.Spinel chemistry as an indicator of crystal fractionation and liquid immiscibility in the8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractBrazil, Minas GeraisBlank
DS2003-0168
2003
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J.C., Gibson, S.A., Thompson, R.N.Ti rich and Ti poor garnet from the Tapira carbonatite complex, SE Brazil: fingerprinting8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractBrazil, Minas GeraisBlank
DS2003-0444
2003
Brod, J.A.Gaspar, J.C., Araujo, A.L.N., Carlson, R.W., Sichel, S.E., Brod, J.A., SgarbiMantle xenoliths and new constraints on the origin of alkaline ultrapotassic rocks from8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractBrazilBlank
DS2003-0677
2003
Brod, J.A.Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Brod, J.A., Gaspar, J.C., Barbosa, E.S.R.Magma - sediments interaction in the Aguas Emendadas kamafugitic diatremes, GO8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 1 POSTER abstractBrazil, GoiasKimberlite geology and economics, Deposit - Aguas Emendadas
DS2003-0678
2003
Brod, J.A.Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J.C., Brod, J.A., Barbosa, E.S.R.Magma mixing in Cretaceous kamafugites, Goias alkaline province, Brazil8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 1 POSTER abstractBrazil, GoiasKimberlite geology and economics
DS200412-0213
2003
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Gaspar, J.C., Diniz-Pinto, H.S., Junqueira-Brod, T.C.Spinel chemistry as an indicator of crystal fractionation and liquid immiscibility in the Tapira alkaline carbonatie complex, Mi8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractSouth America, Brazil, Minas GeraisKimberlite petrogenesis
DS200412-0214
2003
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J.C., Gibson, S.A., Thompson, R.N.Ti rich and Ti poor garnet from the Tapira carbonatite complex, SE Brazil: fingerprinting fractional crystallization and liquid8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractSouth America, Brazil, Minas GeraisKimberlite petrogenesis
DS200412-0612
2003
Brod, J.A.Gaspar, J.C., Araujo, A.L.N., Carlson, R.W., Sichel, S.E., Brod, J.A., Sgarbi, P.B., Danni, J.C.M.Mantle xenoliths and new constraints on the origin of alkaline ultrapotassic rocks from the Alto Paranaiba and Goias igneous pro8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractSouth America, BrazilKimberlite petrogenesis
DS200512-0492
2005
Brod, J.A.Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J-C., Brod, J.A., Jost, H., Rocha Barbosa, E.S., Kafino, C.V.Emplacement of kamafugitic lavas from the Goais alkaline province, Brazil: constraints from whole rock simulations. (mafurite, ugandite)Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, 3-4, March pp. 323-335.South America, BrazilSanto Antonio da Barra, Aguas Emendadas, carbonatite
DS200512-0493
2005
Brod, J.A.Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J-C., Brod, J.A., Kafino, C.V.Kamafugitic diatremes: their textures and field relationships with examples from the Goais alkaline province, Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, 3-4, March pp. 337-353.South America, BrazilBreccia, lapilli, peperite, surge
DS200512-0902
2005
Brod, J.A.Ribeiro, C.C., Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J-C., Petrinovic, I.A.Mineralogical and field aspects of magma fragmentation deposits in a carbonate phosphate magma chamber: evidence from the Catalao I complex, Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, 3-4, March pp. 355-369.South America, BrazilCarbonatite, Lagoa Seca, APIP, chamber pipes, surge
DS200812-0077
2008
Brod, J.A.Barbosa, E.S.R., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Brod, J.A., Dantas, E.L.Petrology of bebdourites from the Salitre phoscorite carbonatite complex, Brazil.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractSouth America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS200812-0243
2008
Brod, J.A.Cordiero, P.F.O., Brod, J.A., Santos, R.V.Oxygen and carbon isotopes and carbonate chemistry in phoscorites from the Catalao I complex - implications for phosphate iron oxide magmas.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractSouth America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS200812-0840
2008
Brod, J.A.Palmieri, M., Pereira, G.S.B., Brod, J.A., Junquiera-Brod, T.C., Petrinovic, I.A., Ferrari, A.J.D.Orbicular magnetite from the Catalao I phoscorite carbonatite complex.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractSouth America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201012-0124
2010
Brod, J.A.Cordeiro, P.F.O., Brod, J.A., Dantas, E.L., Barbosa, E.S.R.Mineral chemistry, isotope geochemistry and petrogenesis of niobium rich rocks from the Catalao I carbonatite phoscorite complex, central Brazil.Lithos, Vol. 118, pp. 223-237.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201012-0144
2010
Brod, J.A.De Oliveira Cordeiro, P.F., Brod, J.A., Ventura Santos, R., Dantas, E.L., Gouvieia de Oliveira, C., Soares Rocha, Barbosa, E.Stable ( C,O) and radiogenic (Sr, Nd) isotopes of carbonates as indicators of magmatic and post magmatic processes of phoscorite series rocks and carbonatites fContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available, 14p.South America, BrazilCatalao I
DS201112-0257
2011
Brod, J.A.De Oliveire Cordeiro, P.F., Brod, J.A., Ventura Santos, R., Dantas, E.L., Gouveia de Oliveira, C., Soares Rochas Barbosa, E.Stable (C,O) and radiogenic (Sr,Nd) isotopes of carbonates as indicators of magmatic and post-magmatic processes of phoscorite series rocks and carbonatites from Catalao 1, central Brazil.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 161, 3, pp. 451-464.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201212-0053
2012
Brod, J.A.Barbosa, E.S.R., Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Cordeiro, P.F.O., Santos, R.V., Dantas, E.L.Phoscorites from the Salitre alkaline complex, Brazil: origin and petrogenetic implications.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractSouth America, BrazilDeposit - Salitre
DS201212-0054
2012
Brod, J.A.Barbosa, E.S.R., Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Cordeiro, P.F.O.,Dantas, E.L., Santos, R.V.Mineralogy and petrology of the Salitre 1 phoscorite carbonatite alkaline compelx, Brazil.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractSouth America, BrazilDeposit - Slitre 1
DS201212-0345
2012
Brod, J.A.Kafino, C.V., Brod, J.A., Brod, T.C., Freitas, N.M.Mineral chemistry of mantle xenoliths from Kamafugite diatremes in the Goias alkaline Province, Brazil.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractIndiaDeposit - Goias
DS201212-0681
2012
Brod, J.A.Soares Rocha Barbosa, E., Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Dantas, E.L., De Oliveira Cordeiro, P.F., Siqueira Gomide, C.Bebdourite from its type area Sailtre 1 complex: a key petrogenetic series in the Late-Cretaceous Alto Paranaiba kamafugite carbonatite phoscorite association, central Brazil.Lithos, Vol. 146-147, pp. 56-72.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201212-0770
2012
Brod, J.A.Weska, R.K., Brod, J.A., Dantas, E.L., Araujo, D.P.Mineral chemistry of garnets and ilmenites of the Pepper-1 and Cosmos-3 intrusions, Espigao D'Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractSouth America, Brazil, RondoniaDeposit - Pepper, Cosmos
DS201312-0100
2013
Brod, J.A.Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J.C., Petrinovic, I.A., De Castro Valente, S., Corval, A.Decoupling of paired elements, crossover REE patterns and mirrored spider diagrams: fingerprinting liquid immiscibility in the Tapira alkaline carbonatite complex, SE Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, pp. 41-56.South America, BrazilTapira - mineral chemistry
DS201312-0319
2013
Brod, J.A.Gomide, C.S., Brod, J.A., Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Buhn, B.M., Santos, R.V., Barbosa, E.S.R., Cordeiro, P.F.O., Palmieri, M., Grasso, C.B., Torres, M.G.Sufur isotopes from Brazilian alkaline carbonatite complexes.Chemical Geology, Vol. 341, pp. 38-49.South America, BrazilDeposit - Tapira, Salitre, Serra Negra, Catalao, Jacupiringa
DS201702-0209
2017
Brod, J.A.De Oliveira, I.L., Brod, J.A., Cordeiro, P.F.O., Dantas, E.L., Mancini, L.H.Insights into the Late stage differentiation processes of the Cat alao I Carbonatite complex in Brazil: new Sr-Nd and C-O isotopic dat a in minerals from niobium ores.Lithos, In press available, 44p.South America, BrazilDeposit - Catalao I

Abstract: The Late Cretaceous Catalão I carbonatite complex consists of ultramafic silicate rocks, phoscorites, nelsonites and carbonatites. The latest stages of the evolution of the complex are characterized by several nelsonite (magnetite-apatite rock) and carbonatite dykes, plugs and veins crosscutting earlier alkaline rocks. The interaction between the latter and late-stage carbonatites and/or carbo-hydrothermal fluids, converted the original dunites and bebedourites to metasomatic phlogopitites. Late-stage nelsonites (N1), pseudonelsonites (N2) and various types of dolomite carbonatites (DC) including norsethite-, magnesite- and/or monazite-bearing varieties show significant whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic variations. To elucidate whether magmatic or metasomatic processes, or both, were responsible for these isotope variations we characterized the Nd and Sr isotope compositions of major mineral phases (i.e. apatite, dolomite, norsethite, pyrochlore and tetraferriphlogopite) in these late-stage rocks. Mineral isotope data recorded the same differences observed between N1 and N2 whole-rocks with N2 minerals showing more enriched isotopic signatures than minerals from N1. Sr isotopic disequilibrium among minerals from N2 pseudonelsonites and spatially related dolomite carbonatite pockets implies formation from batches of carbonate melts with distinct isotopic compositions. A detailed investigation of Nd and Sr isotopes from whole-rocks and minerals suggests that the most evolved rocks of the Catalão I complex probably derive from two different evolution paths. We propose that an earlier magmatic trend (path A) could be explained by several batches of immiscible and/or residual melts derived from carbonated-silicate parental magma (e.g. phlogopite picrite) contaminated with continental crust to a variable extent, in an AFCLI-like process. A second trend (path B) comprises highly variable 143Nd/144Ndi at nearly constant 87Sr/86Sri coupled with high d18O in carbonates. This is interpreted here as the result of the interaction of previously-formed dolomite carbonatites with carbo-hydrothermal fluids.
DS201212-0345
2012
Brod, T.C.Kafino, C.V., Brod, J.A., Brod, T.C., Freitas, N.M.Mineral chemistry of mantle xenoliths from Kamafugite diatremes in the Goias alkaline Province, Brazil.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractIndiaDeposit - Goias
DS2000-0316
2000
Brod, T.C.J.Gaspar, J.C., Brod, J.A., Sgarbi, P.B.A., Brod, T.C.J.A review of the Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in western Minas Gerais and southern Goias.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, Minas GeraisAlkaline rocks
DS1989-0177
1989
Brodaric, B.Brodaric, B., Fyon, J.A.Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) Fieldlog: a microcomputer based methodology to store, process and display map-related dataOntario Geological Survey Open File, No. 5709, 70pOntarioComputer, Program -Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) FIELDLOG
DS1993-0167
1993
Brodaric, B.Broome, J., Brodaric, B., Viljoen, D., Baril, D.The NATMAP digital geoscience data-management systemComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 1501-1516GlobalComputers, Program -NATMAP data management system
DS200612-0173
2006
Brodaric, B.Brodaric, B., Gahegan, M.Representing geoscientific knowledge in cyberinfrastructure: some challenges, approaches and implentatations.In: Sinha, A.K. Geoinformatics: data to knowledge, GSA Special Paper, 397, 397, pp.1-20.TechnologyData - not specific to diamonds
DS200612-0839
2006
Brodaric, B.Ludascher, B., Lin, K., Bowers, S., Jaeger-Frank, E., Brodaric, B., Baru, C.Managing scientific dat a: from dat a integration to scientific workflows.In: Sinha, A.K. Geoinformatics: data to knowledge, GSA Special Paper, 397, 397,pp.109-30TechnologyData - not specific to diamonds
DS201512-1915
2015
Brodaric, B.Ebert, K., Brodaric, B.GIS analyses of ice-sheet erosional impacts on the exposed shield of Baffin Island, eastern Canadian Arctic.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 52, 11, pp. 966-979.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandGeomorphology

Abstract: The erosional impacts of former ice sheets on the low-relief bedrock surfaces of Northern Hemisphere shields are not well understood. This paper assesses the variable impacts of glacial erosion on a portion of Baffin Island, eastern Canadian Arctic, between 68° and 72°N and 66° and 80°W. This tilted shield block was covered repeatedly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the late Cenozoic. The impact of ice-sheet erosion is examined with GIS analyses using two geomorphic parameters: lake density and terrain ruggedness. The resulting patterns generally conform to published data from other remote sensing studies, geological observations, cosmogenic exposure ages, and the distribution of the chemical index of alteration for tills. Lake density and terrain ruggedness are thereby demonstrated to be useful quantitative indicators of variable ice-sheet erosional impacts across Baffin Island. Ice-sheet erosion was most effective in the lower western parts of the lowlands, in a west-east-oriented band at around 350-400 m a.s.l., and in fjord-onset zones in the uplifted eastern region. Above the 350-400 m a.s.l. band and between the fjord-onset zones, ice-sheet erosion was not sufficient to create extensive ice-roughened or streamlined bedrock surfaces. The exception — where lake density and terrain ruggedness indicate that ice-sheet erosion had a scouring effect all across the study area — was in an area from Foxe Basin to Home Bay with elevations <400 m a.s.l. These morphological contrasts link to former ice-sheet basal thermal regimes during the Pleistocene. The zone of low glacial erosion surrounding the cold-based Barnes Ice Cap probably represents the ice cap’s greater extent during successive Pleistocene cold stages. Inter-fjord plateaus with few ice-sheet bedforms remained cold-based throughout multiple Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, zones of high lake density and high terrain ruggedness are a result of the repeated development of fast-flowing, erosive ice in warm-based zones beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. These zones are linked to greater ice thickness over western lowland Baffin Island. However, adjacent lowland surfaces with similar elevations of non-eroded, weakly eroded, and ice-scoured shield bedrock indicate that—even in areas of high lake density and terrain ruggedness—the total depth of ice sheet erosion did not exceed 50 m.
DS201706-1077
2017
Brodaric, B.Harrison, J.C., St. Onge, M.R., Paul, D., Brodaric, B.A new geological map and map database for Canada north of 60.GAC annual meeting, 1p. AbstractCanadamap
DS1860-0061
1868
Broderick, M.Bamang-Wato, Broderick, M.To Ophir DirectLondon: Edward Stanley, E. Standford., 56P. PLUS APPENDIX.Africa, South Africa, ZimbabweTravelogue
DS200912-0515
2009
Broderick, T.Moore, A.E., Cotteril, F.P.D., Broderick, T., Plowes, D.Lands cape evolution in Zimbabwe for the Permian from present with implications for kimberlite prospecting.South Africa Journal of Geology, Vol. 112, 1, pp. 65-88.Africa, ZimbabweGeomorphology
DS1975-0872
1978
Broderick, T.J.Stagman, J.G., Harrison, N.M., Broderick, T.J., Stocklmayer, V.An Outline of the Geology of RhodesiaRhodesia Geological Survey, Bulletin. No. 80, 126P.ZimbabweGeology, Kimberley
DS200612-0174
2006
Brodhag, C.Brodhag, C., Taliere, S.Sustainable development strategies: tools for policy coherence.Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 30, 2, May pp. 136-145.GlobalEnvironment
DS201809-2102
2018
Brodhollt, J.Thomson, A.R., Dobsdon, D.P., Brodhollt, J., Crichton, W., Cerantola, V., Piltz, R.Crystallographic in corporation of hydrogen in ringwoodite.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractMantlewater

Abstract: The transition zone (TZ) is believed to be the primary destination of subducted water [1], with the main TZ minerals (wadsleyite and ringwoodite) capable of holding up to ~ 3 wt.% H2O in their structures’. Observations of high attenuation and elevated conductivity suggest some areas of the transition zone are hydrated [2,3]. Combined with the observation of ~ 1.4 wt% H2O in a diamond-hosted ringwoodite inclusion [4], it is probable that the transition zone is at least regionally, if not globally, “wet”. The presence of water can induce partial melting, alter chemical partitioning and drastically change the strength of rocks. The detailed effect of water’s presence in the TZ will strongly depend on hydrogen’s incorporation mechanism, i.e. exchange with Si4+, Mg2+, Fe2+ cations or coupled substitution with Fe3+ in ringwoodite. Recent developments in neutron single-crystal Laue diffraction now allow measurements on crystals smaller than 0.1 mm3 [5]. Here we quantitatively study the incorporation of hydrogen in a synthetic iron-bearing ringwoodite. A multi-technique approach, with independent determination of chemistry, ferric iron content, water content and structure via x-ray and neutron diffraction allows a detailed study of the hydrous ringwoodite structure and the incorporation mechanism of water throughout Earth’s TZ.
DS1991-0701
1991
Brodholt, J.Hellfrich, G., Brodholt, J.Relationship of deep seismicity to the thermal structure of subductedlithosphere.Nature, Vol. 353, Sept. 19, pp. 252-5.MantleSubduction, mantle structure, Geophysics - seismics
DS200412-0215
2004
Brodholt, J.Brodholt, J.Constraining chemical heterogeneity in the Earth's lower mantle.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S14. abstractMantleGeophysics - seismics, perovskites
DS200412-1435
2004
Brodholt, J.Nimmo, F., Price, G.D., Brodholt, J., Gubbins, D.The influence of potassium on core and geodynamo evolution.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 156, 2, pp. 363-376.MantleMineralogy
DS200412-2075
2004
Brodholt, J.Walter, M.J., Kubo, A., Yoshino, T., Brodholt, J., Koga, K.T., Ohishi, Y.Phase relations and equation of state aluminous Mg silicate perovskite and implications for Earth's lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 222, 2, pp. 501-516.MantlePerovskite
DS200512-0849
2005
Brodholt, J.Petford, N., Yuen, D., Rushmer, T.,Brodholt, J., Stackhouse, S.Shear induced material transfer across the core mantle boundary aided by the post perovskite phase transition.Earth Planets and Space, Vol. 57, 5, pp. 459-464.MantleMineralogy
DS200612-0586
2006
Brodholt, J.Hirose, H., Karato, S., Comier, V., Brodholt, J., Yuen, D.Unsolved problems in the lowermost mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 253. abstract only.MantleGeochemistry
DS200612-1543
2005
Brodholt, J.Wookey, J., Stackhouse, S., Kendall, J.M., Brodholt, J., Price, G.D.Efficacy of the post perovskite phase as an explanation for lowermost mantle seismic properties.Nature, No. 7070, Dec. 15, pp. 1004-1007.MantlePetrology
DS200812-0472
2007
Brodholt, J.Hirose, K., Brodholt, J., Lay, T., Yuen, D.A.An introduction to post-perovskite: