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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - Cl+


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - Cl+
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS1990-0334
1990
Clackson, S.G.Clackson, S.G., Moore, M., Walmsley, J.C., Woods, G.S.The relationship between platelet size and the frequency of the B infrared adsorption peak in type 1a diamondPhil. Magazine, B., Vol. 62, No. 2, August pp. 115-128GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1994-0308
1994
Cladouhos, T.T.Cladouhos, T.T., et al.Late Cenozoic deformation in the Central Andes: kinematics from the northern Puna, northwest ArgentinaJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 3, April pp. 209-ArgentinaStructure
DS1991-0753
1991
Claesson, S.Huhma, H., Claesson, S., Kinny, P.D., Williams, I.S.The growth of early Proterozoic crust- new evidence from Svecofenniandetrital zirconsTerra Nova, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 175-178Finland, Sweden, SvecofenniaProterozoic, Geochronology
DS2000-0095
2000
Claesson, S.Bogdanova, S., Claesson, S., et al.Paleoproterozoic accretionary tectonics in the western part of the east European craton... Eurobridge seismicsIgc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.EuropeCraton - Sarmatia, Lithuanian terrane, Tectonics
DS2001-0195
2001
Claesson, S.Claesson, S., Bogdanova, S.V., Bibikova, GorbatschevIsotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic accretion in the basement of the East European Craton.Tectonophysics, Vol. 339, No. 1-2, pp. 1-18.EuropeGeochronology, Craton
DS200712-0078
2007
Claesson, S.Bibikova, E., Fedotova, A., Claesson, S.REE pattern and oxygen isotopes in zircons from different rocks the Fennoscandian and Ukrainian shields as indicators of their genesis.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A89.Europe, Kola Peninsula, Fennoscandia, UkraineGeochronology
DS200712-0189
2006
Claesson, S.Claesson, S., Bibikova, E., Bogdanova, S., Skobelev, V.Archean terranes. paleoproterozoic reworking and accretion in the Ukrainian shield, East European Craton.Geological Society of London Memoir, No. 32, pp. 645-654.Europe, Ukraine, UralsCraton
DS201811-2560
2018
Claesson, S.Claesson, S., Artemenko, G.V., Bogdanova, S.V., Shumlyanskyy, L.Archean crustal evolution in the Ukrainian shield.Earth's Oldest Rocks, Springer , Chapter 33, pp. 872-889.Europe, Ukrainetectonics
DS201212-0364
2012
Claeys, P.Koeberl, C., Claeys, P., Hecht, L., McDonald, I.Geochemistry of impactites.Elements, Vol. 8, 1, Feb. pp. 37-42.TechnologyPGM, isotopes
DS1998-0738
1998
Clague, A.Kepezhinskas, P., Defant, M., Maury, R., Clague, A.Composition of Island arc mantle and its bearing on the origin of cratoniclithosphere.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 417-9.GlobalCraton, Subduction
DS1985-0120
1985
Clague, D.A.Clague, D.A.Hawaiian Alkaline VolcanismConference Report On A Meeting of Volcanics Studies Group He, 1P. ABSTRACT.United States, HawaiiMelilitite, Nephelinite, Basanite, Geochemistry
DS200612-1268
2006
Clague, D.A.Sharp, W.D., Clague, D.A.50 Ma initiation of Hawaiian Emperor bend records major change in Pacific plate motion.Science, Vol. 313, Sept. 1, pp. 1281-1284.MantleHotspots, tectonics
DS1993-0009
1993
Clague, J.J.Adams, J., Clague, J.J.Neotectonics and large scale geomorphology of CanadaPhysical Georgraphy, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.248-264CanadaGeomorphology, Tectonics, structure
DS1997-0193
1997
Clague, J.J.Clague, J.J.Reinventing the geological map: making geoscience more accessible toCanadiansGeoscience Canada, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec. pp. 161-172CanadaGeological maps
DS200412-0719
2004
Clancy, J.Grey, E., Clancy, J.The never ending story: human error and beyond.AUSIMM Bulletin, March-April, p. 60-62.AustraliaWork place environment
DS200612-0256
2006
Clanin, J.Clanin, J.Geology and mining of southern Tanzanian alluvial gem deposits. Brief mention of 'occasional diamonds'GIA Gemological Research Conference abstract volume, Held August 26-27, p. 16, 1/2p.Africa, TanzaniaBrief overview of area
DS1991-0272
1991
Claoue-Long, J.C.Claoue-Long, J.C., Sobolev, N.V., Shatsky, V.S., Sobolev, A.V.Zircon response to diamond -pressure metamorphism in the Kokchetav USSRGeology, Vol. 19, No. 7, July pp. 710-713RussiaMicroprobe-SHRIMP, Geochronology -age populations
DS1996-0137
1996
Clapp, E.M.Bierman, P.R., Clapp, E.M.Estimating geologic age from cosmogenic nuclides: an updateScience, Vol. 271, No. 5255, Mar. 15, pp. 1606-GlobalGeological age
DS1993-0257
1993
Clapperton, C.Clapperton, C.Quaternary geology and geomorphology of South AmericaElsevier, 750pSouth America, Andes, Amazon Basin, Parana, Brazil, GuianaBook -table of contents, Geomorphology, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador
DS1995-0326
1995
Claque, A.J.Claque, A.J., et al.Laser ablation ICP-MS study of fluid inclusions in mantle xenoliths from Kamchatka Russia: prelim. resultsEos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F538. Abstract.RussiaXenoliths, Deposit -Kamchatka area
DS200912-0176
2009
Claque, D.A.Dixon, J.E., Claque, D.A., Cousens, B.Carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism of depleted mantle surrounding the Hawaiian plume: origin of rejuvenated stage lavas.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A295 Abstract.United States, HawaiiMelting
DS201608-1388
2016
Clar, J.G.Andersen, A.K., Clar, J.G., Larson, P.B., Neill, O.K.Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of a HFSE(+HREE) occurrence, peripheral to carbonatites of the Bear Lodge alkaline complex, Wyoming.American Mineralogist, Vol. 101, pp. 1604-1623.United States, Wyoming, Colorado PlateauBear Lodge

Abstract: Rare earth mineralization in the Bear Lodge alkaline complex (BLAC) is mainly associated with an anastomosing network of carbonatite dikes and veins, and their oxidized equivalents. Bear Lodge carbonatites are LREE-dominant, with some peripheral zones enriched in HREEs. We describe the unique chemistry and mineralogy one such peripheral zone, the Cole HFSE(+HREE) Occurrence (CHO), located ~2 km from the main carbonatite intrusions. The CHO consists of anatase, xenotime-(Y), brockite, fluorite, zircon, and K-feldspar, and contains up to 44.88% TiO2, 3.12% Nb2O5, 6.52% Y2O3, 0.80% Dy2O3, 2.63% ThO2, 6.0% P2O5, and 3.73% F. Electron microprobe analyses of xenotime-(Y) overgrowths on zircon show that oscillatory zoning is a result of variable Th and Ca content. Cheralite-type substitution, whereby Th and Ca are incorporated at the expense of REEs, is predominant over the more commonly observed thorite-type substitution in xenotime-(Y). Th/Ca-rich domains are highly beam sensitive and accompanied by high-F concentrations and low-microprobe oxide totals, suggesting cheralite-type substitution is more easily accommodated in fluorinated and hydrated/hydroxylated xenotime-(Y). Analyses of xenotime-(Y) and brockite show evidence of Embedded Image substitution for Embedded Image with patches of an undefined Ca-Th-Y-Ln phosphovanadate solid-solution composition within brockite clusters. Fluorite from the CHO is HREE-enriched with an average Y/Ho ratio of 33.2, while other generations of fluorite throughout the BLAC are LREE-enriched with Y/Ho ratios of 58.6-102.5. HFSE(+HREE) mineralization occurs at the interface between alkaline silicate intrusions and the first outward occurrence of calcareous Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, which may be local sources of P, Ti, V, Zr, and Y. U-Pb zircon ages determined by LA-ICP-MS reveal two definitive 207Pb/206Pb populations at 2.60-2.75 and 1.83-1.88 Ga, consistent with derivation from adjacent sandstones and Archean granite. Therefore, Zr and Hf are concentrated by a physical process independent of the Ti/Nb-enriched fluid composition responsible for anatase crystallization. The CHO exemplifies the extreme fluid compositions possible after protracted LREE-rich crystal fractionation and subsequent fluid exsolution in carbonatite-fluid systems. We suggest that the anatase+xenotime-(Y)+brockite+fluorite assemblage precipitated from highly fractionated, low-temperature (<200 °C), F-rich fluids temporally related to carbonatite emplacement, but after significant fractionation of ancylite and Ca-REE fluorocarbonates. Low-temperature aqueous conditions are supported by the presence of fine-grained anatase as the sole Ti-oxide mineral, concentrically banded botryoidal fluorite textures, and presumed hydration of phosphate minerals. Fluid interaction with Ca-rich lithologies is known to initiate fluorite crystallization which may cause destabilization of (HREE,Ti,Nb)-fluoride complexes and precipitation of REE+Th phosphates and Nb-anatase, a model valuable to the exploration for economic concentrations of HREEs, Ti, and Nb.
DS200612-0257
2006
Clar, S.M.Clar, S.M., Speciale, S., Jeanloz, R., Kunz, M., Caldwell, W.A., Walter, M., Walker, D.Using advanced accelerators to understand the lower mantle and beyond.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 104, abstract only.MantleGeochemistry
DS1993-1319
1993
Clar, T.Rohon, M.-L., Vialette, Y., Clar, T., Roger, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Vidal, Ph.Aphebian mafic-ultramafic magmatism in the Labrador trough (New Quebec):its age and the nature of its mantle source.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 8, August pp. 1582-1593.QuebecCrustal contamination, Ultramafics
DS2003-0307
2003
Clardy, J.C.Dahl, J.E.P., Moldowan, J.M., Peakman, T.M., Clardy, J.C., Lobkovsky, E.Isolation and structural proof of the large diamond molecule, cycloheamantane (Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 42, 18, pp. 2040-44.GlobalMineral chemistry
DS200412-0398
2003
Clardy, J.C.Dahl, J.E.P., Moldowan, J.M., Peakman, T.M., Clardy, J.C., Lobkovsky, E., Olmstead, M.M., May, P.W., Davis, T.Isolation and structural proof of the large diamond molecule, cycloheamantane ( C26H30).Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 42, 18, pp. 2040-44.TechnologyMineral chemistry
DS1860-1075
1899
Claremont, L.Claremont, L.The Identification of GemsThe Mineral Industry During 1898, Vol. 7, PP. 278-286.GlobalGemology
DS1900-0016
1900
Claremont, L.Claremont, L.The Cutting and Polishing of Precious StonesThe Mineral Industry During 1899, Vol. 8, PP. 229-235.GlobalGemology, Diamond
DS1900-0398
1906
Claremont, L.Claremont, L.The Gem Cutters CraftLondon: G. Bell And Sons, Asia, BorneoDiamond Morphology
DS201512-1909
2015
Clarens, F.De Lamotte, F., Fourdan, D., Leleu, B., Leparmentier, S., Clarens, F.Style of rifting and the stages of Pangea.Tectonics, Vol. 34, 5, pp. 1009-1029.MantlePangea

Abstract: Pangea results from the progressive amalgamation of continental blocks achieved at 320?Ma. Assuming that the ancient concept of “active” versus “passive” rifting remains pertinent as end-members of more complex processes, we show that the progressive Pangea breakup occurred through a succession of rifting episodes characterized by different tectonic evolutions. A first episode of passive continental rifting during the Upper Carboniferous and Permian led to the formation of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Then at the beginning of Triassic times, two short episodes of active rifting associated to the Siberian and Emeishan large igneous provinces (LIPs) failed. The true disintegration of Pangea resulted from (1) a Triassic passive rifting leading to the emplacement of the central Atlantic magmatic province (200?Ma) LIP and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean during the lowermost Jurassic and from (2) a Lower Jurassic active rifting triggered by the Karoo-Ferrar LIP (183?Ma), which led to the opening of the West Indian Ocean. The same sequence of passive then active rifting is observed during the Lower Cretaceous with, in between, the Parana-Etendeka LIP at 135?Ma. We show that the relationships between the style of rifts and their breakdown or with the type of resulting margins (as magma poor or magma dominated) are not straightforward. Finally, we discuss the respective role of mantle global warming promoted by continental agglomeration and mantle plumes in the weakening of the continental lithosphere and their roles as rifting triggers.
DS1989-1577
1989
ClarkWalton, K.R., Dismukes, J.P., Krueger, R.A., Field, F.R. III, ClarkTechnology assessment for CVD-diamond-coated cutting tool insertsMaterials and Society, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 319-350GlobalDiamond synthesis, CVD -overview/good refs
DS200912-0805
2009
ClarkWalter, M.J., Bulanova, G.P., Armstrong, L.S., Keshav, S., Blundy, Gudfinnsson, Lord, Lennie, Clark, GobboPrimary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust.Nature, Vol. 459, July 31, pp. 622-626.South America, Brazil, MantleMelting, geochemistry
DS1995-2035
1995
Clark, A.H.Wasteneys, H.A., Clark, A.H., Farrar, E., Langridge, R.J.Grevillian granulite facies metamorphism in the Arequipa Massif Peru: a Laurentia Gondwana linkEarth and Plan. Sci. Letters, Vol. 132, pp. 63-73PeruCentral Andean orogenic basement, Arica Bight, Bolivian anticline
DS1997-0994
1997
Clark, A.H.Sandeman, H.A., Clark, A.H., Pauca, G.A.Lithostratigraphy, petrology and 40 Ar-39 Ar geochronology of the CruceroSupergroup, Puno ..Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 223-246PeruGeochronology, Argon
DS1998-0256
1998
Clark, A.H.Clark, A.H., Archibald, D.A., Lee, A., Farrar, HodgsonLaser probe 40 Ar-39 Ar ages of early and late stage alteration assemblages Rosario porphyry copper moly..Economic Geology, Vol. 93, No. 3, May pp. 326-37ChileGeochronology, copper, molybdenuM., Deposit - Rosario, Argon
DS1986-0190
1986
Clark, A.L.Dorian, J.P., Clark, A.L.Value of tectonic regions in the United StatesMathematical Geology, Vol. 18, No. 4, May pp. 385-400GlobalTectonics
DS1988-0177
1988
Clark, A.L.Dorian, J.P., Clark, A.L., Sun Yi-Ying, Zhou Zou-Xia, Li Ji-LiangMineral resources of China: apparent controls on distributionGeoJournal, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 373-388ChinaOverview of tectonic/metalogeny no ref. to diamond
DS1988-0331
1988
Clark, A.L.Johnson, C.J., Clark, A.L.Mineral exploration in developing countries, Botswana and Papua New Guinea case studiesIn: World Mineral Exploration, trends economic issues, Publishing Resources for, pp. 145-178BotswanaHistory -diamonds
DS1996-0278
1996
Clark, A.L.Clark, A.L., Cook-Clark, J.Small scale mining in Asia: a social program or a contribution tosustainable developmentCrs Perspectives, No. 52, Jan. pp. 15-17GlobalEconomics, Mining -small scale
DS1960-0609
1965
Clark, A.M.Stumpfl, E.F., Clark, A.M.Electron probe microanalysis of gold platinoid concentrates from SoutheastBorneoInstitute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM) Bulletin, No. 708, Novemebr pp. 933-946GlobalAnalyses, Mineralogy
DS1900-0651
1908
Clark, B.W.Clark, B.W.The Peridotite Dikes of Onondaga County, New YorkMsc. Thesis, Syracuse University, United States, Appalachia, New YorkPetrology
DS1910-0407
1914
Clark, B.W.Clark, B.W.The Peridotite Dikes of Syracuse and VicinityNew York State Mus. Bulletin., No. 171, PP. 45-56.United States, Appalachia, New York, Finger LakesPetrography, Related Rocks
DS200712-0190
2007
Clark, C.Clark, C., Hand, M., Kelsey, D.E., Goscombe, B.Linking crustal reworking to terrane accretion.Journal of Geological Society of London, Vol. 164, 5, pp. 937-940.MantleAccretion
DS201112-0191
2011
Clark, C.Clark, C., Fitzsimons, I.C.W., Healy, D., Harkley, S.L.How does the continental crust get really hot?Elements, Vol. 7, 4, August pp. 235-240.MantleMetamorphism, UHT, thermal modelling
DS201112-1048
2011
Clark, C.Timms, N.E., Kinny, P.D., Reddy, S.M., Evans, K., Clark, C., Healy, D.Relationship among titanium, rare earth elements, U-Pb ages and deformation microstructures in zircon: implications for Ti in zircon thermometry.Chemical Geology, Vol. 280, 1-2, pp. 33-46.Russia, SiberiaXenoliths
DS201705-0854
2017
Clark, C.Merdith, A.S., Collins, A.S., Williams, S.E., Pisarevsky, S., Foden, J.F., Archibald, D., Blades, M.L., Alessio, B.L., Armistead, S., Plavsa, D., Clark, C., Muller, R.D.A full plate global reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic.Gondwana Research, in press available 155p.Gondwana, RodiniaGeodynamics

Abstract: Neoproterozoic tectonic geography was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana. The Neoproterozoic was a tumultuous time of Earth history, with large climatic variations, the emergence of complex life and a series of continent-building orogenies of a scale not repeated until the Cenozoic. Here we synthesise available geological and palaeomagnetic data and build the first full-plate, topological model of the Neoproterozoic that maps the evolution of the tectonic plate configurations during this time. Topological models trace evolving plate boundaries and facilitate the evaluation of “plate tectonic rules” such as subduction zone migration through time when building plate models. There is a rich history of subduction zone proxies preserved in the Neoproterozoic geological record, providing good evidence for the existence of continent-margin and intra-oceanic subduction zones through time. These are preserved either as volcanic arc protoliths accreted in continent-continent, or continent-arc collisions, or as the detritus of these volcanic arcs preserved in successor basins. Despite this, we find that the model presented here still predicts less subduction (ca. 90%) than on the modern earth, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are likely underestimating the amount of subduction, either due to a simplification of tectonically complex areas, or because of the absence of preservation in the geological record (e.g. ocean-ocean convergence). Furthermore, the reconstruction of plate boundary geometries provides constraints for global-scale earth system parameters, such as the role of volcanism or ridge production on the planet's icehouse climatic excursion during the Cryogenian. Besides modelling plate boundaries, our model presents some notable departures from previous Rodinia models. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, such that these two cratons act as ‘lonely wanderers’ for much of the Neoproterozoic. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive margin sediments along its southern margin during the Tonian. The GPlates files of the model are released to the public and it is our expectation that this model can act as a foundation for future model refinements, the testing of alternative models, as well as providing constraints for both geodynamic and palaeoclimate models.
DS201709-2032
2017
Clark, C.Meredith, A.S., Collins, A.S., Williams, S.E., Pisarevsky, S., Foden, J.D., Archibald, D.B., Blades, M.L., Alessio, B.L., Armistead, S., Plavsa, D., Clark, C., Muller, R.D.A full plate global reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic.Gondwana Research, Vol. 50, pp. 84-134.Globalneoproterozoic

Abstract: Neoproterozoic tectonic geography was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana. The Neoproterozoic was a tumultuous time of Earth history, with large climatic variations, the emergence of complex life and a series of continent-building orogenies of a scale not repeated until the Cenozoic. Here we synthesise available geological and palaeomagnetic data and build the first full-plate, topological model of the Neoproterozoic that maps the evolution of the tectonic plate configurations during this time. Topological models trace evolving plate boundaries and facilitate the evaluation of “plate tectonic rules” such as subduction zone migration through time when building plate models. There is a rich history of subduction zone proxies preserved in the Neoproterozoic geological record, providing good evidence for the existence of continent-margin and intra-oceanic subduction zones through time. These are preserved either as volcanic arc protoliths accreted in continent-continent, or continent-arc collisions, or as the detritus of these volcanic arcs preserved in successor basins. Despite this, we find that the model presented here still predicts less subduction (ca. 90%) than on the modern earth, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are likely underestimating the amount of subduction, either due to a simplification of tectonically complex areas, or because of the absence of preservation in the geological record (e.g. ocean-ocean convergence). Furthermore, the reconstruction of plate boundary geometries provides constraints for global-scale earth system parameters, such as the role of volcanism or ridge production on the planet's icehouse climatic excursion during the Cryogenian. Besides modelling plate boundaries, our model presents some notable departures from previous Rodinia models. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, such that these two cratons act as ‘lonely wanderers’ for much of the Neoproterozoic. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive margin sediments along its southern margin during the Tonian. The GPlates files of the model are released to the public and it is our expectation that this model can act as a foundation for future model refinements, the testing of alternative models, as well as providing constraints for both geodynamic and palaeoclimate models.
DS201812-2808
2018
Clark, C.Farahbakhsh, E., Chandra, R., Olierook, H.K.H., Scalzo, R., Clark, C., Reddy, S.M., Muller, R.D.Computer vision based framework for extracting geological lineaments from optical remote sensing data.researchgate.com, arXiv:1810.02320v1 17p. Oct 4.Globallineaments

Abstract: The extraction of geological lineaments from digital satellite data is a fundamental application in remote sensing. The location of geological lineaments such as faults and dykes are of interest for a range of applications, particularly because of their association with hydrothermal mineralization. Although a wide range of applications have utilized computer vision techniques, a standard workflow for application of these techniques to mineral exploration is lacking. We present a framework for extracting geological lineaments using computer vision techniques which is a combination of edge detection and line extraction algorithms for extracting geological lineaments using optical remote sensing data. It features ancillary computer vision techniques for reducing data dimensionality, removing noise and enhancing the expression of lineaments. We test the proposed framework on Landsat 8 data of a mineral-rich portion of the Gascoyne Province in Western Australia using different dimension reduction techniques and convolutional filters. To validate the results, the extracted lineaments are compared to our manual photointerpretation and geologically mapped structures by the Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA). The results show that the best correlation between our extracted geological lineaments and the GSWA geological lineament map is achieved by applying a minimum noise fraction transformation and a Laplacian filter. Application of a directional filter instead shows a stronger correlation with the output of our manual photointerpretation and known sites of hydrothermal mineralization. Hence, our framework using either filter can be used for mineral prospectivity mapping in other regions where faults are exposed and observable in optical remote sensing data.
DS201904-0763
2019
Clark, C.Olierook, H.K.H., Agangi, A., Plavsa, D., Reddy, S.M., Yao, W., Clark, C., Occipinti, S.A., Kylander-Clark, A.R.C.Neoproterozoic hydrothermal activity in the west Australian craton related to Rodinia assembly or breakup?Gondwana Research, Vol 68, 1, pp. 1-12.Australiacraton

Abstract: The timing of final assembly and initiation of subsequent rifting of Rodinia is disputed. New rutile ages (913?±?9?Ma, 900?±?8?Ma and 873?±?3?Ma) and published zircon, monazite, titanite, biotite, muscovite and xenotime geochronology from the Capricorn Orogen (West Australian Craton) reveal a significant early Neoproterozoic event characterized by very low to low metamorphic grade, abundant metasomatism, minor leucogranitic and pegmatitic magmatism and NW-SE fault reactivation episodes between ca. 955 and 830?Ma. Collectively, these are termed the ca. 955-830?Ma Kuparr Tectonic Event. An age range of ca. 955-830?Ma is concomitant with the final stages of Rodinia assembly and the initial stages of its attempted breakup. Very low- to low-grade metamorphic and structural geological evidence favor a distal north-south compressional regime as the driver for hydrothermal activity during ca. 955-830?Ma. Nearby continental collision or accretion from the west (e.g., South China and/or Tarim) are ruled out. The cessation of metasomatism and magmatism in the West Australian Craton after ca. 830?Ma is concomitant with the emplacement of the Gairdner-Amata dyke swarm and associated magmatic activity in South China and Laurentia, the inception of the Adelaide Rift Complex and the deposition of the Centralian Superbasin. We posit that the cessation of hydrothermal activity in the Capricorn Orogen was caused by a tectonic switch from compressional to extensional at ca. 830?Ma. Magmatic and hydrothermal fluids were transferred away from the Capricorn Orogen to the incipient Adelaide Rift Complex, terminating metasomatism in the West Australian Craton. Ultimately, the Kuparr Tectonic Event marked the final stages of Rodinia assembly and its cessation marks the initial stages of its attempted breakup.
DS201905-1028
2018
Clark, C.Farahbakhsh, E., Chandra, R., Olierook, H.K.H., Scalzo, R., Clark, C., Reddy, S.M., Muller, R.D.Computer vision based framework for extracting geological lineaments from optical remote sensing data.arXiv.1810,02320vl, researchgate 17p.Australialineaments
DS201908-1769
2019
Clark, C.Alessio, B.L., Glorie, S., Collins, A.S., Jourdan, F., Jepson, G., Nixon, A., Siegfried, P.R., Clark, C.The thermo-tectonic evolution of the southern Congo craton margin as determined from apatite and muscovite thermochronology.Tectonophysics, Vol. 766, pp. 398-415.Africa, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzaniacraton

Abstract: The Southern Irumide Belt (SIB) of Zambia consists of predominantly Mesoproterozoic terranes that record a pervasive tectono-metamorphic overprint from collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons in the final stages of Gondwana amalgamation. This study applies multi-method thermochronology to samples throughout southern Zambia to constrain the post-collisional, Phanerozoic thermo-tectonic evolution of the region. U-Pb apatite and 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data are used to constrain the cooling history of the region following Congo-Kalahari collision, and reveal ages of c. 550-450?Ma. Variations in the recorded cooling ages are interpreted to relate to localised post-tectonic magmatism and the proximity of analysed samples to the Congo-Kalahari suture. Apatite fission track data are used to constrain the low-temperature thermo-tectonic evolution of the region and identify mean central ages of c. 320-300, 210-200 and 120-110?Ma. Thermal modelling of these samples identifies a number of thermal events occurring in the region throughout the Phanerozoic. Carboniferous to Permian-Triassic heating is suggested to relate to the development of Karoo rift basins found throughout central Africa and constrain the timing of sedimentation in the basin. Permian to Jurassic cooling is identified in a number of samples, reflecting exhumation as a result of the Mauritanian-Variscan and Gondwanide orogenies. Subsequent cooling of the majority of samples occurs from the Cretaceous and persists until present, reflecting exhumation in response to larger scale rifting associated with the break-up of Gondwana. Each model reveals a later phase of enhanced cooling beginning at c. 30?Ma that, if not an artefact of modelling, corresponds to the development of the East African Rift System. The obtained thermochronological data elucidate the previously unconstrained thermal evolution of the SIB, and provides a refined regional framework for constraining the tectonic history of central Africa throughout the Phanerozoic.
DS1990-0226
1990
Clark, C.D.Boulton, G.S., Clark, C.D.The Laurentide ice sheet through the last Glacial cycle - the topology of drift lineations as a key to dynamic behaviour of former ice sheetsTransactions Royal Society. Edinburgh Earth Science, Vol. 81, pp. 327-348Canada, United States, EuropeGeomorphology, Laurentide ice sheet
DS1990-0227
1990
Clark, C.D.Boulton, G.S., Clark, C.D.A highly mobile Laurentide ice sheet revealed by satellite images of glacial lineationsNature, Vol. 346, No. 6287 August 30, pp. 813-817OntarioGeomorphology, remote sensing, Laurentide
DS2003-1337
2003
Clark, C.D.Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D.Laurentide ice streaming on the Canadian Shield: a conflict with the soft bedded iceGeology, Vol. 31, 4, pp. 347-50.Canada, Ontario, Manitoba, QuebecGeomorphology, thermomechnical
DS2003-1338
2003
Clark, C.D.Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D.Laurentide ice streaming on the Canadian Shield,: A conflict with the soft-bedded iceGeology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 347-350Quebec, Ontario, Nunavut, Northwest TerritoriesLaurentide ice sheet, northwestern Canadian Shield
DS200412-1931
2003
Clark, C.D.Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D.Laurentide ice streaming on the Canadian Shield: a conflict with the soft bedded ice stream paradigm?Geology, Vol. 31, 4, pp. 347-50.Canada, Ontario, Manitoba, QuebecGeomorphology, thermomechnical
DS2001-0648
2001
Clark, D.Lackie, M., Clark, D.A key paleomagnetic pole for the Early Permian for Australia and GondwanaGemoc Annual Report 2000, p. 31.Australia, GondwanaGeophysics - Paleomagnetism
DS200412-0332
2004
Clark, D.Clark, D., Leonard, M.Principal stress orientations from multiple focal plane solutions: new insight into the Australian intraplate stress field.Hillis, R.R., Muller, R.D. Evolution and dynamics of the Australian Plate, Geological Society America Memoir, No. 372, pp. 71-90.AustraliaTectonics
DS1992-0259
1992
Clark, D.A.Clark, D.A., Emerson, D.W.Notes on rock magnetization characteristics in applied geophysicalstudiesExploration Geophysics, Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Vol. 22, No. 3, September pp. 547-AustraliaGeophysics, Rock magnetization
DS1997-0194
1997
Clark, D.A.Clark, D.A.Magnetic petrophysics and magnetic petrology: aids to geologicalinterpretationAgso Journal, Australian Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 83-104AustraliaGeophysics - airborne magnetics, Petrology - petrophysics
DS1999-0133
1999
Clark, D.A.Clark, D.A.Magnetic petrology of igneous intrusions: implications for exploration and magnetic interpretation.Exploration Geophysics, Vol. 30, pp. 5-26.GlobalPetrology - magnetic, Rock magnetism - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-1562
2003
Clark, D.B.Pokhilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Clark, D.B., Wright, K.J.Kimberlites and carbonatites of the Snap Lake King Lake dyke system: structural setting, petrochemistry and petrology of a uniqu8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesKimberlite petrogenesis Deposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS2003-1091
2003
Clark, D.B..Pokhilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Clark, D.B..Kimberlites and carbonatites of the Snap Lake King Lake dyke system: structural8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractNorthwest TerritoriesDeposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS2000-0159
2000
Clark, D.J.Clark, D.J., Hensen, B.J., Kinny, P.D.Geochronological constraints for a two stage history of the Albany Fraser Orogen, Western Australia.Precambrian Research, Vol. 102, No. 3-4, Aug.pp. 155-83.Australia, Western AustraliaGeochronology, Orogeny
DS200512-0322
2004
Clark, D.N.Geiger, M., Clark, D.N., Mette, W.Reappraisal of the timing of the breakup of Gondwana based on sedimentalogical and seismic evidence from the Morondava Basin, Madagascar.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 38, 4, March pp. 363-381.Africa, MadagascarGeophysics - seismics, tectonics
DS1990-0358
1990
Clark, E.A.Cook, F.A., Clark, E.A.Middle Proterozoic piggyback basin in the subsurface of northwesternCanadaGeology, Vol. 18, No. 7, July, pp. 662-664Arctic, Northwest CanadaBasin, Proterozoic
DS1991-0303
1991
Clark, E.A.Cook, F.A., Varsek, J.L., Clark, E.A.Proterozoic craton to basin crustal transition in western Canada and its influence on the evolution of the CordilleraCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 8, August pp. 1148-1158Alberta, western CanadaCraton, Proterozoic
DS1992-0260
1992
Clark, E.A.Clark, E.A., Cook, F.A.Crustal scale ramp in a Middle Proterozoic orogen, Northwest CanadaCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 1, January pp. 142-157Northwest TerritoriesCrustal structures, Wernecke Mountains
DS1860-0976
1897
Clark, F.E.Clark, F.E.Kimberley: the World's Greatest Diamond VaultTemple Magazine., Vol. 2, DECEMBER PP. 184-189.Africa, 'South AfricaHistory, Mining Economics
DS1985-0121
1985
Clark, G.C.Clark, G.C.Mineral Exploration of the Kalahari, Background and IntroductionProceedings of a seminar on the mineral exploration of the Kalahari, Geol., Vol. 29, pp. 1-5BotswanaHistory, Overview
DS2001-1295
2001
Clark, I.Zdanowicz, C., Fisher, D., Clark, I., Lacelle, D.Ice marginal studies on Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island: clues to the history of the Laurentide ice sheet.29th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 21-23, abstract p. 97.Northwest Territories, Baffin IslandGeomorphology
DS200812-0340
2008
Clark, I.Farrell, S., Clark, I., Bell, K.Sulphur isotopes in carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the Superior Province Canada.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A258.Canada, OntarioCarbonatite
DS201012-0194
2010
Clark, I.Farrell, S., Bell, K., Clark, I.Sulphur isotopes in carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the Superior Province, Canada.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 98, 1-4, pp. 209-226.Canada, OntarioGeochronology
DS201012-0514
2010
Clark, J.Moore, M., Chakhmouradian, A., Clark, J.Polyphase rare earth mineralization of the Bear Lodge alkaline complex, Wyoming.International Workshop Geology of Rare Metals, held Nov9-10, Victoria BC, Open file 2010-10, extended abstract pp. 27.United States, Wyoming, Colorado PlateauCarbonatite
DS1993-0258
1993
Clark, J.A.Clark, J.A., Hendriks, M., Timmermans, T.J., Struck, C., Hilverda, K.J.Glacial isostatic deformation of the Great Lakes regionGeological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 106, No. 1, January pp. 19-31.OntarioGeomorphology, Sea level changes, isostasy
DS1982-0143
1982
Clark, J.F.Coles, R.L., Clark, J.F.Lake St. Martin Impact Structure, Manitoba, Canada: Magnetic Anomalies and Magnetizations.Journal of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, Vol. 87, No. B 8, PP. 7087-7095.GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics, Magnetic
DS201709-1951
2017
Clark, J.G.Andersen, A.K., Clark, J.G., Larson, P.B., Donovan, J.J.REE fractionation, mineral speciation, and supergene enrichment of the Bear Lodge carbonatites, Wyoming, USA.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 89, pp. 780-807.United States, Wyomingcarbonatite - Bear Lodge

Abstract: The Eocene (ca. 55–38 Ma) Bear Lodge alkaline complex in the northern Black Hills region of northeastern Wyoming (USA) is host to stockwork-style carbonatite dikes and veins with high concentrations of rare earth elements (e.g., La: 4140–21000 ppm, Ce: 9220–35800 ppm, Nd: 4800–13900 ppm). The central carbonatite dike swarm is characterized by zones of variable REE content, with peripheral zones enriched in HREE including yttrium. The principle REE-bearing phases in unoxidized carbonatite are ancylite and carbocernaite, with subordinate monazite, fluorapatite, burbankite, and Ca-REE fluorocarbonates. In oxidized carbonatite, REE are hosted primarily by Ca-REE fluorocarbonates (bastnäsite, parisite, synchysite, and mixed varieties), with lesser REE phosphates (rhabdophane and monazite), fluorapatite, and cerianite. REE abundances were substantially upgraded (e.g., La: 54500–66800 ppm, Ce: 11500–92100 ppm, Nd: 4740–31200 ppm) in carbonatite that was altered by oxidizing hydrothermal and supergene processes. Vertical, near surface increases in REE concentrations correlate with replacement of REE(±Sr,Ca,Na,Ba) carbonate minerals by Ca-REE fluorocarbonate minerals, dissolution of matrix calcite, development of Fe- and Mn-rich gossan, crystallization of cerianite and accompanying negative Ce anomalies in secondary fluorocarbonates and phosphates, and increasing d18O values. These vertical changes demonstrate the importance of oxidizing meteoric water during the most recent modifications to the carbonatite stockwork. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis were used to investigate variations in mineral chemistry controlling the lateral complex-wide geochemical heterogeneity. HREE-enrichment in some peripheral zones can be attributed to an increase in the abundance of secondary REE phosphates (rhabdophane group, monazite, and fluorapatite), while HREE-enrichment in other zones is a result of HREE substitution in the otherwise LREE-selective fluorocarbonate minerals. Microprobe analyses show that HREE substitution is most pronounced in Ca-rich fluorocarbonates (parisite, synchysite, and mixed syntaxial varieties). Peripheral, late-stage HREE-enrichment is attributed to: 1) fractionation during early crystallization of LREE selective minerals, such as ancylite, carbocernaite, and Ca-REE fluorocarbonates in the central Bull Hill dike swarm, 2) REE liberated during breakdown of primary calcite and apatite with higher HREE/LREE ratios, and 3) differential transport of REE in fluids with higher PO43-/CO32- and F-/CO32- ratios, leading to phosphate and pseudomorphic fluorocarbonate mineralization. Supergene weathering processes were important at the stratigraphically highest peripheral REE occurrence, which consists of fine, acicular monazite, jarosite, rutile/pseudorutile, barite, and plumbopyrochlore, an assemblage mineralogically similar to carbonatite laterites in tropical regions.
DS1997-0835
1997
Clark, K.F.Nandigam, R.C., Clark, K.F.Zinc and light rare earth element (LREE) bearing carbonatites in northern MexicoGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 29, No. 2, March 20-21, p. 41-2.MexicoCarbonatite
DS201912-2786
2019
Clark, L.Gostlin, K., Brenton, K., Liu, W., Clark, L.Gahcho Kue mine update.Yellowknife Forum NWTgeoscience.ca, abstract volume p. 57.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Gahcho Kue

Abstract: Gahcho Kué Mine is owned as a joint venture between Mountain Province Diamonds Inc. and De Beers Canada Inc. Located about 280 km northeast of Yellowknife, it is Canada’s newest diamond mine and the world’s largest in the last 14 years. After two years of construction, commercial operations began in September 2016. As the mine enters into its fourth year of operation, De Beers is pleased to provide an update on the current mine operations, updated mine plan, safety, environment, and social performance.
DS200712-0191
2006
Clark, M.E.Clark, M.E., Brake, I., Huls, B.J., Smith, B.E., Yu, M.Creating value through application of flotation science and technology. ( mentions BHP diamonds)Minerals Engineering, Vol. 19, 5-6, May-July pp. 758-765.TechnologyMineral processing
DS1988-0131
1988
Clark, P.U.Clark, P.U.Glacial geology of the Torngat Mountains, LabradorCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 25, pp. 1184-98.LabradorGeomorphology
DS1992-0261
1992
Clark, P.U.Clark, P.U.The last Interglacial-glacial transition in North America. Full GSA special paper -see Scanning Sept. p. 444-445 for table of contentsGeological Society of America, Special Paper No. 270, 320pWisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, IndianaGeomorphology, Glacial deposits
DS1992-0262
1992
Clark, P.U.Clark, P.U., Lea, P.D.The last interglacial transition in North AmericaGeological Society of America Special Paper, No. 270, 320pUnited States, CanadaGeomorphology, glacial, Table of contents
DS1994-0309
1994
Clark, P.U.Clark, P.U., Walder, J.S.Subglacial drainage, eskers and deforming beds beneath the Laurentide and Eurasian ice sheets.Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 106, No. 2, February pp. 304-314.OntarioGeomorphology
DS1999-0009
1999
Clark, P.U.Alley, R.B., Clark, P.U.The deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere: a global perspectiveAnnual Rev. Earth. Plan. Sci., Vol. 27, pp. 149-82.Canada, Russia, Europe, AsiaGeomorphology, Glacial - deglaciation
DS202008-1385
2020
Clark, R.J.Drenth, B.J., Souders, A.K., Schulz, K.J., Feinberg, J.M., Anderson, R.R., Chandler, V.W., Cannon, W.L., Clark, R.J.Evidence for a concealed Midcontinent Rift related northeast Iowa intrusive complex.Precambrian Research, in press available, 43p. PdfUnited States, Iowageophysics - seismics

Abstract: Large amplitude aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies over a ~9500 km2 area of northeast Iowa and southeast Minnesota have been interpreted to reflect the northeast Iowa intrusive complex (NEIIC), a buried intrusive igneous complex composed of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the Yavapai Province (1.8-1.7 Ga). Hundreds of meters of Paleozoic sedimentary cover and a paucity of basement drilling have prevented detailed studies of the NEIIC. Long considered, but not proven, to be related to the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), the NEIIC is comparable in areal extent to the richly mineralized Duluth Complex and is similarly located near the margin of the MRS. New geochronological and geophysical data together support an MRS affinity for the NEIIC. A dike swarm imaged in aeromagnetic data is cut by intrusions of the NEIIC, and a new apatite U-Pb date of ~1170 Ma on one of the dikes thus represents a maximum age for the NEIIC. A minimum age constraint is suggested by (1) large-volume magmatism associated with the MRS that was the last such event to affect the region; and (2) the presence of reversely magnetized dikes, similar in character to MRS-related dikes elsewhere, that cut several intrusions of the NEIIC. The NEIIC is largely characterized by the presence of multiple zoned intrusions, many of which contain large volumes of mafic-ultramafic rocks and have strong geophysical similarities to alkaline intrusive complexes elsewhere, including the MRS-related Coldwell Complex of Ontario. The largest of the zoned intrusions are ~40 km in diameter and are interpreted to have thicknesses of many kilometers. Suspected faults, alignments of intrusions, and intrusive margins tend to be aligned along northwest and northeast trends that match the trends of the Belle Plaine fault zone and Fayette structural zone, both previously interpreted as pre-MRS, possibly lithospheric-scale discontinuities that may have controlled NEIIC emplacement. These interpretations collectively imply notable potential for the NEIIC to host several different types of undiscovered base metal and critical mineral deposits.
DS202010-1839
2020
Clark, R.J.Drenth, N.J., Souders, A.K., Schulz, K.J., Feinberg, J.M., Anderson, R.R., Chandler, V.W., Cannon, W.F., Clark, R.J.Evidence for a concealed Midcontinent Rift related northeast Iowa intrusive complex.Precambrian Research, Vol. 347, 105845, 23p. PdfUnited States, Iowageochronology, geophysics - gravity

Abstract: Large amplitude aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies over a ~9500 km2 area of northeast Iowa and southeast Minnesota have been interpreted to reflect the northeast Iowa intrusive complex (NEIIC), a buried intrusive igneous complex composed of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the Yavapai Province (1.8-1.7 Ga). Hundreds of meters of Paleozoic sedimentary cover and a paucity of basement drilling have prevented detailed studies of the NEIIC. Long considered, but not proven, to be related to the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), the NEIIC is comparable in areal extent to the richly mineralized Duluth Complex and is similarly located near the margin of the MRS. New geochronological and geophysical data together support an MRS affinity for the NEIIC. A dike swarm imaged in aeromagnetic data is cut by intrusions of the NEIIC, and a new apatite U-Pb date of ~1170 Ma on one of the dikes thus represents a maximum age for the NEIIC. A minimum age constraint is suggested by (1) large-volume magmatism associated with the MRS that was the last such event to affect the region; and (2) the presence of reversely magnetized dikes, similar in character to MRS-related dikes elsewhere, that cut several intrusions of the NEIIC. The NEIIC is largely characterized by the presence of multiple zoned intrusions, many of which contain large volumes of mafic-ultramafic rocks and have strong geophysical similarities to alkaline intrusive complexes elsewhere, including the MRS-related Coldwell Complex of Ontario. The largest of the zoned intrusions are ~40 km in diameter and are interpreted to have thicknesses of many kilometers. Suspected faults, alignments of intrusions, and intrusive margins tend to be aligned along northwest and northeast trends that match the trends of the Belle Plaine fault zone and Fayette structural zone, both previously interpreted as pre-MRS, possibly lithospheric-scale discontinuities that may have controlled NEIIC emplacement. These interpretations collectively imply notable potential for the NEIIC to host several different types of undiscovered base metal and critical mineral deposits.
DS1990-0335
1990
Clark, R.N.Clark, R.N., King, T.V.V., Klejwa, M., Swayze, G.A.High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of mineralsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B 8, August 10, pp. 12, 653-12, 680GlobalSpectroscopy, General interest
DS1997-1134
1997
Clark, R.N.Swayze, G.A., Clark, R.N., Livo, K.E.Mineral mapping by remote imaging spectroscopyExplore, No. 96, July pp. 10, 12-13, 24Northwest TerritoriesProterozoic, Foxe, Rankin belts
DS2003-0180
2003
Clark, S.Buhre, S., Steinberg, H., Brey, G., Clark, S.Trace element solubility and reaction kinetics in the CAS system8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 6, POSTER abstractGlobalBlank
DS200412-0237
2003
Clark, S.Buhre, S., Steinberg, H., Brey, G., Clark, S.Trace element solubility and reaction kinetics in the CAS system.8 IKC Program, Session 6, POSTER abstractTechnologyMantle petrology
DS201706-1089
2017
Clark, S.Lavecchia, A., Thieulot, C., Beekman, F., Cloetingh, S., Clark, S.Lithosphere erosion and continental breakup: interaction of extension, plume upwelling and melting.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 467, pp. 89-98.Mantlemelting

Abstract: We present the results of thermo-mechanical modelling of extension and breakup of a heterogeneous continental lithosphere, subjected to plume impingement in presence of intraplate stress field. We incorporate partial melting of the extending lithosphere, underlying upper mantle and plume, caused by pressure-temperature variations during the thermo-mechanical evolution of the conjugate passive margin system. Effects of melting included in the model account for thermal effects, causing viscosity reduction due to host rock heating, and mechanical effects, due to cohesion loss. Our study provides better understanding on how presence of melts can influence the evolution of rifting. Here we focus particularly on the role of melting for the temporal and spatial evolution of passive margin geometry and rift migration. Depending on the lithospheric structure, melt presence may have a significant impact on the characteristics of areas affected by lithospheric extension. Pre-existing lithosphere heterogeneities determine the location of initial breakup, but in presence of plumes the subsequent evolution is more difficult to predict. For small distances between plume and area of initial rifting, the development of symmetric passive margins is favored, whereas increasing the distance promotes asymmetry. For a plume-rifting distance large enough to prevent interaction, the effect of plumes on the overlying lithosphere is negligible and the rift persists at the location of the initial lithospheric weakness. When the melt effect is included, the development of asymmetric passive continental margins is fostered. In this case, melt-induced lithospheric weakening may be strong enough to cause rift jumps toward the plume location.
DS201606-1103
2016
Clark, S.A.Lavecchia, A., Clark, S.A., Beekman, F., Cloetingh, S.A.P.L., Burov, E.Thermal perturbation, mineral assemblages and rheology variations by dyke emplacement in the crust.Tectonics, in press availableMantleBasaltic dykes, two layered continental crust

Abstract: We constructed a thermomechanical model to examine the changes in rheology caused by the periodic intrusion of basaltic dykes in a two-layered continental crust. Dyke intrusion can locally change the mineralogical composition of the crust in space and time as a result of temperature-induced metamorphism. In our models we paid particular attention to determine how different mineral assemblages and reaction kinetics during metamorphism impact on the thermomechanical behavior of the crust, in terms of differential stress values. We investigated several lithologies characteristic for intracontinental crust: (1) a quartz-feldspathic crust (QF), (2) a crust with a mineralogical assemblage resembling the average chemical composition occurring in literature (CC), and (3) a micaschist crust (MS). Our model shows that temperature profiles are weakly influenced by metamorphism, with negligible variations in the T-t paths. The results indicate that intrusion-induced changes in the crustal rheology are strongly dependent on mineralogical assemblage variation. The strength of a dyke aureole in the upper crust increases during dyke emplacement, which may cause migration of later dykes and influence the dyke spacing. In contrast, in the lower crust the strength of a dyke aureole decreases during dyke emplacement. Fast kinetics results in a ductile lower crust in proximity of the dykes, whereas slower kinetics leads to the formation of partial melts and subsequent switch from ductile to brittle behavior. Lithology exerts a dominant role on the quantity of melt produced, with higher volume percentages occurring in the MS case study. Produced melts may migrate and support acidic volcanic activity.
DS1940-0168
1948
Clark, S.K.Clark, S.K., Royds, J.S.Structural Trends and Fault Systems in Eastern Interior BasiAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin., Vol. 32, PP. 1728-1749.GlobalMid-continent
DS200612-1347
2005
Clark, S.M.Speziale, S., Milner, A., Lee, V.E., Clark, S.M.Iron spin transition in Earth's mantle.Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA, Vol. 102, no. 50, Dec. 13, p. 17918.MantleGeochemistry
DS201212-0025
2012
Clark, S.M.Armstrong, L.S., Walter, M.J., Tuff, J.R., Lord, O.T., Lennie, A.R., Kleppe, A.K., Clark, S.M.Perovskite phase relations in the system CaO-MgO-TiO2-Si02 and implications for deep mantle lithologies.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 53, 3, pp. 611-635.MantlePerovskite
DS200912-0115
2008
Clark, S.R.Clark, S.R., Stegman, D., Muller, R.D.Episodicity in back arc tectonic regimes.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 171, 1-4, pp. 265-279.MantleTectonics
DS1984-0189
1984
Clark, T.Clark, T.Geologie de la Region du Lac Cambrien Territoire du Nouveau QuebecQuebec Department of Mines, ET 83-02, 71p.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorGeology, Metallogeny
DS1985-0597
1985
Clark, T.Seguin, M.K., Clark, T.Reconnaissnace paleomagnetic study of igneous rocks from the eastern sectorof the Labrador Trough.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 22, pp. 1561-70.Quebec, LabradorGeophysics - Paleomagnetics
DS1991-0121
1991
Clark, T.Birkett, T.C., Clark, T.A lower Proterozoic carbonatite at Lac Lemoyne northern Quebec: geology and mineral potentialGeological Survey of Canada Forum held January 21-23, 1990 in Ottawa, Abstracts onlyQuebecCarbonatite, Lac Lemoyne
DS1994-0310
1994
Clark, T.Clark, T.Geologique et gites de L'Orogene du Nouveau Quebec et de son arriere-paysQuebec Department of Mines, MM 94-02, 154p.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorGeology, metallogeny
DS1997-0710
1997
Clark, T.Machado, N., Clark, T., David, J., Goulet, N.uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for magmatism and deformation in the New Quebec OrogenCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 34, pp. 716-23.Quebec, Labrador, UngavaMagmatism, Orogeny - New Quebec
DS1997-0761
1997
Clark, T.Melezhik, V.A., Fallick, A.E., Clark, T.Two billion year old isotopically heavy carbon: evidence from the LabradorTrough, Canada.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 34, pp. 271-85.Quebec, Labrador, UngavaGeochronology, Labrador Trough
DS200512-0168
2005
Clark, T.Clark, T.Mineral deposits and the evolution of the Labrador Trough.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.Canada, Quebec, LabradorCarbonatite
DS1985-0122
1985
Clark, T.C.Clark, T.C., Van Wyk, E.Inspection and classification of fluid inclusions within kimberlites and mantle derived xenolithsPetros, Vol. 12, pp. 9-12GlobalInclusions
DS1989-0276
1989
Clark, T.C.Colgan, E.A., Clark, T.C., Bristow, J.W., Allsopp, H.Geological setting, petrography and petrogenesis of olivine melilitites Of the Natal coast, South AfricaGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 419-435South AfricaMelilitite, Petrology
DS1991-1601
1991
Clark, T.C.Skinner, E.M.W., Viljoen, K.S., Clark, T.C., Smith, C.B.The petrography, tectonic setting and emplacement ages of kimberlites In the south western border region of the Kaapvaal craton, Prieska area, RSA #1Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June, pp. 373-375South AfricaKaapvaal craton- Prieska, Geochronology, petrography
DS1994-0311
1994
Clark, T.C.Clark, T.C.Study of kimberlites in the southwest Karoo Province, Prieska areaUniversity of Witwatersrand, MSc. thesisSouth AfricaIsotope geophysics, Thesis
DS1994-1622
1994
Clark, T.C.Skinner, E.M.W., Viljoen, K.S., Clark, T.C., Smith, C.B.The Petrography, tectonic setting and emplacement ages of kimberlites In the southwest border region Kaapvaal craton #2Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 80-97.South AfricaPetrography kimberlites, Deposit -Prieska
DS1994-1627
1994
Clark, T.C.Smith, C.B., Clark, T.C., Barton, E.S., Bristow, J.W.Emplacement ages of kimberlite occurrences in the Prieska region, southwest border of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa.Chemical Geology, Vol. 113, No. 1-2, March 1, pp. 149-169.South AfricaGeochronology, Emplacement ages, Prieska area
DS1950-0098
1952
Clark, T.H.Clark, T.H.Montreal Area, QuebecQuebec Department of Mines Geology Report, No. 46, PP. 95-108.Canada, QuebecRelated Rocks, Alkaline
DS1960-0226
1962
Clark, T.H.Clark, T.H.Breccia Localities. Field Trip No. 10N.e.i.g.c. Guidebook 54th. Editor Clark, T. Mcgill University, PP. 95-104.Canada, QuebecAlkaline, Related Rocks
DS1960-0809
1967
Clark, T.H.Clark, T.H., Kranck, E.H., Philpotts, A.R.Ile Ronde Breccia, MontrealCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 4, PP. 507-513.Canada, QuebecBlank
DS1970-0491
1972
Clark, T.H.Clark, T.H.Shatter Cone Breccias, Montreal Area, QuebecQue. Min. Des Richesses Nat. Geology Report, No. 152, PP. 143-148.Canada, QuebecDiatremes, Related Rocks
DS1950-0174
1954
Clark, W.B.Carlson, D.W., Clark, W.B.Mines and Mineral Resources of Amador County, CaliforniaCalif. Division of Mines, Calif. Journal of Mines Geol., Vol. 50, No. 1, PP. 149-285.United States, California, West CoastBlank
DS1970-0050
1970
Clark, W.B.Clark, W.B.Gold Districts of CaliforniaCalif. Division of Mines And Geol. Bulletin., No. 193, PP. 36-37; P. 49; P.50.United States, California, West CoastDiamonds
DS200412-0653
2003
Clarke, B.M.Gerya, T.V., Uken, R., Reinhardt, J., Watkeys, M.K., Maresch, W.V., Clarke, B.M.Cold fingers in a hot magma: numerical modeling of country rock diapirs in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa.Geology, Vol. 31, 9, pp. 753-6.Africa, South AfricaDiapirism, magmatism, plumes, subduction zones
DS2002-1460
2002
Clarke, C.Shigley, J.E., Abbaschian, R., Clarke, C.Gemesis laboratory created diamonds. a study of the jewelry quality yellow synthetic diamonds being grown on a commercial scale by Genesis Corp. Sarasota FloridaGems & Gemology, Vol. 38, 4, pp. 301-310.GlobalDiamond - synthesis, Economics
DS2003-0257
2003
Clarke, D.Clarke, D.The Lena West project: an update31st Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 14-15. (abst.Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry
DS200412-0333
2003
Clarke, D.Clarke, D.The Lena West project: an update.31st Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 14-15. (abst.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry
DS200512-0708
2004
Clarke, D.McLean, C., Clarke, D.The Lena West project: 2004 update.32nd Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 16-18, p.48-9. (talk)Canada, Northwest TerritoriesCompany overview
DS200812-0003
2008
Clarke, D.Agashev, A.M., Kuligan, S.S., Orihashi, Y., Pokhilenko, N.P., Vavilov, M.A., Clarke, D.Ages of zircons from Jurassic sediments of Bluefish River slope, NWT and the possible age of kimberlite activity in the Lena West property.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 421, 1, pp. 751-754.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Lena West, geochronology
DS200812-0962
2007
Clarke, D.Ritcey, D., Moul, F., Clarke, D., Kirkley, M.Diamond exploration on Brodeur Project, northwest Baffin Island. Diamondex35th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Abstracts only p. 51-52.Canada, NunavutExploration - overview
DS1975-0049
1975
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., Mitchell, R.H.Mineralogy and Petrology of the Somerset Island Kimberlite, n.w.t. Canada.Physics and Chemistry of the Earth., Vol. 9, PP. 123-135.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesBlank
DS1975-0256
1976
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., Carswell, D.A.Green Garnets from the Newlands Kimberlite, Cape Province, South Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 34, PP. 30-38.South Africa, RussiaMineralogy, Chemistry
DS1975-0361
1976
Clarke, D.B.Mitchell, R.H., Clarke, D.B.Oxide and Sulphide Mineralogy of the Peuyuk Kimberlite, Somerset Island, N.w.t. Canada.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 56, PP. 157-172.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesBlank
DS1975-0480
1977
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., Carswell, D.A.Green Garnets from the Newlands Kimberlite Province, South Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 34, No. 1, PP. 30-38.South Africa, Cape ProvinceMineralogy
DS1975-0947
1979
Clarke, D.B.Blaauw, C., White, C.G., Leiper, W., Clarke, D.B.Mossbauer Analysis of Synthetic DjerfisheriteMineralogical Magazine., Vol. 43, No. 328, PP. 552-553.GlobalRelated Mineralogy, Techniques
DS1975-0971
1979
Clarke, D.B.Carswell, D.A., Clarke, D.B., Mitchell, R.H.The Petrology and Geochemistry of Ultramafic Nodules from Pipe 200.Proceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 2, PP. 127-144.LesothoXenoliths
DS1975-0975
1979
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B.Synthesis of Nickeloan Djerfisherites and the Origin of Potassic Sulphides at the Frank Smith Mine.Proceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 2, PP. 300-308.South AfricaMineral Chemistry
DS1980-0239
1980
Clarke, D.B.Mitchell, R.H., Carswell, D.A., Clarke, D.B.Geological Implications and Validity of Calculated Equilibrium Conditions for Ultramafic Xenoliths from the Pipe 200 Kimberlite, Northern Lesotho.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 72, No. 2, PP. 205-218.LesothoKimberlite Genesis
DS1982-0541
1982
Clarke, D.B.Schandl, E.S., Clarke, D.B.Metasomatism in the Mantle Beneath Pipe 200, Northern LesothProceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, PP. 265-266.LesothoKimberlite, Alteration
DS1983-0174
1983
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., Muecke, G.K., Pe-Piper, G.The Lamprophyres of Ubekendt Elland, West Greenland: Products of Renewed Partial Melting or Extreme Differentiation?Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 83, No. 1-2, PP. 117-127.GreenlandRelated Rocks
DS1983-0175
1983
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., Pe-Piper, G.G.Multiply Exsolved Clinopyroxene Megacrysts from the Frank Smith Mine Cape Province, South Africa.Lithos, Vol. 16, No. 1, PP. 75-84.South Africa, Cape ProvincePetrography, Xenoliths, Analyses, Genesis, Kimberlite
DS1990-0336
1990
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., MacKay, R.M.An ilmenite garnet clinopyroxenite nodule from Matsoku: evidence for oxide rich liquid immiscibility in kimberlitesCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 28, pt. 2, June pp. 229-239LesothoGeothermometry, Garnet analyses Xenolith
DS1994-0312
1994
Clarke, D.B.Clarke, D.B., Mitchell, R.H., Chapman, C.A.T., MacKay, R.Occurrence and origin of djerfisherite from Elwin Bay kimberlite, SomersetIsland, northwest Territories.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 32, No. 4, Dec. pp. 815-824.Northwest Territories, Somerset IslandMineralogy
DS1900-0652
1908
Clarke, F.W.Clarke, F.W.The Data of GeochemistryUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 330, 716P.GlobalKimberley, Geochemistry, Diamond
DS1920-0026
1920
Clarke, F.W.Clarke, F.W.Diamond, 1920United States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 695, 4TH. EDITION, PP. 317-322.GlobalGeochemistry, Mineral Chemistry, Mineralogy
DS2000-0620
2000
Clarke, G.Marshall, S.J., Tarasov, L., Clarke, G., Peltier, R.Glaciological reconstruction of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: physical processes and modelling changes.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 37, No.5, May pp.769-93.Ontario, CanadaGeomorphology
DS2002-0788
2002
Clarke, G.Jones, A.G., Snyder, D., Hanmer, S., Asudeh, I., White, D., Eaton, D., Clarke, G.Magnetotelluric and teleseismic study across the Snowbird Tectonics Zone of theGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, 17, 10.1029/2002GL015359Manitoba, Saskatchewan, AlbertaGeophysics - MT, seismics
DS200612-0258
2005
Clarke, G.Clarke, G., Young, R.Unique upper stratigraphy of the A154N kimberlite.32ndYellowknife Geoscience Forum, POSTERCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeology
DS200612-0671
2006
Clarke, G.K.C.Kavanaugh, J.L., Clarke, G.K.C.Discrimination of the flow law for subglacial sediment using in situ measurements and an interpretation model.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, 10.1029/2005/jf000346Canada, YukonGeomorphology - not specific to diamonds
DS1991-0282
1991
Clarke, G.L.Collins, W.J., Vernon, R.H., Clarke, G.L.Discrete Proterozoic structural terranes associated with low pressure, high Tmetamorphism, Anmatjira Range, Arunta Inlier, central Australia: tectonicimplicationsJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 1157-1171AustraliaProterozoic, Tectonics, Structure
DS1997-0195
1997
Clarke, G.L.Clarke, G.L., Aitchison, J.C., Cluzel, D.Eclogites and blueschists of the Pam Peninsula, northeast New Caledonia: areappraisalJournal of Petrology, Vol. 38, No. 7, July pp. 843-876New CaledoniaMagma
DS2003-0731
2003
Clarke, G.L.Klepeis, K.A., Clarke, G.L., Rushmer, T.Magma transport and coupling between deformation and magmatism in the continentalGsa Today, Vol. 13, 1, pp. 4-11.Gondwana, New ZealandMagma emplacement, melt segregation, lithosphere, crust
DS2003-0732
2003
Clarke, G.L.Klepsis, K.A., Clarke, G.L., Rushmer, T.Magma transport and coupling between deformation and magmatism in the continentalGsa Today, January pp. 4-11.New Zealand, Andes, United StatesCrust - magmatism, emplacement, melting, rheology, Not specific to diamonds
DS200412-1021
2003
Clarke, G.L.Klepsis, K.A., Clarke, G.L., Rushmer, T.Magma transport and coupling between deformation and magmatism in the continental lithosphere.GSA Today, January pp. 4-11.New Zealand, Andes, United StatesCrust - magmatism, emplacement, melting, rheology Not specific to diamonds
DS1983-0176
1983
Clarke, G.M.Clarke, G.M.The Industrial Minerals of IndiaIndustrial Minerals, No. 191, AUGUST PP. 21-22; P. 32.India, Madhya PradeshDiamond Production
DS1996-0279
1996
Clarke, J.Clarke, J.Native title and exploration access - where are we now and where are wegoing?AusIMM Conference Perth March 24-28, pp. 79-85AustraliaLegal - aboriginal, Native title act
DS1998-0257
1998
Clarke, J.Clarke, J., Sobie, P.A., Wilkes, T.A., Zweistra, P.The geology and economic evaluations of the Liqhobong kimberlites, Lesotho.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 158-160.LesothoPetrology, Deposit - Liqhobong
DS201609-1709
2010
Clarke, J.Campbell, J.A.H., Lamb, W., Clarke, J., Petersen, K.The development of AK6.The 4th Colloquium on Diamonds - source to use held Gabarone March 1-3, 2010, 20p.Africa, BotswanaDeposit - AK6
DS1994-0313
1994
Clarke, J.D.A.Clarke, J.D.A.Geomorphology of the Kambalda region, western AustraliaAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, pp. 229-239.AustraliaLaterites, Paleodrainage -not specific to diamonds
DS201807-1485
2018
Clarke, J.E.Clarke, J.E.The future of diamond liberation and recovery? DWIK, EPDSAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., pp. 127-136.Africamining - milling
DS201808-1734
2018
Clarke, J.E.Clarke, J.E.The future of diamond liberation and recovery? PresentationSAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., 22 ppts.Globalmining - milling
DS1860-1076
1899
Clarke, J.M.Clarke, J.M.The Peridotite Dike on Green Street HillNew York State Museum Handbook, No. 15, P. 81.United States, Appalachia, New YorkGeology
DS200912-0500
2009
Clarke, L.Mills, S.E., Clarke, L.We will go side by side with you ... Labour union engagement with Aborginal peoples in Canada.Geoforum, Vol. 40, pp. 991-1001.CanadaAboriginal
DS1990-0337
1990
Clarke, L.B.Clarke, L.B., Le Bas, M.J.Magma mixing and metasomatic reaction in silicate-carbonate liquids atthe Krudfontein carbonatitic volcanic complex, TransvaalMineralogical Magazine, Vol 54, No. 374, pt.1, March pp. 45-56South AfricaCarbonatite, Krudfontein
DS1991-0273
1991
Clarke, L.B.Clarke, L.B., Le Bas, M.J., Spiro, B.Rare earth, trace element and stable isotope fractionation of carbonatites at Kruidfontein, TransvaalProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 49-51South AfricaCarbonatite, Sovite, Alvikite
DS1994-0314
1994
Clarke, L.B.Clarke, L.B., Le Bas, M.J., Spiro, B.Rare earth, trace element and stabe isotope fractionation of carbonatites at Kruidfontein, Transvaal.Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 236-251.South AfricaRare earths, Carbonatite
DS1960-0933
1968
Clarke, M.C.G.Clarke, M.C.G.The Geology of the Southern Part of Homa Mountain Carbonatite Complex, Western Kenya, with Particular Reference to the Petrology of Alkaline Silicate, Metasomatic and Melilite Bearing Suites.Ph.d. University Leicester., 291P.GlobalKimberley, Related Rocks
DS1986-0142
1986
Clarke, M.G.Clarke, M.G., Roberts, B.Carbonated melilitites and calcitized alkali carbonatites fromHonaMountain, Western Kenya: a reinterpretationGeological Magazine, Vol.123, No. 6, November pp. 683-692KenyaAfrica, Carbonatite
DS1975-0050
1975
Clarke, R.G.Clarke, R.G.Gem Stones; United States Bureau of Mines, 1975United States Bureau of Mines MINERAL FACTS AND PROBLEMS, No. 667, PP. 419-429.South Africa, Southwest Africa, Namibia, GlobalDiamonds
DS1981-0120
1981
Clarke, R.S.Clarke, R.S., Appelman, D.E., Ross, D.R.An Antarctic iron meteorite contains preterrestrial impact produced diamond and lonsdaleite.Nature, Vol. 291, June 4, pp. 396-8.AntarcticaMeteorite
DS1995-0327
1995
Clarke, R.T.Clarke, R.T.Statistical modelling in hydrologyJohn Wiley, 412p. $ approx. 65.00 United StatesGlobalBook -ad, Hydrology
DS1991-1556
1991
Clarke, T.Sharwood, M., Clarke, T.Implications of the Corporations law for fund raising in the miningindustry. Part 1Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 6, November pp. 27-40AustraliaLegal, Fund raising -mining
DS1991-1557
1991
Clarke, T.Sharwood, M., Clarke, T.Implications of the Corporations Law for fund raising in the mining industry - part 2Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 7, December pp. 51-60GlobalLegal, Fund raising -mining
DS1998-0869
1998
Clarke, T.J.Li, A., Fischer, K.M., Clarke, T.J.Mantle discontinuities and temperature under the North American continentalkeel.Nature, Vol. 395, No. 6698, Sept. 10, pp. 160-63.North America, Canada, United StatesMantle, Geothermometry
DS1999-0813
1999
Clarke, T.J.Wysession, M.E., Langenhorst, A., Clarke, T.J.Lateral variations in compressional/shear veolocities at the base of themantle.Science, Vol. 284, No. 5411, Apr. 2, pp. 120-4.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS201212-0552
2012
Clarke, W.Phillips, D., Clarke, W., Jaques, A.L.New Ar40/39Ar ages for the West Kimberley lamproites and implications for Australian plate geodynamics.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractAustraliaGeochronology
DS1860-0001
1860
Clarke, W.B.Clarke, W.B.Researches in Southern Goldfields: New South Wales, a Diamond Country. Macquarie River, Sutters Sydney: Reading And Wellibank, Appendic C., PP. 272-273.Australia, New South WalesDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0137
1871
Clarke, W.B.Clarke, W.B.Anniversary AddressRoyal Society New South Wales Transactions, Vol. 4, PP. 1-48. INDIA PP. 22-30.Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, Borneo, Global, Cape ProvinceDiamond Occurrence, History
DS1860-0200
1873
Clarke, W.B.Clarke, W.B.Anniversary Address. on the Diamond Fields of Brasil, South africa and Australia.Royal Society New South Wales Transactions, Vol. 6, PP. 1-38; APPENDIX PP. 39-66.Africa, South Africa, Cape Province, South America, Brazil, Minas Gerais, India, AustraliaGeology, Diamond Occurrence
DS1983-0533
1983
Clarkson, G.Reiter, M., Clarkson, G.Geothermal Studies in the San Juan Basin and the Four Corners Area of the Colorado Plateau. Ii Steady State Models of The Thermal Source San Juan Volcanic Field.Tectonophysics, Vol. 91, PP. 253-269.GlobalRocky Mountains, Geophysics
DS1993-0259
1993
Clarkson, R.Clarkson, R.An evaluation of the gold recovery of placer drills using radiotracersYukon Department of Indian Affairs, Open File 1993-3, (T)75p.YukonPlacers -not specific to diamonds, Radiotracers
DS201012-0109
2010
Clarry, D.Clarry, D.How can I speak up effectively on behalf of the mining industry. Focus on facts, statements ( not author). Stay on topic. Use Wikipedia (refs are checked in)PDAC in Brief, No. 64, October pp. 11-12.GlobalSupportive help for individuals!!
DS1993-0260
1993
Class, C.Class, C., Goldstein, S.L., Galer, S.J.G.Young formation age of a mantle plume sourceNature, Vol. 362, No. 6422, April 22, pp. 715-721MantleHot spot, Plume, Geochronology
DS2002-1707
2002
Class, C.Whitehead, K., Le Roex, A., Class, C., Bell, D.Composition and Cretaceous thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath the Damara Mobile Belt: evidenceJournal of Geological Society of London, Vol.159,pp.307-21., Vol.159,pp.307-21.NamibiaNepheline hosted peridotite xenoliths, Gibeon compariso, Deposit - Swakopmund area
DS2002-1708
2002
Class, C.Whitehead, K., Le Roex, A., Class, C., Bell, D.Composition and Cretaceous thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath the Damara Mobile Belt: evidenceJournal of Geological Society of London, Vol.159,pp.307-21., Vol.159,pp.307-21.NamibiaNepheline hosted peridotite xenoliths, Gibeon compariso, Deposit - Swakopmund area
DS200412-0799
2004
Class, C.Harris, M., Le Roex, A., Class, C.Geochemistry of the Uintjiesberg kimberlite, South Africa: petrogenesis of an off-craton, group I, kimberlite.Lithos, Vol. 74, pp. 149-165.Africa, South AfricaGeochemistry - Namaqua-Natal Proterozoic belt
DS200512-0169
2005
Class, C.Class, C., Goldstein, S.L.Evolution of helium isotopes in the Earth's mantle.Nature, No. 7054, Aug. 25, pp. 1107-1112.MantleHelium
DS200512-0170
2005
Class, C.Class, C., Goldstein, S.L.Evolution of helium isotopes in the Earth's mantle.Chapman Conference held in Scotland August 28-Sept. 1 2005, 1p. abstractMantleMantle plume, geochronology
DS200612-0259
2006
Class, C.Class, C., Le Roex, A.P.Continental material in the shallow oceanic mantle - how does it get there?Geology, Vol. 34, 3, March pp. 129-132.MantleStratigraphy
DS200712-0446
2007
Class, C.Hofmann, A.W., Goldstein, S.L., Class, C.Is D' a low mu reservoir?Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A410.MantleMelting
DS200812-0222
2008
Class, C.Class, C.Hot arguments to cool off the plume debate?Geology, Vol. 36, 4, pp. 335-336.MantlePlume
DS201112-0192
2011
Class, C.Class, C., Le Roux, A.South Atlantic DUPAL anomaly - dynamic and compositional evidence against a recent shallow origin.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 305, 1-2, pp. 92-102.AfricaGeochemistry of plumes
DS201412-0499
2014
Class, C.Le Roex, A., Class, C.Trace element enrichment of off-craton peridotites: comparison of off-craton Proterozoic and Pan-African mantle beneath southern Africa.Economic Geology Research Institute 2014, No. 12485 1p. abstractAfrica, Southern AfricaPeridotite
DS201412-0500
2014
Class, C.Le Roex, Class, C.Metasomatism of the Pan-African lithospheric mantle beneath the Damara Belt, Namibia, by the Tristan mantle plume: geochemical evidence from mantle xenoliths.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 168, pp. 1046-Africa, NamibiaPlume
DS201602-0218
2016
Class, C.Le Roex, A., Class, C.Metasomatic enrichment of Proterozoic mantle south of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa: origin of sinusoidal REE patterns in clinopyroxene and garnet.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 171, 24p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Melton Wold, Hebron, Uintjiesberg, Markt

Abstract: Xenoliths of mantle peridotite have been sampled from four kimberlite intrusions, Melton Wold, Hebron, Uintjiesberg and Markt, emplaced through the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt, along the southern border of the Kaapvaal Craton. Although many of the xenoliths are heavily altered, constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite are fresh and have been analysed by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation ICP-MS for trace elements. Primitive mantle-normalised REE abundances in clinopyroxene are all strongly LREE enriched and show a range of patterns including uniformly MREE-HREE sloped (referred to here as ‘normal’), sinusoidal and humped sinusoidal patterns. HREE abundances are extremely low (Yb = 0.3-0.06 × PM). REEN patterns in coexisting garnets show a similar range of patterns. When normalised to primitive mantle values, trace element patterns in some clinopyroxenes show strong relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti, with some samples also being relatively depleted in Zr-Hf. These trace element characteristics are indistinguishable from those found in clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites from the adjacent cratonic mantle. Numerical modelling of reactive porous flow of an enriched metasomatic melt through a geochemically depleted peridotite matrix can account for the full range in observed REEN patterns. The relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti can be accounted for by an early crystallisation of phlogopite from the percolating melt. The relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes requires either zircon to crystallise in the proximal metasomatic assemblage, or metasomatism by a carbonatitic melt. Modelling results, together with the absence of clinopyroxene with depleted or even partially enriched REEN patterns, suggest that all clinopyroxene has been modally introduced through metasomatism into an initially highly depleted harzburgitic protolith. The range in Sr and Pb isotopic composition of the clinopyroxenes indicates regional metasomatism by melts of various compositions. The strong HREEN depletion is interpreted to reflect the effect of initial melt depletion in the early Proterozoic, with melting extending into the spinel stability field requiring an oceanic realm, and again later in the Mesoproterozoic (Namaqua Orogeny). The superimposed incompatible element enrichment indicates subsequent multiple enrichment events by rising alkaline melts similar in composition to kimberlite or ultramafic alkaline lamprophyre, possibly related to Mesozoic plume upwelling beneath the region, that reintroduced clinopyroxene into the depleted Proterozoic harzburgite protolith.
DS201610-1917
2016
Class, C.Weiss, Y., Class, C., Goldstein, S.L., Hanyu, T.Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions.Nature, On line Sept. 5, 11p.MantleMelting

Abstract: Mantle melting, which leads to the formation of oceanic and continental crust, together with crust recycling through plate tectonics, are the primary processes that drive the chemical differentiation of the silicate Earth. The present-day mantle, as sampled by oceanic basalts, shows large chemical and isotopic variability bounded by a few end-member compositions1. Among these, the HIMU end-member (having a high U/Pb ratio, µ) has been generally considered to represent subducted/recycled basaltic oceanic crust2, 3, 4, 5. However, this concept has been challenged by recent studies of the mantle source of HIMU magmas. For example, analyses of olivine phenocrysts in HIMU lavas indicate derivation from the partial melting of peridotite, rather than from the pyroxenitic remnants of recycled oceanic basalt6. Here we report data that elucidate the source of these lavas: high-precision trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts point to peridotite that has been metasomatized by carbonatite fluids. Moreover, similarities in the trace-element patterns of carbonatitic melt inclusions in diamonds7 and HIMU lavas indicate that the metasomatism occurred in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, fused to the base of the continental crust and isolated from mantle convection. Taking into account evidence from sulfur isotope data8 for Archean to early Proterozoic surface material in the deep HIMU mantle source, a multi-stage evolution is revealed for the HIMU end-member, spanning more than half of Earth’s history. Before entrainment in the convecting mantle, storage in a boundary layer, upwelling as a mantle plume and partial melting to become ocean island basalt, the HIMU source formed as Archean-early Proterozoic subduction-related carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle.
DS201610-1918
2016
Class, C.Weiss, Y., Class, C., Goldstein, S.L., Hanyu, T.Some islands started in diamond bearing regions under continents, geochemists say. Precis of Nature ref.Ideo.Columbia.edu, On line Sept. 5, 3p.MantleHIMU

Abstract: The raw materials of some volcanic islands are shaped by some of the same processes that form diamonds deep under the continents, according to a new study. The study asserts that material from diamond-forming regions journeys nearly to Earth's core and back up to form such islands, a process that could take two and a half billion years or longer -- more than half of Earth's entire history.
DS201705-0889
2017
Class, C.Weiss, Y., Goldstein, S., Class, C., Winckler, G.A billion years of metasomatic alteration of the Kaapvaal SCLM encapsulated in fribrous diamonds.European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017, Vienna April 23-28, 1p. 11122 AbstractAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - De Beers-pool, Finsch
DS1995-0328
1995
Clauer, N.Clauer, N., et al.Clays in crustal environmentsSpringer Verlag, 376p. $ 120.00GlobalClays, Sedimentology
DS200812-0223
2008
Clausen, J.R.Clausen, J.R.Calculating sustainable non-mineral balances as benchmarks for fiscal policy: the case of Botswana.IMF Working Papers, May 5, no. 8117, 200, pp. 1-15. Avail from ingentaAfrica, BotswanaEconomics
DS1999-0134
1999
Clauser, C.Clauser, C.Thermal signatures of heat transfer processes in the Earth's crustSpringer, 130p. approx. $ 70.00 United StatesGlobalGeophysics, geodesy, Geodynamic processes
DS2003-0258
2003
Clauser, C.Clauser, C., Griesshaber, E., Neugebauer, H.J.Decoupled thermal and mantle helium anomalies: implications for the transport regime inJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 11, Nov. 6, pp. DO1 10.1029/2001JB000675MantleTectonics, Geothermometry
DS200412-0334
2003
Clauser, C.Clauser, C.,Griesshaber, E., Neugebauer, H.J.Decoupled thermal and mantle helium anomalies: implications for the transport regime in continental rift zones.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 11, Nov. 6, pp. DO1 10.1029/2001 JB000675MantleTectonics, geothermometry
DS1988-0132
1988
Claxton, T.A.Claxton, T.A.On the use of cavity models to describe muoniumin diamond, silicon andgermaniuM.Theor. ChiM., Vol. 74, No. 1, July, pp. 75-82GlobalDiamond inclusions
DS201412-0130
2014
Clay, P.L.Clay, P.L., O'Driscoll, B., Upton, B.G.J., Busemann, H.Characteristics of djerfisherite from fluid rich metasomatized alkaline intrusive environments and anhydrous enstatite chrondrites and achondrites.American Mineralogist, Vol. 99, pp. 1683-93.MantleDjerfisherites
DS1989-1101
1989
ClaytonNeal, C.R., Taylor, L.A., Davidson, J.P., Halliday, A.N., ClaytonIsotopic signatures of mantle ecologites: the identification of ancient subducted components and later metasomatic eventsEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1410. AbstractSouth AfricaBellsbank, Eclogites
DS1990-1451
1990
ClaytonTaylor, L.A., Neal, C.R., Davidson, J.P., Halliday, A.N., ClaytonEclogite xenoliths in kimberlite products of ancientsubductionprocessesEos, Vol. 71, No. 17, April 24, p. 523 Abstract onlySouth AfricaBellsbank, Roberts Victor, Eclogite xenoliths
DS1993-0462
1993
ClaytonFraracci, K.N., Taylor, L.A., Jerde, E.A., Snyder, G.A., ClaytonTwo unusual Diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths from the Mir kimberlite inYakutia, SiberiaGeological Society of America Annual Abstract Volume, Vol. 25, No. 6, p. A445 abstract onlyRussia, Siberia, YakutiaXenoliths -eclogite, Deposit -Mir
DS1995-1791
1995
ClaytonSnyder, G.A., Taylor, L.A., Jerde, E.A., Clayton, MayedaArchean mantle heterogeneity and origin of Diamondiferous eclogites:evidence hydroxyl in garnets.American Mineralogist, Vol. 80, July-Aug. No. 7-8, pp. 799-809.GlobalGeochronology, Eclogites
DS1989-0268
1989
Clayton, D.D.Clayton, D.D.Origin of heavy xenon in meteoritic diamondsAstrophys. Journal, Vol. 340, No. 1, May 1, pp. 613-619GlobalMeteorites
DS1997-0413
1997
Clayton, E.A.Gilmore, T.J., Clayton, E.A.Mapping the top of the permafrost using direct current resistivity surveyEnvironmental Geology, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, March 1, pp. 29-33GlobalEnvironment, Permafrost, Geophysics
DS1985-0029
1985
Clayton, L.Attig, J.W., Clayton, L., Mickelson, D.M.Correlation of late Wisconsin glacial phases in the western Great LakesareaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 96, No. 12, December pp. 1585-1593Wisconsin, MinnesotaGeomorphology
DS1989-0269
1989
Clayton, L.Clayton, L., Attig, J.Glacial Lake WisconsinGeological Society of America (GSA) Memoir, MWR No. 173, 88p. $ 23.75WisconsinGeomorphology, Topographic maps incl
DS1999-0135
1999
Clayton, L.Clayton, L., Attig, J.W., Mickelson, D.M.Tunnel channels formed in Wisconsin during the last glaciationGsa Mickelson And Attig, Glacial Processes, SP337, pp.69-82.Wisconsin, MidcontinentGeomorphology - glaciotectonic, Tunnel channels, Laurentide ice sheet
DS1986-0732
1986
Clayton, R.N.Shervais, J.W., Taylor, L.A., Lugmair, G.W., Clayton, R.N., MayedaEvolution of sub-continental mantle and crust: eclogites fromSouthernAfricaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 326-328South AfricaEclogite
DS1987-0729
1987
Clayton, R.N.Taylor, L.A., Neal, C.R., Shervais, J.W., Clayton, R.N., MayedaThree types of eclogites in the Bellsbank kimberlite, S.A.crustal and mantle signaturesEos, Vol. 68, No. 44, November 3, p. 1551, abstract onlySouth AfricaBlank
DS1995-1657
1995
Clayton, R.N.Santos, R.V., Clayton, R.N.Variations of oxygen and carbon isotopes in carbonatites : a study of Brazilian alkaline complexes.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta ., Vol. 59, No. 7, pp. 1339-1352.BrazilCarbonatite -Alkaline rocks, Geochronology
DS1995-1658
1995
Clayton, R.N.Santos, R.V., Clayton, R.N.The carbonate content in high temperature apatite: an analytical method applied Jacupiranga alkaline complexAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 80, No. 3-4, March-Apr pp. 336-344.BrazilCarbonatite, Deposit - Jacupiranga
DS1996-1404
1996
Clayton, R.N.Taylor, L.A., Valley, J.W., Clayton, R.N., Snyder, G.A.Oxygen isotopes by laser-heating and conventional techniques a study of Siberian Diamondiferous eclogitesInternational Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 1, p. 106.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology, Eclogites
DS1998-1319
1998
Clayton, R.N.Sgarbi, P.B.A., Clayton, R.N., Mayeda, T.K., Gaspar, J.Oxygen isotope thermometry of Brazilian potassic volcanic rocks of kamafugitic affinities.Chemical Geology, Vol. 146, No. 3-4, May 5, pp. 115-126.BrazilGeochronology, Alkaline rocks
DS2000-0479
2000
Clayton, R.W.Keller, W.R., Anderson, D.L., Clayton, R.W.Resolution of tomographic models of the mantle beneath IcelandGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 24, Dec. 15, pp. 3993-6.GlobalTomography, Geophysics - seismic
DS201312-0895
2013
Clayton, R.W.Sun, D., Helmberger, D.V., Jackson, J.M., Clayton, R.W.Rolling hills on the core-mantle boundary.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 361, pp. 333-342.MantleCMB - structure
DS1998-0258
1998
CLE.CLE.Joint venture agreementsContinuing Education Legal, GlobalBook - table of contents, Legal - joint venture agreements
DS1975-0051
1975
Cleasby, J.V.Cleasby, J.V.Mining Practice at the Kimberley Division of de Beers Consolidated Mines Limited.South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Journal, Vol. 76, No. 5, PP. 247-256; PP. 259-272.South AfricaDiamond Mining Recovery, Kimberlite Pipes
DS202009-1614
2020
Cleaves, H.J.Brovarone, A.V., Butch, C.J., Ciappa, A., Cleaves, H.J., Elmaleh, A., Faccenda, M., Feineman, M., Hermann, J., Nestola, F., Cordone, A., Giovannelli., D.Let there be water: how hydration/dehydration reactions accompany key Earth and life processes.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 1152-1160. pdfMantlecarbon

Abstract: Water plays a key role in shaping our planet and making life possible. Given the abundance of water on Earth's surface and in its interior, chemical reactions involving water, namely hydration and dehydration reactions, feature prominently in nature and are critical to the complex set of geochemical and biochemical reactions that make our planet unique. This paper highlights some fundamental aspects of hydration and dehydration reactions in the solid Earth, biology, and man-made materials, as well as their connections to carbon cycling on our planet.
DS202002-0206
2020
Cleaves II, H.J.McCammon, C., Bureau, H., Cleaves II, H.J., Cottrell, E., Dorfman, S.M., Kellogg, L.H., Li, J., Mikhail, S., Moussallam, Y., Sanloup, C., Thomson, A.R., Brovarone, A.V.Deep Earth carbon reactions through time and space. ( mentions diamond)American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 22-27.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Reactions involving carbon in the deep Earth have limited manifestations on Earth's surface, yet they have played a critical role in the evolution of our planet. The metal-silicate partitioning reaction promoted carbon capture during Earth's accretion and may have sequestered substantial carbon in Earth's core. The freezing reaction involving iron-carbon liquid could have contributed to the growth of Earth's inner core and the geodynamo. The redox melting/freezing reaction largely controls the movement of carbon in the modern mantle, and reactions between carbonates and silicates in the deep mantle also promote carbon mobility. The 10-year activity of the Deep Carbon Observatory has made important contributions to our knowledge of how these reactions are involved in the cycling of carbon throughout our planet, both past and present, and has helped to identify gaps in our understanding that motivate and give direction to future studies.
DS200612-1460
2005
Clechenko, C.C.Valley, J.W., Lackey, J.S., Cavosie, A.J., Clechenko, C.C., Spicuzza, M.J., Basei, M.A.S., Bindeman, I.N.4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 150, 8, Dec. pp. 561-580.MantleGeochronology
DS2003-0259
2003
Clegg, A.Clegg, A.X-ray diamond recovery techniquesRough Diamond Review, pp. 14-17. www.roughdiamondreview.com Aus $ 95.GlobalDiamond recovery, Overview of general techniques - user friendly
DS200412-0335
2003
Clegg, A.Clegg, A.X-ray diamond recovery techniques.Rough Diamond Review, pp. 14-17. Aus $ 95.TechnologyDiamond recovery
DS1950-0204
1955
Clegg, K.E.Clegg, K.E.Metamorphism of Coal by Peridotite Dikes in Southeastern Illinois.Illinois Geological Survey Report Inv., No. 178, PP. 1-18.United States, Illinois, Great LakesGeology, Alteration
DS1950-0205
1955
Clegg, K.E.Clegg, K.E.The Metamorphism of Coal by Peridotite Dikes in Southern Illinois.Illinois Geological Survey Report Inv., No. 178, PP. 1-18.United States, Illinois, Kentucky, Great LakesBlank
DS1950-0264
1956
Clegg, K.E.Clegg, K.E., Bradbury, J.C.Igneous Intrusive Rocks of Illinois and Their Economic Significance.Illinois Geological Survey Report Inv., No. 197, 19P.United States, Illinois, Great LakesRelated Rocks
DS2002-0789
2002
Clegg, R.A.Jones, A.P., Price, G.D., rice, N.J., DeCarli, P.S., Clegg, R.A.Impact induced melting and the development of large igneous provincesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 202, 3-4, pp. 551-61.GlobalMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS202101-0004
2021
Cleland, C.E.Cleland, C.E., Hazen, R.M., Morrison, S.M.Historical natural kinds and mineralogy: systematizing contingency in the context of necessity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS, Vol. 118, 1 doi.org/10.1073 /pnas.2015370118 9p. PdfGlobalmineral classification

Abstract: The advancement of science depends upon developing classification protocols that systematize natural objects and phenomena into “natural kinds”—categorizations that are conjectured to represent genuine divisions in nature by virtue of playing central roles in the articulation of successful scientific theories. In the physical sciences, theoretically powerful classification systems, such as the periodic table, are typically time independent. Similarly, the standard classification of mineral species by the International Mineralogical Association’s Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification relies on idealized chemical composition and crystal structure, which are time-independent attributes selected on the basis of theoretical considerations from chemical theory and solid-state physics. However, when considering mineral kinds in the historical context of planetary evolution, a different, time-dependent classification scheme is warranted. We propose an "evolutionary" system of mineral classification based on recognition of the role played by minerals in the origin and development of planetary systems. Lacking a comprehensive theory of chemical evolution capable of explaining the time-dependent pattern of chemical complexification exhibited by our universe, we recommend a bootstrapping approach to mineral classification based on observations of geological field studies, astronomical observations, laboratory experiments, and analyses of natural samples and their environments. This approach holds the potential to elucidate underlying universal principles of cosmic chemical complexification.
DS200712-1187
2006
Clemens, J.Xiao, L., Clemens, J.Origin of potassic (C type) adakite magmas: experimental and field constraints.Lithos, In press, availableChinaPetrogenesis, adakite
DS1988-0133
1988
Clemens, J.D.Clemens, J.D.Volume and composition relationships between granites and their lower crustal source regions: an example from central Victoria,AustraliaAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 4, December pp. 445-450AustraliaGranites, Genesis
DS1989-0270
1989
Clemens, J.D.Clemens, J.D.Lower crustal pressures: granulites still being formedNature, Vol. 342, No. 6247, November 16, pp. 228-229GlobalMantle, Granulites
DS1993-0261
1993
Clemens, J.D.Clemens, J.D.Experimental evidence against CO2 promoted deep crustal meltingNature, Vol. 363, May 27, pp. 336-338MantleExperimental petrology
DS1993-1530
1993
Clemens, J.D.Stevens, G., Clemens, J.D.Fluid absent melting and the roles of fluids in the lithosphere: a slantedsummary?Chemical Geology, Vol. 108, No. 1-4, August 5, pp. 1-18GlobalMelt, Mantle, Fluids in lithosphere
DS1995-1831
1995
Clemens, J.D.Stevens, G., Clemens, J.D., Droop, G.T.R.Hydrous cordierite in the high grade crust: implications for magmagenerationEconomic Geology Research Unit, Witwatersrand, No. 289, 12pGlobalPetrology - experimental, Magma generation
DS1998-0259
1998
Clemens, J.D.Clemens, J.D., Droop, G.T.R.Fluids, P T paths and the fates of anatectic melts in the Earth's crustLithos, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Oct., pp. 21-36.MantleMelt, Magmas
DS200612-0260
2006
Clemens, J.D.Clemens, J.D.Melting of the continental crust: fluid regimes, melting reactions and source rock fertility.Brown, M., Rushmer, T., Evolution and differentiation of the continental crust, Cambridge Publ., Chapter 9,MantleMelting
DS200612-0261
2006
Clemens, J.D.Clemens, J.D.Melting of the continental crust: fluid regimes, melting reactions and source rock fertility.Evolution and differentiation of Continental Crust, ed. Brown, M., Rushmer, T., Cambridge Univ. Press, Chapter 2, pp. 296-330.MantleMelting
DS200712-1188
2006
Clemens, J.D.Xiao, L., Clemens, J.D.Origin of potassic (C-type) adakite magmas: experimental and field constraints.Lithos, In press availableChinaTectonic, geochemistry
DS1989-0821
1989
Clemens, K.E.Komar, P.D., Clemens, K.E., Zhenlin Li, Shyuer-Ming ShihThe effects of selective sorting on factor analyses of heavy mineralassemblagesJournal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 59, No. 4, July pp. 590-596GlobalSampling, Heavy minerals
DS1860-0977
1897
Clemens, S.L.Clemens, S.L.More Tramps AbroadLondon: Chatto And Windus, PP. 435-486.Africa, South AfricaTravelogue
DS1960-0810
1967
Clement, A.J.Clement, A.J.The Kalahari and Its Lost CityLongmans ( Cape Town), 214P.Botswana, South AfricaGeography
DS2003-0147
2003
Clement, B.Boyd, R., Clement, B., Lucas, R., Birkett, T., Poirier G., Bertrand, P.The Diamondiferous Renard cluster, Otish Mountains region, QuebecGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyQuebecGeology
DS200412-0195
2003
Clement, B.Boyd, R., Clement, B., Lucas, R.,Birkett, T., Poirier, G., Bertrand, P.The Diamondiferous Renard cluster, Otish Mountains region, Quebec.Geological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyCanada, QuebecGeology
DS1992-0263
1992
Clement, B.M.Clement, B.M.Evidence for dipolar field during the Cobb Mountain geomagnetic polarityreversalsNature, Vol. 358, July 30, pp. 405-407GlobalPaleomagnetics, Geophysics
DS200812-0224
2008
Clement, B.M.Clement, B.M., Haggerty, S., Harris, J.Magnetic inclusions in diamonds.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 267, 1-2, pp.333-340.Africa, BotswanaOrapa - diamond inclusions
DS1970-0647
1973
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.Kimberlitic from the Kao Pipe, LesothoLesotho Kimberlites, P.h. Nixon Editor., PP. 110-121.LesothoGeology, Petrogaphy
DS1970-0648
1973
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.Kimberlites from the Kao Pipe, LesothoMaseru: Lesotho Nat. Dev. Corp. Lesotho Kimberlites Editor N, PP. 110-121.LesothoXenoliths, Texture
DS1970-0649
1973
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.The Emplacement of Some Diatreme Facies Kimberlites #11st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 67-69.South AfricaGeology, Genesis
DS1975-0052
1975
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.The Emplacement of Some Diatreme Facies Kimberlites #2Physics and Chemistry of the Earth., Vol. 9, PP. 51-59.South AfricaKimberlite Genesis
DS1975-0053
1975
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Gurney, J.J., Skinner, E.M.W.Monticellite and Abundant Groundmass Component of Some Kimberlites.Kimberlite Symposium I, Held Cambridge., EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME.South AfricaGenesis, Petrography
DS1975-0469
1977
Clement, C.R.Boyd, F.R., Clement, C.R.Compositional Zoning of Olivines in Kimberlite from the de Beers Mine.Carnegie Institute Yearbook, FOR 1976, PP. 485-493.South AfricaPetrography
DS1975-0481
1977
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W., Scott, E.H.Kimberlite Redefined (1977)Proceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME.South AfricaKimberlite Classification, Genesis
DS1975-0976
1979
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.The Origin and Infilling of Kimberlite PipesKimberlite Symposium Ii, Held Cambridge., EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME.South AfricaGenesis, Petrography
DS1975-0977
1979
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W.A Textural Genetic Classification of Kimberlitic RocksKimberlite Symposium Ii, Held Cambridge., EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME.South AfricaGenesis, Kimberlite, Petrography
DS1975-0978
1979
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W., Hawthorne, J.B., Kleinjan, L.Precambrian Ultramafic Dykes with Kimberlite Affinities in The Kimberley Area.Proceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 1, PP. 101-110.South AfricaDe Beers, Wesselton, Geology, Related Rocks
DS1975-1068
1979
Clement, C.R.Hawthorne, J.B., Carrington, A.J., Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.Geology of the Dokolwayo Kimberlite and Associated Palaeo-alluvial Diamond Deposits.Proceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 1, PP. 59-70.GlobalGeology
DS1975-1219
1979
Clement, C.R.Skinner, E.M.W., Clement, C.R.Mineralogical Classification of Southern African KimberlitesProceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 1, PP. 129-139.South AfricaKimberlite Genesis
DS1982-0140
1982
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.A Comparative Geological Study of Some Major Kimberlite Pipes in the Northern Cape and Orange Free State.Ph.d. Thesis, University of Cape Town., TWO VOLUMES, TEXT 432P.; DOCUMENTATION AND FIGURES APPROX. 4South AfricaGeology, Classification, Genesis, De Beers, Wesselton, Bultfontein
DS1982-0141
1982
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W.Kimberlite Textures 1Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, P. 209, (abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Hypabyssal, Diatreme, Genesis
DS1982-0567
1982
Clement, C.R.Skinner, E.M.W., Clement, C.R.Kimberlite Textures IiProceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, PP. 209-210, (abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Texture, Mineralogy, Diatreme, Fluidization, Genesis
DS1984-0190
1984
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Harris, J.W., Robinson, D.N., Hawthorne, J.B.The de Beers Kimberlite Pipe - a Historic South African Diamond Mine.Geological Society of South Africa, South AfricaHistory, Geology, Mining Recovery, Diamonds
DS1984-0191
1984
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W., Scott smith, B.H.Kimberlite Redefined (1984)Journal of GEOLOGY, Vol. 92, No. 2, MARCH PP. 223-228.South AfricaKimberlite, Genesis, Classification
DS1985-0123
1985
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W.A Textural Genetic Classification of KimberlitesTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, pt. 2, May-August pp. 403-409South AfricaClassification, Review
DS1985-0623
1985
Clement, C.R.Smith, C.B., Gurney, J.J., Skinner, E.M.W., Clement, C.R., Ebrahim, N.Geochemical character of Southern African kimberlites: a new approach based on isotopic constraintsTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, pt. 2, May-August pp. 267-280South AfricaGeochemistry, Geochronology
DS1986-0143
1986
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Harris, J.W., Hawthorne, J.B.The De Beers kimberlite pipe- a historic south African diamond mineMineral Deposits of Southern Africa, Vol. 2, pp. 2193-2214South AfricaHistory
DS1986-0144
1986
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Reid, A.M.The origin of kimberlite pipes: an interpretation based on asynthesis of geological features displayed by southern Africa occurrences #1Proceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held, No. 16, pp. 167-169South AfricaBlank
DS1989-0271
1989
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R., Reid, A.M.The origin of kimberlite pipes: an interpretation based on a synthesis of geological features displayed by southern African occurrences #2Geological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 632-646South AfricaKimberlite formation, Kimberlite morphology
DS1991-1564
1991
Clement, C.R.Shee. S.R., Clement, C.R.The petrology of the Wesselton kimberlite sills, Kimberley, Cape South Africa #1Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June, pp. 361-363South AfricaPetrology, Wesselton
DS1992-1420
1992
Clement, C.R.Skinner, E.M.W., Clement, C.R., Gurney, J.J., Apter, D.B., Hatton, C.J.The distribution and tectonic setting of South African kimberlitesRussian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 26-31.South AfricaTectonics, Kimberlite distribution
DS1994-1584
1994
Clement, C.R.Shee, S.R., Clement, C.R., Skinner, E.M.W.The petrology of the Wesselton kimberlite sills, Kimberley, Cape South Africa #2Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 98-114.South AfricaPetrology, kimberlite, Deposit -Wesselton
DS1998-0260
1998
Clement, C.R.Clement, C.R.Diamonds in Canada; 1998Calgary Mining Forum, Apr. 8-9, p. 46. abstractCanada, Northwest Territories, SaskatchewanHistory, Monopros Limited
DS1995-0329
1995
Clement, R.Clement, R.Diamonds, some facts, figures and fantasiesProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Annual Meeting, p. 54. abstractGlobalDiamond exploration
DS1998-0261
1998
Clement, R.Clement, R.Some aspects of Monopros' exploration activities in CanadaYellowknife Geoscience Forum Nov. 25-27, p. 25. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesNews item, Monopros Limited
DS2000-0160
2000
Clements, B.Clements, B.Canadian diamond exploration, one company's perspectiveGeolog, Vol. 29, pt.2, Summer, pp.10, 11.Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesExploration - history, Ashton Mining of Canada Inc.
DS2001-0196
2001
Clements, B.Clements, B.Canadian diamond exploration: short history, brilliant futureNw Mining Association Meet., Dec. 7, 1p. abstr.Northwest Territories, Alberta, QuebecNews item, Ashton Mining of Canada
DS2001-0197
2001
Clements, B.Clements, B., Skelton, D.The Buffalo Head Hills Diamondiferous kimberlite province, Alberta37th. Forum Industrial Minerals, May 23-5, pp. 121-4.AlbertaOverview - brief, Deposit - Buffalo Hills area
DS2002-0198
2002
Clements, B.Boyd, R., Clements, B.The north Slave craton region of Nunavut: an emerging diamond districtProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Abstracts, 1/8p.Northwest Territories, NunavutNews item, Ashton Mining of Canada
DS2002-0199
2002
Clements, B.Boyd, R., Clements, B.The North Slave and Otish Mountains regions, Nunuvut and Quebec: grass roots discoveries of significant ...Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) 2002, Abstr. 2p.Ontario, James Bay LowlandsGeology, overview
DS2002-0292
2002
Clements, B.Clements, B.The Otish Mountains region, Quebec: Canada's newest field of kimberlitic rocksProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) 2002, 1p. abstractQuebec, Otish MountainsExploration, Ashton Mining of Canada Inc.
DS2003-0260
2003
Clements, B.Clements, B., Lucas, R., Birkett, T., Poirier, G., Bertrand, P.The Diamondiferous Renard cluster, Otish Mountains region, Quebec: an explorationCordilleran Exploration Roundup, p. 82-3, abstract.Quebec, Otish MountainsNews item, Ashton, Soquem
DS2003-1088
2003
Clements, B.Poirier, G., Bertrand, P., Birkett, T., Clements, B., Lucas, R.T.Diamond potential of the Renard cluster, Foxtrot property, Monte Otish QuebecQuebec Exploration Conference, Nov. 25-27, 1p. abstractQuebec, Otish MountainsGeology - Renard, Ashton, Soquem
DS200412-1559
2003
Clements, B.Poirier, G., Bertrand, P., Birkett, T., Clements, B., Lucas, R.T.Diamond potential of the Renard cluster, Foxtrot property, Monte Otish Quebec.Quebec Exploration Conference, Nov. 25-27, 1p. abstractCanada, Quebec, Otish MountainsGeology - Renard, Ashton, Soquem
DS200512-0171
2005
Clements, B.Clements, B.Bulk sampling of the Renard cluster, north central Quebec.British Columbia & Yukon Mineral Exploration Roundup, Jan.24-27th., p. 86-87.Canada, QuebecNews item - brief overview, Ashton
DS200912-0310
2009
Clements, B.Holmes, P., Pell, J., Clements, B., Grenon, H., Sell, M.The Chidliak diamond project, Baffin Island, one year after initial discovery.37th. Annual Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Abstracts p. 24.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandHistory
DS201312-0695
2013
Clements, B.Pell, J., Clements, B., Grutter, H., Neilson, S., Grenon, H.Following kimberlite indicator minerals to source in the Chidliak kimberlite province, Nunavut.PDAC 2013 , 6p.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandIndicator Mineralogy
DS201312-0696
2013
Clements, B.Pell, J., Clements, B., Grutter, H., Neilson, S., Grenon, H.Following kimberlite indicator minerals to source in the Chidliak kimberlite province, Nunavut.GSC Open file 7374 Ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca, pp. 47-52.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandDeposit - Chidliak
DS201702-0205
2017
Clements, B.Clements, B.The Canadian diamond business: 25 years and going strong.SEG Newsletter, No. 108, p. 1, 12-18.Canada, United StatesHistory - exploration, deposits
DS202101-0005
2020
Clements, B.Clements, B.Diamond Exploration in Covid times . 1hr 28 mins.Vancouver Kimberlite Cluster talk Dec. 4, https://www.youtube.com /channel/UCcZvay DnqDDazIHAh1OtregCanadaHistory of diamond discoveries in Canada
DS2002-0293
2002
Clements, B.P.Clements, B.P., Skelton, McCandless, HoodThe Buffalo Head Hills kimberlite province, AlbertaGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.22., p.22.AlbertaRegional geology - brief
DS2002-0294
2002
Clements, B.P.Clements, B.P., Skelton, McCandless, HoodThe Buffalo Head Hills kimberlite province, AlbertaGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.22., p.22.AlbertaRegional geology - brief
DS1996-1371
1996
Clemns, J.D.Stevens, G., Clemns, J.D., Droop, G.T.R.Magma production during granulite facies anatexis: dat a from primitivemeta sedimentary protolithsEconomic Geology Research Unit, Witwatersrand, No. 298, 40pGlobalGranites, Petrology -experimental
DS1997-0196
1997
Clemson, J.Clemson, J., Cartwright, J., Booth, J.Structural segmentation and the influence of basement structure on the Namibia passive margin.Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 154, No. 3, pp. 477-482.NamibiaStructure, Basement
DS1859-0050
1835
Clemson, T.G.Clemson, T.G.Diamond in North Carolina. #1Geological Society Transactions, Vol. 1, P. 417; P. 421. ALSO: American Journal of Science, Vol.United States, North Carolina, AppalachiaDiamond Occurrence
DS1993-0262
1993
Clendenim, C.W.Clendenim, C.W., Lowell, G.R., Niewendorp, C.A.Sequencing Reelfoot extension based on relations from southeast Missouri and interpretations of the interplay between offset preexisting zones ofweaknessTectonics, Vol. 12, No. 3, June pp. 703-712MissouriTectonics, Midcontinent Rift
DS1988-0134
1988
Clendenin, C.W.Clendenin, C.W., Charlesworth, E.G., Maske, S.Tectonic style and mechanism of early Proterozoic successor basindevelopment, southern AfricaTectonophysics, Vol. 156, No. 3-4, December 20, pp. 275-292South AfricaTectonics, Basin
DS1989-0272
1989
Clendenin, C.W.Clendenin, C.W.Influence of a rigid block on rift margin evolutionGeology, Vol. 17, No. 5, May pp. 412-415Missouri, MidcontinentSt. Francois terrane, Tectonics, Structure
DS1989-0273
1989
Clendenin, C.W.Clendenin, C.W., Niewendorp, C.A., Lowell, G.R.Reinterpretation of faulting in southeast MissouriGeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, March pp. 217-220MissouriProterozoic, Reelfoot Rift, Mississippi Embayment, Tectonics
DS1990-0685
1990
Clendenin, C.W.Henry, G., Clendenin, C.W., Stainstreet, I.G., Maiden, K.J.Multiple detachment model for the early rifting stAge of Late Proterozoic Damara orogen in NamibiaGeology, Vol. 18, No. 1, January pp. 67-71Southwest Africa, NamibiaTectonics, Damara orogen
DS1998-0948
1998
Clendenin, C.W.Martin, D. McB., Clendenin, C.W., Krapez, B., McNaughtonTectonic and geochronological constraints on late Archean and Paleoproterozoic stratigraphic correlationJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 155, pp. 311-22.South Africa, AustraliaCraton - Kaapvaal, Pilbara, Geochronology - SHRIMP
DS1990-0338
1990
Clendennin, C.W.Clendennin, C.W., Lowell, G.R.The Reelfoot Rift: an interplay between initial weaknessesGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A139Missouri, MidcontinentTectonics, Reelfoot Rift
DS201801-0008
2018
Clerc, C.Clerc, C., Ringenbach, J-C., Jolivet, L., Ballard, J-F.Rifted margins: ductile deformation, boudinage, continentward-dipping normal faults and the role of the weak crust.Gondwana Research, Vol. 53, 1, pp. 20-40.Mantlerifting

Abstract: The stunningly increased resolution of the deep crustal levels in recent industrial seismic profiles acquired along most of the world's rifted margins leads to the unraveling of an unexpected variety of structures. It provides unprecedented access to the processes occurring in the middle and lower continental crust. We present a series of so far unreleased profiles that allows the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear and low-angle detachment faulting, and a rifting history that differs from the classical models of oceanward-dipping normal faults. The lower crust in rifted margins appears much more intensely deformed than usually represented. At the foot of both magma-rich and magma-poor margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust along large-scale shallow dipping shear zones. These shear zones generally show a top-to-the-continent sense of shear consistent with the activity of Continentward Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) observed in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for a migration of the deformation and associated sedimentation and/or volcanic activity toward the ocean. We discuss the origin of these CDNF and investigate their implications and the effect of sediment thermal blanketing on crustal rheology. In some cases, low-angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures. The maximum deformation is localized in the inter-boudin areas. The upper crust is intensely boudinaged and the highly deformed lower crust fills the inter-boudins underneath. The boudinage pattern controls the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples from the margins of Uruguay, West Africa, South China Sea and Barents Sea, and discuss their implications for the time-temperature history of the margins.
DS201809-2012
2018
Clerc, F.Clerc, F., Behn, M.D., Parmentier, E.M., Hirth, G.Predicting rates and distribution of carbonate melting in oceanic upper mantle: implications for seismic structure and global carbon cycling.Geophysical Research Letters, doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078142Mantlemelting

Abstract: Despite support from indirect observations, the existence of a layer of carbon-rich, partially molten rock (~60 km) below oceanic crust, made possible by the presence of CO2, remains uncertain. In particular, abrupt decreases in the velocity that seismic waves propagate at depths of 40-90 and 80-180 km beneath the ocean basins remain unexplained. In this study, we test whether these seismic discontinuities can be attributed to the presence of a layer of carbon-rich melt. Melt generation occurs only where the mantle is upwelling; thus, we predict the locations of carbonate-enhanced melting using a mantle convection model and compare the resulting melt distribution with the seismic observations. We find that the shallower seismic discontinuities (at 40- to 90-km depth) are not associated with regions of predicted melting but that the deeper discontinuities (80-180 km) occur preferentially in areas of greater mantle upwelling—suggesting that these deep observations may reflect the presence of localized melt accumulation at depth. Finally, we show that carbonate melting far from mid-ocean ridges produces an additional CO2 flux previously overlooked in deep carbon cycle estimates, roughly equivalent to the flux of CO2 due to seafloor volcanism.
DS202010-1833
2020
Clerici, A.M.C.Clerici, A.M.C., Gomes, C.B.. De Min, A., Comin-Chiaramnti, P.Heavy minerals in the sediments from Paraguay rivers as indicators for diamond occurrences.Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Paraguay, , Vol. 20, 2, pp. 188-204. pdfSouth America, Paraguaygeochemistry

Abstract: After some works of Jaime Baez-Presse that quoted the presence of diamonds in Eastern Paraguay, we have perfprmed a whole sampling a study relative to the indicator mineral for diamonds. Indicator minerals are mineral species that, when appearing as transported grains in clastic sediments, indicate the presence in bedrock of a specific type of mineralization, hydrothermal alteration or lithology. Their physical and chemical characteristics, including a relatively high density (heavy minerals), facilitate their preservation and identification. The heavy minerals represent an important exploration method for detecting a variety of ore deposit types including diamond, gold, Ni-Cu, PGE, and so on.. One of the most significant events in the application of indicator mineral methods in the past was the diamond exploration. This paper provides an overview of indicator mineral methods, i.e. presence of Cr-diopside, Pyrope-rich garnet and Picroilmenite, for diamond exploration along the Eastern Paraguay river. Unfortunately the above heavy mineraks, generally associated to the diamonds, do not appear in Eastern Paraguay, excluding this Country as a potential source for the diamond as economic potential source.
DS201312-0165
2013
Clery, D.Clery, D.Impact theory gets whacked.Science, Vol. 342, 6155, pp. 183-185.Earth, MoonOrigin of moon
DS201707-1309
2017
Clesi, V.Bouhifd, M.A., Clesi, V., Boujibar, A., Cartier, C., Hammouda, T., Boyet, M., Manthilake, G., Monteux, J., Andrault, D.Silicate melts during the Earth's core formation.Chemical Geology, Vol. 461, pp. 128-139.Mantlemelting

Abstract: Accretion from primordial material and its subsequent differentiation into a planet with core and mantle are fundamental problems in terrestrial and solar system. Many of the questions about the processes, although well developed as model scenarios over the last few decades, are still open and much debated. In the early Earth, during its formation and differentiation into rocky mantle and iron-rich core, it is likely that silicate melts played an important part in shaping the Earth's main reservoirs as we know them today. Here, we review several recent results in a deep magma ocean scenario that give tight constraints on the early evolution of our planet. These results include the behaviour of some siderophile elements (Ni and Fe), lithophile elements (Nb and Ta) and one volatile element (Helium) during Earth's core formation. We will also discuss the melting and crystallization of an early magma ocean, and the implications on the general feature of core-mantle separation and the depth of the magma ocean. The incorporation of Fe2 + and Fe3 + in bridgmanite during magma ocean crystallization is also discussed. All the examples presented here highlight the importance of the prevailing conditions during the earliest time of Earth's history in determining the composition and dynamic history of our planet.
DS201412-0245
2014
Cleverely, J.Fisher, L., Gazley, M.F., Baensch, A., Barnes, S.J., Cleverely, J., Duclaux, G.Resolution of geochemical and lithostratigraphic complexity: a workflow for application of portable X-ray fluorescence to mineral exploration.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 14, 2, pp. 139-148.TechnologyGeochemistry
DS1981-0005
1981
Cleverly, R.W.Allsop, H.L., Bristown, J.W., Manton, W.I., Cleverly, R.W.Rubidium-strontium Geochronology of the Lebombo VolcanicsGeocongress '81, South African Geodynamics Project., ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 1-2.GlobalDokolwayo, Lembo Volcanics
DS1996-0280
1996
Cliff, D.I.Cliff, D.I.Management of air quality and noiseEnvironmental Management in Australia Minerals and Energy, UNSW Press, pp. 131-156AustraliaMineral processing, Environmental - mining
DS201412-0380
2014
Cliff, J.Huang, J-X., Griffin, W.L., Greau, Y., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y., Cliff, J., Martin, L.Unmasking xenolithic eclogites: progressive metasomatism of a key Roberts Victor sample.Chemical Geology, Vol. 364, pp. 55-65.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Roberts Victor
DS201412-0999
2014
Cliff, J.Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P.T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A.B., Wirth, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Cliff, J.Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals.Gondwana Research, Vol. 27, 2, pp. 459-485.Asia, TibetUHP ophiolite diamonds
DS201502-0126
2014
Cliff, J.Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P.T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A.B., Wirth, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Cliff, J.Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals.Gondwana Research, Vol. 27, 2, pp. 459-485.Russia, UralsChromitite
DS201707-1371
2017
Cliff, J.Spetius, Z.V., Cliff, J., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y.Carbon isotopes of eclogite hosted diamonds from the Nyurbinskaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia: the metasomatic origin of diamonds.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 131-147.Russia, Yakutiadeposit - Nyurbinskaya

Abstract: Carbon isotope compositions and the distribution of nitrogen and hydrogen in diamonds from 18 eclogites from Nurbinskaya kimberlites were studied in situ in polished plates. Cathodoluminescence images show that most of the diamonds have complex growth structures with distinctive core, intermediate and rim zones. In some diamonds the cores display dissolution features, and intermediate growth zones are separated from the cores by narrow rounded oscillatory zones. At least three crystals show interrupted multistage diamond growth; variations in d13C of 2–3‰ occur across the contacts between distinct zones. Generally, d13C within the diamond cores varies only by 1–2‰, in rare cases up to 3.3‰. d13C values are usually lower in the intermediate zones and drop further towards the rims by up to 3‰. High-resolution SIMS profiles show that variations in d13C across the diamond growth zones are sharp with no evidence of diffusive relaxation. Diamonds with predominantly tangential octahedral growth have a wide range in d13C from - 15.2‰ up to 9.0‰ (± 0.4‰), and their nitrogen (N) contents vary between 30 and 1500 at. ppm. Six diamonds show little internal variation along the isotopic profiles with changes in d13C of only 0.3–0.9‰ around mean values ranging from - 6‰ to - 3‰. Five crystals are isotopically heavy, with relatively homogeneous d13C up to 9‰. FTIR data show markedly different N concentrations and nitrogen aggregation states between major growth zones. This implies that the diamonds in eclogitic xenoliths from Nyurbinskaya pipe grew in multiple and interrupted growth events, probably from fluids enriched in K and H. The wide variations of d13C in the studied eclogitic diamonds and identification of their anomalously positive d13C values, combined with the wide range of high d18O in garnets from the diamondiferous xenoliths of the Nyurbinskaya pipe, which are mostly outside of the mantle range, suggest a crustal contribution to the parental mantle-related fluids forming diamonds in these xenoliths and indicate the complex metasomatic evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Nakynsky kimberlite field.
DS1986-0287
1986
Cliff, R.A.Gerlach, D.C., Cliff, R.A., Davies, G.R.The Cape Verde Islands: isotopic and trace element characteristicsGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 18, No. 6, p. 611. (abstract.)GlobalGeochronology
DS1988-0251
1988
Cliff, R.A.Gerlach, D.C., Cliff, R.A., Davies, G.R., Norry, M., Hodgson, N.Magma sources of the Cape Verdes Archipelago: isotopic and trace elementconstraintsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 52, No. 12, pp. 2979-2992GlobalBasanite, Carbonatite, Melilitite, Rare earths
DS1991-1905
1991
Cliff, R.A.Yardley, B., Bottrell, S.H., Cliff, R.A.Evidence for regional scale fluid loss event during mid crustalmetamorphismNature, Vol. 349, Jan. 10, pp. 151-4.Mantlemetamorphism
DS1995-0907
1995
Cliff, R.A.Kamber, B.S., Kramers, J.D., Napier, R., Cliff, R.A.The Triangle shearzone, Zimbabwe revisited: new dat a on event at 2.0 Ga in Limpopo Belt.Precambrian Research, Vol. 70, No. 3-4, Jan. pp. 191-214.ZimbabweGeochronology, Limpopo Belt
DS1997-0197
1997
Clifford, D.Clifford, D.Colorado diamonds a reality .. Kelsey LakeNorth American Mining, Vol. 1, No. 8, October pp. 5, 6, 7, 9, 11.ColoradoNews item, Deposit - Kelsey Lake, Redaurum Limited
DS2001-0198
2001
Clifford, D.Clifford, D.Mineral processingMining Annual Review, 12p.Global, Canada, AustraliaMineral procssing - technology, Overview - brief not specific to diamonds
DS1993-0263
1993
Clifford, N.J.Clifford, N.J., Hardisty, J., French, J.R., Hart, S.Down stream variation in bed material characteristics: a turbulence controlled form process feedback mechanismBest, and Bristow, Braided Rivers Geological Society of London, No. 75, pp. 89-104GlobalSedimentology, Geomorphology, Braided rivers
DS1982-0156
1982
Clifford, P.Cox, K.G., Clifford, P.Correlation Coefficient Patterns and Their Interpretation In Three Basaltic Suites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 79, No. 3, PP. 268-278.GlobalPetrology
DS1960-0641
1966
Clifford, T.N.Clifford, T.N.Tectono-metallogenic Units and Metallogenic Provinces of Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 1, No. 6, PP. 421-434.South AfricaTectonics
DS1970-0051
1970
Clifford, T.N.Clifford, T.N., Gass, I.G.African Magmatism and TectonicsEdinburgh: Oliver And Boyd., South AfricaKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Tectonics
DS200412-0336
2004
Clift, P.Clift, P., Vannucchi, P.Controls on tectonic accretion versus erosion in subduction zones: implications for the origin and recycling of the continentalReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 42, 2, 10.1029/2003 RG000127MantleSubduction
DS200412-0337
2004
Clift, P.Clift, P., Vannucchi, P.Controls on tectonic accretion versus erosion in subduction zones: implications for the origin and recycling of the continentalReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 42, 2, April 8, 10.1029/2003 RG000127MantleSubduction
DS1997-0198
1997
Clift, P.D.Clift, P.D., Lorenzo, J., Hurford, A.J.Transform tectonics and thermal rejuvenation on the Cote d'Ivoire Ghanamargin, West Africa.Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 154, No. 3, pp. 483-490.GlobalTectonics
DS2002-0404
2002
Clift, P.D.Draut, A.E., Clift, P.D., Hannigan, R.E., Layne, G., Shimizu, N.A model for continental crust genesis by arc accretion: rare earth element evidence from the Irish Caledonides.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 203, 3-4, pp. 861-877.Ireland, ScandinaviaOrogenesis - REE
DS200912-0116
2009
Clift, P.D.Clift, P.D., Schouten, H., Vannucchi, P.Arc continent collisions, sediment recycling and the maintenance of the continental crust.Geological Society of London, Special Publication Earth Accretionary systems in Space and Time, No. 318, pp. 75-103.MantleTectonics
DS201503-0172
2015
Clift, P.D.Roberts, N.M.W., Van Kranendonk, J., Parman, S., Clift, P.D.Continent formation through time.Geological Society of London Special Publication: Continent formation through time., No. 389, pp. 1-16.GlobalGeotectonics
DS201412-0938
2014
Clifton, P.H.Valley, J.W., Cavosie, T., Ushikubo, T., Reinhard, D.A., Lawrence, D.F., Larson, D.J., Clifton, P.H., Kelly, T.F., Wilde, S.A., Moser, D.E., Spicuzza, M.J.Hadean age for a post-magma-ocean zircon confirmed by atom-probe tomography.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 7, pp.219-223.MantleGeochronology
DS200512-1109
2005
Cligget, L.Unruh, J., Cligget, L., Hay, R.Migrant land rights reception and 'clearing to claim' in sub Saharan Africa.Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 29, 3, August pp. 190-198.Africa, southern AfricaNews item - legal, aboriginal
DS201804-0681
2018
Cline, C.J. IICline, C.J. II, Faul, U.H., David, E.C., Berry, A.J., Jackson, I.Redox influenced seismic properties of upper mantle olivine.Nature, Vol. 555, March 15, pp. 255-258.Mantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Lateral variations of seismic wave speeds and attenuation (dissipation of strain energy) in the Earth’s upper mantle have the potential to map key characteristics such as temperature, major-element composition, melt fraction and water content1,2,3. The inversion of these data into meaningful representations of physical properties requires a robust understanding of the micromechanical processes that affect the propagation of seismic waves2,3. Structurally bound water (hydroxyl) is believed to affect seismic properties2,3 but this has yet to be experimentally quantified. Here we present a comprehensive low-frequency forced-oscillation assessment of the seismic properties of olivine as a function of water content within the under-saturated regime that is relevant to the Earth’s interior. Our results demonstrate that wave speeds and attenuation are in fact strikingly insensitive to water content. Rather, the redox conditions imposed by the choice of metal sleeving, and the associated defect chemistry, appear to have a substantial influence on the seismic properties. These findings suggest that elevated water contents are not responsible for low-velocity or high-attenuation structures in the upper mantle. Instead, the high attenuation observed in hydrous and oxidized regions of the upper mantle (such as above subduction zones) may reflect the prevailing oxygen fugacity. In addition, these data provide no support for the hypothesis whereby a sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is explained by enhanced grain boundary sliding in the presence of water.
DS1910-0391
1913
Cline, J.H.Watson, T.L., Cline, J.H.Petrology of a Series of Igneous Dikes in Central Western Virginia.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 24, PP. 301-334.Appalachia, VirginiaGeology, Related Rocks
DS1859-0096
1849
Clingman, T.L.Clingman, T.L.Letter to the Editor of the Highland MessengerIn: Charles Lanman's Letters From The Alleghany Mountains, N, 198P. PP. 186-187.United States, North Carolina, AppalachiaDiamond Occurrence
DS201412-0734
2014
Clipperton, K.Remshardt, W.J., Shurgot, C., Coolen, R., Clipperton, K., Chisholm, V.Kennady Lake Lue T'E Halye ( Fish-out).2014 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 66, abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesFish removal - permit
DS2000-0161
2000
Clitheroe, G.Clitheroe, G., Gudmundsson, O., Kennett, B.L.N.The crustal thickness of AustraliaJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 105, No. 6, June 10, pp. 13697-AustraliaGeophysics
DS200812-0105
2008
Clobanu, M.Berderman, E., Caragheorgheopol, A., Clobanu, M., Pomorski, M., Pullia, A., Riboldi, S.,Traeger, M., Weick, H.Ion spectroscopy - a diamond characterization tool.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 17, 7-10, pp. 1159-1163.TechnologySpectroscopy
DS1994-1541
1994
Clocchiatti, R.Schiano, P., Clocchiatti, R.Worldwide occurrence of silica rich melts in sub-continental and sub-oceanic mantle mineralsNature, Vol. 368, April 14, pp. 621-624MantleMineralogy, Silica rich melts
DS1994-1542
1994
Clocchiatti, R.Schiano, P., Clocchiatti, R., Shimizu, N.Melt inclusions trapped in mantle minerals: a clue to identifyingmetasomatic agents in upper mantle.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58A, pp. 807-808. AbstractMantleMetasomatism
DS1995-1670
1995
Clocchiatti, R.Schiano, P., Clocchiatti, R., et al.Hydrous, silica rich melts in the sub-arc mantle and their relationship with erupted arc lavasNature, Vol. 377, No. 6550, Oct. 19, pp. 595-599MantleMelts, Subduction
DS1996-0951
1996
Clocchiatti, R.Metrich, N., Clocchiatti, R.Sulfur abundance and its speciation in oxidized alkaline meltsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 60, No. 21, pp. 4151-60.ItalyAlkaline rocks, Melt inclusions
DS1999-0766
1999
Clocchiatti, R.Varela, M.E., Clocchiatti, R., Schiano, P.Silicic glasses in hydrous and anhydrous mantle xenoliths from western Victoria - two different sourcesChemical Geology, Vol. 153, No. 1-4, Jan. pp.151-70.AustraliaXenoliths
DS2002-1005
2002
Clocchiatti, R.Massare, D., Metrich, N., Clocchiatti, R.High temperature experiments on silicate melt inclusions in olivine at 1 atm: inference- temperatureChemical Geology, Vol.183, 1-4, pp.87-98.MantleMelt, Homogenization and H2O concentrations, water
DS200712-0947
2006
Clocchiatti, R.Schiano, P., Provost, A., Clocchiatti, R., Faure, F.Transcrystalline melt migration and Earth's mantle.Science, Vol. 314, Nov. 10, pp. 970-974.MantleTectonics, volcanism, geothermometry, melting
DS1994-1543
1994
Clochhian, R.Schiano, P., Clochhian, R., Shimizu, N., Weis, D.Cogenetic silica rich and carbonate rich melts trapped in mantle minerals in Kerguelen ultramafic xenoliths -implications for metasomatism in the oceanic upper mantlEarth Planet. Sci. Letters, Vol. 123, No. 1-2, May pp. 167-178.Mantle, OceanicCarbonatite, Metasomatism, Xenoliths -Kerguelen ultramafic
DS1998-1522
1998
Clochhiatti, R.Varela, M.E., Clochhiatti, R., Massare, D., Schiano, P.Metasomatism in subcontinental mantle beneath Northern Pategonia: evidence from silica rich melt inclusionsMin. Petrol, Vol. 62, No. 1-2, pp. 103-122ArgentinaMetasomatism, Magmatism
DS1993-1389
1993
Clochiatti, R.Schiano, P., Clochiatti, R., Mattielli, N., Shimizu, N.Melt and fluid inclusions in peridoite xenoliths from the KerguelenArchipelago.Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 74, No. 16, April 20, supplement abstract p. 320.GlobalXenoliths
DS201605-0852
2016
Cloete, A.Judeel, G., Swaneoel, T., Holder, A., Swarts, B., Van Strijp, T., Cloete, A.Extension of the Culli nan diamond mine No. 1 shaft underneath the existing operating shaft.Diamonds Still Sparkling SAIMM 2016 Conference, Mar. 14-17, pp. 301-316.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Cullinan
DS201612-2308
2016
Cloete, A.Judeel, G., Swanepoel, T., Holder, A., Swarts, B., van Strijp, T., Cloete, A.Extension of the Culli nan diamond mine no. 1 shaft underneath the existing operating shaft, with emphasis on rock engineering considerations.Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 116, Aug. pp. 745-753.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Cullinan

Abstract: In 2012, Cullinan Diamond Mine began an expansion programme with the shaft deepening and development of access to the C-Cut 1 block at approximately 839 m below surface. The expansion programme is funded by a combination of bank loans and retained operating profit generated by the mine. Continuous production during deepening of the No. 1 Shaft, which is the rock hoisting shaft, was therefore critical for sustainability and efficiency as well as overall funding of the project. The deepening method, support design and verification, as well as learning outcomes pertaining to the extension of the No. 1 Shaft underneath the existing operating shaft are summarized, with emphasis on the importance of gaining some understanding of the shaft's host rock mass.
DS201709-2007
2016
Cloete, A.Judeel, G., Swanepoel, T., Holder, A., Swarts, B., van Strijp, T., Cloete, A.Extension of the Culli nan diamond mine No. 1 shaft underneath the existing operating shaft, with emphasis on rock engineering considerations.South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 116, 8, pp. 745-752.Africa, South Africadeposit - Cullinan

Abstract: In 2012, Cullinan Diamond Mine began an expansion programme with the shaft deepening and development of access to the C-Cut 1 block at approximately 839 m below surface. The expansion programme is funded by a combination of bank loans and retained operating profit generated by the mine. Continuous production during deepening of the No. 1 Shaft, which is the rock hoisting shaft, was therefore critical for sustainability and efficiency as well as overall funding of the project. The deepening method, support design and verification, as well as learning outcomes pertaining to the extension of the No. 1 Shaft underneath the existing operating shaft are summarized, with emphasis on the importance of gaining some understanding of the shaft's host rock mass.
DS1997-1011
1997
Cloete, H.C.C.Schurmann, L.W., Horstmann, U.E., Cloete, H.C.C.Geochemical and stable isotope patterns in altered volcaniclastic and intrusive rocks of Kruidfontein...Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 1, July pp. 77-102.South AfricaCarbonatite, Geochemistry
DS200512-1193
2005
Cloete, J.H.Wolmarans, A., Cloete, J.H., Ekkerd, J., Mason, I.M., Simmat, C.M.Borehole radar application to kimberlite delineation at Finsch diamond mine.Exploration Geophysics, Vol. 36, 3, pp. 310-317.Africa, South AfricaFinsch mine
DS1940-0111
1946
Cloete, S.Cloete, S.African Portraits: a Biography of Paul Kruger, Cecil Rhode sand Lubengula.London: Collins, 480P.South AfricaBiography, Kimberley
DS1996-0859
1996
CloetinghLobkovsky, L.I., Cloetingh, Nikishin, Volozh et al.Extensional basins of the former Soviet Union - structure, basin formation mechanisms and subsidenceTectonophysics, Vol. 266, pp. 251-285.Russia, Baltic States, Kola, SiberiaTectonics - lithosphere, rheology
DS2001-1191
2001
CloetinghVan Wijk, J.W., Huismans, R.S., Voorde, M., CloetinghMelt generation at volcanic continental margins: no need for a mantle plume?Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 20, Oct. 15, pp. 3995-8.MantleTectonics, Melting
DS1987-0677
1987
Cloetingh, S.Shudofsky, G.N., Cloetingh, S., et al.Unusually deep earthquakes in East Africa: constraints on the thermomechanical structure of a continental rift systemUnknown, Vol. pp. 741-744East AfricaTectonics
DS1989-0274
1989
Cloetingh, S.Cloetingh, S., Wortel, R., Vlaar, N.J.On the initiation of subduction zonesPageophy., (Pure and Applied Geophysics), Vol. 129, No. 1-2, pp. 7-25. Database # 17531BasinOphiolite, Plate tectonics-subduction
DS1995-0330
1995
Cloetingh, S.Cloetingh, S., D'Argentio, B., Sassi, W.Interplay of extension and compression in basin formation - introductionTectonophysics, Vol. 252, No. 1-4, Dec. 30, pp. 1-6GlobalBasins, Tectonics
DS1995-0876
1995
Cloetingh, S.Janssen, M.E., Stephenson, R.A., Cloetingh, S.Temporal and spatial correlations between changes in plate motions and the evolution of rifted basins AfricaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 107, No. 11, Nov. pp. 1317-1332AfricaBasins, Geodynamics, tectonics
DS1995-1807
1995
Cloetingh, S.Spadini, G., Bertotti, G., Cloetingh, S.Tectono stratigraphic modelling of the Sardinian margin of the TyrrhenianSea.Tectonophysics, Vol. 252, pp. 269-84.GlobalTectonics
DS1995-1953
1995
Cloetingh, S.Van der Beek, P., Andriessen, P., Cloetingh, S.Morphotectonic evolution of fluid continental margins: inferences from acoupled tectonic surface processes...Tectonics, Vol. 14, No. 2, Apr. pp. 406-21.GlobalTectonics - model, Thermochronology
DS1999-0136
1999
Cloetingh, S.Cloetingh, S., Catalano, R., Horvath, F.Basin dynamics and basin fill: models and constraintsTectonophysics, Vol. 315, No. 1-4, Dec. 31, pp. 1-14.GlobalBasin - geomorphology, Models
DS2000-0162
2000
Cloetingh, S.Cloetingh, S., Podlachikov, Yu.Y.Perspectives on tectonic modelingTectonophysics, Vol. 320, No. 3-4, May pp. 169-74.GlobalTectonics, Models
DS200412-0374
2004
Cloetingh, S.Corti, G., Bonini, M., Sokoutis, D., innocenti, F., Manetti, P., Cloetingh, S., Mulugeta, G.Continental rift architecture and patterns of magma migration: a dynamic analysis based on centrifuge models.Tectonics, Vol. 23, 2, TC2012 10.1029/2003 TC001561MantleGeodynamics
DS200412-2232
2004
Cloetingh, S.Ziegler, P.A., Cloetingh, S.Dynamic processes controlling evolution of rifted basins.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 64, pp. 1-50.GlobalMagmatism, Tectonics, plate, rheology, geothermometry
DS200512-0172
2005
Cloetingh, S.Cloetingh, S., Van Wees, J.D.Strength reversal in Europe's intraplate lithosphere: transition from basin inversion to lithospheric folding.Geology, Vol. 33, 4, Apr. pp. 285-288.EuropeTectonics
DS200712-0125
2007
Cloetingh, S.Burov, E.,Guillou Frottier, L., Acremont, E., Le Pourthier, L., Cloetingh, S.Plume head lithosphere interactions near intra continental plate boundaries.Tectonophysics, Vol. 434, 1-4, pp. 15-38.MantleHotspots
DS200712-0203
2007
Cloetingh, S.Corti, G., Van Wijk, J., Cloetingh, S., Morley, C.K.Tectonic inheritance and continental rift architecture: numerical and analogue models of the East African Rift system.Tectonics, Vol. 26, TC6006AfricaTectonics
DS200712-1012
2007
Cloetingh, S.Sokoutis, D., Corti, G., Bonin, M., Brun, J.P., Cloetingh, S., Maudit, T., Manetti, P.Modelling the extension of heterogeneous hot lithosphere.Tectonophysics, Vol. 444, pp. 63-79.MantleRheology, back arc extension
DS200912-0090
2009
Cloetingh, S.Burov, E., Cloetingh, S.Controls of mantle plumes and lithospheric folding on modes of intraplate continental tectonics: differences and similarities.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 178, bo. 3 Sept. oo, 1691-1722.MantlePlume, hot spots
DS201012-0461
2010
Cloetingh, S.Luth, S., Willingshofer, E., Sokoutis, D., Cloetingh, S.Analogie modelling of continental collision: influence of plate coupling on mantle lithosphere subduction, crustal deformation and surface topography.Tectonophysics, Vol. 484, pp. 87-102.MantleTectonics
DS201312-0166
2013
Cloetingh, S.Cloetingh, S., Burov, E., Francois, T.Thermo-mechanical controls on intra-plate deformation and the role of plume folding interactions in continental topography.Gondwana Research, Vol. 24, 3-4, pp. 815-837.MantleHotspots
DS201412-0926
2014
Cloetingh, S.Tesauro, M., Kaban, M.K., Mooney, W.D., Cloetingh, S.NACr14: a 3D model for the crustal structure of the North American continent.Tectonophysics, Vol. 631, pp. 65-86.Canada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS201412-0976
2013
Cloetingh, S.Willingshofer, E., Sokoutis, D., Beekman, F., Cloetingh, S.Subduction and deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to plate and crust-mantle coupling.Geology, Vol. 41, pp. 1239-1242.MantleSubduction
DS201706-1089
2017
Cloetingh, S.Lavecchia, A., Thieulot, C., Beekman, F., Cloetingh, S., Clark, S.Lithosphere erosion and continental breakup: interaction of extension, plume upwelling and melting.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 467, pp. 89-98.Mantlemelting

Abstract: We present the results of thermo-mechanical modelling of extension and breakup of a heterogeneous continental lithosphere, subjected to plume impingement in presence of intraplate stress field. We incorporate partial melting of the extending lithosphere, underlying upper mantle and plume, caused by pressure-temperature variations during the thermo-mechanical evolution of the conjugate passive margin system. Effects of melting included in the model account for thermal effects, causing viscosity reduction due to host rock heating, and mechanical effects, due to cohesion loss. Our study provides better understanding on how presence of melts can influence the evolution of rifting. Here we focus particularly on the role of melting for the temporal and spatial evolution of passive margin geometry and rift migration. Depending on the lithospheric structure, melt presence may have a significant impact on the characteristics of areas affected by lithospheric extension. Pre-existing lithosphere heterogeneities determine the location of initial breakup, but in presence of plumes the subsequent evolution is more difficult to predict. For small distances between plume and area of initial rifting, the development of symmetric passive margins is favored, whereas increasing the distance promotes asymmetry. For a plume-rifting distance large enough to prevent interaction, the effect of plumes on the overlying lithosphere is negligible and the rift persists at the location of the initial lithospheric weakness. When the melt effect is included, the development of asymmetric passive continental margins is fostered. In this case, melt-induced lithospheric weakening may be strong enough to cause rift jumps toward the plume location.
DS201804-0713
2017
Cloetingh, S.Koptev, A., Cloetingh, S., Gerya, T., Calais, E., Leroy, S.Non-uniform splitting of a single mantle plume by double cratonic roots: insights into the origin of the central and southern East African Rift System.Terra Nova, pp. 125-134.Africa, Tanzaniacraton

Abstract: Using numerical thermo-mechanical experiments we analyse the role of an active mantle plume and pre-existing lithospheric thickness differences in the structural development of the central and southern East African Rift system. The plume-lithosphere interaction model setup captures the essential features of the studied area: two cratonic bodies embedded into surrounding lithosphere of normal thickness. The results of the numerical experiments suggest that localization of rift branches in the crust is mainly defined by the initial position of the mantle plume relative to the cratons. We demonstrate that development of the Eastern branch, the Western branch and the Malawi rift can be the result of non-uniform splitting of the Kenyan plume, which has been rising underneath the southern part of the Tanzanian craton. Major features associated with Cenozoic rifting can thus be reproduced in a relatively simple model of the interaction between a single mantle plume and pre-stressed continental lithosphere with double cratonic roots.
DS202008-1388
2020
Cloetingh, S.Eppelbaum, L., Ben-Avraham, Z., Katz, Y., Cloetingh, S., Kaban, M.Combined multifactor evidence of a giant lower mantle ring structure below the eastern mediterranean.Positioning, Vol. 11, pp. 11-32. pdf Africa, Arabiageophysics - gravity

Abstract: In the Arabian-Northern African region, interaction of the Nubian, Arabian and Eurasian plates and many small tectonic units is conspicuous. In order to better understand this interaction, we use satellite derived gravity data (retracked to the Earth’s surface) recognized now as a powerful tool for tectono-geodynamic zonation. We applied the polynomial approximation to the gravity data which indicated the presence of a large, deep ring structure in the eastern Mediterranean centered below the Island of Cyprus. Quantitative analysis of residual gravity anomaly provides an estimate of the deep anomalous body’s upper edge at a depth of about 1700 km. Computations of the residual gravity anomalies for the lower mantle also indicate presence of anomalous sources. The GPS vector pattern coinciding with the gravity trend implies counter clockwise rotation of this structure. Independent analyses of the geoid isolines map and seismic tomography data support the existence of a deep anomaly. Paleomagnetic data analysis from the surrounding regions confirms a counter clockwise rotation. Numerous petrological, mineralogical, geodynamical and tectonic data suggest a relation between this deep structure and near-surface processes. This anomaly sheds light on a number of phenomena including the Cyprus gravity anomaly, counter clockwise rotation of the Mesozoic terrane belt and asymmetry of basins along continental transform faults.
DS201503-0153
2014
Cloetingh, S.A.P.Kaban, M.K., Mooney, W.D., Cloetingh, S.A.P.Density, temperature and composition of the North American lithosphere - new insights from a joint analysis of seismic, gravity and mineral physics data: 1. density structure of the crust and upper mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 15, 12, pp. 4781-4807.MantleGeophysics - seismic
DS1998-1511
1998
Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.Van Balen, R.T., Podladchikov, Y.Y., Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.A new multilayered model for intraplate stress induced differential subsidence of faulted lithosphere..Tectonics, Vol. 17, No. 6, Dec. pp. 938-54.GlobalBasins - rift, Subduction
DS2002-1223
2002
Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.Pascal, C., Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.Rifting in heterogeneous lithosphere: inferences from numerical modeling of the northern North Sea and Oslo Graben.Tectonics, Vol. 21, No. 6, 10.1029/2001TC90144Europe, NorwayTectonics
DS200712-1077
2007
Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.Tesauro,M., Kaban, M.K., Cloetingh, S.A.P.L., Hare, N.J., Beekman, F.3D strength and gravity anomalies of the European lithosphere.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 263, 1-2, Nov. 15, pp. 56-73.EuropeGeophysics - gravity
DS201606-1103
2016
Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.Lavecchia, A., Clark, S.A., Beekman, F., Cloetingh, S.A.P.L., Burov, E.Thermal perturbation, mineral assemblages and rheology variations by dyke emplacement in the crust.Tectonics, in press availableMantleBasaltic dykes, two layered continental crust

Abstract: We constructed a thermomechanical model to examine the changes in rheology caused by the periodic intrusion of basaltic dykes in a two-layered continental crust. Dyke intrusion can locally change the mineralogical composition of the crust in space and time as a result of temperature-induced metamorphism. In our models we paid particular attention to determine how different mineral assemblages and reaction kinetics during metamorphism impact on the thermomechanical behavior of the crust, in terms of differential stress values. We investigated several lithologies characteristic for intracontinental crust: (1) a quartz-feldspathic crust (QF), (2) a crust with a mineralogical assemblage resembling the average chemical composition occurring in literature (CC), and (3) a micaschist crust (MS). Our model shows that temperature profiles are weakly influenced by metamorphism, with negligible variations in the T-t paths. The results indicate that intrusion-induced changes in the crustal rheology are strongly dependent on mineralogical assemblage variation. The strength of a dyke aureole in the upper crust increases during dyke emplacement, which may cause migration of later dykes and influence the dyke spacing. In contrast, in the lower crust the strength of a dyke aureole decreases during dyke emplacement. Fast kinetics results in a ductile lower crust in proximity of the dykes, whereas slower kinetics leads to the formation of partial melts and subsequent switch from ductile to brittle behavior. Lithology exerts a dominant role on the quantity of melt produced, with higher volume percentages occurring in the MS case study. Produced melts may migrate and support acidic volcanic activity.
DS201212-0112
2012
Clog, M.Cartigny, P., Palot, M., Clog, M., Labidi, J., Thomassot, E., Aubaud, C., Busigny, V., Harris, J.W.On overview of the deep carbon cycle and its isotope heterogeneity.Goldschmidt Conference 2012, abstract 1p.MantleCarbon cycle
DS2002-0295
2002
Cloos, H.Cloos, H.On experimental tectonics ( with 14 figures) V. comparative analysis of three types of displacement.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 91, Supp. 1., pp. S111-122.MantleTectonics
DS1993-0264
1993
Cloos, M.Cloos, M.Lithospheric buoyancy and collisional orogenesis: subduction of oceanicplateaus, continental margins, island arcs, spreading ridges, and seamountsGeological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 105, No. 6, June pp. 715-737GlobalTectonics, Lithosphere
DS2003-0261
2003
Cloos, M.Cloos, M.Collisional delamination lithospheric rupture and magmatismGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.95.MantleTectonics
DS200412-0338
2003
Cloos, M.Cloos, M.Collisional delamination lithospheric rupture and magmatism.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.95.MantleTectonics
DS200712-0192
2007
Cloos, M.Cloos, M., Carlson, W.D., Gilbert, M.C., Liou, J.G., Sorensen, S.S.Convergent margin terranes and associated regions: a tribute to W.G. Ernst.Geological Society of America, Special Publication 419, 273p. $ 70.00GlobalConference book - geotectonics
DS201507-0313
2015
Clos, F.Gilio, M., Clos, F., Van Roermund, H.L.M.The Frimingen garnet peridotite ( central Swedish Caledonides). A good example of the characteristic PTt path of a cold mantle wedge garnet peridotite.Lithos, Vol. 230, pp. 1-16.Europe, SwedenPeridotite
DS201812-2857
2018
Clos, F.Nebel, O., Capitanio, F.A., Moyen, J-F., Weinberg, R.F., Clos, F., Nebel-Jacobsen, Y.J., Cawood, P.A.When crust comes of age: on the chemical evolution of Archaean, felsic continental crust by crustal drip tectonics.Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society, doi.org/10.1098 / rsta.2018.0103 21p.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The secular evolution of the Earth's crust is marked by a profound change in average crustal chemistry between 3.2 and 2.5?Ga. A key marker for this change is the transition from Archaean sodic granitoid intrusions of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series to potassic (K) granitic suites, akin (but not identical) to I-type granites that today are associated with subduction zones. It remains poorly constrained as to how and why this change was initiated and if it holds clues about the geodynamic transition from a pre-plate tectonic mode, often referred to as stagnant lid, to mobile plate tectonics. Here, we combine a series of proposed mechanisms for Archaean crustal geodynamics in a single model to explain the observed change in granitoid chemistry. Numeric modelling indicates that upper mantle convection drives crustal flow and subsidence, leading to profound diversity in lithospheric thickness with thin versus thick proto-plates. When convecting asthenospheric mantle interacts with lower lithosphere, scattered crustal drips are created. Under increasing P-T conditions, partial melting of hydrated meta-basalt within these drips produces felsic melts that intrude the overlying crust to form TTG. Dome structures, in which these melts can be preserved, are a positive diapiric expression of these negative drips. Transitional TTG with elevated K mark a second evolutionary stage, and are blends of subsided and remelted older TTG forming K-rich melts and new TTG melts. Ascending TTG-derived melts from asymmetric drips interact with the asthenospheric mantle to form hot, high-Mg sanukitoid. These melts are small in volume, predominantly underplated, and their heat triggered melting of lower crustal successions to form higher-K granites. Importantly, this evolution operates as a disseminated process in space and time over hundreds of millions of years (greater than 200?Ma) in all cratons. This focused ageing of the crust implies that compiled geochemical data can only broadly reflect geodynamic changes on a global or even craton-wide scale. The observed change in crustal chemistry does mark the lead up to but not the initiation of modern-style subduction.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Earth dynamics and the development of plate tectonics'.
DS201901-0073
2018
Clos, F.Schwindinger, M., Weinberg, R.F., Clos, F.Wet or dry? The difficulty of identifying the presence of water during crustal melting.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, doi.org/10.1111/jmg.12465Mantlemelting

Abstract: Partial melting of continental crust and evolution of granitic magmas are inseparably linked to the availability of H2O. In the absence of a free aqueous fluid, melting takes place at relatively high temperatures by dehydration of hydrous minerals, whereas in its presence, melting temperatures are lowered, and melting need not involve hydrous minerals. With the exception of anatexis in water-saturated environments where anhydrous peritectic minerals are absent, there is no reliable indicator that clearly identifies the presence of a free aqueous fluid during anatexis. Production of Ab-rich magmas or changes in LILE ratios, such as an increase in Sr and decrease in Rb indicating increased involvement of plagioclase, are rough guidelines to the presence of aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, all of them have caveats and cannot be unequivocally applied, allowing for the persistence of a bias in the literature towards dehydration melting. Investigation of mineral equilibria modelling of three metasedimentary protoliths of the Kangaroo Island migmatites in South Australia, shows that the main indicator for the presence of small volumes of excess water under upper amphibolite to lower granulite facies conditions (660-750°C) is the melt volume produced. Melt composition, modal content or chemical composition of peritectic minerals such as cordierite, sillimanite or garnet are relatively insensitive to the presence of free water. However, the mobility of melt during open system behaviour makes it difficult to determine the melt volume produced. We therefore argue that the presence of small volumes of excess water might be much more common than so far inferred, with large impact on the buffering of crustal temperatures and fertility, and therefore rheology of the continental crust.
DS201904-0778
2019
Clos, F.Schwindinger, M., Weinberg, R.F., Clos, F.Wet or dry? The difficulty of identifying the presence of water during crustal melting.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 37, 3, pp. 339-358.Mantlewater

Abstract: Partial melting of continental crust and evolution of granitic magmas are inseparably linked to the availability of H2O. In the absence of a free aqueous fluid, melting takes place at relatively high temperatures by dehydration of hydrous minerals, whereas in its presence, melting temperatures are lowered, and melting need not involve hydrous minerals. With the exception of anatexis in water-saturated environments where anhydrous peritectic minerals are absent, there is no reliable indicator that clearly identifies the presence of a free aqueous fluid during anatexis. Production of Ab-rich magmas or changes in LILE ratios, such as an increase in Sr and decrease in Rb indicating increased involvement of plagioclase, are rough guidelines to the presence of aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, all indicators have caveats and cannot be unequivocally applied, allowing for the persistence of a bias in the literature towards dehydration melting. Investigation of mineral equilibria modelling of three metasedimentary protoliths of the Kangaroo Island migmatites in South Australia, shows that the main indicator for the presence of small volumes of excess water under upper amphibolite to lower granulite facies conditions (660-750°C) is the melt volume produced. Melt composition, modal content or chemical composition of peritectic minerals such as cordierite, sillimanite or garnet are relatively insensitive to the presence of free water. However, the mobility of melt during open system behaviour makes it difficult to determine the melt volume produced. We therefore argue that the presence of small volumes of excess water might be much more common than so far inferred, with large impact on the buffering of crustal temperatures and fertility, and therefore rheology of the continental crust.
DS201910-2248
2019
Clos, F.Capitanio, F.A., Nebel, O., Cawood, P.A., Weinberg, R.F., Clos, F.Lithosphere differentiation in the early Earth controls Archean tectonics.Earth and Planetary Science letters, Vol. 525, 115755, 12p.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The processes that operated on the early Earth and the tectonic regimes in which it was shaped are poorly constrained, reflecting the highly fragmentary rock record and uncertainty in geodynamic conditions. Most models of early Earth geodynamics invoke a poorly mobile lid regime, involving little or episodic movement of the lithosphere, above a convecting mantle. However, such a regime does not reconcile with the record of Archean tectonics, which displays contrasting environments associated with either non-plate tectonics or plate tectonics. Here, we propose a regime for the early Earth in which progressive melt extraction at sites of divergence led to the formation of large portions of stiffer lithospheric lid, called proto-plates. These proto-plates enabled stress propagation to be focussed at their margins, which were then the locus for extension as oppose to shortening, under-thrusting and thickening to form adjoining proto-cratons. We test this hypothesis embedding lithospheric stiffening during melt extraction in thermo-mechanical models of mantle convection, under conditions that prevailed in the Archean. We demonstrate the emergence of migrating, rigid proto-plates in which regions of prolonged focused compression coexist with remnants of the stagnant lid, thereby reproducing the widespread dichotomy proposed for the Archean tectonic record. These diverse tectonic modes coexist in a single regime that is viable since the Hadean and lasted until the transition to modern plate tectonics.
DS1993-0549
1993
Closs, L.G.Glanzman, R.K., Closs, L.G.Quality assurance and control guidelines for exploration and environmental geochemistry investigationsExplore, No. 78, January pp. 1, 6GlobalGeochemistry, Control guidelines
DS1995-1952
1995
ClotinghVan der Beek, P., Andriessen, ClotinghMorphotectonic evolution of rifted continental margins: inferences from acoupled tectonic surface processes model and fission track thermochronology.Tectonics, Vol. 14, No. 2, Apr. pp. 406-21.MantleTectonics - rifting
DS2001-0199
2001
Clouard, V.Clouard, V., Bonneville, A.How many Pacific hotspots are fed by deep mantle plumes?Geology, Vol. 29, No. 8, Aug. pp. 695-98.MantleHot spots - not specific to diamonds
DS1986-0250
1986
Clough, A.H.Forbes, R.B., Kline, J.T., Clough, A.H.A preliminary evaluation of alluvial diamond discoveries in the placer gravels of Crooked Creek, Circle district, AlaskaAlaska Open File, preprint, 27pAlaskaEconomics, Placers
DS1987-0219
1987
clough, A.H.Forbes, R.B., Kline, J.T., clough, A.H.A preliminary evaluation of alluvial diamond discoveries in placer gravelsof Crooked Creek, Circle district, AlaskaAlaska Div. Geol. and Geophys, . Reports of Investigation, No. RI 87-1, 26pAlluvials, Placers
DS1990-0339
1990
Clouser, R.H.Clouser, R.H., Langston, C.A.Upper mantle structure of southern Africa from PNI wavesJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B 11, October 10, pp. 17403-17416South AfricaStructure, Mantle
DS1990-0340
1990
Cloutier, T.Cloutier, T.Ore reserve reporting methodology at Argyle diamond MinesIn: Ore reserve estimates, the impact on miners and financiers held March, AusIMM Publishing pp. 15-20AustraliaEconomics, Argyle diamond mine
DS1991-0274
1991
Cloutis, E.A.Cloutis, E.A., Gaffey, M.J.Pyroxene spectroscopy revisited: spectral-compositional correlations and relationship to geothermometryJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, No. E5, December 25, pp. 22, 809-22, 826GlobalGeothermometry, Spectroscopy-pyroxene
DS1992-0264
1992
Cloutis, E.A.Cloutis, E.A.Weathered and unweathered surface spectra of rocks from cold deserts:identification of weathering processes and remote sensing implicationsGeologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlungar, Vol. 114, pt. 2, pp. 181-191Northwest TerritoriesRemote sensing of interest, Basalt Yellowknife area -not specific to diamonds
DS201412-0131
2014
Cloutis, E.A.Cloutis, E.A., Binzel, R.P., Gaffey, M.J.Asteroids: formation and physical properties of asteroids.Elements, Vol. 10, 1, pp. 19-24.TechnologyAsteroids
DS2002-0596
2002
ClowesGorman, D., Clowes, Ellis, Henstock, Spence, KellerDeep probe: imaging the roots of western North AmericaCanadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.375-98., Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.375-98.Alberta, Montana, Colorado, CordilleraGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS2002-0597
2002
ClowesGorman, D., Clowes, Ellis, Henstock, Spence, KellerDeep probe: imaging the roots of western North AmericaCanadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.375-98., Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.375-98.Alberta, Montana, Colorado, CordilleraGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS2002-0633
2002
Clowes, R.Hajnal, Z., White, D., Clowes, R., Stauffer, M.3- D perspective of the western portion of the Trans Hudson Orogen in SaskatchewanGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.44., p.44.SaskatchewanGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-0634
2002
Clowes, R.Hajnal, Z., White, D., Clowes, R., Stauffer, M.3- D perspective of the western portion of the Trans Hudson Orogen in SaskatchewanGac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.44., p.44.SaskatchewanGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-0389
2005
Clowes, R.Hajnal, Z., Lewry, J., White, D., Ashton, K., Clowes, R., Stauffer, M., Gyorfi, I., Takacs, E.The Saskatchewan Craton and Hearne Province margin: seismic reflection studies in the western Trans Hudson Orogen.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 403-419.Canada, Saskatchewan, ManitobaGeophysics - Lithoprobe
DS200612-0478
2006
Clowes, R.Gorman, A.R., Nemeth, B., Clowes, R., Hajnal, Z.An investigation of upper mantle heterogeneity beneath the Archean and Proterozoic crust of western Canada from lithoprobe controlled source seismic experiments.Tectonophysics, Vol. 416, 1-4, April 5, pp. 187-207.Canada, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0110
2010
Clowes, R.Clowes, R.Initiation, development, and benefits of lithoprobe shaping the direction of Earth Science research in Canada and beyond.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 291-314.CanadaGeophysics - seismic
DS1960-1141
1969
Clowes, R.M.Kanasewich, E.R., Clowes, R.M., Mccloughan, C.H.A Buried Precambrian Rift in Western CanadaTectonophysics, Vol. 8, pp. 513-27.Alberta, Western CanadaTectonics
DS1983-0261
1983
Clowes, R.M.Green, A.G., Clowes, R.M.Deep Geology from Seismic Reflection Studies in CanadaFirst Break, Vol. 1, No. 7, PP. 24-33.Canada, Manitoba, OntarioGeophysics
DS1990-0341
1990
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.Lithoprobe: seismic reflection spearheads: multidisciplinary studies of continental evolutionTerra, Abstracts of Deep Seismic reflection profiling of the Continental, Vol. 2, December abstracts p. 163Canada, United StatesCraton, Tectonics
DS1991-0207
1991
Clowes, R.M.Calvert, A.J., Clowes, R.M.Seismic evidence for the migration of fluids within the accretionary complex of western Canada.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, pp. 542-56.British ColumbiaCoast - subduction
DS1992-0265
1992
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.Lithoprobe: an integrated approach to studies of crustal evolution. BriefoverviewGeotimes, Vol. 37, No. 8, August pp. 12-14Canada, United StatesLithoprobe, Tectonics
DS1992-0266
1992
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., Cook, F.A., et al.Lithoprobe: new perspectives on crustal evolutionCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 9, September pp. 1813-1864CanadaGeophysics -seismics, Lithoprobe transects
DS1992-0681
1992
Clowes, R.M.Hasselgren, E., Clowes, R.M., Calvert, A.J.Propagating rift pseudofaults -zones of crustal underplating imaged by multichannel seismic reflection dataGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 19, No. 5, March 3, pp. 485-488MantleRift, Geophysics -seismics
DS1993-0265
1993
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.Variations in continental crustal structure in Canada from LITHOPROBE seismic reflection and other dataTectonophysics, Vol. 219, No. 1-3, pp. 1-28CanadaGeophysics -seismics, Crust, tectonics
DS1993-0470
1993
Clowes, R.M.Fuis, G.S., Clowes, R.M.Comparison of deep structure along three transects of the western American continental margin.Tectonics, Vol. 12, No. 6, December pp. 1420-1435.Cordillera, California, Alaska, British ColumbiaTectonics
DS1993-0471
1993
Clowes, R.M.Fuis, G.S., Clowes, R.M.Comparison of deep structure along three transects of the western North American continental margin.Tectonics, Vol. 12, No. 6, December pp. 1420-1435.Cordillera, North AmericaTectonics, Transects, Structure
DS1994-0315
1994
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.LITHOPROBE: geoscience probing of inner space leads to new development for mining explorationThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 87, No. 977, February pp. 36-48Ontario, QuebecGeophysics -seismics, Geotectonics
DS1997-0468
1997
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Clowes, R.M.MOHO reflectivity patterns - a comparison of Canadian LithoprobetransectsTectonophysics, Vol. 269, No. 3-4, Feb. 15, pp. 179-198CanadaLithoprobe, Geophysics - seismics
DS1997-0722
1997
Clowes, R.M.Mandler, H.A.F., Clowes, R.M.Evidence for extensive tabular intrusions in the Precambrian shield Of western Canada: 160 km sequenceGeology, Vol. 25, No. 3, March pp. 271-274.Alberta, SaskatchewanTrans Hudson Orogeny, Geophysics - seismics
DS1997-0976
1997
Clowes, R.M.Ross, G.M., Eaton, D.W., Boerner, D.E., Clowes, R.M.Geologists probe buried craton in western CanadaEos, Vol. 78, No. 44, Nov. 4, pp. 493, 4, 7.AlbertaCraton, Geophysics - seismics
DS1998-0262
1998
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., Cook, F.A., Ludden, J.N.Lithoprobe leads to new perspectives on continental evolutionGsa Today, Vol. 8, No. 10, Oct. pp. 1-7.Canada, Northwest Territories, Alberta, Ontario, QuebecTectonics - lithoprobe, Geophysics - seismics
DS1998-0422
1998
Clowes, R.M.Fernandez Viejo, G., Clowes, R.M., Ellis, R.M.The Lithoprobe SnorCLE refraction experiment - Line 1. velocity structure beneath the Slave and Wopmay OrogenGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Abstract Volume, p. A55. abstract.Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics, Wopmay Orogen
DS1998-0931
1998
Clowes, R.M.Mandler, H.A.F., Clowes, R.M.The HSI bright reflector: further evidence for extensive magmatism in the Precambrian western Canada.Tectonophysics, Vol. 288, No. 1-4, Mar. pp. 71-82.British Columbia, Alberta, SaskatchewanTectonics, Geophysics - seismic
DS1999-0186
1999
Clowes, R.M.Eaton, D.W., Ross, G.M., Clowes, R.M.Seismic reflection and potential field studies of the Vulcan structure, a Paleoproterozoic Pyrenees?Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. 10, pp. 23, 255-69.AlbertaGeophysics - seismics, Proterozoic basement
DS1999-0188
1999
Clowes, R.M.Eaton, D.W., Ross, G.R., Clowes, R.M.Seismic reflection and potential field studies of the Vulcan structure: a paleoproterozoic Pyrenees?Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, pp.23, 255-69.Alberta, Western CanadaGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS1999-0771
1999
Clowes, R.M.Viejo, G.F., Clowes, R.M., Amor, J.R.Imaging the lithospheric mantle in northwestern Canada with seismic wide angle reflections.Geophysical Research. Lett., Vol. 26, No. 18, Sept. 15, pp. 2809-12.Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics, Lithosphere
DS2000-0163
2000
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.Crustal growth and recycling: an overview of lithoprobe resultsGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 4p. abstractNorthwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, OntarioLithopobe transects, Craton - orogen
DS2000-0352
2000
Clowes, R.M.Gorman, A.R., Clowes, R.M.Deep probe - new insight into the Precambrian development of western NorthAmerica.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 4p. abstract.Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics - Deep Probe, Model - structure
DS2002-0296
2002
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.Crustal velocity structure and tectonic development of the western Trans Hudson and Hearne Wyoming Craton.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.22., p.22.Saskatchewan, WyomingTectonics
DS2002-0297
2002
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.Crustal velocity structure and tectonic development of the western Trans Hudson and Hearne Wyoming Craton.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.22., p.22.Saskatchewan, WyomingTectonics
DS2002-0298
2002
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., Burianyk, M., Gorman, A., KanasewichCrustal velocity structure from Sarex, the southern Alberta Refraction ExperimentCanadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.351-73., Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.351-73.Alberta, MontanaGeophysics - seismics, Loverna Domain, Hearne Province, Vulcan Structure
DS2002-0299
2002
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., Burianyk, M., Gorman, A., KanasewichCrustal velocity structure from Sarex, the southern Alberta Refraction ExperimentCanadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.351-73., Vol.39,3,Mar.pp.351-73.Alberta, MontanaGeophysics - seismics, Loverna Domain, Hearne Province, Vulcan Structure
DS2003-0543
2003
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Clowes, R.M., Ramachandran, K.Seismic reflection techniques for imaging Diamondiferous kimberlite dykes: a case studyGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyNorthwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS2003-0544
2003
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Ramachandran, K., Clowes, R.M.Seismic imaging of thin, Diamondiferous kimberlite dykes8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 8, AbstractGlobalDiamond exploration - geophysics, seismics
DS200412-0357
2004
Clowes, R.M.Cook, F.A., Clowes, R.M., Snyder, D.B., Van der Velden, A.J., Hall, K.W., Erdmer, P., Evenchick, C.A.Precambrian crust beneath the Mesozoic northern Canadian Cordillera discovered by lithoprobe seismic reflection profiling.Tectonics, Vol. 23, 2, TC2012 10.1029/2003TC001412Canada, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, YukonGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0773
2004
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Clowes, R.M.Accreted terranes of northwestern British Columbia, Canada: lithospheric velocity structure and tectonics.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, B6, 10.1029/2003 JB002749Canada, British ColumbiaGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0774
2003
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Clowes, R.M., Ramachandran, K.Seismic reflection techniques for imaging Diamondiferous kimberlite dykes: a case study from Snap Lake, N.W.T.Geological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0775
2003
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Ramachandran, K., Clowes, R.M.Seismic imaging of thin, Diamondiferous kimberlite dykes.8 IKC Program, Session 8, AbstractTechnologyDiamond exploration - geophysics, seismics
DS200512-0173
2004
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., Fernandez Viejo, G., Hammer, P.T.C., Welford, J.K.Lithospheric structure in northwestern Canada from lithoprobe P and S wave refraction profiles: a synthesis.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting ABSTRACTS, Nov. 7-10, Paper 112-9, Vol. 36, 5, p. 271.Canada, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest territoriesGeophysics - seismics, R/WAR, Stikinia
DS200512-0174
2005
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., Hanmer, P.T.C., Van der Velden, A.J.The Trans Canada crustal cross section: imaging the internal structure of our continent.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.CanadaGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-0395
2004
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Clowes, R.M., Ramachandran, K.High resolution seismic reflection imaging of a thin, Diamondiferous dyke.Geophysics, Vol. 69, 5, pp. 1143-1154.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics, Snap Lake
DS200512-0774
2005
Clowes, R.M.Nemeth, B., Clowes, R.M., Hajnal, Z.Lithospheric structure of the Trans Hudson Orogen from seismic refraction - wide angle reflection studies.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 435-456.Canada, Saskatchewan, ManitobaGeophysics - Lithoprobe
DS200612-0391
2006
Clowes, R.M.Fernandez Viejo, G., Clowes, R.M., Welford, J.K.Constraints on the composition of the crust and uppermost mantle in northwestern Canada: VpVs variations along Lithoprobe's SNORCLE transect.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 6, pp. 1205-1222.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS200712-1141
2007
Clowes, R.M.Welford, J.K., Hearn, E.H., Clowes, R.M.Possible role of midcrustal igneous sheet intrusions in cratonic arch formation.Tectonics, Vol. 26, 11p.United States, CanadaCratonic arches
DS200912-0117
2009
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M.The lithoprobe: trans-continental lithospheric cross section: imaging the internal structure of North America.GAC/MAC/AGU Meeting held May 23-27 Toronto, Abstract onlyCanada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0111
2010
Clowes, R.M.Clowes, R.M., White, D.J., Hajnal, Z.Mantle heterogeneities and their significance: results from lithoprobe seismic reflection and refraction wide-angle reflection studies.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 409-443.MantleGeophysics - seismic
DS201012-0118
2010
Clowes, R.M.Cook, F.A., White, D.J., Jones, A.G., Eaton, D.W.S., Hall, J., Clowes, R.M.How the crust meets the mantle: lithoprobe perspectives on the Mohorovicic.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 315-351.Mantle, CanadaGeophysics - seismic
DS201012-0264
2010
Clowes, R.M.Hammer, P.T.C., Clowes, R.M., Cook, F.A., Van der Velden, A.J., Vasudevan, K.The lithoprobe trans continental lithospheric cross sections: imaging the internal structure of the North American continent.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, 5, pp. 821-957.Canada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0558
2010
Clowes, R.M.Oueity, J., Clowes, R.M.Paleoproterozoic subduction in northwestern Canada from near vertical and wide angle seismic reflection data.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47,1, pp. 35-52.Canada, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics
DS201312-0699
2012
Clowes, R.M.Percival, J.A., Cook, F.A., Clowes, R.M.Tectonic styles in Canada: the Lithoprobe.Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, No. 49, 498p. Approx $ 70.00 memberCanadaBook - Geophysics
DS201412-0142
2012
Clowes, R.M.Cook, F.A., Percival, J.A., Clowes, R.M.Tectonic styles in Canada: lithoprobe perspectives on the evolution of the North American continent.Tectonic styles in Canada: the lithoprobe perspective, eds. Percival, Cook, Clowes, Geological Survey of Canada, Special Paper, 49, pp. 489-Canada, United StatesTectonics - lithoprobe
DS1997-0195
1997
Cluzel, D.Clarke, G.L., Aitchison, J.C., Cluzel, D.Eclogites and blueschists of the Pam Peninsula, northeast New Caledonia: areappraisalJournal of Petrology, Vol. 38, No. 7, July pp. 843-876New CaledoniaMagma
DS201212-0126
2012
Cluzel, N.Chen, Y., Provost, A., Schiano, P., Cluzel, N.Magma ascent rate and initial water concentration inferred from diffusive water loss from olivine hosted melt inclusions.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 17p.MantleMelting
DS201412-0292
2014
Clverely, J.Giles, D., Hillis, R., Clverely, J.Deep exploration technologies provide the pathway to deep discovery.SEG Newsletter, No. 97, April pp. 1, 23-27.TechnologyNot specific to diamonds
DS1990-0262
1990
Clwoes, R.M.Calvert, A.J., Hasselgren, E.A., Clwoes, R.M.Oceanic rift propagation- a cause of crustal underplating and seamountvolcanism.Geology, Vol. 18, No. 9, September pp. 886-889GlobalTectonics -seamount, Crust
DS1997-0112
1997
Clynne, M.A.Borg, L.E., Clynne, M.A., Bulletinen, T.D.The variable role of slab derived fluids in the generation of a suite of primitive calc alkaline lavasCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 35, No. 2, April pp. 425-452.CaliforniaSubduction, tectonics, Alkaline related rocks
DS1997-0199
1997
Clynne, M.A.Clynne, M.A., Borg, L.E.Olivine and chromian spinel in primitive calc alkaline and tholeiitic lavas from southernmost Cascade RangeCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 35, No. 2, April pp. 453-472.CaliforniaSubduction, tectonics, Mantle fertility
DS1998-0141
1998
Clynne, M.A.Borg, L.E., Clynne, M.A.The petrogenesis of felsic calc-alkaline magmas from the southernmostCascades: origin partial melting....Journal of Petrology, Vol. 39, No. 6, Jun. pp. 1197-1228.CaliforniaBasaltic lower crust, Magma - alkaline rocks
DS201112-0193
2011
CNANHUI.orgCNANHUI.orgPrimary diamond found in Suzhou.cnanhui.org, April 21, 1/8p.China, SuzhouNews item - Anhui prospecting Bureau
DS200412-0339
2003
CNMoneyCNMoneyNations meet over illegal gem trafficking.CNMoney, April 30, 1/2p.Africa, South AfricaNews item - Kimberley Process
DS202009-1621
2020
CNNCNNThe Earth's core is younger than previously believed, according to new research.cnn.com, Aug. 25, 1/2p.MantleNews item - core
DS2003-0262
2003
CNN MoneyCNN MoneyNations meet over illegal gem traffickingCnmoney, April 30, 1/2p.South AfricaNews item, Kimberley Process
DS2001-0200
2001
CNN.comCNN.comDeadline set for crackdown on conflict diamondsCnn.com, Nov. 29, 1p.Angola, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of CongoNews item, Conflict diamonds
DS200512-0434
2005
CoakleyHinze, W.J., Aiken, C., Brozena, J., Coakley, Dater, Flanagan, Forsberg, Hildenbrand, Keller, KelloggNew standards for reducing gravity data: the North American gravity database.Geophysics, Vol. 70, 4, pp. J25-J32.Canada, United StatesGeophysics - gravity
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Coakley, B.Coakley, B., Gurnis, M.Far field tilting of Laurentia -Ordovician and constraints on evolution slab under ancient continent.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. B4, April 10, pp. 6313-27.Wisconsin, Michigan, AppalachiaSlab, Mantle convection
DS1993-0602
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Coakley, B.J.Gurnis, M., Russell, M., Coakley, B.J.Phanerozoic marine in undation and tilting of continents driven by dynamic subsidence above slabsGeological Society of America Annual Abstract Volume, Vol. 25, No. 6, p. A197 abstract onlyMantleSubduction, Slabs
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Coakley, G.J.Coakley, G.J.Namibia (1983)United States Bureau of Mines MINERAL PERCEPTIVES, AUGUST, PP. 18; PP. 27-28.Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamond Occurrences, Mineral Resources, Review Of Activities
DS1985-0646
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COALSth. afr. mining, COAL, Gold, BASE METALS.Argyle- It's Full Steam Ahead for Top Diamond ProjectSth. Afr. Mining, Coal, Gold, Base Metals, Vol. No. 1, January pp. 5-13South AfricaEconomics
DS1998-0263
1998
Coate, M.Coates, H.J., Coate, M., Brett, J.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report on the Mustang Peace River District, Alberta.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19980012AlbertaExploration - assessment, CYR, International Butec
DS1998-0263
1998
Coates, H.J.Coates, H.J., Coate, M., Brett, J.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report on the Mustang Peace River District, Alberta.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19980012AlbertaExploration - assessment, CYR, International Butec
DS2001-0231
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Coates, H.J.Davis, D.W., Roy, R.R., Coates, H.J.The eastern Arctic Torngat and Jackson In let projects of Twin Mining Corporation.North Atlantic Minerals Symposium held May 27-30, pp. 13-15. abstract.Arctic, Quebec, Ungava, LabradorNews item
DS1970-0896
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Coates, J.N.M.Coates, J.N.M.The Kalatraverse Geoelectric Sounding Survey, 1973Botswana Geological Survey, REPORT No. JNMC/3/74. (UNPUBL.).BotswanaGeophysics
DS1975-0257
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Coates, J.N.M.Coates, J.N.M., Key, R.M.Report on a Visit to the Jwaneng Diamond ProspectBotswana Geological Survey, JNMC/12/76, 4P. (UNPUBL.)BotswanaProspecting, Kimberlite
DS1975-0717
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Coates, J.N.M.Coates, J.N.M., Davies, J., Gould, D., Hutchins, D.G., Jones, C.The Kalatraverse One ReportBotswana Geological Survey, Bulletin. No. 21, 421P.Botswana, South AfricaGeology, Regional Tectonics
DS1982-0142
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Coates, J.N.M.Coates, J.N.M.The Karroo Sequence in BotswanaBotswana Geological Survey, Bulletin., No. IN PRESS.BotswanaGeology, Stratigraphy
DS1983-0178
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Coates, M.S.Coates, M.S., Haimson, B.C., Hinze, W.J., Van schmus, W.R.Introduction to the Illinois Deep Hole Project/Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 88, No. B9 SEPT. 10, PP. 7267-7750GlobalMid Continent
DS1994-0316
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Coates, R.Coates, R.Radiolucency of diamond and its simulants #2The Australian Gemologist, Vol. 18, No. 11, August pp. 348-351.GlobalDiamond morphology, Radioluminesence
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Coates, R.Coates, R.Radiolucency of diamond and its simulants #1Gems and gemology, Gem Abstracts, Vol. 31, Spring, p. 78-9.GlobalMineralogy, X-ray transparency
DS2003-0219
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CoathCarrigan, C.W., Miller, C.F., Fullagar, P.D., Bream, B.R., Hatcher, R.D., CoathIon microprobe age and geochemistry of southern Appalachian basement, withPrecambrian Research, Vol. 120, 1-2, pp. 1-36.Appalachia, United StatesGeochronology
DS1998-0636
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Coath, C.D.Holm, D., Schneider, D., Coath, C.D.Age and deformation of Early Proterozoic quartzites in the southern Lake superior region: implications for ..Geology, Vol. 26, No. 10, Oct. pp. 907-10Wisconsin, MichiganTectonics, Laurentia Mazatzal orogeny
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Coath, C.D.Carrigan, C.W., Miller, C.F., Fullagar, P.D., Bream, B.R., Hatcher, R.D., Coath, C.D.Ion microprobe age and geochemistry of southern Appalachian basement, with implications for Proterozoic and Paleozoic reconstrucPrecambrian Research, Vol. 120, 1-2, pp. 1-36.United StatesGeochronology
DS1984-0292
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Coats, J.S.Garson, M.S., Coats, J.S., Rock, N.M.S., Deans, T.Fenites, Breccia Dykes, Albitites and Carbonatitic Veins Near the Great Glen Fault, Inverness, Scotland.Journal of the Geological Society of London., Vol. 141, PP. 711-732.ScotlandRelated Rocks
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Coats, J.S.Petts, G.E., Coats, J.S., Hughes, N.Freeze sampling method of collecting drainage sediments for goldexplorationTransactions Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 100, Section B, pp. B 28-B32ScotlandGeochemistry, Sampling-gold
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Coban, H.Coban, H., Flower, M.F.J.Mineral phase compositions in silica undersaturated leucite lamproites from the Bucak area, I sparta SW Turkey.Lithos, Vol. 89, 3-4, July pp. 275-299.Europe, TurkeyLamproites - mineral chemistry
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Coban, H.Coban, H., Flower, M.F.J.Mineral phase compositions in silica undersaturated leucite lamproites from the Bucak area Ispart, SW Turkey.Lithos, In pressEurope, TurkeyMBL Mechanical Boundary Layer, melting, lamproites
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Coban, H.Coban, H., Flower, M.F.J.Late Pliocene lamproites from Bucak, I sparta ( southwestern Turkey): implications for mantle wedge evolution during Africa-Anatoloan plate convergence.Journal of Asian Earth Sciencs, Vol. 29, 1, pp.160-176.Africa, TurkeyLamproite
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Coban, H.Semiz, B., Coban, H., Roden, M.F., Ozpinar, Y., Flower, M.F.J., McGregor, H.Mineral composition in cognate inclusions in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene potassic lamprophyres with affinities to lamproites from the Denizli region, Western Anatolia, Turkey: implications for uppermost mantle processes in a back arc setting.Lithos, in press available, 20p.Africa, TurkeyLamproite
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Cobb, P.F.Cobb, P.F.Canadian taxation of foreign incomeMining Tax Strategies, Held Feb. 1995, 77pCanadaTaxation, Economics -foreign income
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Cobban, W.A.n et al.Cobban, W.A.n et al.Revision of Colorado Group on Sweetgrass Arch, MontanaBulletin. American Association Pet. Geol., Vol. 43, No. 12, Dec. pp. 2786-96.MontanaStratigraphy
DS1996-0006
1996
Cobblah, A.Adu-Anokye, S., Cobblah, A., Mireku-Gyimah, D.Geostatistical mineral reserve estimation of a Diamondiferous deposit - acase study.Surface Mining, 1996, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM)., pp. 93-100.GhanaBirim diamond field, Diamond reserves, geostatistics
DS200512-0314
2005
Cobbold, P.R.Gapais, D., Brun, J-P., Cobbold, P.R.Deformation mechanisms, rheology and tectonics: from minerals to the lithosphere.Geological Society of London, SP 243, 320p.MantleBook - review papers on rheology, UHP
DS200712-0343
2007
Cobbold, P.R.Galland, O., Cobbold, P.R., De Bremond d'Ars, J., Hallot, E.Rise and emplacement of magma during horizontal shortening of the brittle crust: insights from experiments.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, B6 B06402MantleMagmatism
DS200912-0118
2009
Cobden, L.Cobden, L., Goes, S., Ravenna, M., Styles, E., Cammarano, F., Gallagher, K., Connolly, J.Thermochemical interpretation of 1-D seismic dat a for the lower mantle: the significance of nonadiabiatic thermal gradients and compositional heterogeneity.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, B 11, B11309MantleGeophysics - seismics. geothermometry
DS201212-0492
2012
Cobden, L.Mosca, I., Cobden, L., Deuss, A., Ritsema, J., Trampert, J.Seismic and mineralogical structures of the lower mantle from probabilistic tomography.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B6,B06304MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201609-1749
2016
Cobden, L.Thio, V., Cobden, L., Trampert, J.Seismic signature of a hydrous mantle transition zone.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 250, pp. 46-63.MantleWater

Abstract: Although water has a major influence on tectonic and other geodynamic processes, little is known about its quantity and distribution within the deep Earth. In the last few decades, laboratory experiments on nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the transition zone have shown that these minerals can contain significant amounts of water, up to 3.3 wt%. In this study, we investigate if it is possible to use seismic observations to distinguish between a hydrous and anhydrous transition zone. We perform an extensive literature search of mineral experimental data, to generate a compilation of the water storage capacities, elastic parameters and phase boundary data for potentially hydrous minerals in the transition zone, and use thermodynamic modelling to compute synthetic seismic profiles of density, VP and VS at transition zone temperatures and pressures. We find that large uncertainties on the mineral phase equilibria (ca. 2 GPa) and elastic properties produce a wide range of seismic profiles. In particular, there is a lack of data at temperatures corresponding to those along a 1300 °C adiabat or hotter, which may be expected at transition zone pressures. Comparing our hydrous transition zone models with equivalent profiles at anhydrous conditions, we see that the depths of the 410 and 660 discontinuities cannot at present be used to map the water content of the transition zone due to these uncertainties. Further, while average velocities and densities inside the transition zone clearly decrease with increasing water content, there is a near-perfect trade-off with increases in temperature. It is therefore difficult to distinguish thermal from water effects, and the conventional view of a slow and thick transition zone for water and slow and thin transition zone for high temperature should be regarded with caution. A better diagnostic for water may be given by the average velocity gradients of the transition zone, which increase with increasing water content (but decrease for increasing temperature). However the significance of this effect depends on the degree of water saturation and partitioning between the NAMs. Since seismology is better able to constrain the thickness of the transition zone than velocity gradients, our study indicates that the most useful input from future mineral physics experiments would be to better constrain the phase relations between hydrous olivine and its high-pressure polymorphs, especially at high temperatures. Additionally, the uncertainties on the mineral seismic properties could be reduced significantly if the experimentally-observable correlations between bulk and shear moduli and their corresponding pressure derivatives would be published.
DS201312-0090
2013
Cobert, C.Boulvais, P., Decree, S., Cobert, C., Midende, G., Tack, L., Gardien, V., Demaiffe, D.C and O isotope compositios of the Matongo carbonatite ( Burundi): new insights into alteration and REE mineralization processes.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, BurundiCarbonatite
DS201511-1829
2015
Coblentz, D.Coblentz, D., Van Wijk, J., Richardson, R.M., Sandiford, M.The upper mantle geoid: implications for continental structure and the intraplate stress field.Geological Society of America Special Paper, No. 514, pp. SPE514-13.MantleGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: We use the fact that geoid anomalies are directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution to help constrain density variations within the lithosphere and the associated tectonic stresses. The main challenge with this approach is isolating the upper mantle geoid contribution from the full geoid (which is dominated by sources in the lower mantle). We address this issue by using a high-pass spherical harmonic filtering of the EGM2008-WGS84 geoid to produce an "upper mantle" geoid. The tectonic implications of the upper mantle are discussed in terms of plate tectonics and intraplate stresses. We find that globally there is about a 9 meter geoid step associated with the cooling oceanic lithosphere that imparts a net force of ~2.5x1012 N/m in the form of "ridge push" - a magnitude that is consistent with 1-d models based on first-order density profiles. Furthermore, we ind a consistent 6 meter geoid step across passive a continental margin which has the net effect of educing the compressive stresses in the continents due to the ridge force. Furthermore, we use the pper mantle geoid to reevaluate the tectonic reference state which previously studies estimated using n assumption of Airy-based isostasy. Our evaluation of the upper mantle geoid confirms the near quivalence of the gravitational potential energy of continental lithosphere with an elevation of about 750 meters and the mid-ocean ridges. This result substantiates early conclusions about the tectonic reference state and further supports the prediction that continental regions are expected to be in a slightly extensional state of stress.
DS1994-0318
1994
Coblentz, D.D.Coblentz, D.D., Richardson, R.M., Sandiford, M.On the gravitational potential of the Earth's lithosphereTectonics, Vol. 13, No. 4, August pp. 929-945MantleTectonics
DS1994-0319
1994
Coblentz, D.D.Coblentz, D.D., Sandiford, M.Tectonic stresses in the African plate: constraints on the ambient lithospheric stress state.Geology, Vol. 22, No. 9, September pp. 831-834.Mantle, AfricaTectonics, Model -lithosphere
DS1995-0333
1995
Coblentz, D.D.Coblentz, D.D., Sandiford, M.The origin of the intraplate stress field in continental AustraliaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 133, No. 3-4, July 15, pp. 299-309.AustraliaTectonics, Subduction
DS2002-1331
2002
Coblentz, D.D.Reynolds, S.D., Coblentz, D.D., Hillis, R.R.Tectonic forces controlling the regional intraplate stress field in continental Australia: results from new finite element modeling.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 7, ETG 1, DOI 10.1029/2001BJ000408.AustraliaGeophysics - seismics, tectonic - model
DS200412-1660
2004
Coblentz, D.D.Reynolds, S.D., Coblentz, D.D., Hillis, R.R.Influence of plate boundary forces on the regional intraplate stress field of continental Australia.Hillis, R.R., Muller, R.D. Evolution and dynamics of the Australian Plate, Geological Society America Memoir, No. 372, pp. 49-58.AustraliaGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0812
2010
Coblentz, D.D.Van Wijk, J.W., Baldridge, W.S., Van Hunen, J., Goes, S., Aster, R., Coblentz, D.D., Grand, S.P., Ni, J.Small scale convection at the edge of the Colorado Plateau: implications for topography, magmatism, and evolution of Proterozoic lithosphere.Geology, Vol. 38, 7, pp. 611-614.United States, Colorado PlateauMagmatism
DS1994-1523
1994
Coblenz, D.Sandiford, M., Coblenz, D.Plate scale potential energy distributions and the fragmentation of ageingplates.Earth Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 126, No. 1-3, August pp. 143-160.MantleTectonics, Plate tectonics
DS1994-0320
1994
Coblenz, D.D.Coblenz, D.D., Richardson, R.M.On the gravititaional potential of the Earth's ; ithosphereTectonics, Vol. 13, No. 4, Aug. pp. 929-45.MantleGeophysics - gravity
DS200712-0457
2007
Coblenze, D.D.Humphreys, E.D., Coblenze, D.D.North American dynamics and western U.S. tectonics.Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, 3, R3001.United StatesGeodynamics
DS1994-0321
1994
Coccioni, R.Coccioni, R., Galeotti, S.K-T boundary extinction: geologically instantaneous or gradual event?Evidence deep sea benthic formaniferaGeology, Vol. 22, No. 9, Sept. pp. 779-782GlobalK-T Boundary
DS1996-1120
1996
Cocherie, A.Pinna, P., Cocherie, A., Thieblemont, Feybesse, LagnyEvolution geodynamique du craton est-Africain et determinisme gitologueChron. Recherche Miniere, No, 525, pp. 33-43Tanzania, Kenya, UgandaTectonics, Metallogeny
DS2001-1154
2001
Cocherle, A.Thieblemont, D., Delor, C., Cocherle, A., Lafon et al.A 3.5 Ga granite-gneiss basement in Guinea: further evidence for early Archean accretion West Africa CratonPrecambrian Research, Vol. 108, No. 3, June 1, pp. 179-194.GuineaCraton - not specific to diamonds
DS1975-0258
1976
Cochrane, H.F.Cochrane, H.F.Diamonds and the Great Canadian Gem HuntOutdoor Canada., SEPT. Oct. PP. 29-32.Canada, OntarioProspecting
DS1994-0075
1994
Cochrane, J.Athie Lambarri, Cochrane, J.Environmental management in the mining sectorMining in Latin America, Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM)., pp. 367-380Ecuador, Bolivia, ChileEnvironmental Legal, Mining
DS1983-0518
1983
Cockayne, D.J.H.Pirouz, P., Cockayne, D.J.H., et al.Dissociation of Dislocations in DiamondRoyal Society of London Proceedings, Vol. 386, No. 1791, APRIL 8TH., PP. 241-249, PLUS PLATES 1-5GlobalCrystallography
DS1992-1034
1992
Cockayne D.J.H.McKenzie, D.R., Davis, C.A., Cockayne D.J.H., Muller, D.A.The structure of the C70 moleculeNature, Vol. 355, No. 6361, February 13, pp. 622-624GlobalMineralogy, Graphite
DS2002-0300
2002
Cockburn, A.Cockburn, A.Diamonds: the real story. Funnelled through secretive networks, these precious gems carry a huge cost in human suffering.National Geographic, March pp. 2-35.Angola, Sierra LeoneHistory - layman
DS2002-0301
2002
Cockburn, A.Cockburn, A.If Tiffany's busts the budget, try Crater of Diamonds State Park with five bucks, a shovel and a prayer.National Geographic, March pp.ArkansasNews item, Crater of Diamonds
DS1989-0275
1989
Cocker, M.D.Cocker, M.D.Talc alteration of a serpentinite in the Burks Mountainultramaficcomplex, Columbia County, GeorgiaGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 21, No. 3, p. 8. (Abstract only)GeorgiaUltramafics, Burks Mountain
DS200512-0175
2005
Cocks, L.R.M.Cocks, L.R.M., Torsvik, T.H.Baltica from the late Precambrian to mid-Paleozoic times: the gain and loss of a terrane's identity.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 72, 1-2, Sept. pp. 39-66.Europe, Baltic Shield, Russia, UralsEast European Craton, Rodinia
DS200612-1261
2006
Cocks, L.R.M.Selly, R.C., Cocks, L.R.M., Plimer, I.R.Encyclopedia of geology. 5 volume set Dec. 2004, 2750p. Hardbound $ US 1318.00.Precambrian Research, in press,TechnologyBook review
DS200912-0769
2008
Cocks, L.R.M.Torsvik, T.H., Steinberger, B., Cocks, L.R.M., Burke, K.Longitude: linking Earth's ancient surface to its deep interior.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 276, 3-4, Dec. pp. 273-382.MantlePalemagnetism, core-mantle boundary
DS201112-0194
2011
Cocks, L.R.M.Cocks, L.R.M., Torsvik, T.H.The Paleozoic geography of Laurentia and western Laurussia: a stable craton with mobile margins.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 106, 1-2, pp. 1-51.Russia, GondwanaCraton
DS201112-1055
2011
Cocks, L.R.M.Torsvik, T.H., Cocks, L.R.M.The Paleozoic palaeogeography of central Gondwana.The Formation and Evolution of Africa: A synopsis of 3.8 Ga of Earth History, Geol. Soc. London Special Publ., 357, pp. 167-193.Gondwanatectonics
DS201902-0327
2019
Cocks, L.R.M.Torsvik, T.H., Cocks, L.R.M.The integration of paleomagnetism, the geological record and mantle tomography in the location of ancient continents.Geological Magazine, Vol. 156, 2, pp. 242-260.Mantletomography

Abstract: Constructing palaeogeographical maps is best achieved through the integration of data from hotspotting (since the Cretaceous), palaeomagnetism (including ocean-floor magnetic anomalies since the Jurassic), and the analysis of fossils and identification of their faunal and floral provinces; as well as a host of other geological information, not least the characters of the rocks themselves. Recently developed techniques now also allow us to determine more objectively the palaeolongitude of continents from the time of Pangaea onwards, which palaeomagnetism alone does not reveal. This together with new methods to estimate true polar wander have led to hybrid mantle plate motion frames that demonstrate that TUZO and JASON, two antipodal thermochemical piles in the deep mantle, have been stable for at least 300 Ma, and where deep plumes sourcing large igneous provinces and kimberlites are mostly derived from their margins. This remarkable observation has led to the plume generation zone reconstruction method which exploits the fundamental link between surface and deep mantle processes to allow determination of palaeolongitudes, unlocking a way forward in modelling absolute plate motions prior to the assembly of Pangaea. The plume generation zone method is a novel way to derive ‘absolute’ plate motions in a mantle reference frame before Pangaea, but the technique assumes that the margins of TUZO and JASON did not move much and that Earth was a degree-2 planet, as today.
DS200412-1786
2004
Cocks, R.Selley, R.C., Cocks, R., Plimer, I.R.Encyclopedia of Geology, Five Volume Set.Elsevier, TechnologyResource - source Books
DS201312-0920
2013
Cocks, R.M.Torsvik, T.H., Cocks, R.M.Gondwana from top to base in space and time.Gondwana Research, Vol. 24, 3-4, pp. 999-1030.MantleReview
DS201801-0073
2017
Cocks, R.M.Torsvik, T.H., Cocks, R.M.The inegration of paleomagnetism, the geological record and mantle tomography in the location of ancient continents.Geological Magazine, in press availableMantlegeophysics

Abstract: Constructing palaeogeographical maps is best achieved through the integration of data from hotspotting (since the Cretaceous), palaeomagnetism (including ocean-floor magnetic anomalies since the Jurassic), and the analysis of fossils and identification of their faunal and floral provinces; as well as a host of other geological information, not least the characters of the rocks themselves. Recently developed techniques now also allow us to determine more objectively the palaeolongitude of continents from the time of Pangaea onwards, which palaeomagnetism alone does not reveal. This together with new methods to estimate true polar wander have led to hybrid mantle plate motion frames that demonstrate that TUZO and JASON, two antipodal thermochemical piles in the deep mantle, have been stable for at least 300 Ma, and where deep plumes sourcing large igneous provinces and kimberlites are mostly derived from their margins. This remarkable observation has led to the plume generation zone reconstruction method which exploits the fundamental link between surface and deep mantle processes to allow determination of palaeolongitudes, unlocking a way forward in modelling absolute plate motions prior to the assembly of Pangaea. The plume generation zone method is a novel way to derive ‘absolute’ plate motions in a mantle reference frame before Pangaea, but the technique assumes that the margins of TUZO and JASON did not move much and that Earth was a degree-2 planet, as today.
DS200412-2099
2004
Cococcioni, M.Wentzcovitch, R.M., Karki, B.B., Cococcioni, M., De Gironncoli, S.Thermoelastic properties of MgSiO3 perovskite: insights on nature of the Earth's lower mantle.Physical Review Letters, Vol. 92, 1. Jan. 1, Ingenta 1040799374MantlePerovskite
DS2002-0302
2002
Codes NewsletterCodes NewsletterGetting to the core... Brief note on study by Dr. Dima Kamenetsky on melt inclusion research.Codes Newsletter, No. 13, p. 7.MantleMelt inclusion research
DS1983-0179
1983
Codner, C.C.Codner, C.C., Australian Anglo American Ltd.El 2803 Wongalara Final Report for 24/1/83-24/7/83Northern Territory Geological Survey Open File Report, No. CR 83/266, 7P.Australia, Northern TerritoryProspecting, Isotope
DS201412-0132
2014
Cody, G.Cody, G., Guthrie, M.Smallest possible diamonds form ultra-thin nanothread.Carnegie Institute Yearbook, Sept. 25, 2p.TechnologyCarbon molecules
DS200612-0962
2006
Cody, G.D.Mysen, B.O., Roskosz, M., Cody, G.D.The 'not so noble' behaviour of nitrogen in silicate melts at high pressure and temperature.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 439. abstract only.MantleGeochemistry - nitrogen
DS201112-0713
2011
Cody, G.D.Mysen, B.O., Kumamoto, K., Cody, G.D., Fogel, M.L.Solubility and solution mechanisms of C-O-H volatiles in silicate melt with variable redox conditions and melt composition at upper mantle temperatures and pressures.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 75, 9, pp. 6183-6199.MantleUHP
DS201509-0412
2015
Cody, G.D.Le Losq, C., Mysen, B.O., Cody, G.D.Water and magmas: insights about the water solution mechanisms in alkali silicate melts from infrared, Raman, and 29 Si solid-state NMR spectroscopies.Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 2, 22p.MantleMagmatism

Abstract: Degassing of water during the ascent of hydrous magma in a volcanic edifice produces dramatic changes in the magma density and viscosity. This can profoundly affect the dynamics of volcanic eruptions. The water exsolution history, in turn, is driven by the water solubility and solution mechanisms in the silicate melt. Previous studies pointed to dissolved water in silicate glasses and melts existing as molecules (H 2 O mol species) and hydroxyl groups, OH. These latter OH groups commonly are considered bonded to Si 4+ but may form other bonds, such as with alkali or alkaline-earth cations, for instance. Those forms of bonding influence the structure of hydrous melts in different ways and, therefore, their properties. As a result, exsolution of water from magmas may have different eruptive consequences depending on the initial bonding mechanisms of the dissolved water. However, despite their importance, the solution mechanisms of water in silicate melts are not clear. In particular, how chemical composition of melts affects water solubility and solution mechanism is not well understood. In the present experimental study, components of such information are reported via determination of how water interacts with the cationic network of alkali (Li, Na, and K) silicate quenched melts. Results from 29 Si single-pulse magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ( 29 Si SP MAS NMR), infrared, and Raman spectroscopies show that decreasing the ionic radius of alkali metal cation in silicate melts results in decreasing fraction of water dissolved as OH groups. The nature of OH bonding also changes as the alkali ionic radius changes. Therefore, as the speciation and bonding of water controls the degree of polymerization of melts, water will have different effects on the transport properties of silicate melts depending on their chemical composition. This conclusion, in turn, may affect volcanic phenomena related to the viscous relaxation of hydrous magmas, such as for instance the fragmentation process that occurs during explosive eruptions.
DS201707-1301
2017
Cody, G.D.Alexander, C.M.O'D., Cody, G.D., De Gregorio, B.T., Nittler, L.R., Stroud, R.M.The nature, origin and modification of insoluable organic matter in chondrites, the major source of Earth's C and N.Chemie der Erde, Vol. 77, pp. 227-256.Mantlemeteorites

Abstract: All chondrites accreted ~3.5 wt.% C in their matrices, the bulk of which was in a macromolecular solvent and acid insoluble organic material (IOM). Similar material to IOM is found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and comets. The IOM accounts for almost all of the C and N in chondrites, and a significant fraction of the H. Chondrites and, to a lesser extent, comets were probably the major sources of volatiles for the Earth and the other terrestrial planets. Hence, IOM was both the major source of Earth’s volatiles and a potential source of complex prebiotic molecules. Large enrichments in D and 15N, relative to the bulk solar isotopic compositions, suggest that IOM or its precursors formed in very cold, radiation-rich environments. Whether these environments were in the interstellar medium (ISM) or the outer Solar System is unresolved. Nevertheless, the elemental and isotopic compositions and functional group chemistry of IOM provide important clues to the origin(s) of organic matter in protoplanetary disks. IOM is modified relatively easily by thermal and aqueous processes, so that it can also be used to constrain the conditions in the solar nebula prior to chondrite accretion and the conditions in the chondrite parent bodies after accretion. Here we review what is known about the abundances, compositions and physical nature of IOM in the most primitive chondrites. We also discuss how the IOM has been modified by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration in the chondrite parent bodies, and how these changes may be used both as petrologic indicators of the intensity of parent body processing and as tools for classification. Finally, we critically assess the various proposed mechanisms for the formation of IOM in the ISM or Solar System.
DS2000-0427
2000
Cody, J.Hutcheon, I., Cody, J., Yang, C.Fluid flow in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin - a biased perspective based on geochemistry.Kyser: Fluids and Basin Evolution, Sc 28, pp. 197-210.Alberta, Western Canada Sedimentary BasinBasin - geochemistry
DS1900-0538
1907
Coe, F.E.Coe, F.E.Vaal River Alluvial. Origin of the Deposit; Quality of the Stones and Some Facts and Figures.South Africa Mines Commerce and Industry, Vol. 5, PT. 1, No. 217, MAY 4TH. P. 187.Africa, South AfricaGeology, Diamond Morphology
DS1900-0246
1904
Coe, F.S.Coe, F.S.The Diamond Placers of the Vaal River, South AfricaInstitute of Mining and Metallurgy. Transactions, Vol. 13, PP. 518-532. ALSO: The Mining Journal, Vol. 76, AUGUST 6TAfrica, South AfricaVaal River Diggings, Alluvial Diamond Placers
DS1996-0281
1996
Coe, J.M.Coe, J.M., Rogers, D.Marine debris... sources, impacts and solutionsSpringer Verlag, 416p. approx. 80.00GlobalBook - ad, Marine debris
DS200812-0225
2008
Coe, N.Coe, N., Le Roex, A., Gurney, J., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.Petrogenesis of the Swartruggens and Star Group II kimberlite dyke swarms, South Africa: constraints from whole rock geochemistry.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 156, pp. 627-652.Africa, South AfricaKaapvaal Craton, petrogenesis
DS200812-0226
2008
Coe, N.Coe, N., Roex, A., Gurney, J., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.Petrogenesis of the Swartuggens and Star Group II kimberlite dyke swarms, South Africa: constraints from whole rock geochemistry.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 156, 5, pp. 627-652.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Swartruggens and Star
DS200812-0639
2008
Coe, N.Le Roex, A., Coe, N., Gurney, J., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.Petrogenesis of Group II kimberlites: a case study from southern Africa.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractAfrica, South Africa, BotswanaDeposit - Swartruggens, Star
DS2003-0263
2003
Coe, N.I.J.Coe, N.I.J., Le Roex, A.P., Gurney, J.J.The geochemistry of the Swartruggens and Star kimberlite dyke swarms, South Africa8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractSouth AfricaDeposit - Swartruggens, Star
DS200412-0340
2003
Coe, N.I.J.Coe, N.I.J., Le Roex, A.P., Gurney, J.J.The geochemistry of the Swartruggens and Star kimberlite dyke swarms, South Africa.8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractAfrica, South AfricaKimberlite petrogenesis
DS1993-0266
1993
Coe, R.Coe, R.A swiftly changing field.. geomagnetisMNature, Vol. 33, November 18, pp. 205-206MantleGeophysics, Geomagnetics
DS1990-1630
1990
Coe, R.S.Zhao, Xixi, Coe, R.S., Zhou Yaoxiu, Wu Haoruo, Wang, JieNew paleomagnetic results from northern China: collision and suturing with Siberia and KazakhstanTectonophysics, Vol. 181, pp. 43-81China, RussiaGeophysics, Paleomagnetics
DS1996-1587
1996
Coe, R.S.Zhai, X., Coe, R.S., Gilder, S.A., Frost, G.M.Paleomagnetic constraints on the paleogeography of China: implications forGondwanaland.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 43, pp. 643-672.ChinaPaleomagnetism, Tectonics
DS1996-1603
1996
Coe, R.S.Zhao, X., Coe, R.S., Gilder, S.A., Frost, G.M.Paleomagnetic constraints on the paeogeography of China: implications forGondwanalandAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 43, pp. 643-672Australia, ChinaPaleomagnetism, Tarim, Tectonics
DS201112-0875
2010
Coehlo, F.M.Rodrigues, R., Svisero, D.P., Coehlo, F.M., Moreira, L.A.Geologia de garimpos da regiao de Coromandel, Minas Gerais.5th Brasilian Symposium on Diamond Geology, Nov. 6-12, abstract p. 68-69.South America, Brazil, Minas GeraisOverview of area
DS1998-1427
1998
CoenraadsSutherland, F.L., Hoskin, P.W.O., Fanning, CoenraadsModels of corundum origin from alkali basaltic terrains: an appraisalContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 133, pp. 356-72.Australia, AsiaMagma, petrology, mineralogy, CorunduM.
DS1990-0342
1990
Coenraads, R.R.Coenraads, R.R.Key areas for alluvial diamond and sapphire exploration in the New England gem fields, New South Wales, AustraliaEconomic Geology, Vol. 85, No. 6, Sept.-Oct. pp. 1186-1207AustraliaAlluvial diamonds, New England area
DS1991-0275
1991
Coenraads, R.R.Coenraads, R.R., Paige, S.C.B., Sutherland, F.L.Ilmenite-mantle rutile crystals from the Uralla district, New South SOURCE[ Royal Soc. New South Wales Journal and ProceedingsRoyal Soc. New South Wales Journal and Proceedings, Vol. 124, pp. 23-34Australia, New South WalesHeavy minerals, Resemble kimberlite crystals
DS1994-0322
1994
Coenraads, R.R.Coenraads, R.R., Webb, G., Sechos, B.Alluvial diamond deposits of the Guaniamo region, Bolivar State, Venezuela.Australian Gemologist, Vol. 18, No. 9, February pp. 287-293.VenezuelaAlluvials, placers, Deposit -Guaniamo
DS201112-0160
2011
CoeslanChakmouradian, A.R., Bohm, Coeslan, Mumin, Reguir, Demeny, Simonetti, Kressall, Martins, Kamenov, Creaser, LepekhinaPostorogenic carbonatites: more abundant than we realize and more important than given credit for.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.17-19.Canada, ManitobaCinder Lake, Eden Lake, Paint Lake
DS201112-0161
2011
CoeslanChakmouradian, A.R., Bohm, Coeslan, Mumin, Reguir, Demeny, Simonetti, Kressall, Martins, Kamenov, Creaser, LepekhinaPostorogenic carbonatites: more abundant than we realize and more important than given credit for.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.17-19.Canada, ManitobaCinder Lake, Eden Lake, Paint Lake
DS201907-1534
2019
Coetzee, A.Coetzee, A., Kisters, A.F.M., Chevallier, L.Sill complexes in the Karoo LIP: emplacement controls and regional implications.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 158, available 14p. pdf Africa, South Africamagmatism

Abstract: Field and sub-surface data from the Victoria West sill complex in the Karoo Large Igneous Province (ca. 180 Ma) of South Africa are used to constrain the emplacement controls of the regional-scale sill complexes in the central Karoo basin. Cross-cutting relationships point to the presence of five distinct and successively emplaced saucer-shaped sills. Growth of the sill complex was achieved through magmatic underaccretion of magma batches below earlier sills and associated uplift of the overlying strata. The magmatic underaccretion suggests that earlier sills were fully crystallized during the emplacement of later magma pulses and that the rigid (high E) dolerites, in particular, acted as stress barriers that impeded further upward propagation of steep feeder sheets. The resulting nested structure of sills-in-sills within a confined area of less than 2000 km2 also suggests the reutilization of the same or similar feeder system even after full crystallization thereof. The emplacement controls of sills in the central Karoo through stress barriers implies that sill emplacement occurred under very low deviatoric stresses or in a mildly compressional stress regime prior to the break-up of Gondwana. The swap from earlier (184-180?Ma), mainly sill complexes to later (182-174?Ma) dykes and dyke swarms is indicative of a switch in the stress field during the early stages of Gondwana break-up. We speculate that loading, thermal subsidence and lithospheric flexure associated with the emplacement of the earlier, stacked and voluminous sill complexes in the Karoo basins may have determined the formation of the large Karoo dyke swarms, particularly when coinciding with deeper crustal structures. The original and inherited basin geometry and lithospheric structure is pivotal in the development of later Karoo magmatism.
DS1975-0259
1976
Coetzee, C.B.Coetzee, C.B.Mineral Resources of the Republic of South AfricaSouth African Department of Mines Geological Survey HANDBOOK, No. 7, 465P.South AfricaGeology, Mineral Occurrences, Diamonds, Kimberley
DS1993-1529
1993
Coetzee, H.Stettler, E.H., Coetzee, H., Rogers, H.J.J.The Schiel alkaline complex: geological setting and geophysicalinvestigation.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 96, No. 3, Sept. pp. 96-107.South AfricaCarbonatite, Schiel complex
DS200612-0026
2006
Coetzee, H.Andreoli, M.A.G., Hart, R.J., Ashwal, L.D., Coetzee, H.Correlations between U, Th content and metamorphic grade in the Western Namaqualand Belt, South Africa: with implications for radioactive heating of the crust.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 47, 6, pp. 1095-1118.Africa, South AfricaGeothermometry
DS200412-0754
2003
Coetzee, M.Gurney, J.L., Baumgartner, M., Anckar, E., Gurney, J.J., Nowicki, T.E., Grutter, H.S., Coetzee, M., Mason-JoneKimberlite almanac.8 IKC Program, Session 8, POSTER abstractAfrica, South AfricaDiamond exploration Deposit - Finsch
DS201810-2355
2018
Coetzee, S.H.McFarlane, M.J., Long, C.W., Coetzee, S.H.Lightning induced beads, 'fulguroids', associated with kimberlite eruptions in the Kalahari, Botswana.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 107, 7, pp. 2627-2633.Africa, Botswanakimberlites

Abstract: Glassy beads were found in the sand cover associated with known and suspected kimberlites on the Kalahari plateau, Botswana. Morphology and chemistry were examined by ESEM and EDAX. The polymetallic and quartzose "beads", here described for the first time and termed fulguroids, formed at very high temperatures, well in excess of those reached by the kimberlites. They solidified in free fall. We propose that they were melted in the atmosphere by lightning strikes on Kalahari overburden entrained when the kimberlites erupted.
DS200612-0396
2006
Coey, J.M.Fitzgerald, C.B., Venkatesan, M., Douvalis, A.P., Coey, J.M.Magnetic properties of carbonado diamonds.Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Elsevier, Vol. 300, 2, pp. 368-372.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS1998-0264
1998
Cofaigh, C.O.Cofaigh, C.O.Geomorphic and sedimentary signatures of early Holocene deglaciation in High Arctic fiords: Implications ..Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 4, Apr. pp. 437-52.GlobalGeomorphology, Ice dynamics, thermal regime
DS2003-0348
2003
Cofaigh, C.O.Dowdeswell, J.A., Cofaigh, C.O.Glacier influenced sedimentation on high latitude continental marginsGeological Society of London, Special Publication, No. 203, 378p. $ 142. http://bookshop.geolsoc.org.ukGlobalBook
DS200412-0341
2004
Cofaigh, C.O.Cofaigh, C.O.,Taylor, J., Dowdeswell, J.A., Pudsey, C.J.Paleo-ice stream, trough mouth fans and high latitude continental slope sedimentation.Boreas, Vol. 32, 1, pp. 37-55.TechnologyGeomorphology - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-0475
2003
Cofaigh, C.O.Dowdeswell, J.A., Cofaigh, C.O.Glacier influenced sedimentation on high latitude continental margins.Geological Society of London, Special Publication, No. 203, 378p. $ 1 bookshop.geolsoc.org.ukGlobalBook - Geomorphology, glacial, dynamics
DS1995-0730
1995
CoffinHall, J., Wardle, R.J., Gower, C.F., Kerr, A., Coffin, KeenProterozoic orogens of the northeastern Canadian Shield: new information from Lithoprobe ESCOOT seismicsCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 8, Aug. pp. 1119-1131.GlobalGeophysics -seismics ESCOOT., Nain, Makkovik provinces
DS201012-0104
2010
Coffin, L.Chiarenzelli, J., Lupulescu, M., Cousens, B., Thern, E., Coffin, L., Regan, S.Enriched Grenvillian lithospheric mantle as a consequence of long lived subduction beneath Laurentia.Geology, Vol. 38, 2, pp. 151-154.Canada, QuebecGeochronology, subduction
DS1992-0267
1992
Coffin, M.F.Coffin, M.F., Eldholm, O.volcanism and continental break-up: a global compilation of large igneousprovincesGeological Society Special Publication, Magmatism and the Causes of Continental, No. 68, pp. 17-30GlobalLIP, Igneous rocks, Catalogue of provinces
DS1993-0267
1993
Coffin, M.F.Coffin, M.F., Eldholm, O.Scratching the surface: estimating dimensions of large igneous provincesGeology, Vol. 21, No. 6, June pp. 515-518Hawaii, Ontong Java, IndiaBasalt, Mantle Plateaus
DS1994-0323
1994
Coffin, M.F.Coffin, M.F., Eldholm, O.Large igneous provinces: crustal structure, dimensions, and externalconsequencesReviews of Geophysics, Vol. 32, No. 1, February pp. 1-36MantleIgneous rocks, Flood basalts
DS1997-0717
1997
Coffin, M.F.Mahoney, J.J., Coffin, M.F.Large igneous provinces - continental, oceanic and planetary floodvolcanism.American Geophysical Union (AGU) Geophys. Mon, No. 100, $ 65.00Idaho, Central African Republic, Colombia, South Africa, Russia, SiberiaBook - table of contents, Flood basalts, Mantle plumes
DS200812-0227
2008
Coffin, M.F.Coffin, M.F.Imaging, mapping and modelling continental lithosphere extension and breakup.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 175, 3, p. 1321.MantleBook review
DS1994-1688
1994
Coflin, K.C.Stephenson, R.A., Coflin, K.C., Lane, L.S, DietrichCrustal structure and tectonics of the southeast Beaufort Sea continentalmargin.Tectonics, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr. pp. 389-400.Northwest Territories, Beaufort SeaTectonics - structure
DS1983-0180
1983
Cogar Mining Cons., Meekatharra Minerals NL.Cogar Mining Cons., Meekatharra Minerals NL.No. El 1265 Berridale Area, Final Report (diamonds.)New South Wales Geological Survey Open File Report, No. GS 1983/160, 35P. 14 FIGS.Australia, New South WalesProspecting, Geophysics, Drilling, Heavy Mineral Sampling
DS1986-0498
1986
Cogger, M.Lister, B., Cogger, M.The preparation and evaluation of bastnasiteGeostandards Newsletter, Vol. 10, No. 1, April pp. 33-59United States, CaliforniaMountain Pass, Flurocarbonate, Carbonatite, Rare earth
DS1920-0149
1923
Coggin-Brown, J.Coggin-Brown, J.India's Mineral WealthLondon: H. Milford ( Oxford University Press.)., 121P. PP. 46-47.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1950-0206
1955
Coggin-Brown, J.Coggin-Brown, J.Kollur: Reputed Home of the Koh-i-nurThe Gemologist., DECEMBER PT. 2, 3P.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1950-0207
1955
Coggin-Brown, J.Coggin-Brown, J., Day, A.L.Diamonds; India's Mineral Wealth, 1955Oxford University Press, PP. 575-643.IndiaDiamond Occurrences
DS202101-0017
2020
Coggon, J.A.Hughes, H.S.R., Compton-Jones, C., MvDonald, I., Kiseeva, E.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Rollinson, G., Coggon, J.A., Kinnaird, J.A., Bybee, G.M.Base metal sulphide geochemistry of southern African mantle eclogites ( Roberts Victor): implications for cratonic mafic magmatism and metallogenesis.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016/ j.lithos.2020.105918 67p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Roberts Victor

Abstract: Platinum-group elements (PGE) display a chalcophile behaviour and are largely hosted by base metal sulphide (BMS) minerals in the mantle. During partial melting of the mantle, BMS release their metal budget into the magma generated. The fertility of magma sources is a key component of the mineralisation potential of large igneous provinces (LIP) and the origin of orthomagmatic sulphide deposits hosted in cratonic mafic magmatic systems. Fertility of mantle-derived magma is therefore predicated on our understanding of the abundance of metals, such as the PGE, in the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle. Estimations of the abundance of chalcophile elements in the upper mantle are based on observations from mantle xenoliths and BMS inclusions in diamonds. Whilst previous assessments exist for the BMS composition and chalcophile element budget of peridotitic mantle, relatively few analyses have been published for eclogitic mantle. Here, we present sulphide petrography and an extensive in situ dataset of BMS trace element compositions from Roberts Victor eclogite xenoliths (Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa). The BMS are dominated by pyrite-chalcopyrite-pentlandite (± pyrrhotite) assemblages with S/Se ratios ranging 1200 to 36,840 (with 87% of analyses having S/Se this editing is incorrect. This should read "(with 87% of analyses having S/Se < 10,000)" Please note the <<10,000). Total PGE abundance in BMS range from 0.17 to 223 ppm. We recognise four end-member compositions (types i to iv), distinguished by total PGE abundance and Pt/Pd and Au/Pd ratios. The majority of BMS have low PGE abundances (< 10 ppm) but Type iv BMS have the highest concentration of PGE recorded in eclogites so far (> 100 ppm) and are characteristically enriched in Os, Ir, Ru and Rh. Nano- and micron-scale Pd-Pt antimonide, telluride and arsenide platinum-group minerals (PGM) are observed spatially associated with BMS. We suggest that the predominance of pyrite in the xenoliths reflects the process of eclogitisation and that the trace element composition of the eclogite BMS was inherited from oceanic crustal protoliths of the eclogites, introduced into the SCLM via ancient subduction during formation of the Colesberg Magnetic Lineament c. 2.9 Ga and the cratonisation of the Kaapvaal Craton. Crucially, we demonstrate that the PGE budget of eclogitic SCLM may be substantially higher than previously reported, akin to peridotitic compositions, with significant implications for the PGE fertility of cratonic mafic magmatism and metallogenesis. We quantitatively assess these implications by modelling the chalcophile geochemistry of an eclogitic melt component in parental magmas of the mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex.
DS1991-0276
1991
Cogley, J.G.Cogley, J.G.Hotspots and continental physiographyGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada/Society Economic, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A24GlobalContinents, Hotspots
DS1993-1789
1993
Cogne, J-P.Yan Chen, Courtillot, V., Cogne, J-P., Besse, J., Yang, Z., Enkin, R.The configuration of Asia prior to the collision of India: Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. B 12, December 10, pp. 21, 927-21, 941.GlobalPaleomagnetics
DS200612-0264
2006
Cogne, J-P.Cogne, J-P., Humler, E., Courtillot, V.Mean age of oceanic lithosphere drives eustatic sea level change since Pangea breakup.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 245, 1-2, pp. 115-122.MantleGeochronology
DS200812-0228
2008
Cogne, J-P.Cogne, J-P., Humler, E.Global scale patterns of continental fragmentation: Wilson's cycles as a constraint for long-term sea-level changes.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 273, pp. 251-259.MantlePaleomagnetism
DS1993-0268
1993
Cogo de Sa, N.Cogo de Sa, N., Ussami, N., Cassololina, E.Gravity map of Brasil, 1. representation of free air and bougueranomaliesJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. B2, February 10, pp. 2187-2198BrazilGeophysics, Gravity map
DS1993-1636
1993
Cogo de Sa, N.Ussami, N., Cogo de Sa, N., Cassola Molina, E.Gravity map of Brasil 2. regional and residual isostatic anomalies and their correlation with major tectonic provincesJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. B2, February 10, pp. 2199-2208BrazilGeophysics, Tectonics, structure
DS2003-0264
2003
Cohen, A.Cohen, A.Mary Elizabeth Barber: some early South Africa geologists and the discoveries ofEarth Science History, Vol. 22, 2, pp. 156-171.South AfricaBlank
DS200412-0342
2003
Cohen, A.Cohen, A.Mary Elizabeth Barber: some early South Africa geologists and the discoveries of diamonds.Earth Science History, Vol. 22, 2, pp. 156-171.Africa, South AfricaHistory
DS201906-1324
2019
Cohen, A.Mitchell, R., Wahl, R., Cohen, A.The Good Hope carbonatite, Ontario: a potential Nb deposit with pyrochlore-apatite cumulates.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 145.Canada, Ontariodeposit - Good Hope

Abstract: The Good Hope carbonatite is located adjacent to the Prairie Lake ijolite-malignite-calcite carbonatite complex in northwestern Ontario. The carbonatite is a breccia consisting of diverse calcite and dolomite carbonatites, with lesser REE-rich ferrocarbonatites, containing xenoliths of amphibole syenite, potassium feldspar+phlogopite and pyrochlore-apatite cumulates. The occurrence outcrops over an area of 500 m x 500 m and has been proven by diamond drilling to extend to a minimum depth of 650 m. Pyrochlore-apatite cumulates occur as elongated and/or irregular clasts up to 5 cm in maximum dimension. In these, pyrochlore has crystallized before apatite and occurs as euhedral crystals (0.1-1 cm; up to 5 cm) and can comprise up to ca. 25 vol % of a clast. Prismatic apatite is commonly flow-aligned and in some instances forms isoclinal folds. The apatite does not exhibit optical- or BSE-compositional zonation. However, cathodoluminescence imagery shows blue-green cores with thin (< 500 µm) blue margins. The cores are enriched in light REE (833-941 ppm La; 1790-2200 ppm Ce; 8.2-13.6 Yb ppm; (La/Yb)CN 62-42. The pyrochlores are Na-Ca-F-pyrochlore of relatively-uniform composition with fully-occupied A-sites, and minor SrO (l-1.5 wt %) and low Ta2O5 (< 0.5 wt %). Some pyrochlores have irregular cores of resorbed Sr-bearing (6-11 wt % SrO) pyrochlore with overgrowths of Na-Ca-F-pyrochlore. Others contain inclusions of fersmite and/or columbite-(Fe). Pyrochlore also occurs as discrete crystals in calcite and dolomite hosts and represents disaggregated clasts. In accord with experimental data on the liquidus phase relationships of apatite and pyrochlore in haplocarbonatite melts the formation of apatite-pyrochlore cumulates in the initial stages of crystallization of such melts is to be expected. These cumulates were subsequently disrupted, disaggregated, and transported by pulses of later batches of carbonatite of diverse composition.
DS201911-2549
2019
Cohen, A.Mitchell, R.H., Wahl, R., Cohen, A.Mineralogy and geneis of pyrochlore-apatite from the Good Hope carbonatite, Ontario: a potential Nb deposit.Mineralogical Magazine, in press. 29p. Canada, Ontariodeposit - Good Hope
DS1990-1544
1990
Cohen, A.S.Waters, F.G., Cohen, A.S., O'Nions, R.K., O'Hara, M.J.Development of Archean lithosphere deduced from chronology and isotope chemistry of Scourie DykesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 97, No. 3/4, March pp. 241-255ScotlandUltramafic rocks, Scourie Dykes
DS1992-1223
1992
Cohen, A.S.Porcelli, D.R., O'Nions, R.K., Galer, S.J.G., Cohen, A.S., MatteyIsotopic relationships of volatile and lithophile trace elements in continental ultramafic xenolithsContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 110, No. 2-3, pp. 528-538Australia, Arizona, East AfricaUltramafic xenoliths, Geochronology
DS2000-0123
2000
Cohen, A.S.Burton, K.W., Capmas, F., Cohen, A.S.Resolving crystallization ages of Archean mafic-ultramafic rocks using theRe Os isotope systemsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.179, No.3-4, Jul.15, pp.453-68.GlobalPetrology, Geochronology
DS2003-0626
2003
Cohen, D.Iverson, N.R., Cohen, D., Hooyer, T.S., Fischer, U.H., Jackson, M., Moore, P.L.Effects of basal debris on glacier flowScience, No. 5629, July 4, pp. 81-83.GlobalGeomorphology
DS200412-0884
2003
Cohen, D.Iverson, N.R., Cohen, D., Hooyer, T.S., Fischer, U.H., Jackson, M., Moore, P.L., Lappegard, G., Kohler, J.Effects of basal debris on glacier flow.Science, No. 5629, July 4, pp. 81-83.TechnologyGeomorphology
DS200712-0194
2007
Cohen, D.R.Cohen, D.R., Kelley, D.L., Anand, R., Coker, W.B.Major advances in exploration geochemistry. 1998- 2007.Proceedings of Exploration 07 edited by B. Milkereit, pp. 3-18.TechnologyGeochemistry - review
DS1860-0180
1872
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Geologische Mitteilungen Ueber das Vorkommen der Diamanten In Sued-afrika.Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 857-86L.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceGeology, Petrology
DS1860-0201
1873
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Geologische Mitteilungen aus Griqualand WestNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 52-57.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceGeology
DS1860-0202
1873
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Weitere Mitteilungen Aus Griqualand West. Vorkommen der Diamanten. Vaal RiverNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 150-155.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceAlluvial placers
DS1860-0222
1874
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Erklarung Gegen Dunn, Dessen Bemerkungen, der Vorkommen Der diamanten in Afrika, Betreffend.Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 514-515.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvincePetrology
DS1860-0260
1876
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Ueber Einschluesse in Sued afrikanischen DiamantenNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 752-753.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceMineralogy, Diamond Inclusions
DS1860-0274
1877
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Titaneisen von den Diamant feldern in Sued-afrikaNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 695-697.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceTravelogue
DS1860-0309
1879
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Ueber Einen Eklogit Welcher Als Einschluss in Den Diamant-gruben von Jagersfontein, Orange Freistaat, Sued-afrika Vorkommt.Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, PP. 864-869.Africa, outh Africa, Orange Free StateMineralogy
DS1860-0361
1881
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Ueber KapdiamantenNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, P. 184.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceMineralogy, Gemology, Diamonds Notable
DS1860-0362
1881
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Referate Bei Cohen Ueber Vortraege Bei Chaper, Friedel, Fouque und Michel-levy.Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD. 1, PP.6-10.Africa, South Africa, Cape Province, Kimberley AreaGeology, Mineralogy
DS1860-0543
1887
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Sued afrikanische Diamanten und Gold Production im Jahre 1886Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD. 2, PP. 81-83.Africa, South AfricaMineralogy
DS1860-0588
1888
Cohen, E.Cohen, E.Ueber Den Granat der Sued afrikanischen Diamant feldern und Ueber Den Chromgehalt der Pyrope.Mitt. Des Naturwissenschaftl. Vereins Von Neu-pommern Und Ru, Vol. 20, P. 52-55. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD. 2, 1890 PP.Africa, South Africa, Griqualand West, Kimberley AreaMineralogy
DS1900-0109
1902
Cohen, E.Brezina, A., Cohen, E.Ueber Ein Meteoreisen von Mukerop, Bezirk Gibeon, Grossnamaland. Ueber Ein Meteoreisen von Mukerop, Bezirk Gibeon, Gross Namaland.Jh. Ver. Vaterl. Naturk. Wuertt., Vol. 58, PP. 292-302. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie 1903 BD. 1, PPSouthwest Africa, Namibia, JerusalemMeteorite, Brukkaros
DS1860-0409
1883
Cohen, E.W.Cohen, E.W.Ueber die Sued afrikanischen DiamantfeldernMetz: Lothringer Zeitung, 38P. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie BD 1, PP. 318-320.Africa, South AfricaGeology
DS1970-0897
1974
Cohen, G.Cohen, G.Stoneage Artifacts from Orapa Diamond Mine, Central BotswanaBotswana Notes And Records, Vol. 6, PP. 1-4.BotswanaKimberlite, Archeology
DS201901-0019
2018
Cohen, H.Cohen, H., Ruthstein, S.Evaluating the color and nature of diamonds via EPR spectroscopy.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 276.Globaldiamond color

Abstract: Diamond characterization is carried out via a wide variety of gemological and chemical analyses. An important analytical tool for this purpose is spectroscopic characterization utilizing both absorption and emission measurements. The main techniques are UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy, though Raman as well as cathodoluminescence spectroscopy are also used. We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to compare the properties of treated colored diamonds to the pretreated stones. The colors studied were blue, orange, yellow, green, and pink. The EPR technique determines radicals (atoms with unpaired electrons) and is very sensitive, capable of measuring concentrations as low as ~1 × 10–17 radicals/cm3. The results, shown in table 1, indicate that all the carbon radicals determined are affected by adjacent nitrogen atoms, with the spectra showing a hyperfine structure attributed to the presence of nitrogen. The highest concentration of radicals and hyperfine structures is observed in pink and orange treated diamonds. The results concerning nitrogen concentration were correlated with the infrared spectra, which determine the absorption peaks of the diamonds as well as those of the nitrogen contamination in their crystal structure.
DS1988-0135
1988
Cohen, J.E.Cohen, J.E.The counterintuitive in conflict and cooperationAmerican Scientist, Vol. 76, No. 6, November-December pp. 576-584. DatabaseGlobalHuman nature, Science
DS1910-0171
1911
Cohen, L.Cohen, L.Reminiscences of KimberleyLondon: Bennett And Co., 436P.South Africa, Cape Province, Kimberley AreaHistory, Kimberley
DS1975-0979
1979
Cohen, L.H.Cohen, L.H., Rosenfeld, J.L.Diamond: depth of crystallization inferred from compressed includedgarnet.Journal of Geology, Vol. 87, pp. 333-340.GlobalDiamond Genesis, Origin, Inclusions
DS1975-0980
1979
Cohen, L.H.Cohen, L.H., Rosenfeld, J.L.Diamond : depth of crystallization inferred from compressed includedgarnet.Journal of Geology, Vol. 87, pp. 333-40.GlobalDiamond Morphology, Eclogites
DS1994-0324
1994
Cohen, L.R.Cohen, L.R., Noll, R.G.Privatizing public researchScientific American, September pp. 72-77United StatesResearch funding
DS1986-0203
1986
Cohen, M.L.Eahy, S., Louie, S.G., Cohen, M.L.Pseudopotential total energy study of the transition from rhombohedral graphite to diamondPhys. Rev. B., Vol. 34, No. 2, July 15, pp. 1191-1199GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1987-0201
1987
Cohen, M.L.Fahy, S., Louie, S.G., Cohen, M.L.Theoretical total energy study of the transformation of graphite into hexagonal diamondPhys. Rev. B. Condensed matter, Vol. 35, No. 14, pp. 7623-7626GlobalMineralogy
DS1993-0269
1993
Cohen, M.L.Cohen, M.L.Predicting useful materialsScience, Vol. 261, July 16, pp. 307-308GlobalSynthetic materials
DS1994-0325
1994
Cohen, M.L.Cohen, M.L.Harder than diamonds? testing a quantum mechanical theory ofsolids....designed the hardest substance.The Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 3, May/June pp. 26-30.GlobalDiamond hardness -theory
DS201503-0137
2015
Cohen, R.Cohen, R.Missing link in metal physics explains Earth's magnetic field.gl.ciw.edu, Jan. 28, 1p.TechnologyMagnetics
DS1993-0270
1993
Cohen, R.E.Cohen, R.E.Candidate phases transition for lower mantle seismic discontinuitiesAmerican Geophysical Union, EOS, supplement Abstract Volume, October, Vol. 74, No. 43, October 26, abstract p. 550.MantleGeophysics -seismics
DS1993-1537
1993
Cohen, R.E.Stixrude, L., Cohen, R.E.Stability of orthorhombic MgSiO2 perovskite in the earth's lower mantleNature, Vol. 364, August 12, pp. 613-615.MantlePerovskite
DS1993-1538
1993
Cohen, R.E.Stixrude, L., Cohen, R.E.Stability of orthorhombic MgSiO2 perovskite in the Earth's lower mantleNature, Vol. 364, No. 6438, August 12, pp. 613-616.MantlePerovskite
DS1995-0957
1995
Cohen, R.E.Kingma, K.J., Cohen, R.E., Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.K.Transformation of stishovite to a denser phase at lower mantle pressuresNature, Vol. 374, No. 6519, March 16, p. 243-245.MantleCoesite association
DS1998-0608
1998
Cohen, R.E.Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.K., Cohen, R.E.high pressure electronic and magnetic propertiesReviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 37, pp. 591-638.MantleMineralogy, Petrology - experimental
DS1998-0663
1998
Cohen, R.E.Ita, J., Cohen, R.E.Diffusion in MgO at high pressure: implications for lower mantle rheologyGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, No. 7, Apr. 1, pp. 1095-98.MantleRheology
DS1998-1415
1998
Cohen, R.E.Stixrude, L., Cohen, R.E., Hemley, R.J.Theory of minerals at high pressureReviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 37, pp. 639-MantleMineralogy, Petrology - experimental
DS2001-0734
2001
Cohen, R.E.Marton, F.C., Ita, J., Cohen, R.E.Pressure volume temperature equation of state of MgSiO3 perovskite from molecular dynamics and constraints....Journal of Geophy. Res., Vol. 106, No. 5, May 10, pp. 8715-28.MantleComposition - mineralogy
DS2001-1129
2001
Cohen, R.E.Steinle-Neumann, G., Stixrude, Cohen, R.E., GulserenElasticity of iron at the temperature of the Earth's inner coreNature, Vol. 413, Sept. 6, pp. 57-60.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS2002-1000
2002
Cohen, R.E.Marton, F.C., Cohen, R.E.Constraints on lower mantle composition from molecular dynamics simulations of MgSiO3 perovskite.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 134, 3-4, Dec. 22, pp. 239-52.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0220
2005
Cohen, R.E.Caracas, R., Cohen, R.E.Effect of chemistry on the stability and elasticity of the perovskite and post-perovskite phase in the MgSiO3 FeSi03 Al203 system and implications for the lowermost mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, 16, Aug. 28, L16310MantlePerovskite
DS1984-0192
1984
Cohen, R.S.Cohen, R.S., Onions, R.K., Dawson, J.B.Isotope Geochemistry of Xenoliths from East Africa- Implications for Development of Mantle Reservoirs and Their Interaction.Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, Vol. 68, No. 2, MAY PP. 209-210.East AfricaGenesis, Related Rocks
DS1984-0193
1984
Cohen, R.S.Cohen, R.S., O'nions, R.K., Dawson, J.B.Isotope Geochemistry of Xenoliths from East Africa: Implications for Development of Mantle Reservoirs and Their Interaction.Earth Plan. Sci. Letters, Vol. 68, PP. 209-220.East Africa, Tanzania, LashaineGeochemistry, Pello Hill
DS1960-0329
1963
Cohen, T.J.Cohen, T.J., Meyer, R.P.Geophysical Investigation of the Midcontinent Gravity HighEos, Vol. 44, No. 1, P. 99. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-0642
1966
Cohen, T.J.Cohen, T.J.Explosion Seismic Studies of the Midcontinent Gravity HighPh. D. Thesis, University Wisconsin., GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1960-0643
1966
Cohen, T.J.Cohen, T.J., Meyer, R.P.The Mid-continent Gravity High, Gross Crustal Structure. In: the Earth Beneath the ContinentsAmerican GEOPHYS. MONOGRAPH, No. 10, PP. 141-165.GlobalMid-continent
DS1960-0811
1967
Cohen, T.J.Cohen, T.J., Meyer, R.P.Detailed Shallow Seismic Investigations of Midcontinent Gravity High.Eos, Vol. 48, No. 1, P. 208. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1992-0931
1992
Cohen, Y.Lee, K.D., Cohen, Y.Fractal attraction. A fractal design system for the MacintoshAcademic Press, 80p. and disc. approx. $ 50.00BookComputer, Program -Fractal design system
DS1995-0736
1995
Cohen, Y.Hamoudi, M., Achache, J., Cohen, Y.Global Magsat anomaly maps at ground levelEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 133, No. 3-4, July 15, pp. 533-548GlobalGeophysics -Magsat
DS1998-0570
1998
Cohen, Y.Hamoudi, M., Cohen, Y., Achache, J.Can the thermal thickness of the continental lithosphere be estimated from Magsat data.Tectonophysics, Vol. 284, No. 1-2, Jan. 15, pp. 19-29.MantleGeophysics - MAGSAT., Crustal thickness
DS201112-0157
2011
Coimba Leite Costa, J.F.Cerueira Koppe, V., Coimba Leite Costa, J.F., De Lemos Peroni, R., Koppe, J.C.Choosing between two kind of sampling patterns using geostatistical simulation: regularly spaced or at high uncertainty locations.Natural Resources Research, Vol. 20, 2, June pp. 131-TechnologyEconomics - not specific to diamonds
DS1980-0325
1980
Coimbra, A.M.Svisero, D.P., Coimbra, A.M., Feitosa, V.M.N.Mineralogic and Chemical Study of Concentrates of the Diamond Romaria Mine, Romaria, Minas Gerais.Anais Do Congresso, 31st., Vol. 3, PP. 1776-1788.BrazilMineralogy, Genesis
DS201906-1285
2019
Coint, N.Coint, N., Dahlgren, S.Assessing the distribution of REE mineralization in Fe-dolomite carbonatite drill cores from the Fen complex, Telemark, southern Norway.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 72.Europe, NorwayCarbonatite

Abstract: The Fen Complex is a 2 km-wide subcircular intrusion composed mainly of sovite, Fe-dolomite carbonatite, damtjernite (lamprophyre) and minor alkaline rocks such as nepheline syenite and ijolite, emplaced at 580 Ma through Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses forming the Fennoscandian Shield. Previous bulk-rock isotopic study indicates that the carbonatite magma originated in the upper mantle [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7029] and underwent contamination during its ascent throughout the crust. This study focuses on two deep cores (1000 m and 700 m), drilled to assess the distribution of REE mineralizations in the Fe-dolomite carbonatite. Hyperspectral data, allowing investigators to log cores objectively and quantify lithologies, were acquired using a SisuRock Gen 2 system composed of three cameras gathering data in the following wavelengths: RGB, Near-Visible Short-Wave Infrared (VN-SWIR) and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). In addition, every meter of the first core and 500 m of the second one were analyzed for bulk-rock geochemistry to characterize the distribution of elements. In this study, we compare the results obtained by the imaging technique with the bulk-rock data and present preliminary results of the textural variations observed in rare-earth mineralizations. Preliminary results indicate that neither of the deep bore holes reached the fenitized host-rock and that the Fe-dolomite carbonatite continues at depth. In both cores, the dominant carbonate is Fe-rich dolomite, although calcite and Fe-Mg carbonate have been observed locally. REE-minerals, composed mainly of bastnäsite, parisite/synchisite and monazite, display variable textural relationships and often occur together in clusters associated with barite and minor Fe-oxides, sulfides (pyrite ± sphalerite) and locally thorite.
DS1991-0277
1991
Coira, B.Coira, B., Malhburg Kay, S.Mantle and crustal components in high K to shoshonitic series volcanic rocks in the eastern Argentine PunaEos, Spring Meeting Program And Abstracts, Vol. 72, No. 17, April 23, p. 295ArgentinaShoshonites, Mantle
DS1993-0271
1993
Coira, B.Coira, B., Malhburg, Kay, S., Viramonte, J.Upper Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Argentine Puma - a model for changing subduction geometryInternational Geology Review, Vol. 35, No. 8, August pp. 677-720Peru, Bolivia, CHileAltiplano, Tectonics
DS1996-1058
1996
Coira, B.L.Ort, M.H., Coira, B.L., Mazzoni, M.M.Generation of a crust mantle magma mixture: magma sources and contaminationat Cerro PanizosContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 123, pp. 308-322Argentina, Bolivia, AndesIgnimbrite
DS1992-0268
1992
Coish, R.A.Coish, R.A., Sinton, C.W.Geochemistry of mafic dikes in the Adirondack Mountains: implications for Late Proterozoic continental riftingContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 110, No. 2-3, pp. 500-514GlobalDikes, Geochemistry
DS200412-0343
2004
Coish, R.A.Coish, R.A., Gardner, P.Supra subduction zone peridotite in the northern USA Appalachians: evidence from mineral composition.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 68, 4, Aug. 1, pp. 699-708.United States, AppalachiaSubduction
DS200512-0176
2004
Coish, R.A.Coish, R.A., Gardner, P.Supra subduction zone peridotite in the northern USA Appalachians: evidence from mineral composition.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 68, 4, Aug. 1, pp. 699-708.United States, AppalachiaSubduction
DS201909-2076
2019
Coisson, M.Piazzi, M., Morana, M., Coisson, M., Marone, F., Campione, M., Bindi, L., Jones, A.P., Ferrara, E., Alvaro, M.Multi-analytical characterization of Fe-rich magnetic inclusions in diamonds.Diamonds and Related Materials, in press available 36p. PdfAfrica, Ghanadeposit - Akwatia

Abstract: Magnetic mineral inclusions, as iron oxides or sulfides, occur quite rarely in natural diamonds. Nonetheless, they represent a key tool not only to unveil the conditions of formation of host diamonds, but also to get hints about the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field present at times of the Earth's history otherwise not accessible. This possibility is related to their capability to carry a remanent magnetization dependent on their magnetic history. However, comprehensive experimental studies on magnetic inclusions in diamonds have been rarely reported so far. Here we exploit X-ray diffraction, Synchrotron-based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy and Alternating Field Magnetometry to determine the crystallographic, morphological and magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic Fe-oxides entrapped in diamonds coming from Akwatia (Ghana). We exploit the methodology to estimate the natural remanence of the inclusions, associated to the Earth's magnetic field they experienced, and to get insights on the relative time of formation between host and inclusion systems. Furthermore, from the hysteresis loops and First Order Reversal Curves we determine qualitatively the anisotropy, size and domain state configuration of the magnetic grains constituting the inclusions.
DS201910-2292
2019
Coisson, M.Piazzi, M., Morana, M., Coisson, M., Marone, F., Campione, M., Bindi, L., Jones, A.P., Ferrara, E., Alvaro, M.Multi-analytical characterization of Fe-rich magnetic inclusions in diamonds. Akwatiaresearchgate.net, June 18, 333866141 12p. PdfAfrica, Ghanadeposit - Akwatia

Abstract: Magnetic mineral inclusions, as iron oxides or sulfides, occur quite rarely in natural diamonds. Nonetheless, they represent a key tool not only to unveil the conditions of formation of host diamonds, but also to get hints about the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field present at times of the Earth's history otherwise not accessible. This possibility is related to their capability to carry a remanent magnetization dependent on their magnetic history. However, comprehensive experimental studies on magnetic inclusions in diamonds have been rarely reported so far. Here we exploit X-ray diffraction, Synchrotron-based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy and Alternating Field Magnetometry to determine the crystallographic, morphological and magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic Fe-oxides entrapped in diamonds coming from Akwatia (Ghana). We exploit the methodology to estimate the natural remanence of the inclusions, associated to the Earth's magnetic field they experienced, and to get insights on the relative time of formation between host and inclusion systems. Furthermore, from the hysteresis loops and First Order Reversal Curves we determine qualitatively the anisotropy, size and domain state configuration of the magnetic grains constituting the inclusions.
DS1992-1516
1992
Cojean, R.Tanays, E., Cojean, R., Hantz, D.DEGRES: a software to design open pit geometry and to draw open pit plansInternational Journal of Surface Mining and Reclamation, Vol. 6, pp. 91-98GlobalComputer, Program -DEGRES
DS200812-0334
2008
Coke, C.Ezzouhari, H., Ribeiro, M.L., AitAyad, N., Moreira, M.E., Charif, A., Ramos, J.M.F., De Oliveira, D.P.S., Coke, C.The magmatic evolution at the Moroccan outboard of the West African Craton between the Late Neoproterozoic and the Early Palaeozoic.Special Publication - Geological Society of London, No. 297, pp. 329-344.Africa, MoroccoMagmatism
DS1995-0334
1995
Coker, J.E.Coker, J.E., Steltenpohl, M.G.An 40 Ar-39 Ar thermochronology of the Ofoten Troms region: ... collapse northern Scandinavian Caledonides.Tectonics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Apr. pp. 435-47.ScandinaviaGeochronology, argon
DS1989-0356
1989
Coker, W.B.DiLabio, R.N.W., Coker, W.B.Drift prospectingGeological Survey of Canada, Paper No. 89-20, 160pGlobalBook -table of contents, Drift prospecting
DS1989-0594
1989
Coker, W.B.Hart, B.R., Avery, R.W., Dilabio, R.N.W., Coker, W.B.Surficial geology Contwyoto lake 76E/5 to 16Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Open File, No. 2018, 6 maps 1:50, 000Northwest TerritoriesGeomorphology
DS200712-0194
2007
Coker, W.B.Cohen, D.R., Kelley, D.L., Anand, R., Coker, W.B.Major advances in exploration geochemistry. 1998- 2007.Proceedings of Exploration 07 edited by B. Milkereit, pp. 3-18.TechnologyGeochemistry - review
DS201012-0112
2010
Coker, W.B.Coker, W.B.Future research in exploration geochemistry.Geochemistry, Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 10, 1, pp. 75-80.TechnologyQuality control - not specific to diamonds
DS201912-2827
2019
Cokulov, N.Sokol, K., Prelevic, D., Romer, R.L., Cokulov, N.Cretaceous ultrapotassic magmatism from the Sava-Vardar zone of the BalkansLithos, doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2019.105268Europemagmatism

Abstract: Late Cretaceous global plate reorganization associated with the inception of counterclockwise rotation of Africa relative to Europe initiated in the Balkan region small-volume magmatism of diverse geochemical signature along the enigmatic Sava-Vardar Zone. We study a Late Cretaceous lamprophyric sill in Ripanj village near Belgrade to constrain this magmatic episode. The lamprophyre is characterized by high contents of Na, P, Fe and Al, and low contents of K, Ca and Mg. Its original nature (Na, K, Ca and Mg) is concealed by intense alteration (albitization of feldspar and partial chloritization of phlogopite) that erased the ultrapotassic affinity of the rocks and resulted in extremely low K/Na ratios. The recalculated chemical composition demonstrates that the rocks are ultrapotassic, with K2O and MgO > 3 wt % and K2O/Na2O > 2, and belong to the durbachite-vaugnerite series, i. e., the plutonic equivalents of minettes and kersantites. Two phlogopite concentrates gave Ar-Ar ages of 86.80 ± 0.5 Ma and 86.90 ± 0.5 Ma. Our combined elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data (87Sr/86Sr 0.70667-0.70677, 143Nd/144Nd 0.512426-0.512429, 206Pb/204Pb 18.82-19.13, 207Pb/204Pb 15.67-15.68, 208Pb/204Pb 38.92-39.19) for representative lamprophyric samples suggests magma derivation from a light rare earth elements (LREE) and K enriched, metasomatized mantle source. The content of LREE of the rocks is enriched, whereas heavy rare earth elements (HREE) is depleted. Rare earth elements (REE) of the whole rock and REE of diopside all indicate that garnet was present in their source. There are two viable and mutually-excluding geodynamic scenarios for the Late Cretaceous magmatism in the Balkans: (i) If the Sava-Vardar ocean still existed in the Late Cretaceous and was subducted under the European plate with arc volcanism along the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Panagyurishte-Srednjogorje belt, coeval magmatism in the Sava-Vardar Zone occurred in a fore-arc setting, and may be related to ridge subduction; (ii) If the Mesozoic ocean closed already during the Upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous, the Late Cretaceous volcanism within the Sava-Vardar Zone represents intracontinental volcanism associated with transtensional tectonics.
DS201711-2514
2017
Colas, V.Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.M., Camprubi, A., Colas, V., Griffin, W.L., Proenza, J.A., O'Reilly, S.Y., Centeno-Garcia, El., Garcia-Casco, A., Belousova, E., Talavera, C., Farre-de-Pablo, J., Satsukawa, T.The recycling of chromitites in ophiolites from southwestern North America. ( Baja)Lithos, in press available, 52p.United States, Californiachromitites

Abstract: Podiform chromitites occur in mantle peridotites of the Late Triassic Puerto Nuevo Ophiolite, Baja California Sur State, Mexico. These are high-Cr chromitites [Cr# (Cr/Cr + Al atomic ratio = 0.61-0.69)] that contain a range of minor- and trace-elements and show whole-rock enrichment in IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru). That are similar to those of high-Cr ophiolitic chromitites crystallised from melts similar to high-Mg island-arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites in supra-subduction-zone mantle wedges. Crystallisation of these chromitites from S-undersaturated melts is consistent with the presence of abundant inclusions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) such as laurite (RuS2)-erlichmanite (OsS2), osmium and irarsite (IrAsS) in chromite, that yield TMA ˜ TRD model ages peaking at ~ 325 Ma. Thirty-three xenocrystic zircons recovered from mineral concentrates of these chromitites yield ages (2263 ± 44 Ma to 278 ± 4 Ma) and Hf-O compositions [?Hf(t) = - 18.7 to + 9.1 and 18O values < 12.4‰] that broadly match those of zircons reported in nearby exposed crustal blocks of southwestern North America. We interpret these chromitite zircons as remnants of partly digested continental crust or continent-derived sediments on oceanic crust delivered into the mantle via subduction. They were captured by the parental melts of the chromitites when the latter formed in a supra-subduction zone mantle wedge polluted with crustal material. In addition, the Puerto Nuevo chromites have clinopyroxene lamellae with preferred crystallographic orientation, which we interpret as evidence that chromitites have experienced high-temperature and ultra high-pressure conditions (< 12 GPa and ~ 1600 °C). We propose a tectonic scenario that involves the formation of chromitite in the supra-subduction zone mantle wedge underlying the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc ca. 250 Ma ago, deep-mantle recycling, and subsequent diapiric exhumation in the intra-oceanic basin (the San Hipólito marginal sea) generated during an extensional stage of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc ca. 221 Ma ago. The TRD ages at ~ 325 Ma record a partial melting event in the mantle prior to the construction of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc, which is probably related to the Permian continental subduction, dated at ~ 311 Ma.
DS201902-0270
2018
Colas, V.Farre-de-Pablo, J., Proenza, J.A., Gonzales-Jimenez, J.M., Garcia-Casco, A., Colas, V., Roque-Rossell, J., Camprubi, A., Sanchez-Navas, A.A shallow origin for diamonds in ophiolitic chromitites.Geology, Vol. 46, pp. 75-78.Mexico, Pueblaophiolite

Abstract: Recent findings of diamonds in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites challenge our traditional notion of Earth mantle dynamics. Models attempting to explain these findings involve incorporation of diamonds into chromite near the mantle transition zone. However, the occurrence of metastable diamonds in this context has not been considered. Here, we report for the first time in situ microdiamonds in chromite from ophiolitic chromitite pods hosted in the Tehuitzingo serpentinite (southern Mexico). Here, diamonds occur as fracture-filling inclusions along with quartz, clinochlore, serpentine, and amorphous carbon, thus indicating a secondary origin during the shallow hydration of chromitite. Chromite chemical variations across the diamond-bearing healed fractures indicate formation during the retrograde evolution of chromitite at temperatures between 670 °C and 515 °C. During this stage, diamond precipitated metastably at low pressure from reduced C-O-H fluids that infiltrated from the host peridotite at the onset of serpentinization processes. Diamond was preserved as a result of fracture healing at the same temperature interval in which the chromite alteration began. These mechanisms of diamond formation challenge the idea that the occurrence of diamond in ophiolitic rocks constitutes an unequivocal indicator of ultrahigh-pressure conditions.
DS201909-2038
2019
Colas, V.Farre-de-Pblo, J., Proenza, J.A., Gonzalez-Jiminez, J.M., Garcia-Casco, A., Colas, V., Roque-Rosell, J., Camprubi, A., Sanchez-Navas, A.A shallow origin for diamonds in ophiolitic chromitites. Geology, Vol. 47, pp. e477-478.North America, Mexicomicrodiamonds

Abstract: Recent findings of diamonds in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites challenge our traditional notion of Earth mantle dynamics. Models attempting to explain these findings involve incorporation of diamonds into chromite near the mantle transition zone. However, the occurrence of metastable diamonds in this context has not been considered. Here, we report for the first time in situ microdiamonds in chromite from ophiolitic chromitite pods hosted in the Tehuitzingo serpentinite (southern Mexico). Here, diamonds occur as fracture-filling inclusions along with quartz, clinochlore, serpentine, and amorphous carbon, thus indicating a secondary origin during the shallow hydration of chromitite. Chromite chemical variations across the diamond-bearing healed fractures indicate formation during the retrograde evolution of chromitite at temperatures between 670 °C and 515 °C. During this stage, diamond precipitated metastably at low pressure from reduced C-O-H fluids that infiltrated from the host peridotite at the onset of serpentinization processes. Diamond was preserved as a result of fracture healing at the same temperature interval in which the chromite alteration began. These mechanisms of diamond formation challenge the idea that the occurrence of diamond in ophiolitic rocks constitutes an unequivocal indicator of ultrahigh-pressure conditions.
DS202008-1396
2020
Colas, V.Gonzales-Jiminez, J.M., Tassara, S., Schettino, E., Roque-Rosell, J., Farre-de-Pablo, J., Saunders, J.E., Deditius, A.P., Colas, V., Rovira-Medina, J.J., Guadalupe Davalos, M., Schilling, M., Jiminez-Franco, A., Marchesi, C., Nieto, F., Proenza, J.A., GerMineralogy of the HSE in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle - an interpretive review.Lithos, in press available, 44p. PdfMantleHSE

Abstract: The highly siderophile elements (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Re, Au) exist in solid solution in accessory base-metal sulfides (BMS) as well as nano-to-micron scale minerals in rocks of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The latter include platinum-group minerals (PGM) and gold minerals, which may vary widely in morphology, composition and distribution. The PGM form isolated grains often associated with larger BMS hosted in residual olivine, located at interstices in between peridotite-forming minerals or more commonly in association with metasomatic minerals (pyroxenes, carbonates, phosphates) and silicate glasses in some peridotite xenoliths. The PGM found inside residual olivine are mainly Os-, Ir- and Ru-rich sulfides and alloys. In contrast, those associated with metasomatic minerals or silicate glasses of peridotite xenoliths consist of Pt, Pd, and Rh bonded with semimetals like As, Te, Bi, and Sn. Nanoscale observations on natural samples along with the results of recent experiments indicate that nucleation of PGM is mainly related with the uptake of HSE by nanoparticles, nanominerals or nanomelts at high temperature (> 900?°C) in both silicate and/or sulfide melts, regardless of the residual or metasomatic origin of their host minerals. A similar interpretation can be assumed for gold minerals. Our observations highlight that nanoscale processes play an important role on the ore-forming potential of primitive mantle-derived magmas parental to magmatic-hydrothermal deposits enriched in noble metals. The metal inventory in these magmas could be related with the physical incorporation of HSE-bearing nanoparticles or nanomelts during processes of partial melting of mantle peridotite and melt migration from the mantle to overlying continental crust.
DS202010-1869
2020
Colas, V.Pujol-Sola, N., Garcia-Casco, A., Proenza, J.A., Gonzalez-Jiminez, J.M., del Camp, A., Colas, V., Canals, A., Sanchez-Navas, A., Roque-Rosell, J.Diamond forms during low pressure serpentinisation of oceanic lithosphere.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 7p. PdfCentral America, Cubadiamond genesis

Abstract: Diamond is commonly regarded as an indicator of ultra-high pressure conditions in Earth System Science. This canonical view is challenged by recent data and interpretations that suggest metastable growth of diamond in low pressure environments. One such environment is serpentinisation of oceanic lithosphere, which produces highly reduced CH4-bearing fluids after olivine alteration by reaction with infiltrating fluids. Here we report the first ever observed in situ diamond within olivine-hosted, CH4-rich fluid inclusions from low pressure oceanic gabbro and chromitite samples from the Moa-Baracoa ophiolitic massif, eastern Cuba. Diamond is encapsulated in voids below the polished mineral surface forming a typical serpentinisation array, with methane, serpentine and magnetite, providing definitive evidence for its metastable growth upon low temperature and low pressure alteration of oceanic lithosphere and super-reduction of infiltrated fluids. Thermodynamic modelling of the observed solid and fluid assemblage at a reference P-T point appropriate for serpentinisation (350 °C and 100 MPa) is consistent with extreme reduction of the fluid to logfO2 (MPa) = -45.3 (?logfO2[Iron-Magnetite] = -6.5). These findings imply that the formation of metastable diamond at low pressure in serpentinised olivine is a widespread process in modern and ancient oceanic lithosphere, questioning a generalised ultra-high pressure origin for ophiolitic diamond.
DS1970-0492
1972
Colchester, D.M.Colchester, D.M.A Preliminary Note on Kimberlite Occurrences in South Australia.Geological Society AUST. Journal, Vol. 19, PT. 3, PP. 383-386.AustraliaKimberlite, Diamond, Orroroo
DS1970-0493
1972
Colchester, D.M.Colchester, D.M.Final Report on Sml 573, Whyte-yarcowie, South AustraliaReport To Stockdale Exploration, Australia, South AustraliaDiamond, Kimberlite
DS1970-0650
1973
Colchester, D.M.Colchester, D.M., Oglesby, J.C., Pallett, J.J.Sml 706 Formerly Sml 307 Nackara South Australia Progress And Final Report from 25/5/72 to 24/5/73.South Australia Geological Survey, No. E 2046, 19P.Australia, South AustraliaProspecting, Bulk Sampling, Geochemistry
DS1970-0676
1973
Colchester, D.M.Everett, M.P., Colchester, D.M., Stracke, K.J., Pallett, T.J.El 18 Pualco West Area South Australia Progress Report and Final ReportsSouth Australia Geological Survey, No. E 2181, 21P.Australia, South Australia, Mununda CreekGeochemistry, Prospecting, Stream And Soil Sampling
DS1970-0755
1973
Colchester, D.M.Marx, W.T., Colchester, D.M., Stockdale prospecting ltd.El 17 Port Augusta Area South Australia Progress and Final Reports from October 1972 to April 1974.South Australia Geological Survey, No. E 2140, 29P.Australia, South Australia, Port Augusta, Egypt, CorraberraGeochemistry, Prospecting
DS1975-0981
1979
Colchester, D.M.Colchester, D.M.Geology and Petrology of Some South Australian KimberlitesB.m.r. Rec. Min. Res. Geol. Geophys., 1979/2, P. 13, (abstract.).Australia, South AustraliaKimberlite
DS202002-0170
2019
Coldebella, B.Coldebella, B.Intensive (P-T-fO2) crystallization paramenters of Alto Paranaiba kimberlites and diamond instability: Tres Ranchos IV and Limeira I intrusions. ***PortThesis, University of Sao Paulo, August 53p. pdfSouth America, Brazildeposit - Tres Rabchos IV and limeira I

Abstract: Temperature (T), Pressure (P) and Oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions were established for the Três Ranchos IV (diamond-bearing) and Limeira I (sterile) kimberlites of the Coromandel-Três Ranchos kimberlite field (Minas Gerais and Goiás, Brazil), Alto Paranaíba Alkaline Province (APAP), in order to draw a possible correlation between these intensive crystallization parameters and diamond instability. Both Três Ranchos IV and Limeira I are classified as coherent macrocrystic kimberlites, with an inequigranular texture formed by partially-to-fully altered olivine, phlogopite megacrysts up to 1 cm wide, macrocrysts (0.5-10 mm-sized), and crustal xenoliths set in a very fine groundmass composed mainly by perovskite, olivine, phlogopite, spinel, serpentine and carbonates identified in both intrusions. Apatite, ilmenite and monticellite are also present, but only in LM-I. Garnet macrocrysts and centimetric pyroxene xenocrysts phases are also present in Três Ranchos IV and Limeira I, respectively. The samples, strongly enriched in incompatible elements, are all MgO-rich, with high Mg# content. In order to apply different geotherm-and-oxybarometers in the calculation of P-T-fO2 conditions and to characterize the compositional variation of TR-IV and LM-I kimberlites, major, minor and trace-element concentrations of the main mineral phases were obtained by electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS. Olivine cores of Limeira I present higher NiO, CaO and lower Cr2O3 contents than those from Três Ranchos IV. Mg# [(Mg/Mg+FeT), mol.%) ranges from 87 to 92 mol.% in TR-IV and from 83 to 92 mol.% in LM-I. The trace-element contents of olivine are similar in both kimberlites, the concentrations of Li, Zn and Mn appearing to be higher at olivine rims. In olivines from both intrusions, a pattern of enrichment in Zr, Ga, Nb, Sc, V, P, Al, Ti, Cr, Ca, and Mn in rims regions, is observed in the "melt trend" whereas enrichment in Zn, Co, Ni and possibly Na in cores regions, is found in the "mantle trend." In monticellite specimens from Limeira I, Mg# ranges from 72 to 93.8, while Ca/(Ca+Mg) ratios range from 35 to 58 mol.%. The perovskite composition in both LM-I and TR-IV remains close to the ideal CaTiO3, perovskite, but a variation from core endmembers (average Lop16 and Prv78) towards the rims (average Lop13 and Prv81) can be noticed in TR-IV samples. The highest concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE), Nb, and Fe3+ are also observed in perovskites from the TR-IV kimberlite. Macrocrystic spinels of TR-IV kimberlite are Al-rich, whereas the groundmass crystals range from magnesiochromite to chromite. Ilmenites from LM-I are characterized by high MgO values at a given TiO2, with a large variation in Cr2O3. Pyrope garnets (62 to 73 mol.%) are present only in TR-IV, with Mg# ranging from 72 to 79 mol.%, being classified as lherzolitic (G9) and pyroxenitic (G4, G5). Diopside occurs as xenocrysts in LM-I and as microphenocrysts in TR-IV, with Mg# ranging from 85 to 91 and from 87 to 92, respectively. Xenocrystic diopsides from LM-I present higher MgO and FeO concentrations with monticellite grains along crystal rims and fractures. Temperature estimates for the LM-I kimberlite, obtained from the composition of diopside xenocrysts and Al-in olivine concentrations, ranging from 718 to 985 °C. Pressure ranges from 34 to 47 Kbar, as calculated using an empirical curve from a 37-mW/m2 geotherm proposed in the literature for Alto Paranaíba magmas. For TR-IV, temperature values ranging from 975 to 1270°C were obtained from Al-in olivine and Ni-in garnet concentrations. Pressures in the range from 18 to 34 Kbar were obtained from major element composition of garnet samples from TR-IV kimberlite. The fO2 of the TR-IV constrained by perovskite (kimberlite cognate phase) oxygen barometry ranges from NNO-7 to NNO+4, while for LM-I values range from NNO+6 to NNO-4. For the LM-I intrusion, monticellite, another cognate phase used as an oxybarometer, yielded a value range of NNO-4 to NNO+2. A change in the oxygen fugacity from cores towards rim recorded in the perovskites and the monticellite crystals is also noticed. The oxygen fugacity estimates of this work are the first ever calculated for magmas of the Alto Paranaíba Alkaline Province. All P-T-fO2 values obtained are consistent with literature data on the APAP. Clinopyroxene xenocrysts from LM-I were classified as garnet-facies clinopyroxene, according to the compositions obtained in this work. Such results, along with pressure, and temperature data from and the presence of Mg-ilmenite in LM-I (known to be sterile), indicate that the kimberlite magma might have at least crossed the diamond stability field. The variation in oxygen fugacity observed in both kimberlites possibly reflects the instability of diamonds in these magmas since LM-I presents slightly higher oxidation conditions.
DS202007-1134
2020
Coldebella, B.Coldebella, B., Azzone, R.G., Chmyz, L., Ruberti, E., Svisero, D.P.Oxygen fugacity of Alto Paranaiba kimberlites and diamond stability: Tres Ranchos IV and Limeira I intrusions.Brazilian Journal of Geology, Vol. 50, 1, 15p.South America, Brazildeposit - Tres Ranchos IV

Abstract: Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) conditions were established for Três Ranchos IV (TR-IV, diamond-bearing) and Limeira I (LM-I, barren) kimberlite intrusions, in Alto Paranaíba Alkaline Province, to constrain a possible correlation between fO2 and diamond instability. Temperature and pressure estimates obtained from the xenocryst assemblage composition are compatible up to garnet lherzolite levels. It suggests that both intrusions could cross the diamond-stability field. The ƒO2 of the TR-IV constrained by perovskite oxygen barometry presents an average value of -2.4 for ?NNO, with standard deviation of 1.30 (n = 120), whereas those calculations for LM-I have an average value of -1.31 for ?NNO, with standard deviation of 1.38 (n = 81). Considering these uncertainties, there is an important superposition of fO2 values for both intrusions, in which there is higher tendency of more reduced conditions for TR-IV. For the LM-I, an oxybarometer based on the composition of monticellite yielded a similar ?NNO range: -4.2 and +2.5. Some crystals and samples present trends towards more reduced conditions, while others display more oxidized conditions for each intrusion. Due to the superposition of ranges and absence of a preferential trend, the influence of fO2 for the possible instability of diamonds in the study area remains uncertain.
DS200912-0341
2009
ColeJones, A.G., Evans, Muller, Hamilton, Miensopust, Garcia, Cole, Ngwisanyi, Hutchins, Stoffel Fourie, Jelsma, Aravanis, Petit, Webb, WasborgArea selection for diamonds using magnetotellurics: examples from southern Africa.Lithos, In press - available 35p.Africa, South Africa, BotswanaGeophysics - magnetotellurics
DS200912-0522
2009
ColeMuller, M.R., Jones, Evans, Grutter, Hatton, Garcia, Hamilton, Miensopust, Cole, Ngwisanyi, Hutchins, Fourie, Jelsma,Aravanis.Pettit, Webb, WasborgLithospheric structure, evolution and diamond prospectivity of the Rehoboth Terrane and western Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa: constraints from broadbandLithos, In press - available 57p..Africa, South Africa, BotswanaGeophysics - broadband magnetotellurics
DS2001-1274
2001
Cole, A.Yakubchuk, A., Seltmann, R., Shatov, V., Cole, A.The Altoids: tectonic evolution and metallogenySeg Newsletter, No. 46, July pp. 1, 7-14.Europe, Siberia, Russia, ChinaCraton, Tectonics
DS2002-1755
2002
Cole, A.Yakubchuk, A., Cole, A., Seltmann, R., Shatov, V.Tectonic setting, characteristics and regional exploration criteria for gold mineralization...Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication, No.9,pp.177-201.China, Tien ShanOrogeny - Altaid orogenic collage, key example, Deposit - lists
DS200512-0773
2005
Cole, B.Ndumbe, J.A., Cole, B.The illicit diamond trade, civil conflicts, and terrorism in Africa.Mediterranean Quarterly, Duke University Press, Vol. 16, 2, Spring, pp. 52-65.AfricaNews item - conflict diamonds
DS201907-1535
2019
Cole, B.G.Cole, B.G., Andrews, G.D.M., Brown, S.R., Prellwitz, H.The Masontown kimberlite, Fayette County, Pennsylvania: insights into emplacement processes by the characterization of xenocryst sizes and shapes using computed tomography.Joint 53rd Annual South-Central/53rd North Central/71st Rocky Mtn GSA section Meeting, Vol. 331 United States, Pennsylvaniadeposit - Masontown

Abstract: The late Jurassic Masontown dyke in Fayette County, SW Pennsylvania, preserves abundant rounded, mm to cm-diameter masses of olivine and serpentine cemented together in serpentine-rich kimberlite groundmass. Each mass is interpreted to be a partially serpentinized olivine xenocryst or peridotite xenocryst. Each rounded clast is jacketed by a distinct rim of serpentine; probably originally olivine. The (1) ubiquitous roundness of clasts and (2) the presence of distinct serpentine jackets around each clast, supports emplacement of the dyke by a 'kimberlite factory' (Brett et al., 2015). Due to the paucity of available samples, we have used non-destructive imaging by computed tomography (CT) at the National Energy Technology Lab in Morgantown, WV, to construct 3D models of the internal structure of hand samples loaned from the Smithsonian Institute's Museum of Natural History. MicroCT (1-3 micron resolution) and industrial CT (~15 microns resolution) serial scans processed in ImageJ and Blob3D allow for 3D characterizations of individual clasts, including their shape factors (sphericity, roughness, etc.) and sizes (i.e. crystal size distributions).
DS201907-1523
2019
Cole, B.G..Andrews, G.D.M., Russell, J.K., Cole, B.G.., Brown, S.R.The kimberlite factory: the volcanic nature of kimberlites.Joint 53rd Annual South-Central/53rd North Central/71st Rocky Mtn GSA section Meeting, 1p. AbstractMantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Although traditionally considered the realm of igneous petrologists and geochemists, kimberlites have received attention from physical volcanologists interested in how they are emplaced in the crust and how they can erupt. This presentation will review the evidence for the volcaniclastic (i.e. fragmental) nature of kimberlites from examples in Canada's Northwest Territories and in Pennsylvania. A growing body of evidence indicates that kimberlite magmas are gas-dominated (overwhelmingly CO2) suspensions of molten kimberlite liquid and crystals, usually olivines. The olivines, like other mineral phases and xenoliths, are entrained from the surrounding mantle peridotite wall-rock, rather than crystallized from the meager kimberlite liquid, and are, therefore, overwhelmingly xenocrystic. This crystal and rock fragment load is sampled and mechanically processed by a turbulent gas-jet before being immersed in a bath of kimberlite liquid: this is the kimberlite factory. As the gas-charged crack-tip propagates and ascends, new mantle is processed into the kimberlite factory. Each emplacement event records the passage of a kimberlite factory through the mantle and lithosphere. The Masontown kimberlite in Pennsylvania is a solitary hypabyssal kimberlite dyke but it preserves evidence of the passage of a single kimberlite factory. Although many kimberlites stall in the crust, many erupt explosively to produce indisputably volcaniclastic kimberlite lithofacies associated with diatremes. Open-pit mining of several diatremes in Canada reveals the complex temporal-spatial nature of different emplacement events within the same volcanic field, and the ubiquitous presence of hypabyssal kimberlite dykes that fed or attempted to feed explosive eruptions. Such explosive eruptions sustained tephra plumes that produced kimberlite fall deposits and pyroclastic density currents that produced kimberlite ignimbrites; both of which exited their source diatremes and inundated the surrounding landscape.
DS1975-1250
1979
Cole, D.Van vuuren, C., Cole, D., Stettler, E.The Lichtenburg Diamond Bearing Gravels. Some ObservationsGeological Survey of South Africa, UNPUBL. ReportSouth AfricaGeology
DS1990-0343
1990
Cole, G.Cole, G., MacInnes, S., Miller, J.Conversion of contoured topography to digital terrain dataComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 101-110GlobalProgram, Contoured topography
DS1990-0344
1990
Cole, G.H.A.Cole, G.H.A.Early physical conditions of the planets and satellitesSurveys in Geophysics, Vol. 11, pp. 1-54.GlobalSolar system, Geodynamics
DS1985-0061
1985
Cole, G.P.Berendsen, P., Cullers, R.L., Mansker, W.L., Cole, G.P.Late Cretaceous Kimberlite and Lamproite Occurrences in Eastern Kansas, United States (us)Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 3, FEBRUARY P. 151. (abstract.).United States, Kansas, Central States, WilsonWinkler Crater, Rose Dome, Occurrences
DS1985-0409
1985
Cole, G.P.Mansker, W.L., Richards, B.D., Cole, G.P.A Review and Comparison of Known and Recently Discovered Kimberlites in the Riley County, Kansas District.Preprint Paper Geological Society of America (gsa) Southeastern Section- Arkans, 22P.United States, Central States, KansasKimberlite Occurrences, Geology, Age, Geophysics, Magnetic
DS1985-0410
1985
Cole, G.P.Mansker, W.L., Richards, B.D., Cole, G.P.A Review and Comparison of Kansas KimberlitesGeological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 3, P. 166. (abstract.).United States, Kansas, Central StatesWinkler, Stockdale, Bala
DS1987-0434
1987
Cole, G.P.Mansker, W.L., Richards, B.D., Cole, G.P.A note on newly discovered kimberlites in Riley County, KansasMantle metasomatism and alkaline magmatism, edited E. Mullen Morris and, No. 215, pp. 197-205KansasGeophysics
DS201412-0133
2014
Cole, J.Cole, J., Webb, S.J., Finn, C.A.Gravity models of the Bushveld Complex - have we come full circle?Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 92, pp. 97-118.Africa, South AfricaGeophysics
DS1989-0166
1989
Cole, J.C.Braddock, W.A., Cole, J.C., Eggler, D.H.Geologic map of the Diamond Peak Quadrangle, LarimerCounty, Colorado and Albany County, WyomingUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Map, GQ No. 1614, 1: 24, 000 $ 3.60Colorado, WyomingMap
DS200512-0177
2005
Cole, J.W.Cole, J.W., Milner, D.M., Spinks, K.D.Calderas and caldera structure: a review.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 69, 1-2, pp. 1-26.GlobalCalderas
DS1975-0718
1978
Cole, M.M.Cole, M.M., Leroex, H.D.The Role of Geobotany, Biogeochemistry and Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration in Southwest Africa and Botswana. a Case History.Geological Society of South Africa Transactions, Vol. 81, No. 3, PP. 277-317.Southwest Africa, Namibia, BotswanaDiamond, Sampling
DS1970-0189
1970
Cole, T.J.S.Shafiqullah, M., Tupper, W.M., Cole, T.J.S.Potassium-argon Age of the Carbonatite Complex, Oka, QuebecCanadian Mineralogist., Vol. 10, PP. 541-552.Canada, QuebecGeochronology
DS1960-0227
1962
Cole, V.B.Cole, V.B.Precambrian Basement Rock Types in Mid-continent RegionAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin., Vol. 46, No. 2, P. 272. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1975-0260
1976
Cole, V.B.Cole, V.B.Configuration of the Top of Precambrian Rocks in KansasKansas Geological Survey Map, M-7, 1: 500, 000.KansasMid-continent
DS1940-0056
1942
Cole, W.F.Prider, R.T., Cole, W.F.The Alteration Products of Olivine and Leucite in the Leucite Lamproites from the West Kimberley Area, Western Australia.American Mineralogist., Vol. 27, PP. 496-501.AustraliaLeucite, Lamproite
DS1989-1248
1989
Cole, W.H.Raab, G.A., Enwall, R.E., Cole, W.H., Kuharic, C.A., Duggan, J.S.Fast analysis of heavy metals in contaminated soils using field -portable X-ray fluorescence technology and geostatisticsPreprint from Northwest Mining Association 95th. Annual Meeting held Dec., 19pGlobalGeostatistics, X-ray fluorescence Heavy metals
DS1860-0852
1894
Coleman, A.P.Lawson, A.C., Coleman, A.P.Diamonds Might Be Found in the Rainy Lakes RegionCanadian Naturalist., N.S. Vol. IV, PP. 61-63.Canada, OntarioDiamond Occurrence
DS200412-0672
2004
Coleman, D.S.Glazner, A.F., Bartley, J.M., Coleman, D.S., Gray, W., Taylor, R.Z.Are plutons assembled over millions of years by amalgamation from small magma chambers?Geology Today, Vol. 14, 4, pp. 4-11.TechnologyMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS201605-0821
2016
Coleman, D.S.Coleman, D.S., Mills, R.D., Zimmerer, M.J.Enigmatic relationship between silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks: the pace of plutonism.Elements, Vol. 12, pp. 97-102.TechnologyMagmatism
DS201610-1864
2016
Coleman, D.S.Glazner, A.F., Bartley, J.M., Coleman, D.S.We need a new definition of magma.EOS Transaction of AGU, Sept. 22, 3p.TechnologyDefinition of magma
DS1860-0203
1873
Coleman, J.B.Coleman, J.B.Life in the Diamond Fields (1873)Harper's New Monthly Magazine., Vol. 46, No. 273, PP. 321-336.Africa, South Africa, Cape Province, Vaal RiverTravelogue
DS1993-0613
1993
Coleman, J.L. Jr.Hale-Erlich, W.S., Coleman, J.L. Jr.Ouachita-Appalachian juncture:a Paleozoic transpressional zone in the southeastern United States (US)American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 4, April, pp. 552-568ArkansasStructure, Gondwana, North American Craton
DS1994-0326
1994
Coleman, M.L.Coleman, M.L., Curtis, C.D., Turner, G.Quantifying sedimentary geochemical processesOxford University Press, 180pGlobalSedimentary geochemistry, Book -ad
DS2000-0164
2000
Coleman, P.Coleman, P.Superconductivity: on the verge of MagnetismNature, Vol. 406, No. 6796, Aug.10, pp. 580-2.MantleGeophysics - magnetics
DS1975-0826
1978
Coleman, P.J.Nixon, P.H., Coleman, P.J.Garnet Bearing Lherzolites and Discrete Nodule Suites from The Malaita Alnoite, Solomon Islands and Their Bearing on The Nature and Origin of the Ontong Java Plateau.Aust. Society of Exploration Geophysics Bulletin., Vol. 9, No. 3, AUGUST PP. 103-107.GlobalMineralogy
DS1960-0330
1963
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G., Lee, D.E.Glaucophane Bearing Metamorphic Rock Types of the Cazadero Area, California.Journal of PETROLOGY, Vol. 4, PP. 260-301.United States, California, West CoastBlank
DS1960-0529
1965
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G., Lee, D.E., Beatty, L.B., Brannock, W.W.Eclogites and Eclogites -- their Differences and SimilaritieGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 76, No. 5, PP. 483-508.GlobalEclogites
DS1960-0812
1967
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G.Low Temperature Reaction Zones and Alpine Ultramafic Rocks Of California, Oregon and Washington.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 1247, 49P.United States, California, Oregon, Washington, West Coast, Rocky MountainsEclogite
DS1970-0263
1971
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G., Lanphere, M.A.Distribution and Age of High-grade Blueschists, Associated Eclogites and Amphibolites from Oregon and California.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 82, No. 9, PP. 2397-2412.GlobalEclogite
DS1970-0691
1973
Coleman, R.G.Ghent, E.D., Coleman, R.G.Eclogites from Southwestern OregonGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 84, No. 8, PP. 2471-2488.United States, California, West CoastBlank
DS1970-0692
1973
Coleman, R.G.Ghent, E.D., Peterman, Z.E., Coleman, R.G.Sr 87/ Sr 86, Potassium, Sodium, Rubidium, and Strontium in SOME ECLOGITES and ASSOCIATED BASALTS from CALIFORNIA and SOUTHWESTERN OREGON.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Journal of RES., Vol. 1, No. 6, PP. 643-647.United States, California, Oregon, West CoastEclogites, Basalts, Strontium
DS1984-0795
1984
Coleman, R.G.Zhang, ZH.M., Liu, J.G., Coleman, R.G.An Outline of the Plate Tectonics of ChinaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 95, PP. 295-312. ALSO: Vol. 96, No. 3, PP. 407-408.ChinaGeotectonics, Regional Structure
DS1991-1337
1991
Coleman, R.G.Peters, T.J., Nicolas, A., Coleman, R.G.Ophiolite genesis and evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Proceedings of conference held Oman Jan. 7-18, 1990Kluwer Publ, 900pOman, East Pacific Rise, Cyprus, Japan, Morocco, NewfoundlandOphiolites, genesis, mantle, magmatic, hydrothermal, tecton, Table of contents
DS1995-0335
1995
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G., Wang, X.Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism: Cambridge topics in petrologyCambridge University of Press, 528p. approx. $ 80.00 United StatesGlobalBook review, Petrology -ultrahigh pressure
DS1995-0336
1995
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G., Wang, X.Ultrahigh pressure metamorphismCambridge University of Press, 528p. approx. 80. United StatesGlobalMetamorphism - ultra high pressure metamorphic., Diamonds, coesite
DS1995-0337
1995
Coleman, R.G.Coleman, R.G., Wang, X.Overview of the geology and tectonics of ultra high pressure metamorphicCambridge University of Press, pp. 1-33.GlobalMetamorphism - ultra high pressure metamorphic., Tectonics
DS1995-0426
1995
Coleman, R.G.Dobretsov, N.L., Coleman, R.G., Ernst, W.G.Geotectonic evolution of diamond bearing paragneisses in the Kokchetav complex of northern Kazakhstan.Eos, Abstracts, Vol. 76, No. 17, Apr 25, p. S 291.Russia, KazakhstanParagneiss, Diamond
DS1995-0513
1995
Coleman, R.G.Ernst, W.G., Liou, J.G., Coleman, R.G.Comparative petrotectonic study of five Eurasian ultrahigh pressure metamorphic complexes.International Geology Review, Vol. 37, pp. 191-211.China, Kazakhstan, Russia, Alps, NorwayDabie Sulu, Kochetetav, Maksyutov, Dora Maira, Coesite, diamond
DS1995-2136
1995
Coleman, R.G.Zhang, R.Y., Liou, J.G., Ernst, W.G., Coleman, R.G., et al.Metamorphic evolution of diamond bearing rocks and eclogite from the Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan #1Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 687-689.Russia, KazakhstanEclogite, Metamorphic
DS2002-1049
2002
Coleman, R.G.Merbom, A., Sleep, N.H., Chamberlain, C.P., Coleman, R.G., Frei, R., HrenRe Os isotopic evidence for long lived heterogeneity and equilibration processes in Earth's upper mantle.Nature, No. 6900, Oct. 17, pp. 705-7.MantleGeochronology
DS1997-0200
1997
Coleman-Sadd, S.P.Coleman-Sadd, S.P., Ash, J.S., Nolan, L.W.GeoLegend: a database system for managing geological map units in a geographic information systemComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 23, No. 7, pp. 715-724GlobalComputers, Program - GeoLegend
DS1992-1548
1992
Coles, B.Thompson, M., Hale, M., Coles, B.Geochemical reconnaissance using stream-sediment pebble coatings and laser ablation ICP-AESTransactions Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM), Vol. 100, pp. B9-B14GlobalGeochemistry, ICP-AES
DS1981-0121
1981
Coles, R.L.Coles, R.L., Haines, G.V., Hannaford, W.Broad Scale Magnetic Anomalies Over Central and Eastern Canada: a Discussion.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, PP. 657-661.Canada, OntarioMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1982-0143
1982
Coles, R.L.Coles, R.L., Clark, J.F.Lake St. Martin Impact Structure, Manitoba, Canada: Magnetic Anomalies and Magnetizations.Journal of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, Vol. 87, No. B 8, PP. 7087-7095.GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics, Magnetic
DS200612-0848
2006
Coles, S.G.Mader, H.M., Coles, S.G., Connor, C.B., Connor, L.J.Statistics in volcanology. Guide to modern statistical methods applied to volcanology.Geological Society of London, IAVCEI Publication, Oct. 296p.TechnologyBook - volcanology
DS1860-0034
1867
Colesberg AdvertiserColesberg AdvertiserDiamanten En ZilverColesberg Advertiser., JULY 30TH.Africa, South AfricaHistory, Diamonds
DS1860-0035
1867
Colesberg AdvertiserColesberg AdvertiserNelly Jacobs, the Little Diamond FinderColesberg Advertiser., JULY 30TH.Africa,South AfricaHistory, Diamonds
DS1860-0036
1867
Colesberg AdvertiserColesberg AdvertiserDiamond Mining De KalkColesberg Advertiser., JULY 16TH.Africa, South AfricaHistory
DS1860-0074
1869
Colesberg AdvertiserColesberg AdvertiserDe Diamanten RothchildsColesberg Advertiser., JANUARY 5TH.Africa, South AfricaHistory
DS1998-1330
1998
ColganShee, S.R., Vercoe, S.C., Wyatt, B.A., Campbell, ColganDiscovery and geology of the Nabberu kimberlite province, WesternAustralia.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 800-2.AustraliaHistory, methodology, petrography, Deposit - Nabberu Province
DS1999-0660
1999
ColganShee, S.R., Vercoe, Wyatt, Hwang, Campbell, ColganDiscovery and geology of the Nabberu kimberlite province, western Australia. Capicorn Orogeny7th International Kimberlite Conference Nixon, Vol. 2, pp. 764-72.Australia, Western AustraliaMineral chemistry, melnoites. SiroteM., Deposit - Nabberu - microdiamonds
DS2001-0222
2001
ColganCutler, P.M., Mickelson, Colgan, Macyeal, ParizekInfluence of the Great Lakes on the dynamics of the southern Laurentide ice sheet: numerical experiments.Geology, Vol. 29, No. 11, Nov. pp. 1039-42.Ontario, Michigan, WisconsinGeomorphology, Glacial flow
DS1982-0144
1982
Colgan, E.A.Colgan, E.A.The Petrology of Olivine Melilitites from Natal, South AfricProceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, P. 205, (abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Petrography, Diatreme
DS1986-0145
1986
Colgan, E.A.Colgan, E.A., Allsopp, H.L.Geological setting, petrography and petrogenesis of olivineme lilitites on the Natal coast, South AfricaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 115-117South AfricaPetrography
DS1988-0645
1988
Colgan, E.A.Smith, C.B., Colgan, E.A., Hawthorn, J.B., Hutchinson, G.Emplacement age of the Cross kimberlite, southeastern british Columbia by the Rb Sr phlogopite method.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 25, pp. 79-92.British ColumbiaGeochronology, deposit - Cross
DS1989-0276
1989
Colgan, E.A.Colgan, E.A., Clark, T.C., Bristow, J.W., Allsopp, H.Geological setting, petrography and petrogenesis of olivine melilitites Of the Natal coast, South AfricaGeological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 1, pp. 419-435South AfricaMelilitite, Petrology
DS1991-0384
1991
Colgan, E.A.Dobbs, P.N., Duncan, D.J., Hu, S., Shee, S.R., Colgan, E.A., BrownThe geology of the Mengyin kimberlites, Shandong, ChinaProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 76-78ChinaDiamond exploration, Mineral sampling
DS1994-0434
1994
Colgan, E.A.Dobbs, P.N., Duncan, D.J., Hu, S., Shee, S.R., Colgan, E.A., BrownThe geology of the Mengyin kimberlites, Shandong ChinaProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 40-61.ChinaKimberlite, Deposit -Mengyin
DS1998-1309
1998
Colgan, E.A.Seggie, A.G., Hannweg, G.W., Colgan, E.A., Smith, C.B.Geology and geochemistry of the Venetia kimberlite cluster, northernProvince, South Africa.7th. Kimberlite Conference abstract, pp. 775-7.South AfricaGeology, petrography, mineral chemistry, Deposit - Venetia cluster
DS1999-0646
1999
Colgan, E.A.Seggie, A.G., Hannweg, G.W., Colgan, E.A., Smith, C.B.The geology and geochemistry of the Venetia kimberlite cluster: northern province South Africa.7th International Kimberlite Conference Nixon, Vol. 2, pp. 750-56.South Africa, ZimbabweGeology, geochemistry, mineral analyses, Group I, Deposit - Venetia, River Ranch
DS1996-1564
1996
Colgan, J.J.Wyatt, B.A., Colgan, J.J., Smit, E.A., De Bels, M.Some aspects of the petrology and mineral chemistry of the Ningxianglamproites, Hunan Province.International Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 400.ChinaLamproites, Petrology, geochemistry
DS1998-1598
1998
Colgan..Wyatt, B.A., Wenyun, M., Ziyun, L., Joyce, J., Colgan..The Ningxiang lamproites, Hunan Province, China: petrology and mineralchemistry.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 965-7.China, Hunan ProvinceLamproites, Petrography, mineral chemistry
DS1993-0097
1993
Colin, F.Beauvais, A., Colin, F.Formation and transformation processes of iron duricrust systems intropical humid environmentChemical Geology, Vol. 106, No. 1-2, May 5, pp. 77-102GlobalWeathering, Laterites
DS1994-0216
1994
Colin, F.Brown, E.T., Bourles, D.I., Colin, F., et al.The development of iron crust lateritic systems in Burkin a Faso: examine din situ produced cosmogenic nuclidesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 124, No. 1/4, June pp. 19-34Burkina Faso, West AfricaLaterites, Duricrust
DS1998-0265
1998
Coliston, W.P.Coliston, W.P., Schoch, A.E.Tectonostratigraphic features along the Orange River in the western part of Mesoproterozoic Namaqua mobile beltSouth African Journal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 2, June pp. 91-100.South AfricaStratigraphy - not specific to diamonds, Orange River
DS1986-0492
1986
CollersonLewry, J.F., Collerson, Bickford, Van SchmusAn evolutionary model of the Western Churchill Province and western Margin of the Superior Province and north central United States.Tectonophysics, Vol. 131, pp. 183-97.Saskatchewan, Alberta, MontanaTectonics
DS1988-0136
1988
Collerson, K.Collerson, K., Hearm, B.C., Macdonald, R.A., Upton, B.F., Park, J.G.Granulite xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains,Montana: constraints on the character and evolution of lower continental crustTerra Cognita, Eclogite conference, Vol. 8, No. 3, Summer, p. 270. AbstractMontanaXenoliths, Bearpaw Mountains
DS201112-0195
2011
Collerson, K.Collerson, K., Williams, Q., Ewart, A.E., Murphy, D.Generation of HIMU and EM-1 reservoirs by CO2 fluxed lower mantle melting: implications for OIBs, kimberlites and carbonatites.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.689.MantleConvection, geochronology
DS1970-0840
1973
Collerson, K.D.Tucker, D.H., Collerson, K.D.Lamprophyric Intrusions of Probable Carbonatitic Affinity from South australia.Geological Society AUST. Journal, Vol. 29, PP. 387-391.AustraliaKimberlite
DS1970-0891
1974
Collerson, K.D.Cawthorn, R.G., Collerson, K.D.The Recalculation of Pyroxene End Member Parameters and The estimation of Ferrous and Ferric Iron Content from Electron microprobe Analyses.American MINERALOGIST., Vol. 59, PP. 1203-1208.GlobalMineral Chemistry
DS1975-0261
1976
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D.Kimberlite Occurrences, Saglek, LabradorGeological Survey of Canada (GSC) MAP, UNPUBL.Canada, Quebec, LabradorDistribution, Localities
DS1975-0482
1977
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Malpas, J.Partial Melts in Upper Mantle Nodules from Labrador Kimberlites.International Kimberlite Conference SECOND., EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME.Canada, Quebec, LabradorBlank
DS1986-0146
1986
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Shertaon, J.W.Age and geochemical characteristics of a mafic dyke swarm in the Archean vestfold block Antarctica- inferences about Proterozoic dyke emplacement inGondwanaJournal of Petrology, Vol. 27, No. 4, August pp. 853-886AntarcticaGondwana, Geochemistry, Dykes
DS1987-0110
1987
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Shirey, S.D.The early Proterozoic Mt. Weld carbonatite: implications for mantle Strontium, neodymium, and lead isotopic evolution of subcontinental lithosphere beneath the Yilgarnblock, WesternEos, abstractAustraliaCarbonatite
DS1989-0222
1989
Collerson, K.D.Carolan, J.M., Collerson, K.D.Structural evolution and tectonic significance of the Early Proterozoic Virgin River shear zone, northwest Saskatchewan:implications for relations between Rae and Hearne cratonsEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1310. AbstractSaskatchewanTectonics, Craton
DS1989-0277
1989
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D.The character and evolution of lower continental crust: a reviewGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Program Abstracts, Vol. 14, p. A101. (abstract.)GlobalTectonics, Kapuskasing Lithoprobe
DS1989-0278
1989
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D.samarium-neodymium (Sm-Nd) isotopic restraints on the age of buried Precambrian basement In central and southernSaskatchewan: implications for diamond explorationSaskatchewan Geological Survey Summary of Investigations for 1989, Report No. 89-4, pp. 168-171SaskatchewanGeochronology, Exploration
DS1989-0279
1989
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., MacDonald, R.A., Upton, B.G.J., Harmon, R.S.Composition and evolution of lower continental crust:evidence from xenoliths in Eocene lavas from the Bearpaw Mountains, MontanaNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 57. AbstractMontanaXenoliths
DS1989-0280
1989
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., McCulloch, M.T., Nutman, A.P.Strontium and neodymium isotope systematics of polymetamorphic Archean gneisses from southern West Greenland, LabradorCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 446-66.Greenland, LabradorGeochronology
DS1989-0608
1989
Collerson, K.D.Hearn, B.C.Jr., Collerson, K.D., MacDonald, R.A., Upton, B.G.J.Mantle crustal lithosphere of north central Montana,USA: evidence fromxenolithsNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 125. AbstractMontanaXenoliths
DS1990-0201
1990
Collerson, K.D.Bickford, M.E., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F., Van Schmus, W.R.Proterozoic collisional tectonism in the Trans-Hudsonorogen, SaskatchewanGeology, Vol. 18, No. 1, January pp. 14-18SaskatchewanProterozoic, Tectonics
DS1990-0202
1990
Collerson, K.D.Bickford, M.E., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F., Van Schmus, W.R.Proterozoic collisional tectonism in the Trans-Hudson orogen SaskatchewanGeology, Vol. 18, No. 1, January pp. 14-18SaskatchewanTectonics, Craton, orogeny
DS1990-0345
1990
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F., Bickford, M.E., Van Schmus, W.R.Crustal evolution of the buried Precambrian of southern Saskatchewan:implications for diamond explorationModern Exploration Techniques, editors L.S. Beck, C.T. Harper, Saskatchewan, pp. 150-165SaskatchewanGeochronology, Alkaline rocks -potassic suites
DS1991-0278
1991
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Campbell, Weaver, PalaczEvidence for extreme mantle fractionation in early Archean ultramafic rocks from northern Labrador.Nature, Vol. 349, No. 6306, Jan. 17, pp. 209-214.Labrador, QuebecUltramafic rocks
DS1991-0694
1991
Collerson, K.D.Hearn, B.C.Jr., Collerson, K.D., Upton, B.G.J., Macdonald, R.A.Ancient enriched upper mantle beneath north-central Montana: evidence fromxenolithsGuidebook of the Central Montana Alkalic Province, ed. Baker, D.W., Berg. R., No. 100, pp. 133-135. extended abstractMontanaMantle, xenoliths
DS1991-1245
1991
Collerson, K.D.Nutman, A.P., Collerson, K.D.Very early Archean crustal accretion complexes preserved in the North Atlantic cratonGeology, Vol. 19, No. 8, August, pp. 791-794Greenland, LabradorCraton, Geochronology
DS1992-0123
1992
Collerson, K.D.Bickford, M.E., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F.Subduction of Superior craton during Trans-Hudson collisional orogenesis:isotopic evidenceEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p. 322SaskatchewanLithoprobe, Seismic studies
DS1992-0970
1992
Collerson, K.D.Macdonald, R., Upton, B.G.J., Collerson, K.D., Hearn, B.C.Potassic mafic lavas of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana-mineralogy, chemistry and origin ( review)Journal of Petrology, Vol. 33, No. 2, April pp. 305-346MontanaPotassic magmatism, Bearpaw Mountains
DS1992-1670
1992
Collerson, K.D.Williams, R.W., Collerson, K.D., Gill, J.B., Deniel, C.High Th/U ratios in subcontinental lithospheric mantle: mass spectrometric measurement of Th isotopes in Gaussberg lamproitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 111, No. 2-4, July pp. 257-268MantleGeochronology, Lamproites
DS1993-0272
1993
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Scherer, E.E., MacDonald, R.The evolution of Wyoming craton lower crust: uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) shrimp and neodymium-Sr isotopic evidence for middle Archean and Early Proterozoic events.The Xenolith window into the lower crust, abstract volume and workshop, p. 4.MontanaCraton
DS1993-0298
1993
Collerson, K.D.Crocker, C.H., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F.samarium-neodymium (Sm-Nd)-uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb), rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) geochronology and lithostructural relationships in thePrecambrian Research, Vol. 61, No. 1-2, February pp. 27-50Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, AlbertaGeochronology, Rae Province
DS1994-0156
1994
Collerson, K.D.Bickford, M.E., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F.Crustal history of Rae, Hearne provinces, southwest Canadian Shield: constraints from geochronologic, isotopic dataPrecambrian Research, Vol. 68, No. 1/2, June pp. 1-22SaskatchewanGeochronology, Craton -Rae, Herne
DS1994-0157
1994
Collerson, K.D.Bickford, M.E., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F.Crustal history of the Rae and Hearne provinces, constraints from geochronologic and isotopic data.Precambrian Research, Vol. 68, No. 1-2, June pp. 1-22.SaskatchewanTectonics, Geochronology Rae, Hearne
DS1995-0338
1995
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D.143 neodymium-142 neodymium systematics of early Archean rocks from northern Labrador-implications for evol. craton.Eos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F687. Abstract.LabradorAlkaline rocks, Craton -North Atlantic
DS1995-0593
1995
Collerson, K.D.Gasparon, M., Collerson, K.D., et al.A new kimberlite field in the Archean of West GreenlandEos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F643. Abstract.GreenlandKimberlites, Deposit -Nuuk area (south)
DS1996-1169
1996
Collerson, K.D.Regelous, M., Collerson, K.D.Sm neodymium systematics of Early Archean rocks and implications for crust mantleevolution.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta ., Vol. 60, No. 18, Sept. pp. 3513-20.Labrador, MantleGeochronology, North Atlantic Craton
DS2000-0165
2000
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Hapugoda, S., Williams, Q.Rocks from mantle transition zone: majorite bearing xenoliths from MalaitaScience, Vol. 288, No. 5469, May 19, pp. 1215-22.GlobalMantle - xenoliths
DS2000-0462
2000
Collerson, K.D.Kamber, B.S., Collerson, K.D.The role of hidden deeply subducted slabs in mantle depletionChemical Geology, Vol. 166, No. 3-4, May 22, pp. 241-54.MantleSubduction, Slabs
DS2002-0802
2002
Collerson, K.D.Kamber, B.S., Ewart, A., Collerson, K.D., Bruce, M.C., McDonald, G.D.Fluid mobile trace element constraints on the role of slab melting and implications for Archean crustal growth models.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 144, 1, Oct. pp. 38-56.CrustSubduction, Tectonics
DS2002-1115
2002
Collerson, K.D.Murphy, D.T., Collerson, K.D., Kamber, B.S.Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antartica: possible transition zone melts of Archean subducted sediments.Journal of Petrology, Vol.43,6,pp.981-1002.AntarcticaLamproites, Petrology
DS2002-1116
2002
Collerson, K.D.Murphy, D.T., Collerson, K.D., Kamber, B.S.Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antarctica: possible transition zone melts of Archean subducted sediments.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 981-1001.AntarcticaLamproites, sampling, major element chemistry, Geochemistry, isotope, melting environment
DS2002-1424
2002
Collerson, K.D.Schoenberg, R., Kamber, B.S., Collerson, K.D., Moorbath, S.Tungsten isotope evidence from ~3.8 Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth.Nature, Vol. 418, July 25, pp. 403-5.MantleMeteorites
DS2003-0682
2003
Collerson, K.D.Kamber, B.S., Greig, A., Schoenberg, R., Collerson, K.D.A refined solution to Earth's hidden niobium: implications for evolution of continentalPrecambrian Research, Vol. 126, 3-4, Oct. pp.289-308.MantleGeochemistry - niobium
DS200412-0943
2003
Collerson, K.D.Kamber, B.S., Greig, A., Schoenberg, R., Collerson, K.D.A refined solution to Earth's hidden niobium: implications for evolution of continental crust and mode of core formation.Precambrian Research, Vol. 126, 3-4, Oct. pp.289-308.MantleGeochemistry - niobium
DS200512-0085
2005
Collerson, K.D.Bickford, M.E., Mock, T.D., Collerson, K.D., Lewry, J.F., Steinhart III, W.E.Origin of the Archean Sask Craton and its extent within the Trans-Hudson orogen: evidence Pb Nd isotopic compositions basement rocks, post-orogenic intrusions.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 659-684.Canada, SaskatchewanGeochronology
DS201012-0113
2010
Collerson, K.D.Collerson, K.D., Williams, Q., Kamber, B.S., Omori, S., Arai, H., Ohtani, E.Majoritic garnet: a new approach to pressure estimation of shock events in meteorites and the encapsulation of sub-lithospheric inclusions in diamonds.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 74, 20, pp. 5939-5937.TechnologyMeteorite
DS201804-0682
2017
Collett, B.Collett, B., Bassias, Y.Guiana shield tectonics influence hydrocarbon bearing compartments.Oil & Gas Journal, Oct. 2, pp. 42-45.South America, Guyanatectonics

Abstract: Interpretations of magnetic anomolies, fracture-zone geometry, and continental-oceanic crust transitions frame the debate surrounding the tectonic opening of the Equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean. Misinterpretations of movement in this region lead to misalignments and misunderstanding of the depositional environments at the margins. This article presents further evidence of the Guiana Shield's role during the initial separation between the American and African plates. Research suggests that the structure of the larger Guiana basin was controlled by the reactivation of Paleozoic and early Mesozoic faults, inherited from older orogenic belts. The same river paths fed the basin with clastic deposits for several tens to hundreds of millions of years. A network of NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW lineaments along the Atlantic margin coast and their onshore continuity at the edge of the Guiana Shield denote relics of deep faulting associated with the early rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean during early Jurassic, between 190 and 170 million years (Ma) (Fig. 1). These older faults were reactivated during Cretaceous E-W drift, a fact that created a favorable Tertiary-to-present structural and depositional environment for southward-shoreward hydrocarbon migration in the South American-Central Equatorial Atlantic margin (OGJ, Jan. 4, 2016, p. 42).
DS1997-0201
1997
Colletta, B.Colletta, B., Roure, F., De Toni, Loureir, D., PassalacquaTectonic inheritance, crustal architecture, and contrasting structural styles in the Venezuelan AndesTectonics, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct. pp. 777-794Andes, VenezuelaMaracaibo Basin, Tectonics, Neogene transpressional, paleozoic, Jurassic
DS200812-0229
2008
Collicoat, J.S.Collicoat, J.S.Pelletal lapilli ultramafic diatremes, Avon volcanic district, Missouri.Geological Society of America North Central Section, April 24, abstractUnited States, MissouriMelilite, alnoite, carbonatite, kimberlite
DS1997-0202
1997
Collier, J.D.Collier, J.D., Heiffrich, G.R.Topography of the 410 and 660 km seismic discontinuties in the Izu - Bonin subduction zone.Geophys. Research Letters, Vol. 24, No. 12, June 15, pp. 1535-38.GlobalSubduction zone, Geophysics - seismics
DS2000-0050
2000
Collier, J.D.Bailey, D.K., Collier, J.D.Carbonatite melilite association in the Italian collision zone and the Ugand an rifted craton: factorsMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 4, Aug. 1, pp.675-83.UgandaCarbonatite, Common factors
DS2000-0051
2000
Collier, J.D.Bailey, D.K., Collier, J.D.Carbonatite melilitite association in Italian collision zone and UgAnd a rifted craton: common factors...Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 4, Aug. pp. 675-UgandaCarbonatite, Melilitite
DS2001-0201
2001
Collier, J.D.Collier, J.D., Helffrich, G.R., Woodm B.J.Seismic discontinuities and subduction zonesPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 127, No. 1-4, Dec. 1, pp. 35-49.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Subduction
DS200912-0119
2008
Collier, P.Collier, P.The profits of boom - will Africa manage them differently this time?Optima, Vol. 54, 1, Dec. pp. 2-7.AfricaEconomics
DS1995-0339
1995
Collins, A.Collins, A.Diamonds designed to order could inspire the next generation of particle detectors and laptop computers.New Scientist, Vol. 348, No. 2001, Oct. 28, pp. 36-39.GlobalDiamond synthesis
DS2000-0539
2000
Collins, A.Kroner, A., Willner, A.P., Collins, A., Hegner, MuhongoThe Mozambique Belt of East Africa and Madagascar: a new zircon and neodymium ages - implications Rodinia, GondwanaJournal of African Earth Sciences, p. 49. abstract.GlobalSupercontinent - Gondwana
DS2000-1022
2000
Collins, A.Windley, B.F., Kroner, A., Collins, A., Whitehouse, M.The tectonic evolution of Madagascar and Yemen in the Neoproterozoic and their role in accretion....Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.MadagascarTectonics - Gondwanaland, Alkaline rocks
DS201312-0948
2013
Collins, A.Walsh, A., Hand, M., Collins, A., Brick, R.World's oldest eclogites? Phase equilibration temperatures constraints on 2 Ga metaleitic hosted eclogites frm the Usagaran orogen, Tanzania.Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractAfrica, TanzaniaEclogite
DS2000-0166
2000
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Kroner, A., Razakamana, T., Windley, B.F.The tectonic architecture of the East African Orogen in central Madagascar: a structural and geochronologicalJournal of African Earth Sciences, p. 21. abstract.MadagascarTectonics, Geochronology
DS2002-0303
2002
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Reddy, S.M., Mruma, A.Structural setting and U /Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology of 2.) Ga eclogites, Usagaran Belt:Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.22., p.22.TanzaniaPaleoproterozoic subduction zone metamorphism
DS2002-0304
2002
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Reddy, S.M., Mruma, A.Structural setting and U /Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology of 2.) Ga eclogites, Usagaran Belt:Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.22., p.22.TanzaniaPaleoproterozoic subduction zone metamorphism
DS2002-0305
2002
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Windley, B.F.The tectonic evolution of central and northern Madagascar and its place in the ...Journal of Geology, Vol.110,3,pp.325-40., Vol.110,3,pp.325-40.MadagascarTectonics
DS2003-0265
2003
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Fitzimons, I.C., Hulscher, B., Razakamananan, T.Structure of the eastern margin of the East African Orogen in central MadagascarPrecambrian Research, Vol. 123, 2-4, pp.111-133.MadagascarBlank
DS200412-0344
2003
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Fitzimons, I.C., Hulscher, B., Razakamananan, T.Structure of the eastern margin of the East African Orogen in central Madagascar.Precambrian Research, Vol. 123, 2-4, pp.111-133.Africa, MadagascarTectonics
DS200412-0345
2003
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Johnson, S., Fitzimmona, I.C.W., Powell, C.McA., Hulscher, B., Abello, J., Razakamana, T.Neoproterozoic deformation in central Madagascar: a structural section through part of the East African orogen.Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent assembly and Breakup. Ed. Yoshida , Geological Society of London Spe, No. 206, pp. 363-380.Africa, MadagascarPlume, tectonics
DS200512-0178
2005
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S., Pisarevsky, S.A.Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: the evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 71, 3-4, August pp. 229-270.India, GondwanaGeodynamics, tectonics, Azania, orogeny
DS200512-0934
2005
Collins, A.S.Santosj, M., Tanaka, K., Yokoyama, K., Collins, A.S.Late Neoproterozoic Cambrian felsic magmatism along transcrustral shear zones in southern India: U Pb electron microprobe ages implications for amalagamtionGondwana Research, Vol. 8, 1, pp. 31-42.IndiaGeochronology, Gondwana supercontinent
DS200612-0265
2006
Collins, A.S.Collins, A.S.Madagascar and the amalgamation of central Gondwana.Gondwana Research, Vol. 9, 1, pp. 3-16.Africa, MadagascarMetamorphism, basement, geochronology
DS200612-0673
2006
Collins, A.S.Kehelpannala, K.V.W., Collins, A.S.The role of Sri Lanka and associated continental blocks in the assembly and break up of Rodinia and Gondwana.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 1, pp. 1-2. IntoductionAsiaTectonics
DS200712-1046
2007
Collins, A.S.Strachan, R.A., Collins, A.S., Buchan, C., Nance, R.D., Murphy, J.C., DLemos, R.S.Terrane analysis along a neoproterozoic active margin of Gondwana: insights from U Pb zircon geochronology.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 164, 1, pp. 57-60.MantleGeochronology
DS200912-0619
2009
Collins, A.S.Reddy, S.M., Mazumder, R., Evans, D.A.D., Collins, A.S.Paleoproterozoic supercontinents and global evolution.Geological Society of London Special Publication, www.geolsoc.org.uk/bookshopGlobalBook
DS201212-0454
2012
Collins, A.S.McGee, B., Collins, A.S., Trindada, R.I.F.G'Day Gondwana - the final accretion of a supercontinent: U Pb ages from the post-orogenic Sao Vincente Granite, northern Paraguay Belt, Brazil.Gondwana Research, Vol 21, 2-3, pp. 316-322.South America, BrazilAccretion
DS201412-0568
2015
Collins, A.S.McGee, B., Collins, A.S., Trindade, R.I.F., Jourdan, F.Investigating mid-Edicaran glaciation and final Gondwana amalgamation using coupled sedimentology and 40 Ar/39Ar detrital muscovite provenance from the Paraguay Belt, Brazil.Sedimentology, Vol. 62, 1, pp. 130-154.South America, BrazilGeomorphology
DS201705-0854
2017
Collins, A.S.Merdith, A.S., Collins, A.S., Williams, S.E., Pisarevsky, S., Foden, J.F., Archibald, D., Blades, M.L., Alessio, B.L., Armistead, S., Plavsa, D., Clark, C., Muller, R.D.A full plate global reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic.Gondwana Research, in press available 155p.Gondwana, RodiniaGeodynamics

Abstract: Neoproterozoic tectonic geography was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana. The Neoproterozoic was a tumultuous time of Earth history, with large climatic variations, the emergence of complex life and a series of continent-building orogenies of a scale not repeated until the Cenozoic. Here we synthesise available geological and palaeomagnetic data and build the first full-plate, topological model of the Neoproterozoic that maps the evolution of the tectonic plate configurations during this time. Topological models trace evolving plate boundaries and facilitate the evaluation of “plate tectonic rules” such as subduction zone migration through time when building plate models. There is a rich history of subduction zone proxies preserved in the Neoproterozoic geological record, providing good evidence for the existence of continent-margin and intra-oceanic subduction zones through time. These are preserved either as volcanic arc protoliths accreted in continent-continent, or continent-arc collisions, or as the detritus of these volcanic arcs preserved in successor basins. Despite this, we find that the model presented here still predicts less subduction (ca. 90%) than on the modern earth, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are likely underestimating the amount of subduction, either due to a simplification of tectonically complex areas, or because of the absence of preservation in the geological record (e.g. ocean-ocean convergence). Furthermore, the reconstruction of plate boundary geometries provides constraints for global-scale earth system parameters, such as the role of volcanism or ridge production on the planet's icehouse climatic excursion during the Cryogenian. Besides modelling plate boundaries, our model presents some notable departures from previous Rodinia models. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, such that these two cratons act as ‘lonely wanderers’ for much of the Neoproterozoic. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive margin sediments along its southern margin during the Tonian. The GPlates files of the model are released to the public and it is our expectation that this model can act as a foundation for future model refinements, the testing of alternative models, as well as providing constraints for both geodynamic and palaeoclimate models.
DS201709-1954
2017
Collins, A.S.Armistead, S.E., Collins, A.S., Payne, J.L., Foden, J.D., De Waele, B., Shaji, E., Santosh, M.A re-evaluation of the Kumta Suture in western peninsular India and its extension into Madagascar,Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, in press available, 47p.India, Africa, Madagascartectonis

Abstract: It has long been recognised that Madagascar was contiguous with India until the Late Cretaceous. However, the timing and nature of the amalgamation of these two regions remain highly contentious as is the location of Madagascar against India in Gondwana. Here we address these issues with new U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon data from five metasedimentary samples from the Karwar Block of India and new Lu-Hf data from eight previously dated igneous rocks from central Madagascar and the Antongil-Masora domains of eastern Madagascar. New U-Pb data from Karwar-region detrital zircon grains yield two dominant age peaks at c. 3100 Ma and c. 2500 Ma. The c. 3100 Ma population has relatively juvenile eHf(t) values that trend toward an evolved signature at c. 2500 Ma. The c. 2500 Ma population shows a wide range of eHf(t) values reflecting mixing of an evolved source with a juvenile source at that time. These data, and the new Lu-Hf data from Madagascar, are compared with our new compilation of over 7000 U-Pb and 1000 Lu-Hf analyses from Madagascar and India. We have used multidimensional scaling to assess similarities in these data in a statistically robust way. We propose that the Karwar Block of western peninsular India is an extension of the western Dharwar Craton and not part of the Antananarivo Domain of Madagascar as has been suggested in some models. Based on eHf(t) signatures we also suggest that India (and the Antongil-Masora domains of Madagascar) were palaeogeographically isolated from central Madagascar (the Antananarivo Domain) during the Palaeoproterozoic. This supports a model where central Madagascar and India amalgamated during the Neoproterozoic along the Betsimisaraka Suture.
DS201709-2032
2017
Collins, A.S.Meredith, A.S., Collins, A.S., Williams, S.E., Pisarevsky, S., Foden, J.D., Archibald, D.B., Blades, M.L., Alessio, B.L., Armistead, S., Plavsa, D., Clark, C., Muller, R.D.A full plate global reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic.Gondwana Research, Vol. 50, pp. 84-134.Globalneoproterozoic

Abstract: Neoproterozoic tectonic geography was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana. The Neoproterozoic was a tumultuous time of Earth history, with large climatic variations, the emergence of complex life and a series of continent-building orogenies of a scale not repeated until the Cenozoic. Here we synthesise available geological and palaeomagnetic data and build the first full-plate, topological model of the Neoproterozoic that maps the evolution of the tectonic plate configurations during this time. Topological models trace evolving plate boundaries and facilitate the evaluation of “plate tectonic rules” such as subduction zone migration through time when building plate models. There is a rich history of subduction zone proxies preserved in the Neoproterozoic geological record, providing good evidence for the existence of continent-margin and intra-oceanic subduction zones through time. These are preserved either as volcanic arc protoliths accreted in continent-continent, or continent-arc collisions, or as the detritus of these volcanic arcs preserved in successor basins. Despite this, we find that the model presented here still predicts less subduction (ca. 90%) than on the modern earth, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are likely underestimating the amount of subduction, either due to a simplification of tectonically complex areas, or because of the absence of preservation in the geological record (e.g. ocean-ocean convergence). Furthermore, the reconstruction of plate boundary geometries provides constraints for global-scale earth system parameters, such as the role of volcanism or ridge production on the planet's icehouse climatic excursion during the Cryogenian. Besides modelling plate boundaries, our model presents some notable departures from previous Rodinia models. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, such that these two cratons act as ‘lonely wanderers’ for much of the Neoproterozoic. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive margin sediments along its southern margin during the Tonian. The GPlates files of the model are released to the public and it is our expectation that this model can act as a foundation for future model refinements, the testing of alternative models, as well as providing constraints for both geodynamic and palaeoclimate models.
DS201904-0715
2019
Collins, A.S.Armistead, S.E., Collins, A.S., Redaa, A., Gilbert, S., Jepson, G., Gillespie, J., Blades, M.L., Foden, J.D., Razakamana, T.Structural evolution and medium temperature thermochronology of central Madagascar: implications for Gondwana amalgamation.Journal of the Geological Society of London, in press available 25p.Africa, Madagascarthermochronology

Abstract: Madagascar occupied an important place in the amalgamation of Gondwana, and preserves a record of several Neoproterozoic events that can be linked to orogenesis of the East African Orogen. We integrate remote sensing and field data to unravel complex deformation in the Ikalamavony and Itremo domains of central Madagascar. The deformation sequence comprises a gneissic foliation (S1), followed by south to south-west directed, tight to isoclinal, recumbent folding (D2). These are overprinted by north-trending upright folds that formed during a ~E-W shortening event. Together these produced type 1 and type 2 fold interference patterns throughout the Itremo and Ikalamavony domains. Apatite U-Pb and muscovite and biotite Rb-Sr thermochronometers indicate that much of central Madagascar was thermally reset to at least ~500oC at c. 500 Ma. Deformation in west-central Madagascar occurred between c. 750 Ma and c. 550 Ma, and we suggest this deformation formed in response to the c. 650 Ma collision of Azania with Africa along the Vohibory Suture in southwestern Madagascar. In eastern Madagascar, deformation is syn- to post-550 Ma, which formed in response to the final closure of the Mozambique Ocean along the Betsimisaraka Suture that amalgamated Madagascar with the Dharwar Craton of India.
DS201906-1323
2019
Collins, A.S.Meredith, A.S., Williams, S.E., Brune, S., Collins, A.S., Muller, R.D.Rift and boundary evolution across two supercontinent cycles. Gondwana, RodiniaGlobal and Planetary Change, Vol. 173, pp. 1-14.Globalplate tectonics

Abstract: The extent of continental rifts and subduction zones through deep geological time provides insights into the mechanisms behind supercontinent cycles and the long term evolution of the mantle. However, previous compilations have stopped short of mapping the locations of rifts and subduction zones continuously since the Neoproterozoic and within a self-consistent plate kinematic framework. Using recently published plate models with continuously closing boundaries for the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic, we estimate how rift and peri-continental subduction length vary from 1 Ga to present and test hypotheses pertaining to the supercontinent cycle and supercontinent breakup. We extract measures of continental perimeter-to-area ratio as a proxy for the existence of a supercontinent, where during times of supercontinent existence the perimeter-to-area ratio should be low, and during assembly and dispersal it should be high. The amalgamation of Gondwana is clearly represented by changes in the length of peri-continental subduction and the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea by changes in rift lengths. The assembly of Pangea is not clearly defined using plate boundary lengths, likely because its formation resulted from the collision of only two large continents. Instead the assembly of Gondwana (ca. 520 Ma) marks the most prominent change in arc length and perimeter-to-area ratio during the last billion years suggesting that Gondwana during the Early Palaeozoic could explicitly be considered part of a Phanerozoic supercontinent. Consequently, the traditional understanding of the supercontinent cycle, in terms of supercontinent existence for short periods of time before dispersal and re-accretion, may be inadequate to fully describe the cycle. Instead, either a two-stage supercontinent cycle could be a more appropriate concept, or alternatively the time period of 1 to 0 Ga has to be considered as being dominated by supercontinent existence, with brief periods of dispersal and amalgamation.
DS201908-1769
2019
Collins, A.S.Alessio, B.L., Glorie, S., Collins, A.S., Jourdan, F., Jepson, G., Nixon, A., Siegfried, P.R., Clark, C.The thermo-tectonic evolution of the southern Congo craton margin as determined from apatite and muscovite thermochronology.Tectonophysics, Vol. 766, pp. 398-415.Africa, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzaniacraton

Abstract: The Southern Irumide Belt (SIB) of Zambia consists of predominantly Mesoproterozoic terranes that record a pervasive tectono-metamorphic overprint from collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons in the final stages of Gondwana amalgamation. This study applies multi-method thermochronology to samples throughout southern Zambia to constrain the post-collisional, Phanerozoic thermo-tectonic evolution of the region. U-Pb apatite and 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data are used to constrain the cooling history of the region following Congo-Kalahari collision, and reveal ages of c. 550-450?Ma. Variations in the recorded cooling ages are interpreted to relate to localised post-tectonic magmatism and the proximity of analysed samples to the Congo-Kalahari suture. Apatite fission track data are used to constrain the low-temperature thermo-tectonic evolution of the region and identify mean central ages of c. 320-300, 210-200 and 120-110?Ma. Thermal modelling of these samples identifies a number of thermal events occurring in the region throughout the Phanerozoic. Carboniferous to Permian-Triassic heating is suggested to relate to the development of Karoo rift basins found throughout central Africa and constrain the timing of sedimentation in the basin. Permian to Jurassic cooling is identified in a number of samples, reflecting exhumation as a result of the Mauritanian-Variscan and Gondwanide orogenies. Subsequent cooling of the majority of samples occurs from the Cretaceous and persists until present, reflecting exhumation in response to larger scale rifting associated with the break-up of Gondwana. Each model reveals a later phase of enhanced cooling beginning at c. 30?Ma that, if not an artefact of modelling, corresponds to the development of the East African Rift System. The obtained thermochronological data elucidate the previously unconstrained thermal evolution of the SIB, and provides a refined regional framework for constraining the tectonic history of central Africa throughout the Phanerozoic.
DS202010-1826
2020
Collins, A.S.Armistead, S.E., Collins, A.S., Redaa, A., Jepson, G., Gillespie, J., Gilbert, S., Blades, M.L., Foden, J.D., RazakMnN, T.Structural evolution and medium temperature thermochronology of central Madagascar: implications for Gondwana amalagamation.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 177, pp. 784-798.Africa, Madagascargeothermometry

Abstract: Madagascar occupied an important place in the amalgamation of Gondwana and preserves a record of several Neoproterozoic events that are linked to orogenesis of the East African Orogen. In this study, we integrate remote sensing, field data and thermochronology to unravel complex deformation in the Ikalamavony and Itremo domains of central Madagascar. The deformation sequence comprises a gneissic foliation (S1), followed by south- to SW-directed, tight to isoclinal, recumbent folding (D2). These are overprinted by north-trending upright folds that formed during an approximately east-west shortening event (D3). Together these produced type 1 and type 2 fold interference patterns throughout the Itremo and Ikalamavony domains. We show that the Itremo and Ikalamavony domains were deformed together in the same orogenic system, which we interpret as the c. 630 Ma collision of Azania with Africa along the Vohibory Suture in southwestern Madagascar. In eastern Madagascar, deformation is syn- to post-550 Ma, and probably formed in response to final closure of the Mozambique Ocean along the Betsimisaraka Suture that amalgamated Madagascar with the Dharwar Craton of India. Apatite U-Pb and novel laser ablation triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-QQQ-ICP-MS) muscovite and biotite Rb-Sr thermochronology indicates that much of central Madagascar cooled through c. 500°C at c. 500 Ma.
DS202011-2041
2013
Collins, A.S.Henderson, B., Collins, A.S., Payne, J., Forbes, C., Saha, D.Geological and geochemistry constraining India in Columbia: the age, isotopic provenance and geochemistry of the protoliths of the Ongole Domain, southern eastern Ghats, India. *** NOTE DATEGondwana Research, in press available. 19p. PdfIndiaNuna

Abstract: The Ongole Domain in the southern Eastern Ghats Belt of India formed during the final stages of Columbia amalgamation at ca. 1600 Ma. Yet very little is known about the protolith ages, tectonic evolution or geographic affinity of the region. We present new detrital and igneous U-Pb-Hf zircon data and in-situ monazite data to further understand the tectonic evolution of this Columbia-forming orogen. Detrital zircon patterns from the metasedimentary rocks are dominated by major populations of Palaeoproterozoic grains (ca. 2460, 2320, 2260, 2200-2100, 2080-2010, 1980-1920, 1850 and 1750 Ma), and minor Archaean grains (ca. 2850, 2740, 2600 and 2550 Ma). Combined U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf zircon isotopic data suggest that the sedimentary protoliths were not sourced from the adjacent Dharwar Craton. Instead they were likely derived from East Antarctica, possibly the same source as parts of Proterozoic Australia. Magmatism occurred episodically between 1.64 and 1.57 Ga in the Ongole Domain, forming felsic orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids. Isotopically, the granitoids are evolved, producing eHf values between - 2 and - 12. The magmatism is interpreted to have been derived from the reworking of Archaean crust with only a minor juvenile input. Metamorphism between 1.68 and 1.60 Ga resulted in the partial to complete resetting of detrital zircon grains, as well as the growth of new metamorphic zircon at 1.67 and 1.63 Ga. In-situ monazite geochronology indicates metamorphism occurred between 1.68 and 1.59 Ga. The Ongole Domain is interpreted to represent part of an exotic terrane, which was transferred to proto-India in the late Palaeoproterozoic as part of a linear accretionary orogenic belt that may also have included south-west Baltica and south-eastern Laurentia. Given the isotopic, geological and geochemical similarities, the proposed exotic terrane is interpreted to be an extension of the Napier Complex, Antarctica, and may also have been connected to Proterozoic Australia (North Australian Craton and Gawler Craton).
DS1982-0145
1982
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.Color Centres in DiamondJournal of Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 1, PP. 37-75.GlobalAbsorption
DS1982-0146
1982
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.A Spectrographic Survey of Naturally Occurring Vacancy Related Colour Centres in Diamond.Journal of PHYSICS D: APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol. 15, No. 8, PP. 1431-1438.GlobalDiamond Crystallography
DS1982-0147
1982
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.Colour Centres in DiamondJournal of Gemology AND Proceedings of THE Gemological Association of GREAT BRITAI, Vol. 18, No. 1, PP. 37-75.GlobalDiamond Morphology
DS1982-0148
1982
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Mohammed, K.Optical Studies of Vibronic Bands in Yellow Luminescing Natural Diamonds.Journal of PHYSICS, PT. C SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Vol. 15, No. 1, PP. 147-158.GlobalDiamond Research
DS1982-0149
1982
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Spear, P.M.Optically Active Nickel in Synthetic DiamondJournal of Physics, Sect. D. Applied Physics, Vol. 15, No. 12, PP. L183-L187.GlobalSynthetic Diamond, Geochemistry, Spectra Absorption
DS1983-0181
1983
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Thomaz, M.F., Jorge, M.I.B.Luminescence Decay Time of the 1.945 Ev Centre in Type 1b DiamondJournal of Phys. Pt. C. Solid State Physics, Vol. 16, No. 11, pp. 2177-2181GlobalDiamond Morphology
DS1984-0194
1984
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.pit falls in Color Grading Diamonds by MachineGems And Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, SPRING PP. 14-21.South AfricaDiamond Morphology, Cape Yellow
DS1985-0124
1985
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Robertson, S.H.Catholuminescence Studies of Sintered DiamondJournal of MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS, Vol. 4, No. 6, JUNE PP. 681-684.GlobalBlank
DS1985-0125
1985
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Stanley, M.Absorption and luminescence studies of synthetic diamond in which the nitrogen has been aggregatedJournal of Physics D. Applied physics, Vol. 18, No. 12, Dec. 14, pp. 2537-2545GlobalDiamond Morphology
DS1985-0269
1985
Collins, A.T.Harris, J.W., Collins, A.T.Studies of Argyle DiamondsIndustrial Diamond Review, Vol. 45, No. 508, pp. 128-130AustraliaDiamond Morphology
DS1986-0147
1986
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Spear, P.M.Optical studies of the 5RL center in diamondJournal of Phys. C., Vol. 19, No. 34, December pp. 6845-6858GlobalMineralogy, Diamond
DS1987-0111
1987
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.Cathodluminescence decay time studies of the neutral vacancy in diamondJournal of Phys. C. Solid State Physics, Vol. 20, No. 13, pp. 2027-2033GlobalLuminescence, Natural diamond
DS1987-0112
1987
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Stanley, M., Woods, G.S.Nitrogen isotope effects in synthetic diamondsJournal of Physics D. Applied physics, Vol. 20, No. 7, July 14, pp. 969-974GlobalSynthetic diamond, luminescense, Petrology
DS1987-0113
1987
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Woods, G.S.Isotope shifts of nitrogen related localized mode vibrations in diamond.(letter)Journal of Physic. C., Vol. 20, No. 30, October pp. L797-L801GlobalBlank
DS1987-0114
1987
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Woods, G.S.Isotope shifts of nitrogen related localized mode vibrations in diamondJournal of Physics C.: Solid State Physics, Vol. 20, No. 30, pp. L797-L801GlobalBlank
DS1988-0137
1988
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Davies, G.Cathodluminescence studies of C-13 diamondJournal of Luminescence, Vol. 40, No. 1, February pp. 865-866GlobalBlank
DS1988-0138
1988
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Szechi, J., Tavender, S.Resonant ecitation of the GR center in diamondJournal of Phys. C., Solid State Phys, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. L161-L164GlobalBlank
DS1989-0281
1989
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Kamo, M., Sato, Y.Intrinsic and extrinsic cathodluminescence from single crystal diamonds grown by chemical vapordepositionJournal of Phys. Cond, Vol. 1, No. 25, June 26, pp. 4029-4033GlobalDiamond synthesis, CVD.
DS1990-1579
1990
Collins, A.T.Woods, G.S., Purser, G.C., Mtimkulu, A.S.S., Collins, A.T.Nitrogen content of Type 1A natural diamondsJournal of Phys. Chem. Solids, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 1191-1197GlobalDiamond morphology, Natural diamonds -type 1A.
DS1990-1580
1990
Collins, A.T.Woods, G.S., Vanwyk, J.A., Collins, A.T.The nitrogen content of type 1B synthetic diamondPhil. Magazine B., Vol. 62, No. 6, December pp. 589-595GlobalDiamond synthesis, Nitrogen
DS1991-0279
1991
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.The artificial coloration of diamond by radiation damageInternational Gemological Symposium, June 20-24, 1991 Los Angeles, Gems and Gemology, Vol. 27, Spring, Program p. 1GlobalDiamond morphology, Radiation
DS1991-0280
1991
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.New diamond science and technology. Conference report of meeting held late1990 in Washington DC.Industrial Diamond Review, 1991, pp. 41-43GlobalNews item, Diamond science and technology
DS1994-0327
1994
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Allers, L., Wort, C.J.H.The annealing of radiation damage in De Beers colorless CVD diamondsDiamond Relations, # NN160, Vol. 3, No. 4-6. April pp. 932-935.GlobalCVD., Diamond radiation
DS2001-0202
2001
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.The colour of diamond and how it may be changedJournal of Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 341-59.GlobalDiamond - morphology, colour
DS200512-0691
2005
Collins, A.T.Massi, L., Fritsch, E., Collins, A.T., Hainschwang, T., Notari, F.The amber centres and their relation to the brown colour in diamond.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 14, 10, pp. 1623-1629.TechnologyDiamond color
DS200612-0415
2006
Collins, A.T.Fristch, E., Massi, L., Hainschwang, T., Collins, A.T.The first color center related to the brown graining in type 1a natural diamonds.International Mineralogical Association 19th. General Meeting, held Kobe, Japan July 23-28 2006, Abstract p.TechnologyDiamond H- colour
DS200712-0216
2006
Collins, A.T.David, C., Collins, A.T., Martineau, P.Defects in single crystal CVD synthetic diamond studied by optical spectroscopy with the application of uniaxial stress.Gems & Gemology, 4th International Symposium abstracts, Fall 2006, p.121-2, abstract onlyTechnologyCVD diamond
DS200912-0120
2009
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T., Kifkawi, I.The annealing of radiation damage in type Ia diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, in press ( August)TechnologyDiamond - Ia
DS200912-0156
2009
Collins, A.T.Davies, G., Liaugaudas, G., Collins, A.T., Suhling, K.Luminescence life time mapping in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, in press ( August)TechnologyDiamond - luminescence
DS201012-0216
2010
Collins, A.T.Gaillou, E., Wang, W., Post, J.E., King, J.M., Butler, J.E., Collins, A.T., Moses, T.M.The Wittelsbach-Graff and Hope diamonds: not cut from the same rough.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 46, 2, pp. 80-88.TechnologyDiamonds notable
DS201012-0442
2010
Collins, A.T.Liaugaudas, G., Collins, A.T., Suhling, K., Davies, G., Heintzman, R.Luminescence - life time mapping in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, 36, pp. 364210-216.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS201705-0822
2017
Collins, A.T.Collins, A.T.Comment on the apparent anomalous reflectance of a Sumitomo synthetic diamond.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 35, 5, p. 450.TechnologySynthetics
DS201907-1551
2019
Collins, A.T.Howell, D., Collins, A.T., Loudin, L.C., Diggle, P.L., D;Haenens-Johansson, U.F.S., Smit, K.V., Katrusha, A.N., Butler, J.E., Nestola, F.Automated FTIR mapping of boron distribution in diamond. Type IlbDiamond and Related Materials, in press available 33p.GlobalDiaMap

Abstract: Type IIb diamonds are those that contain more boron than nitrogen. The presence of this uncompensated boron gives rise to absorption in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending into the visible region and often resulting in blue colouration. Here we report on the expansion of the DiaMap freeware (for the automated spectral deconvolution of Type I [nitrogen containing] diamonds) to work on Type IIb diamonds, returning concentrations from three boron-related absorption bands, and determining which band provides the most reliable value. The program uses the calibration coefficients of Collins (2010), which show good relative agreement between the three bands, but might require some further study to confirm their absolute accuracy to the uncompensated boron concentration. The methodology of DiaMap_IIb is applicable to all Type IIb diamonds, both natural and synthetic. Analysis of high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) maps of two high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamonds using DiaMap_IIb, confirm the growth sector dependence of the boron incorporation. Partitioning of boron strongly favours the octahedral {111} sectors.
DS202006-0923
2020
Collins, A.T.Howell, D., Collins, A.T., Loudin, L.C., Diggle, P.L., D'Haenens-Johansson, U.F.S., Smit, K.V., Katrusha, A.N., Butler, J.E., Nestola, F.Automated FTIR mapping of boron distribution in diamond. DiaMap_IIb ( synthetics)Diamonds & Related Materials, In press available, 30p. PdfGlobalsynthetics

Abstract: Type IIb diamonds are those that contain more boron than nitrogen. The presence of this uncompensated boron gives rise to absorption in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending into the visible region and often resulting in blue colouration. Here we report on the expansion of the DiaMap freeware (for the automated spectral deconvolution of Type I [nitrogen containing] diamonds) to work on Type IIb diamonds, returning concentrations from three boron-related absorption bands, and determining which band provides the most reliable value. The program uses the calibration coefficients of Collins (2010), which show good relative agreement between the three bands, but might require some further study to confirm their absolute accuracy to the uncompensated boron concentration. The methodology of DiaMap_IIb is applicable to all Type IIb diamonds, both natural and synthetic. Analysis of high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) maps of two high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamonds using DiaMap_IIb, confirm the growth sector dependence of the boron incorporation. Partitioning of boron strongly favours the octahedral {111} sectors.
DS1960-0228
1962
Collins, B.Collins, B.Occurrence of Diamonds in Matrix in CanadaLapidary Journal, Vol. 16, P. 45.Canada, Great LakesBlank
DS1991-0281
1991
Collins, C.D.N.Collins, C.D.N.The nature of the crust mantle boundary under Australia from seismic evidence.In: Drummond, The Australian Lithosphere, Geological Society of Australia Special Paper 17, pp. 67-80.AustraliaGeophysics - seismics, Crust - boundary
DS1993-0442
1993
Collins, C.D.N.Finlayson, D.M., Collins, C.D.N.Seismic images of the crust and upper mantle under xenolith sites in southeastern Australia.The Xenolith window into the lower crust, abstract volume and workshop, p. 9.AustraliaMantle, Xenoliths
DS1995-0447
1995
Collins, C.D.N.Drummond, B.J., Goncharov, A.G., Collins, C.D.N.Upper crustal heterogeneities in Australian Precambrian provinces interpreted from deep seismic profiles (Kola)Agso Journal Of Australia Geol.and Geophysics, Vol. 15, No. 4, ppAustraliaGeophysics -seismics, Kola Superdeep Bore Hole
DS1998-0429
1998
Collins, C.D.N.Finlayson, D.M., Collins, C.D.N., Chudyk, E.C.A transect across Australia's southern margin in the Otway Basin region:crustal architecture... riftingTectonophysics, Vol. 288, No. 1-4, Mar. pp. 177-190.AustraliaTectonics, Geophysics - seismic
DS200412-0346
2004
Collins, C.D.N.Collins, C.D.N., Drummond, B.J., Nicoll, M.G.Crustal thickness patterns in the Australian continent.Hillis, R.R., Muller, R.D. Evolution and dynamics of the Australian Plate, Geological Society America Memoir, No. 372, pp. 107-120.AustraliaTectonics
DS1992-0269
1992
Collins, D.Collins, D., Hutchinson, R., Edwards, G.Can the mining industry successfully show that it is environmentallyaware?Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) Bulletin, No. 7, December pp. 73-75AustraliaMining, Environmental
DS1984-0195
1984
Collins, D.B.Collins, D.B., Collins, D.S.A Colorado-Wyoming Border Diatreme and a Possible Potential kimberlite Indicator Plant.The Mountain Geologist., Vol. 21, No. 2, APRIL PP. 68-71.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsGeochemistry, Heavy Mineral, Sampling, Geobotany
DS1982-0150
1982
Collins, D.S.Collins, D.S.Diamond Collecting in Northern ColoradoThe Mineralogical Record., JULY-AUGUST, PP. 205-208.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky Mountains, Front RangeBlank
DS1984-0195
1984
Collins, D.S.Collins, D.B., Collins, D.S.A Colorado-Wyoming Border Diatreme and a Possible Potential kimberlite Indicator Plant.The Mountain Geologist., Vol. 21, No. 2, APRIL PP. 68-71.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsGeochemistry, Heavy Mineral, Sampling, Geobotany
DS1984-0196
1984
Collins, D.S.Collins, D.S., Heyl, A.V.History of the Colorado Wyoming State Line DiatremesRocks And Minerals, Vol. 59, No. 1, PP. 35-37.United States, State Line, Colorado, Wyoming, Rocky MountainsHistory
DS1986-0542
1986
Collins, D.S.McCandless, T.E., Collins, D.S.A diamond graphite eclogite from the Sloan 2 kimberlite Colorado, USAProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 403-405ColoradoEclogite
DS1987-0115
1987
Collins, D.S.Collins, D.S., Modreski, P.J.Chrome pyrope from the Sloan diatreme, Colorado, showing colour change with thickness and type of illuminationGeological Society of America, Vol. 19, No. 3, p. abstractColoradoUSA, Mineralogy
DS1989-0971
1989
Collins, D.S.McCandless, T.E., Collins, D.S.A diamond-graphite eclogite from the Sloan 2 kimberlite Colorado, United States (US)Geological Society of Australia Inc. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Special, No. 14, Vol. 2, pp. 1063-1069ColoradoEclogite, Sloan diatreme
DS1970-0052
1970
Collins, F.Collins, F.Old Kimberley Comes to LifePersonality, JANUARY 29TH. PP. 47-54.South AfricaHistory
DS2000-0686
2000
Collins, G.S.Morgan, J.V., Warner, M.R., Collins, G.S., Meloshm H, J.Peak ring formation in large impact craters: geophysical constraints from Chicxulub.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.183, No.3-4, pp. 347-54.CaliforniaImpact craters, Structure - ring dikes
DS201112-0196
2011
Collins, G.S.Collins, G.S., Elbeshausen, D., Davison, T.M., Robbins, S.J., Hynek, B.M.The size frequency distribution of ellipitical impact craters.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 310, 1-2, pp. 1-8.GlobalImpact Crater
DS201212-0130
2012
Collins, G.S.Collins, G.S., Melosh, H.J., Osinski, G.R.The impact-cratering process.Elements, Vol. 8, 1, Feb, pp. 25-30.MantleCrater collapse, chemical change
DS1960-0530
1965
Collins, H.F.Collins, H.F.Summer Safari to America's Diamond FieldThe Diamond News And South African Jeweller., JANUARY, PP. 38-39.United States, Arkansas, Gulf CoastHistory, Guidebook Popular Account Of Trip
DS1994-0423
1994
Collins, J.Detrick, R., Collins, J., Stephen, R., Swift, S.In situ evidence for the nature of the seismic layer 2/3 boundary in oceanic crust.Nature, Vol. 370, No. 6487, July 28, pp. 288-290.MantleCrust boundary, Geophysics -seismics
DS200512-0652
2004
Collins, J.B.Lizarralde, D., Gaherty, D., Collins, J.B., Hirth, J.A., Kim, S.D.Spreading rate dependence of melt extraction at mid-ocean ridges from mantle seismic refraction data.Nature, No. 7018, Dec. 9, pp. 744-746.MantleMelting
DS1993-0273
1993
Collins, J-L.Collins, J-L.A new tool in financial decision making under uncertainty #1The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 86, No. 968, March pp. 109-115CanadaEconomics, Geostatistics
DS1993-0274
1993
Collins, J-L.Collins, J-L., Singhal, R.K.A new tool in financial decision making under uncertainty #2Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) Meeting held February 15-18, 1993 in Reno, Nevada, Reprint No. 93-3, 12pCanadaEconomics, Mining operations, decision, probability
DS200912-0723
2009
Collins, L.Spratt, J.E., Jones, A.G., Jackson, V.A., Collins, L., Avdeeva, A.Lithospheric geometry of the Wopmay orogen from a Slave Craton to Bear province magnetotelluric transect.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, B1 B01101.CanadaGeophysics - magnetotellurics
DS201706-1076
2017
Collins, L.M.Harmon, R.S., Hark, R.R., Throckmorton, C.S., Rankey, E.C., Wise, M.A., Somers, A.M., Collins, L.M.Geochemical fingerprinting by handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. (LIBS)Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press availableTechnologyspectroscopy

Abstract: A broad suite of geological materials were studied a using a handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Because LIBS is simultaneously sensitive to all elements, the full broadband emission spectrum recorded from a single laser shot provides a ‘chemical fingerprint’ of any material - solid, liquid or gas. The distinguishing chemical characteristics of the samples analysed were identified through principal component analysis (PCA), which demonstrates how this technique for statistical analysis can be used to identify spectral differences between similar sample types based on minor and trace constituents. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) was used to distinguish and classify the materials, with excellent discrimination achieved for all sample types. This study illustrates through four selected examples involving carbonate minerals and rocks, the oxide mineral pair columbite-tantalite, the silicate mineral garnet and native gold how portable, handheld LIBS analysers can be used as a tool for real-time chemical analysis under simulated field conditions for element or mineral identification plus such applications as stratigraphic correlation, provenance determination and natural resources exploration.
DS1998-0048
1998
Collins, M.Arne, D.C., Zentilli, M., Grist, A.M., Collins, M.Constraints on the timing of thrusting during the Eurekan Orogeny, Canadian Arctic Archipelago...Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan. pp. 30-38.Northwest Territories, Ellesmere Island, Sverdrup BasinGeochronology, geothermometry, Tectonics - thrust fault movements
DS1970-0053
1970
Collins, R.S.Collins, R.S.Diamonds; Mining Annual Review for 1969Mining Annual Review For 1969, PP. 115-116.AustraliaCurrent Activaties
DS1997-0331
1997
Collins, S.Fallon, G.N., Collins, S., Bishop, J.R.DHEM and spurious responsesExploration Geophysics, Bulletin of Australian, Vol. 27, No. 2-3, Sept. pp. 171-174GlobalGeophysics - DHEM.
DS1960-0229
1962
Collins, S.V.Collins, S.V., Keeble, P.Diamonds from the Sea BedUnderwater Society of America., PP. 12-14.South AfricaMining Methods, Diamond Recovery
DS1988-0315
1988
Collins, W.G.Hyatt, E.C., Cox, J.IJ., Collins, W.G.Advances in computerized information retrieval in remote sensingInternational Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 10-11, Oct-Nov. pp. 1739-1750GlobalRemote sensing, Computer- GIS
DS1990-1561
1990
Collins, W.J.Williams, I.S., Collins, W.J.Granite-greenstone terranes in the Pilbara Block,Australia, as coeval volcano plutonic complexes; evidence from uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) zircon dating of the Mt. EdgarBatholithEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, February pp. 41-53AustraliaGeochronology, Greenstone Terranes
DS1991-0282
1991
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J., Vernon, R.H., Clarke, G.L.Discrete Proterozoic structural terranes associated with low pressure, high Tmetamorphism, Anmatjira Range, Arunta Inlier, central Australia: tectonicimplicationsJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 1157-1171AustraliaProterozoic, Tectonics, Structure
DS1993-0275
1993
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J., Vernon, R.H.Granulite facies metamorphism in the lower crust: the Mt Hay-Mt. Chappleexample, Arunta inlier, central Australia.The Xenolith window into the lower crust, abstract volume and workshop, p. 5.AustraliaXenoliths
DS1993-1660
1993
Collins, W.J.Vernon, R.H., Collins, W.J., Paterson, S.R.Pre-foliation metamorphism in low-pressure/high temperature terrainsTectonophysics, Vol. 219, pp. 241-256Australia, CaliforniaTectonics, structure, Metamorphism heat source
DS1994-0328
1994
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J.Upper and middle crustal response to delamination: an example from the Lachlan fold belt, eastern AustraliaGeology, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feberuary pp. 143-146AustraliaStructure, Lachlan fold belt
DS1994-0329
1994
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J., Vernon, R.H.A rift drift delamination model of continental evolution: Paleozoic tectonic developmentTectonophysics, Vol. 235, pp. 249-275Australia, Eastern AustraliaTectonics, Gondwanaland
DS2002-0306
2002
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J.Hot orogens, tectonic switching, and creation of continental crustGeology, Vol. 30,6, June,pp. 535-8.AustraliaSubduction - slab, Tectonics
DS2002-0778
2002
Collins, W.J.Jenkins, R.B., Landenberger, B., Collins, W.J.Late Paleozoic retreating and advancing subduction boundary in the New England fold belt, New South Wales.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.49, No. 3, pp. 467-90.AustraliaSubduction
DS2003-0266
2003
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J.Slab pull, mantle convection, and Pangaean assembly and dispersalEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 205, 3-4, pp. 225-37.GondwanaSubduction
DS200912-0102
2009
Collins, W.J.Cawood, P.A., Kroner, A., Collins, W.J., Kusky, T.M., Mooney, W.D., Windley, B.F.Accretionary orogens through Earth history.Geological Society of London, Special Publication Earth Accretionary systems in Space and Time, No. 318, pp. 1-36.MantleOrogen
DS201112-0197
2011
Collins, W.J.Collins, W.J., Belousova, E.A., Kemp, A.I.S., Murphy, J.B.Two contrasting Phanerozoic orogenic systems revealed by hafnium isotope data.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 4, pp. 333-335.MantleConvection
DS201412-0720
2013
Collins, W.J.Raimondo, T., Hand, M., Collins, W.J.Compressional intracontinental orogens: ancient and modern perspectives.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 130, pp. 128-153.MantleGeodynamics
DS201608-1450
2016
Collins, W.J.Wang, R., Collins, W.J., Weinberg, R.F., Li, J-X., Li, Q-Y., He, W-Y., Richards, J.P., Hou, Z., Zhou, Li-M., Stern, R.A.Xenoliths in ultrapotassic volcanic rocks in the Lhasa block: direct evidence for crust mantle mixing and metamorphism in the deep crust.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 19p.Asia, TibetMelting

Abstract: Felsic granulite xenoliths entrained in Miocene (~13 Ma) isotopically evolved, mantle-derived ultrapotassic volcanic (UPV) dykes in southern Tibet are refractory meta-granitoids with garnet and rutile in a near-anhydrous quartzo-feldspathic assemblage. High F-Ti (~4 wt.% TiO2 and ~3 wt.% F) phlogopite occurs as small inclusions in garnet, except for one sample where it occurs as flakes in a quartz-plagioclase-rich rock. High Si (~3.45) phengite is found as flakes in another xenolith sample. The refractory mineralogy suggests that the xenoliths underwent high-T and high-P metamorphism (800-850 °C, >15 kbar). Zircons show four main age groupings: 1.0-0.5 Ga, 50-45, 35-20, and 16-13 Ma. The oldest group is similar to common inherited zircons in the Gangdese belt, whereas the 50-45 Ma zircons match the crystallization age and juvenile character (eHfi +0.5 to +6.5) of Eocene Gangdese arc magmas. Together these two age groups indicate that a component of the xenolith was sourced from Gangdese arc rocks. The 35-20 Ma Miocene ages are derived from zircons with similar Hf-O isotopic composition as the Eocene Gangdese magmatic zircons. They also have similar steep REE curves, suggesting they grew in the absence of garnet. These zircons mark a period of early Miocene remelting of the Eocene Gangdese arc. By contrast, the youngest zircons (13.0 ± 4.9 Ma, MSWD = 1.3) are not zoned, have much lower HREE contents than the previous group, and flat HREE patterns. They also have distinctive high Th/U ratios, high zircon d18O (+8.73-8.97 ‰) values, and extremely low eHfi (-12.7 to -9.4) values. Such evolved Hf-O isotopic compositions are similar to values of zircons from the UPV lavas that host the xenolith, and the flat REE pattern suggests that the 13 Ma zircons formed in equilibrium with garnet. Garnets from a strongly peraluminous meta-tonalite xenolith are weakly zoned or unzoned and fall into four groups, three of which are almandine-pyrope solid solutions and have low d18O (+6 to 7.5 ‰), intermediate (d18O +8.5 to 9.0 ‰), and high d18O (+11.0 to 12.0 ‰). The fourth is almost pure andradite with d18O 10-12 ‰. Both the low and intermediate d18O groups show significant variation in Fe content, whereas the two high d18O groups are compositionally homogeneous. We interpret these features to indicate that the low and intermediate d18O group garnets grew in separate fractionating magmas that were brought together through magma mixing, whereas the high d18O groups formed under high-grade metamorphic conditions accompanied by metasomatic exchange. The garnets record complex, open-system magmatic and metamorphic processes in a single rock. Based on these features, we consider that ultrapotassic magmas interacted with juvenile 35-20 Ma crust after they intruded in the deep crust (>50 km) at ~13 Ma to form hybridized Miocene granitoid magmas, leaving a refractory residue. The ~13 Ma zircons retain the original, evolved isotopic character of the ultrapotassic magmas, and the garnets record successive stages of the melting and mixing process, along with subsequent high-grade metamorphism followed by low-temperature alteration and brecciation during entrainment and ascent in a late UPV dyke. This is an excellent example of in situ crust-mantle hybridization in the deep Tibetan crust.
DS202008-1384
2020
Collins, W.J.Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., Gamel El Dien, H., Pourteau, A., Murphy, B., Collins, W.J., Mattielli, N., Olierook, H.K.H., Spencer, C.J., Mitchell, R.N.Distinct formation history for deep mantle domains reflected in geochemical differences.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, pp. 511-515. pdfMantlegeochemistry

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is currently divided into the African and Pacific domains, separated by the circum-Pacific subduction girdle, and each domain features a large low shear-wave velocity province (LLSVP) in the lower mantle. However, it remains controversial as to whether the LLSVPs have been stationary through time or dynamic, changing in response to changes in global subduction geometry. Here we compile radiogenic isotope data on plume-induced basalts from ocean islands and oceanic plateaus above the two LLSVPs that show distinct lead, neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions for the two mantle domains. The African domain shows enrichment by subducted continental material during the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, whereas no such feature is found in the Pacific domain. This deep-mantle geochemical dichotomy reflects the different evolutionary histories of the two domains during the Rodinia and Pangaea supercontinent cycles and thus supports a dynamic relationship between plate tectonics and deep-mantle structures.
DS202009-1625
2020
Collins, W.J.Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., GamelEl Dien, H., Pourteau, A., Murphy, J.B., Collins, W.J., Mattielli, N., Olierook, H.K.H., Spencer, C.J., Mitchell, R.N.Distinct formation history for deep mantle domains reflected in geochemical differences.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, July pp. 511-515. pdfMantlegeochemistry

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is currently divided into the African and Pacific domains, separated by the circum-Pacific subduction girdle, and each domain features a large low shear-wave velocity province (LLSVP) in the lower mantle. However, it remains controversial as to whether the LLSVPs have been stationary through time or dynamic, changing in response to changes in global subduction geometry. Here we compile radiogenic isotope data on plume-induced basalts from ocean islands and oceanic plateaus above the two LLSVPs that show distinct lead, neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions for the two mantle domains. The African domain shows enrichment by subducted continental material during the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, whereas no such feature is found in the Pacific domain. This deep-mantle geochemical dichotomy reflects the different evolutionary histories of the two domains during the Rodinia and Pangaea supercontinent cycles and thus supports a dynamic relationship between plate tectonics and deep-mantle structures.
DS202009-1673
2020
Collins, W.J.Volante, S., Pouteau, A., Collins, W.J., Blereau, E., Li, Z-X., Smit, M., Evans, N.J., Nordsvan, A.R., Spencer, C.J., McDonald, B.J., Li, J., Gunter, C.Multiple P-T-d-t paths reveal the evolution of the final Nuna assembly in northeast Australia. Georgetown InlierJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 38, pp. 593-627.Australiageochronology

Abstract: The final assembly of the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent Nuna was marked by the collision of Laurentia and Australia at 1.60 Ga, which is recorded in the Georgetown Inlier of NE Australia. Here, we decipher the metamorphic evolution of this final Nuna collisional event using petrostructural analysis, major and trace element compositions of key minerals, thermodynamic modelling, and multi-method geochronology. The Georgetown Inlier is characterised by deformed and metamorphosed 1.70-1.62 Ga sedimentary and mafic rocks, which were intruded by c. 1.56 Ga old S-type granites. Garnet Lu-Hf and monazite U-Pb isotopic analyses distinguish two major metamorphic events (M1 at c. 1.60 Ga and M2 at c. 1.55 Ga), which allows at least two composite fabrics to be identified at the regional scale—c. 1.60 Ga S1 (consisting in fabrics S1a and S1b) and c. 1.55 Ga S2 (including fabrics S2a and S2b). Also, three tectono-metamorphic domains are distinguished: (a) the western domain, with S1 defined by low-P (LP) greenschist facies assemblages; (b) the central domain, where S1 fabric is preserved as medium-P (MP) amphibolite facies relicts, and locally as inclusion trails in garnet wrapped by the regionally dominant low-P amphibolite facies S2 fabric; and (c) the eastern domain dominated by upper amphibolite to granulite facies S2 foliation. In the central domain, 1.60 Ga MP-medium-T (MT) metamorphism (M1) developed within the staurolite-garnet stability field, with conditions ranging from 530-550°C at 6-7 kbar (garnet cores) to 620-650°C at 8-9 kbar (garnet rims), and it is associated with S1 fabric. The onset of 1.55 Ga LP-high-T (HT) metamorphism (M2) is marked by replacement of staurolite by andalusite (M2a/D2a), which was subsequently pseudomorphed by sillimanite (M2b/D2b) where granite and migmatite are abundant. P-T conditions ranged from 600 to 680°C and 4-6 kbar for the M2b sillimanite stage. 1.60 Ga garnet relicts within the S2 foliation highlight the progressive obliteration of the S1 fabric by regional S2 in the central zone during peak M2 metamorphism. In the eastern migmatitic complex, partial melting of paragneiss and amphibolite occurred syn- to post- S2, at 730-770°C and 6-8 kbar, and at 750-790°C and 6 kbar, respectively. The pressure-temperature-deformation-time paths reconstructed for the Georgetown Inlier suggest a c. 1.60 Ga M1/D1 event recorded under greenschist facies conditions in the western domain and under medium-P and medium-T conditions in the central domain. This event was followed by the regional 1.56-1.54 Ga low-P and high-T phase (M2/D2), extensively recorded in the central and eastern domains. Decompression between these two metamorphic events is ascribed to an episode of exhumation. The two-stage evolution supports the previous hypothesis that the Georgetown Inlier preserves continental collisional and subsequent thermal perturbation associated with granite emplacement.
DS1998-0266
1998
Collinson, D.W.Collinson, D.W.Magnetic properties of polycrystalline diamondsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 161, No. 1-4, Sept. 1, pp. 179-188.GlobalDiamond morphology, Magnetism
DS1995-1560
1995
Colliston, W.Reimold, W.U., Colliston, W.The Vredefort DomeGeological Society of South Africa, Cent. Geocongress, Guide D1, 45pSouth AfricaKaapvaal Craton, deformation, Witwatersrand Basin, Structure
DS1992-1267
1992
Colliston, W.P.Reimold, W.U., Colliston, W.P., Wallmach, T.Comment on the nature, distribution and genesis of the coesite and stishovite associated with the pseudotachylite of the Vredefort Dome, SouthAfricaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 112, pp. 213-217South AfricaMineralogy, Coesite
DS1994-1206
1994
Colliston, W.P.Minnitt, R.C.A., Reimold, W.U., Colliston, W.P.The geology of the Greenlands greenstone complex and granitoid terranes southeast of Vredefort DomeEconomic Geology Research Unit, Wits, No. 281, 46pSouth AfricaGreenlands greenstone complex
DS1996-0282
1996
Colliston, W.P.Colliston, W.P., Schoch, A.E.Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks and associated metasediments along the Orange River in the Pofadder..South Africa Journal of Geology, Vol. 99, No. 3, Sept. pp. 309-326.South AfricaNamaqua Mobile Belt, Orange River
DS1982-0151
1982
Colliver, I.C.Colliver, I.C., CRA Exploration Pty. Ltd.El 2538 Millugans Lagoon Nt, Final Report 1981-1982Northern Territory Geological Survey Open File Report, No. CR 82/335, 5P.Australia, Northern TerritoryProspecting, Sampling, Geochemistry
DS1999-0137
1999
Collom, C.J.Collom, C.J.Upper Cretaceous paleoenvironments of the Buffalo Head Hills and Chinchaga River regions of Alberta.....8th. Calgary Mining forum, 1p. abstractAlbertaMinette type
DS1860-0933
1896
Collot, L.M.F.Collot, L.M.F.Le Diamant. Conference Faites Sous Les Auspices de la Societe des Amis de l'universite de Dijon.Dijon: J. Berthoud., 13P.Africa, South Africa, Cape Province, Kimberley AreaGeology
DS201612-2305
2016
Colman, A.S.Ingalls, M., Rowley, D.B., Currie, B., Colman, A.S.Large scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass balance calculation.Nature Geoscience, Vol.9, 11, pp. 848-853.India, AsiaSubduction

Abstract: Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth’s surface today—represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.
DS1986-0148
1986
Colman, S.M.Colman, S.M., Dethier, D.P.Rates of chemical weathering of rocks and mineralsAcademic Press, 600pGlobalChemical weathering, Book -table of contents
DS1991-0062
1991
Colman, T.B.Ball, T.K., Cameron, D.G., Colman, T.B., Roberts, P.D.Behaviour of radon in the geological environment: a reviewUnknown, Vol. pp. 169-182GlobalRadon, Environment
DS1990-1419
1990
Colman-SaddStockmal, G.S., Colman-Sadd, Keen, C.E., Marillier, F., O'BrienDeep seismic structure and plate tectonic evolution of the CanadianAppalachiansTectonics, Vol. 9, No. 1, February pp. 45-62AppalachiaTectonics, Geophysics-seismics
DS1986-0811
1986
Colodner, D.Tracy, R.J., Colodner, D., Longhi, J., Shaw, H.Petrology of Precambrian ultramafic mafic bodies south central WyomingEos, Vol. 67, No. 44, Nov. 4. P. 1265. (abstract.)WyomingBlank
DS201612-2318
2016
Colombi, F.Lustrino, M., Agostini, S., Chalal, Y., Fedele, L., Stagno, V., Colombi, F., Bouguerra, A.Exotic lamproites or normal ultrapotassic rocks? The Late Miocene volcanic rocks from Kef Hahouner, NE Algeria, in the frame of the circum-Mediterranean lamproites.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, in press available 15p.Africa, AlgeriaLamproite

Abstract: The late Miocene (11-9 Ma) volcanic rocks of Kef Hahouner, ~ 40 km NE of Constantine (NE Algeria), are commonly classified as lamproites in literature. However, these rocks are characterized by an anhydrous paragenesis with plagioclase and Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts, set in a groundmass made up of feldspars, pyroxenes and opaque minerals. Thus, we classify the Kef Hahouner rocks as ultrapotassic shoshonites and latites, having K2O > 3 wt.%, K2O/Na2O > 2.5, MgO > 3-4 wt.%, SiO2 < 55-57 wt.% and SiO2/K2O < 15. All the investigated samples show primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns typical of orogenic (arc-type) magmas, i.e. enriched in LILE (e.g. Cs, Rb and Ba) and LREE (e.g. La/Yb = 37-59) with respect to the HFSE, peaks at Pb and troughs at Nb and Ta. Initial isotopic ratios are in the range of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70874-0.70961, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51222-0.51223, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.54-18.60, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.62-15.70 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.88-39.16. The Kef Hahouner volcanic rocks show multi-element patterns similar to the other circum-Mediterranean lamproites and extreme Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions. Nevertheless, the abundant plagioclase, the presence of Al-rich augite coupled with high Al2O3 whole rock compositions (9.6-21.4 wt.%), and the absence of phlogopite are all at inconsistent with the definition of lamproite. We reviewed the rocks classified as lamproites worldwide, and found that many of these rocks, as for the Kef Hahouner samples, should be actually defined as "normal" potassic to ultrapotassic volcanic rocks. Even the grouping of lamproites into "orogenic" and "anorogenic" types appears questionable.
DS1993-0276
1993
Colombia profileColombia profileMineral potential and investment opportunitiesInvesting in the Americas Conference, held Miami, March 16-18th. 1993, 20pColombiaEconomics, Mining
DS200712-0897
2006
Colombo, C.G.Rivalenti, G., Zanetti, A., Girardi, V.A.V., Mazzucchelli, M., Colombo, C.G., Bertotto, G.W.The effect of the Fernando de Noronha plume on the mantle lithosphere in north eastern Brazil.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In press availableSouth America, BrazilXenolith - alkali basalt
DS202010-1834
2020
Colombo, C.G.Cordani, U.G., Colombo, C.G., Tassinari, C.G., Rolim, D.R.The basement of the Rio Apa craton in Mato Grosso do Sul ( Brazil and northern Paraguay): a geochronological correlation with the tectonic provinces of the south western craton.Researchgate, 2p. Abstract in englishSouth America, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Paraguaycraton

Abstract: The Rio Apa cratonic fragment crops out in Mato Grosso do Sul State of Brazil and in northeastern Paraguay. It comprises Paleo-Mesoproterozoic medium grade metamorphic rocks, intruded by granitic rocks, and is covered by the Neoprotero-zoic deposits of the Corumbá and Itapocumi Groups. Eastward it is bound by the southern portion of the Paraguay belt. In this work, more than 100 isotopic determina-tions, including U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole-rock determina-tions, as well as K-Ar and Ar-Ar mineral ages, were reassessed in order to obtain a complete picture of its regional geological history. The tectonic evolution of the Rio Apa Craton starts with the formation of a series of magmatic arc complexes. The oldest U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age comes from a banded gneiss collected in the northern part of the region, with an age of 1950 23 Ma. The large granitic intrusion of the Alumiador Batholith yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 1839 33 Ma, and from the southeastern part of the area two orthogneisses gave zircon U-Pb ages of 1774 26 Ma and 1721 25 Ma. These may be coeval with the Alto Tererê metamorphic rocks of the northeastern corner, intruded in their turn by the Baía das Garças granitic rocks, one of them yielding a zircon U-Pb age of 1754 49 Ma. The original magmatic protoliths of these rocks involved some crustal component, as indicated by the Sm-Nd T DM model ages, between 1.9 and 2.5 Ga. Regional Sr isotopic homogenization, associated with tectonic deformation and medium-grade metamorphism occurred at approximately 1670 Ma, as suggested by Rb-Sr whole rock reference isochrons. Finally, at 1300 Ma ago, the Ar work indicates that the Rio Apa Craton was affected by widespread regional heating, when the temperature probably exceeded 350°C. Geographic distribution, age and isotopic signature of the lithotectonic units suggest the existence of a major suture separating two different tectonic domains, juxtaposed at about 1670 Ma. From that time on, the unified Rio Apa continental block behaved as one coherent and stable tectonic unit. It correlates well with the SW corner of the Amazonian Craton, where the medium-grade rocks of the Juruena-Rio Negro tectonic province, with ages between 1600 and 1780 Ma, were reworked at about 1300 Ma. Looking at the largest scale, the Rio Apa Craton is probably attached to the larger Amazonian Craton, and the actual configuration of southwestern South America is possibly due to a complex arrangement of allochthonous blocks such as the Arequipa, Antofalla and Pampia, with different sizes, that may have originated as disrupted parts of either Laurentia or Amazonia, and were trapped during later collisions of these continental masses.
DS201909-2031
2019
Colombo, C.L.Colombo, C.L., Vierire Conceicao, R., Grings, C.D.Implications for mantle heterogeneity and diamond preservation derived from RosaRio-6 kimberlite, south of Brazil.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. Poster abstractSouth America, Brazildeposit - RosaRio-6
DS201903-0548
2019
Colombo Carniel, L.Vieira Conceicao, R., Colombo Carniel, L., Jalowitski, T., Gervasoni, F., Grings Cedeno, D.Geochemistry and geodynamic implications on the source of Parana-Etendeka Large Igneous Province evidenced by the late 128 Ma Rosario-6 kimberlite, southern Brazil.Lithos, Vol. 328-329, pp. 130-145.South America, Brazildeposit - Rosario-6

Abstract: The Rosário-6 is a non-diamondiferous hypabyssal kimberlite located above the Rio de la Plata craton and near the south-eastern edge of the Paraná Basin, in southern Brazil. It is petrographically an inequigranular texture, macrocrystal kimberlite, fresh and the groundmass exhibits a microporphyritic texture and round megacrysts of olivine, which are derived from disaggregated mantle xenoliths. Olivine is also present as macrocrysts, microphenocrysts and in the groundmass together with phlogopite and apatite. These microphenocrysts are immersed in a groundmass of olivine, monticellite, phlogopite, CaTiO3-perovskite, apatite, Mg-chromite and Mg-ulvöspinel and melilite. A mesostasis assemblage of phlogopite, melilite, soda melilite, akermanite and calcium carbonate is segregated from the groundmass. Its geochemical signature is similar to those of transitional kimberlites of Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, and the U-Pb ages of ~ 128 Ma on perovskite reveal that Rosário-6 kimberlite post-dates the main pulse of volcanism in the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP). The high Ti content of some minerals, such as Mg-chromite, Mg-ulvöspinel, phlogopite and melilite, and the presence of perovskite suggest a Ti-rich source. The petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data indicate that the Rosário-6 kimberlite source is a depleted mantle metasomatized by H2O-rich fluids, CO2-rich and silicate melts derived from the recycling of an ancient subducted oceanic plate (eclogite) before the South Atlantic opening. Although several authors indicate the influence of Tristan da Cunha plume for the generation of alkaline magmatism associated to the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts, our data demonstrates that Tristan da Cunha plume has no chemical contribution to the generation of Rosário-6 kimberlite, except by its thermal influence.
DS1920-0150
1923
Colony, R.J.Colony, R.J.An Unusual Quartz Diamond IntergrowthAmerican Journal of Science, SER. 5, Vol. 5, PP. 400-402.BrazilMineralogy, Diamond Genesis
DS1940-0067
1943
Colony, R.J.Colony, R.J.Unusual Lamprophyric Dikes in the Manhattan Schist of New York.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 54, No. 11, PP. 1693-1711.United States, Appalachia, New YorkPetrography
DS1997-0203
1997
Colorado Geological Survey Info. SeriesColorado Geological Survey Info. SeriesColorado mineral activity, 1996 update...brief overview of Kelsey Lake operation and diamonds.Colorado Geological Survey Info. Series, No. 42, 3p.ColoradoNews item, Redaurum Limited
DS1994-0330
1994
Colorado State UniversityColorado State UniversityTailings and mine waste '94Colorado State University, 260p. $ 85.00Nevada, CordilleraBook -ad, Mine wastes
DS201412-0134
2014
Colorado State UniversityColorado State UniversityAlumni highlight: Howard Coopersmith's treasure hunt for diamonds.Colorado State University Newsletter, February, 2 1/2 pp.TechnologyProfile - Coopersmith
DS1995-0340
1995
Colpron, M.Colpron, M., Price, R.A.Tectonic significance of the Kootenay terrane, southeastern CanadianCordillera: an alternative modelGeology, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan. pp. 25-28British ColumbiaTectonics, Terrane
DS2003-0821
2003
Colpron, M.Lipovsky, P., Colpron, M.Digital mapping techniques in the palm of your hand. Developments from the YukonGeolog, ( Geological Association of Canada), Vol. 32, 1, Spring, pp. 9-10.GlobalDigital mapping - not specific to diamonds
DS200412-1141
2003
Colpron, M.Lipovsky, P., Colpron, M.Digital mapping techniques in the palm of your hand. Developments from the Yukon Geological Survey. GeoFIELD database applicatioGeological Association of Canada Geolog, Vol. 32, 1, Spring, pp. 9-10.TechnologyDigital mapping - not specific to diamonds
DS1989-0282
1989
Colson, R.O.Colson, R.O.A reaction relationship between two nepheline syenites from Magnet Cove, Arkansaw, possible related to immiscible seperation of carbonatitic magmaGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. A326. AbstractArkansasPetrography, Carbonatite
DS200812-0120
2008
Coltari, M.Boanadiman, C., Coltari, M., Duggen, S., Paludetti, L., Siena,F.,Thirwall, M.F., Upton, BGJ.Paleozoic subduction related and kimberlite or carbonatite metasomatism in the Scottish lithospheric mantle.Geological Society of London, Special Publications no. 293, pp. 303-334.Europe, ScotlandSubduction
DS1998-0680
1998
ColticeJambon, A., Gillet, P., Chamorro, ColticeHelium and argon poor magmas from the under gassed mantleMineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 705-6.Hawaii, Mantlehelium, Geodynamics
DS2000-0167
2000
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Ferrachat, S., Ricard, Y.Box modeling the chemical evolution of geophysical systems: case study of the Earth's mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 11, Jun. pp. 1579-82.MantleGeophysics - model
DS2002-0307
2002
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Ricard, Y.On the origin of noble gases in mantle plumesPhilosophical Transactions, Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical, Vol.1800, pp. 2633-48.MantleGeochemistry - hot spots
DS200412-0347
2004
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Simon, L., Lecuyer, C.Carbon isotope cycle and mantle structure.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, 5, March 16, DOI 10.1029/2003 GLO18873MantleTectonics
DS200512-0179
2005
Coltice, N.Coltice, N.The role of convective mixing in degassing the Earth's mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 234, 1-2, pp. 15-25.MantleConvection, models
DS200512-0903
2004
Coltice, N.Ricard, Y., Coltice, N.Geophysical and geochemical models of mantle convection: successes and future challenges.Geophysical Monograph, AGU, No. 150, pp. 59-68.MantleConvection, models
DS200612-0266
2006
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Betrand, H., Ricard, Y., Rey, P.Global warming of the mantle at the origin of flood basalts over supercontinents.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 108, abstract only.MantleBasalts
DS200712-0195
2006
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Schmalzi, J.Mixing times in the mantle of the early Earth derived from 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations of convection.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, 23, Dec. 16, L23305.MantleConvection
DS200712-0315
2007
Coltice, N.Fiquet, G., Coltice, N.,Guyot, F., Gillet, P.Potassium content in the Earth's core: a high pressure and high temperature study of the Fe K system.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A279..MantleCore, mantle boundary
DS200712-0429
2007
Coltice, N.Hernlund, J.W., Labrosse, S., Coltice, N.The energy balance at the core-mantle boundary.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A399.MantleGeothermometry
DS200712-0842
2007
Coltice, N.Phillips, B.R., Coltice, N., Bertrand, H., Ricard, Y., Rey, P.Supercontinental warming, plumes and mantle evolution.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A786.MantleMagmatism
DS200812-0046
2008
Coltice, N.Arndt, N.T., Coltice, N., Helstaedt, H., Gregoire, M.Origin of Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle: some petrological constraints.Lithos, In press available 47p.CanadaArchean - craton
DS200812-0355
2008
Coltice, N.Flament,N., Coltice, N., Roy, P.F.A case for late Archean continental emergence from thermal evolution models and hypsometry.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 275, 3-4, Nov. 15, pp. 326-336.MantleGeothermometry
DS200812-0954
2008
Coltice, N.Rey, P.F., Coltice, N.Neoarchean lithospheric strengthening and the coupling of Earth's geochemical reservoirs.Geology, Vol. 36, 8., pp. 635-638.MantleTectonics, modeling
DS200912-0013
2009
Coltice, N.Arndt, N.T., Coltice, N., Helmstaedt, H., Gregorie, M.Origin of Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle: some petrological constraints.Lithos, Vol. 109, 1-2, pp. 61-71.MantlePetrology
DS200912-0121
2009
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Betrand, H., Rey, P., Jourdan, F.,Ricard, Y.Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archean.Gondwana Research, Vol. 15, 3-4, pp. 264-266.MantleGeothermometry
DS201212-0594
2012
Coltice, N.Rolf, T., Coltice, N.,Tackley, P.J.Linking continental drift, plate tectonics and the thermal state of the Earth's mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 351-352, pp. 134-145.MantleTectonics
DS201412-0048
2014
Coltice, N.Bello, L., Coltice, N., Rolf, T., Tackley, P.J.On the predictability limit of convection models of the Earth's mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 15, 6, pp. 2319-2328.MantleConvection
DS201607-1307
2016
Coltice, N.Mallard, C., Coltice, N., Seton, M., Muller, R.D., Tackley, P.J.Subduction controls the distribution and fragmentation of Earth's tectonic plates.Nature, available eprintMantleSubduction, melting

Abstract: The theory of plate tectonics describes how the surface of Earth is split into an organized jigsaw of seven large plates1 of similar sizes and a population of smaller plates whose areas follow a fractal distribution2, 3. The reconstruction of global tectonics during the past 200 million years4 suggests that this layout is probably a long-term feature of Earth, but the forces governing it are unknown. Previous studies3, 5, 6, primarily based on the statistical properties of plate distributions, were unable to resolve how the size of the plates is determined by the properties of the lithosphere and the underlying mantle convection. Here we demonstrate that the plate layout of Earth is produced by a dynamic feedback between mantle convection and the strength of the lithosphere. Using three-dimensional spherical models of mantle convection that self-consistently produce the plate size -frequency distribution observed for Earth, we show that subduction geometry drives the tectonic fragmentation that generates plates. The spacing between the slabs controls the layout of large plates, and the stresses caused by the bending of trenches break plates into smaller fragments. Our results explain why the fast evolution in small back-arc plates7, 8 reflects the marked changes in plate motions during times of major reorganizations. Our study opens the way to using convection simulations with plate-like behaviour to unravel how global tectonics and mantle convection are dynamically connected.
DS201703-0398
2017
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Gerault, M., Ulvrova, M.A mantle convection perspective on global tectonics. ReviewEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 165, pp. 120-150.MantleTectonics

Abstract: The concept of interplay between mantle convection and tectonics goes back to about a century ago, with the proposal that convection currents in the Earth’s mantle drive continental drift and deformation (Holmes, 1931). Since this time, plate tectonics theory has established itself as the fundamental framework to study surface deformation, with the remarkable ability to encompass geological and geophysical observations. Mantle convection modeling has progressed to the point that connections with plate tectonics can be made, pushing the idea that tectonics is a surface expression of the global dynamics of one single system: the mantle-lithosphere system. Here, we present our perspective, as modelers, on the dynamics behind global tectonics with a focus on the importance of self-organisation. We first present an overview of the links between mantle convection and tectonics at the present-day, examining observations such as kinematics, stress and deformation. Despite the numerous achievements of geodynamic studies, this section sheds light on the lack of self-organisation of the models used, which precludes investigations on feedbacks and evolution of the mantle-lithosphere system. Therefore, we review the modeling strategies, often focused on rheology, that aim at taking into account self-organisation. The fundamental objective is that plate-like behaviour emerges self-consistently in convection models. We then proceed with the presentation of studies of continental drift, seafloor spreading and plate tectonics in convection models allowing for feedbacks between surface tectonics and mantle dynamics. We discuss the approximation of the rheology of the lithosphere used in these models (pseudo-plastic rheology), for which empirical parameters differ from those obtained in experiments. In this section, we analyse in detail a state-of-the-art 3D spherical convection calculation, which exhibits fundamental tectonic features (continental drift, one-sided subduction, trench and ridge evolution, transform shear zones, small-scale convection, and plume tectonics). This example leads to a discussion where we try to answer the question: can mantle convection models transcend the limitations of plate tectonics theory?
DS201710-2245
2017
Coltice, N.Mallard, C., Jacquet, B., Coltice, N.ADOPT: a tool for automatic detection of tectonic plates at the surface of convection model.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 18, 8, pp. 3197-3208.Mantletectonics

Abstract: Mantle convection models with plate-like behavior produce surface structures comparable to Earth's plate boundaries. However, analyzing those structures is a difficult task, since convection models produce, as on Earth, diffuse deformation and elusive plate boundaries. Therefore we present here and share a quantitative tool to identify plate boundaries and produce plate polygon layouts from results of numerical models of convection: Automatic Detection Of Plate Tectonics (ADOPT). This digital tool operates within the free open-source visualization software Paraview. It is based on image segmentation techniques to detect objects. The fundamental algorithm used in ADOPT is the watershed transform. We transform the output of convection models into a topographic map, the crest lines being the regions of deformation (plate boundaries) and the catchment basins being the plate interiors. We propose two generic protocols (the field and the distance methods) that we test against an independent visual detection of plate polygons. We show that ADOPT is effective to identify the smaller plates and to close plate polygons in areas where boundaries are diffuse or elusive. ADOPT allows the export of plate polygons in the standard OGR-GMT format for visualization, modification, and analysis under generic softwares like GMT or GPlates.
DS201711-2508
2017
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Gerault, M., Ulvrova, M.A mantle convection perspective on global tectonics.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 165, pp. 120-150.Mantletectonics

Abstract: The concept of interplay between mantle convection and tectonics goes back to about a century ago, with the proposal that convection currents in the Earth's mantle drive continental drift and deformation (Holmes, 1931). Since this time, plate tectonic theory has established itself as the fundamental framework to study surface deformation, with the remarkable ability to encompass geological and geophysical observations. Mantle convection modeling has progressed to the point where connections with plate tectonics can be made, pushing the idea that tectonics is a surface expression of the global dynamics of one single system: the mantle-lithosphere system. Here, we present our perspective, as modelers, on the dynamics behind global tectonics with a focus on the importance of self-organisation. We first present an overview of the links between mantle convection and tectonics at the present-day, examining observations such as kinematics, stress and deformation. Despite the numerous achievements of geodynamic studies, this section sheds light on the lack of self-organisation of the models used, which precludes investigations of the feedbacks and evolution of the mantle-lithosphere system. Therefore, we review the modeling strategies, often focused on rheology, that aim at taking into account self-organisation. The fundamental objective is that plate-like behaviour emerges self-consistently in convection models. We then proceed with the presentation of studies of continental drift, seafloor spreading and plate tectonics in convection models allowing for feedbacks between surface tectonics and mantle dynamics. We discuss the approximation of the rheology of the lithosphere used in these models (pseudo-plastic rheology), for which empirical parameters differ from those obtained in experiments. In this section, we analyse in detail a state-of-the-art 3-D spherical convection calculation, which exhibits fundamental tectonic features (continental drift, one-sided subduction, trench and ridge evolution, transform shear zones, small-scale convection, and plume tectonics). This example leads to a discussion where we try to answer the following question: can mantle convection models transcend the limitations of plate tectonic theory?
DS201801-0009
2017
Coltice, N.Coltice, N., Larrouturou, G., Debayle, E., Garnero, E.J.Interactions of scales of convection in the Earth's mantle.Tectonophysics, in press available, 9p.Mantleplate tectonics, geophysics - seismics

Abstract: The existence of undulations of the geoid, gravity and bathymetry in ocean basins, as well as anomalies in heat flow, point to the existence of small scale convection beneath tectonic plates. The instabilities that could develop at the base of the lithosphere are sufficiently small scale (< 500 km) that they remain mostly elusive from seismic detection. We take advantage of 3D spherical numerical geodynamic models displaying plate-like behavior to study the interaction between large-scale flow and small-scale convection. We find that finger-shaped instabilities develop at seafloor ages > 60 Ma. They form networks that are shaped by the plate evolution, slabs, plumes and the geometry of continental boundaries. Plumes impacting the boundary layer from below have a particular influence through rejuvenatin