Titanium with a crustal abundance of 5,650 ppm (0.565%) exists as an oxide in two main mineral forms, ilmenite (FeTiO3 - 52.6% TiO2) and rutile (TiO2), which are converted into titanium dioxide (TiO2) used over 90% as a whitening pigment for the paint, paper and plastics sector with only a small portion converted into titanium metal used mainly by the aerospace sector. Ilmenite is mined from magmatic iron-titanium oxide rich deposits within igneous rocks such as anorthosite, gabbro and norite, and from heavy mineral sands which also contain rutile. The USGS has reported annual supply in the form of ilmenite concentrates, rutile, and titanium slag. Titanium slag is ilmenite that has been smelted into a form containing 75%-86% TiO2 that gets further upgraded to 94.5% TiO2 through high-pressure acid leaching. Finely ground ilmenite and rutile are converted into usable TiO2 through a sulfate or chloride process of which the chloride process has become dominant. The metal production data is presented as "ilmenite equivalent" which is 50%-55% TiO2. This has been accomplished by summing the rutile and titanium slag production data and multiplying it by 1.76 to create an ilmenite equivalent figure which is added to the ilmenite figure. The annual value is based on the annual average price per tonne of ilmenite provided by the USGS which only goes back to 1940 whose $4.74/t price has been applied to the 1932-1939 period for which no price data is available. The USGS only provided production from the "free world" until 1974 when it included the Soviet Union. The Soviet production is included under Russia from 1974-1991, after which it switches to the Ukraine following the breakup of the Soviet Union.