Kaiser Bottom Fish OnlineFree trialNew StuffHow It WorksContact UsTerms of UseHome
Specializing in Canadian Stocks
SearchAdvanced Search
Welcome Guest User   (more...)
Home / Education
Education
 

SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - K-Kg


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - K-Kg
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS202006-0933
2020
K, A.Lutz, K,A., Long, M.D., Creasy, N., Deng, J.Seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath North America from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press available, 51p. PdfUnited States, Canadageophysics - seismics

Abstract: We examined SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies for phases that sample the lowermost mantle beneath North America, which has previously been shown to exhibit seismic anisotropy using other analysis techniques. We examined data from 25 long-running seismic stations, along with 244 stations of the temporary USArray Transportable Array, located in the eastern, southeastern and western U.S. We identified 279 high-quality SKS-SKKS wave pairs that yielded well-constrained splitting intensity measurements for both phases. Of the 279 pairs, a relatively small number (15) exhibited discrepancies in splitting intensity of 0.4 s or greater, suggesting a contribution to the splitting of one or both phases from anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. Because only a small minority of SK(K)S phases examined in this study show evidence of being affected by lowermost mantle anisotropy, the traditional interpretation that splitting of these phases primarily reflects anisotropy in the upper mantle directly beneath the stations is appropriate. The discrepant pairs exhibited a striking geographic trend, sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the southern U.S. and northern Mexico, while other regions were dominated by non-discrepant pairs. We carried out ray theoretical modeling of simple anisotropy scenarios that have previously been suggested for the lowermost mantle beneath North America, invoking the alignment of post-perovskite due to flow induced by the impingement of the remnant Farallon slab on the core-mantle boundary. We found that our measurements are generally consistent with this model and with the idea of slab-driven flow, but relatively small-scale lateral variations in the strength and/or geometry of lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath North America are also likely present.
DS1860-1090
1899
Kaastrom, E.J.Kaastrom, E.J.Achszehn Jahre in Sud-afrikaLeipzig:, Africa, South AfricaBiography
DS201012-0559
2010
Kaazik, P.B.Ovtchimnikov, V.M., Kaazik, P.B., Krasnoshchekov, D.N.The velocity anomaly in the Earth's outer core.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 433, 2, pp. 1127-1131.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS1989-0738
1989
Kabagame-Kalissa, F.A.Kabagame-Kalissa, F.A.The Sukulu phosphate deposits, south eastern UgandaPhosphate deposits of the World, Vol. 2, pp. 184-186UgandaCarbonatite, Sukulu
DS2001-0557
2001
Kaban, M.Kaban, M., Artemieva, Schwintzer, MooneyEstimating the density of the continental roots: compositional and thermaleffects.Slave-Kaapvaal Workshop, Sept. Ottawa, 3p. abstractMantleGeothermometry, Geophysics - gravity anomalies
DS2002-0795
2002
Kaban, M.Kaban, M., Artemieva, I., Schwintzer, P., Mooney, W.D.Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal effectsGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Oct. 27-30, Abstract p. 263.South AfricaGeothermometry - heat flow
DS2003-0679
2003
Kaban, M.Kaban, M., Schwintzer, P., Artemieva, I.M., Mooney, W.D.Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal contributionsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 209, 1-2, April 15, pp. 53-69.MantleGeophysics - gravity, geothermometry, heat flow, lithos, craton - East European, Siberia, Australia, India
DS200612-1439
2006
Kaban, M.Trubitsyn, V., Kaban, M., Mooney, W., Reigher, C., Schwintzer, P.Simulation of active tectonic processes for a convecting mantle with moving continents.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 164, 3, March pp; 611-623.MantleTectonics
DS202008-1388
2020
Kaban, M.Eppelbaum, L., Ben-Avraham, Z., Katz, Y., Cloetingh, S., Kaban, M.Combined multifactor evidence of a giant lower mantle ring structure below the eastern mediterranean.Positioning, Vol. 11, pp. 11-32. pdf Africa, Arabiageophysics - gravity

Abstract: In the Arabian-Northern African region, interaction of the Nubian, Arabian and Eurasian plates and many small tectonic units is conspicuous. In order to better understand this interaction, we use satellite derived gravity data (retracked to the Earth’s surface) recognized now as a powerful tool for tectono-geodynamic zonation. We applied the polynomial approximation to the gravity data which indicated the presence of a large, deep ring structure in the eastern Mediterranean centered below the Island of Cyprus. Quantitative analysis of residual gravity anomaly provides an estimate of the deep anomalous body’s upper edge at a depth of about 1700 km. Computations of the residual gravity anomalies for the lower mantle also indicate presence of anomalous sources. The GPS vector pattern coinciding with the gravity trend implies counter clockwise rotation of this structure. Independent analyses of the geoid isolines map and seismic tomography data support the existence of a deep anomaly. Paleomagnetic data analysis from the surrounding regions confirms a counter clockwise rotation. Numerous petrological, mineralogical, geodynamical and tectonic data suggest a relation between this deep structure and near-surface processes. This anomaly sheds light on a number of phenomena including the Cyprus gravity anomaly, counter clockwise rotation of the Mesozoic terrane belt and asymmetry of basins along continental transform faults.
DS2001-0558
2001
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K.A gravity model of the North Eurasia crust and upper mantle: 1. mantle and isostatic residual gravity anomalies.Russian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 3, 2, May, pp.Europe, Asia, RussiaGeophysics - gravity
DS2001-0559
2001
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Mooney, W.D.Density structure of lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106, No. 1, Jan. 10, pp. 721-40.Cordillera, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, WyomingTectonics
DS2002-0796
2002
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Flovenz, O.G., Palmason, G.Nature of the crust mantle transition zone and the thermal state of the upper mantle ... gravity modellingGeophysical Journal International, Vol.149,2,pp.281-99., Vol.149,2,pp.281-99.MantleGeophysics - gravity, Boundary
DS2002-0797
2002
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Flovenz, O.G., Palmason, G.Nature of the crust mantle transition zone and the thermal state of the upper mantle ... gravity modellingGeophysical Journal International, Vol.149,2,pp.281-99., Vol.149,2,pp.281-99.MantleGeophysics - gravity, Boundary
DS2003-0680
2003
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Schwintzer, P., Artemieva, I.M., Mooney, W.D.Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal contributionsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 209, 1-2, pp. 53-69.MantleTectonics, Geothermometry
DS2003-0681
2003
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Schwintzer, P., Artemieva, I.M., Mooney, W.D.Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal contributionsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 209, 1-2, April 15, pp.53-69.Norway, Russia, Europe, Australia, India, South AfricaCratonic roots, Archean, Baltic shield, East European P, Siberian Platform
DS200412-0941
2003
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Schwintzer, P., Artemieva, I.M., Mooney, W.D.Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal contributions.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 209, 1-2, April 15, pp.53-69.Europe, Norway, Russia, Australia, India, AfricaCratonic roots, Archean, Baltic shield, East European P Siberian Platform
DS200712-0030
2006
Kaban, M.K.Artemieva, I.M., Thybo, H., Kaban, M.K.Deep Europe today: geophysical synthesis of the upper mantle structure and lithospheric processes over 3.5 Ga.Geological Society of London Memoir, No. 32, pp. 11-42.EuropeTectonics
DS200712-0499
2006
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Rogozhina, I., Trubitsyn, V.Importance of lateral viscosity variations in the whole mantle for modelling of the dynamic geoid and surface velocities.Journal of Geodynamics, in press availableMantleGeodynamics, viscoity, flow
DS200712-1077
2007
Kaban, M.K.Tesauro,M., Kaban, M.K., Cloetingh, S.A.P.L., Hare, N.J., Beekman, F.3D strength and gravity anomalies of the European lithosphere.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 263, 1-2, Nov. 15, pp. 56-73.EuropeGeophysics - gravity
DS200812-1185
2008
Kaban, M.K.Trubitsyn, V., Kaban, M.K., Rothacher, M.Mechanical and thermal effects of floating continents on the global mantle convection.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 171, 1-4, pp. 313-322.MantleConvection
DS201112-0700
2010
Kaban, M.K.Mooney, W.D., Kaban, M.K.The North American upper mantle: density, composition, and evolution.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, B12424, (24p.)Mantle, Canada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics, gravity
DS201312-0704
2013
Kaban, M.K.Petrunin, A.G., Kaban, M.K., Rogozhina, I., Trubitsyn, V.Revising the spectral method as applied to modeling mantle dynamics.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 14, 9, pp. 3691-3702.MantleGeophysics - spectral
DS201412-0926
2014
Kaban, M.K.Tesauro, M., Kaban, M.K., Mooney, W.D., Cloetingh, S.NACr14: a 3D model for the crustal structure of the North American continent.Tectonophysics, Vol. 631, pp. 65-86.Canada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS201503-0153
2014
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Mooney, W.D., Cloetingh, S.A.P.Density, temperature and composition of the North American lithosphere - new insights from a joint analysis of seismic, gravity and mineral physics data: 1. density structure of the crust and upper mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 15, 12, pp. 4781-4807.MantleGeophysics - seismic
DS201511-1848
2015
Kaban, M.K.Kaban, M.K., Mooney, W.D., Petrunin, A.G.Cratonic root beneath North America shifted by basal drag from the convecting mantle.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, 10, pp. 797-800.United States, CanadaGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Stable continental cratons are the oldest geologic features on the planet. They have survived 3.8 to 2.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution1, 2. The key to the preservation of cratons lies in their strong and thick lithospheric roots, which are neutrally or positively buoyant with respect to surrounding mantle3, 4. Most of these Archaean-aged cratonic roots are thought to have remained stable since their formation and to be too viscous to be affected by mantle convection2, 3, 5. Here we use a combination of gravity, topography, crustal structure and seismic tomography data to show that the deepest part of the craton root beneath the North American Superior Province has shifted about 850?km to the west-southwest relative to the centre of the craton. We use numerical model simulations to show that this shift could have been caused by basal drag induced by mantle flow, implying that mantle flow can alter craton structure. Our observations contradict the conventional view of cratons as static, non-evolving geologic features. We conclude that there could be significant interaction between deep continental roots and the convecting mantle.
DS202012-2213
2021
Kaban, M.K.Eppelbaum, L.V., Ben-Avraham, Z., Youri, K., Kaban, M.K.Giant quasi-ring structure if the African-Arabian junction: results derived from the geological-geophsyical data integration.Geotectonics, Mantletectonics

Abstract: The tectonic-geodynamic characteristics of the North African-Arabian region are complicated by interaction of numerous factors. To study this interaction, we primarily used the satellite gravity data (retracked to the Earth's surface), recognized as a powerful tool for tectonic-geodynamic zonation. The applied polynomial averaging of gravity data indicated the presence of a giant, deep quasi-ring structure in the Eastern Mediterranean, the center of which is located under the Island of Cyprus. Simultaneously, the geometrical center of the revealed structure coincides with the Earth's critical latitude of 35?. A quantitative analysis of the obtained gravitational anomaly made it possible to estimate the depth of the upper edge of the anomalous body as 1650?1700 km. The GPS vector map coinciding with the gravitational trend indicates counterclockwise rotation of this structure. Review of paleomagnetic data on the projection of the discovered structure into the earth's surface also confirms its counterclockwise rotation. The analysis of the geoid anomalies map and seismic tomography data commonly approve presence of this deep anomaly. The structural and geodynamic characteristics of the region and paleobiogeographic data are consistent with the proposed physical-geological model. Comprehensive analysis of petrological, mineralogical, and tectonic data suggests a relationship between the discovered deep structure and near-surface processes. The revealed geological deep structure sheds light on specific anomalous effects in the upper crustal layer, including the high-intensity Cyprus gravity anomaly, counterclockwise rotation of the Mesozoic terrane belt, configuration of the Sinai plate, and the asymmetry of sedimentary basins along the continental faults.
DS2000-0023
2000
Kabanova, L.Y.Anfilogov, V.N., Korablev, A.G., Kabanova, L.Y.Fluid tectonic mobilization of the buried crusts of kimberlite weathering and origin Urals diamond depositsJournal of Geochem. Exp., Vol. 69-70, pp. 327-31.Russia, UralsAlluvials, placers, weathering, kimberlite, Source, genesis of diamonds
DS2000-0022
2000
Kabanova, L.Ya.Anfilogov, V.N., Kabanova, L.Ya., Korablev, A.G.Origin of Diamondiferous tuffisites in the northern UralsDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 371a, No. 3, Mar-Apr. pp. 437-9.Russia, UralsDiamond genesis, Tuffisites
DS201504-0212
2015
Kabbes, J.E.Panero, W.R., Pigott, J.S., Reaman, D.M., Kabbes, J.E., Liu, Z.Dry ( Mg,Fe) SiO3 perovskite in the Earth's lower mantle.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 120, 2, pp. 894-908.MantlePerovskite
DS2002-1199
2002
Kabek, B.Paava, J., Kabek, B., Dobe, P., VavAn, I., et al.Tin polymetric sulphide deposits in the eastern part of the Dachang tin field and role of black shales - originMineralium deposita, China, southCopper, sinx, tin, black shales, metallogeny, Deposit - Dachang
DS201212-0344
2012
Kabete, J.M.Kabete, J.M., Groves, D.I., McNaughton, N.J., Mruma, A.H.A new tectonic and temporal framework for the Tanzanian shield: implications for gold metallogeny and undiscovered endowment.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 48, pp. 88-124.Africa, TanzaniaTectonics
DS2001-0560
2001
Kabeto, K.Kabeto, K., Sawada, Y., Lizumi, S., Wakatsuki, T.Mantle sources and magma crust interactions in volcanic rocks from northern Kenya Rift: geochemical evidenceLithos, Vol. 56, No. 2-3, Mar. pp. 111-39.KenyaGeochronology
DS2001-0561
2001
Kabeto, K.Kabeto, K., Sawada, Y., Wakatsuki, T.Different evolution trends in alkaline evolved lavas from the Northern Kenya riftJournal of African Earth Science, Vol. 32, No. 3, Apr. pp. 419-33.KenyaTectonics, Alkaline lavas
DS201112-0489
2011
Kabeya, S.M.Kadima, E., Delvaux, D., Sebagenzi, S.N., Tack, L., Kabeya, S.M.Structure and geological history of the Congo basin: an integrated interpretation of gravity, magnetic and reflection seismic data.Basin Research, in press availableAfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS200712-0667
2007
Kabir, Z.Mahbubui Ameen, S.M., Wilde, S.A., Kabir, Z., Akon, E., Chowdbury, K.R., Khan, S.H.Paleoproterozoic granitoids in the basement of Bangladesh: a piece of the Indian Shield or an exotic fragment of the Gondwana jigsaw?Gondwana Research, Vol. 12, 4, pp. 380-387.IndiaIndian Shield
DS1970-0681
1973
Kable, E.J.D.Fesq, H.W., Bibby, D.M., Erasmus, C.S., Kable, E.J.D., SellschopA Comparative Trace Element Study of Diamonds from Premier, finsch and Jagersfontein Mines. #21st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 111-114.South AfricaMineralogy
DS1970-0683
1973
Kable, E.J.D.Fesq, H.W., Kable, E.J.D., Gurney, J.J.Some Aspects of the Geochemistry of Kimberlites from the Premier Mine, Transvaal, South Africa.1st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 115-118.South AfricaGeochemistry
DS1970-0701
1973
Kable, E.J.D.Gurney, J.J., Fesq, H.W., Kable, E.J.D.Clinopyroxene Ilmenite Intergrowths from Kimberlite a Re-appraisal.Maseru: Lesotho Nat. Dev. Corp. Lesotho Kimberlites, Editor, PP. 238-253.Lesotho, United States, Kentucky, Appalachia, KansasBlank
DS1970-0731
1973
Kable, E.J.D.Kable, E.J.D., Fesq, H.W., Gurney, J.J.The Significance of Minor Element Relationships of Some Minor and Trace Elements in South African Kimberlites.1st International Kimberlite Conference, EXTENDED ABSTRACT VOLUME, PP. 185-188.South AfricaMineralogy
DS1975-0078
1975
Kable, E.J.D.Fesq, H.W., Bibby, D.M., Erasmus, C.S., Kable, E.J.D.Trace Elements in Diamonds from the Premier, Finsch and Jagersfontein Mines and Their Petrogenetic Significance.Johannesburg: Nat. Institute Met. Report, No. 1636, 28P.South AfricaPetrogenesis, Kimberley
DS1975-0079
1975
Kable, E.J.D.Fesq, H.W., Kable, E.J.D., Gurney, J.J.Aspects of the Geochemistry of Kimberlites from the Premier mine and Other Selected South African Occurrences with Particular Reference to the Rare Earth Elements.Physics and Chemistry of the Earth., Vol. 9, PP. 687-707.South AfricaMineral Chemistry, Rare Earth Elements (ree)
DS1975-0115
1975
Kable, E.J.D.Kable, E.J.D., Fesq, H.W., Gurney, J.J.The Significance of the Inter-element Relationships of Some minor and Trace Elements in South African Kimberlites.Physics and Chemistry of the Earth., Vol. 9, PP. 709-734.South AfricaRare Earth Elements (ree), Petrography
DS1975-0278
1976
Kable, E.J.D.Fesq, H.W., Kable, E.J.D., Gurney, J.J.The Geochemistry of Some Selected South African Kimberlites and Associated Heavy Minerals.Johannesburg: Nat. Institute Met. Report, No. 1703, 33P.South AfricaMineral Chemistry, Kimberley
DS2002-1481
2002
Kablis, G.N.Shumilova, T.G., Kablis, G.N., Pushkarev, E.V.Typomorphic features of graphite mineralization of probable alternative high pressure sources of diamond: cubic graphite.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 387,8, pp. 958-62.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS200512-0843
2003
Kablukov, A.V.Perepelov, A.B., Antipin, V.S., Kablukov, A.V., Filosofova, T.M.Ultrapotassic rhyolites of southern Kamchatka: geochemical and petrological evidence.Plumes and problems of deep sources of alkaline magmatism, pp. 171-183.RussiaAlkalic
DS2002-0798
2002
Kabo, T.Kabo, T., Ohtani, E., Kondo, T., Kato, T., Toma, M., Hosoya, T., Sano, A.Metastable garnet in oceanic crust at the top of the lower mantleNature, No. 6917, Dec. 19, pp. 803-5.MantleGarnet mineralogy
DS201808-1756
2018
Kaboli, S.Kaboli, S., Burnley, P.C.Direct observations of crystal defects in polycrystalline diamond. CVDMaterials Characterization, Vol. 142, pp. 154-161.Globalsynthetics

Abstract: Crystal defects are abundant in synthetic diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We present the first images of crystal defects in a bulk polycrystalline CVD diamond sample using general electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). For enhancement of channeling contrast of this material, we introduce a novel protocol for diamond surface preparation that involves acid etching. Using this protocol, we imaged three types of crystal defects including twins, stacking faults and dislocations. Each defect was identified based on its appearance in electron channeling contrast (ECC) micrographs. We analyzed grains containing twins and dislocations using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) crystal orientation mapping. We found a large population of grains that contained S3 type twins on {111} planes with a 60°<111> angle-axis pair of misorientation for twin boundaries. In addition, we identified {111} stacking faults and {111} helical dislocations. These observations are in agreement with reports of crystal defects in CVD diamond thin foils studied by a transmission electron microscope (TEM).
DS201112-0488
2011
Kabongo, E.K.Kabongo, E.K., Ntabwoba, S.S.M., Lucazeau, F.A Proterozoic rift origin for the structure and the evolution of the cratonic Congo basin.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 304, 1-2, pp. 240-250.Africa, Democratic Republic of CongoTectonics
DS1991-0815
1991
Kacewoecz, M.Kacewoecz, M.Shape prediction with a Fuzzy uncertainty measureMathematical Geology, Vol. 23, No. 3, April pp. 289-296GlobalGeostatistics, Fuzzy logic
DS200712-0500
2007
Kachevskii, S.Kachevskii, S., Golubina, E., Lokteva, E., Lunin, V.Palladium on ultradisperse diamond and activated carbon: the relation between structure and activity in hydrodechlorination.Russia Journal of Physical Chemistry A., Vol. 81, 6, pp. 866-873.TechnologyMineralogy
DS200712-0501
2007
Kachevskii, S.Kachevskii, S., Golubina, E., Lokteva, E., Lunin, V.Palladium on ultradisperse diamond and activated carbon: the relation between structure and activity in hydrodechlorination.Russia Journal of Physical Chemistry A., Vol. 81, 6, pp. 866-873.TechnologyMineralogy
DS201607-1357
2016
Kaczmarek, M-A.Kaczmarek, M-A.Interaction of melt and deformation at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.IGC 35th., Session The Deep Earth 1 p. abstractMantleMelting
DS201701-0027
2016
Kaczmarek, M-A.Pilet, S., Abe, N., Rochat, L., Kaczmarek, M-A., Hirano. N., Machida, S., Buchs, D.M., Baumgartner, P.O., Muntener, O.Pre-subduction metasomatic enrichment of the oceanic lithosphere induced by plate flexure.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 898-903.MantleSubduction

Abstract: Oceanic lithospheric mantle is generally interpreted as depleted mantle residue after mid-ocean ridge basalt extraction. Several models have suggested that metasomatic processes can refertilize portions of the lithospheric mantle before subduction. Here, we report mantle xenocrysts and xenoliths in petit-spot lavas that provide direct evidence that the lower oceanic lithosphere is affected by metasomatic processes. We find a chemical similarity between clinopyroxene observed in petit-spot mantle xenoliths and clinopyroxene from melt-metasomatized garnet or spinel peridotites, which are sampled by kimberlites and intracontinental basalts respectively. We suggest that extensional stresses in oceanic lithosphere, such as plate bending in front of subduction zones, allow low-degree melts from the seismic low-velocity zone to percolate, interact and weaken the oceanic lithospheric mantle. Thus, metasomatism is not limited to mantle upwelling zones such as mid-ocean ridges or mantle plumes, but could be initiated by tectonic processes. Since plate flexure is a global mechanism in subduction zones, a significant portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle is likely to be metasomatized. Recycling of metasomatic domains into the convecting mantle is fundamental to understanding the generation of small-scale mantle isotopic and volatile heterogeneities sampled by oceanic island and mid-ocean ridge basalts.
DS201709-1998
2017
Kaczmarek, M-A.Henry, H., Afonso, J.C., Satsukawa, T., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Kaczmarek, M-A., Tilhac, R., Gregoire, M., Ceuleneer, G.The unexplored potential impact of pyroxenite layering on upper mantle seismic properties.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Europe, Spain, United States, Californiageophysics - seismics

Abstract: It is now accepted that significant volumes of pyroxenites are generated in the subduction factory and remain trapped in the mantle. In ophiolites and orogenic massifs the geometry of pyroxenite layers and their relationships with the host peridotite can be observed directly. Since a large part of what is known about the upper mantle structure is derived from the analysis of seismic waves, it is crucial to integrate pyroxenites in the interpretations. We modeled the seismic properties of a peridotitic mantle rich in pyroxenite layers in order to determine the impact of layering on the seimsic properties. To do so, EBSD data on deformed and undeformed pyroxenites from the Cabo Ortegal complex (Spain) and the Trinity ophiolite (California, USA) respectively are combined with either A or B-type olivine fabrics in order to model a realistic pyroxenite-rich upper mantle. Consideration of pyroxeniterich domains within the host mantle wall rock is incorporated in the calculations using the Schoenberg and Muir group theory [1]. This quantification reveals the complex dependence of the seismic signal on the deformational state and relative abundance of each mineral phase. The incorporation of pyroxenites properties into geophysical interpretations in understanding the lithospheric structure of subduction zones will lead to more geologically realistic models.
DS1991-1456
1991
Kaczmarick, K.Rosendahl, B.R., Groschel-Becker, H., Meyers, J., Kaczmarick, K.Deep seismic reflection study of a passive margin southeastern Gulf ofGuineaGeology, Vol. 19, No. 4, April pp. 291-295GuineaGeophysics -seismics, Remote sensing
DS1950-0335
1957
Kadensky, A.A.Leont'ev, L.N., Kadensky, A.A.The Nature of the Yakutian Kimberlite PipesDoklady Academy of Sciences Nauk SSSR., Vol. 115, No. 2, PP. 368-37L.RussiaBlank
DS1984-0388
1984
Kadid, A.A.Kadid, A.A., Lukanin, O.A.Problems of redox regime of the upper mantle and ways of its degassing In the process of meltingIn: Proceedings of the 27th. International Geological Congress held Moscow, August, Vol. 11, Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, pp. 435-448RussiaMantle
DS1997-0567
1997
Kadik, A.Kadik, A.Evolution of the Earth's redox state during upwelling of carbon bearingmantle.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 100, No. 1-3, pp.MantleCarbon
DS200412-0942
2004
Kadik, A.Kadik, A., Pineau, F., Litvin, Y., Jendrzejewski, N., Martinez, I., Javoy, M.Formation of carbon and hydrogen species in magmas at low oxygen fugacity.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 45, 7, pp. 1297-1310.TechnologyMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS1989-0739
1989
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Sobolev, N.V., Zharkova, E.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Redox conditions of formation of diamond bearing peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe,Yakutia.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 8, August pp. 1120-1135RussiaGeochemistry, Xenoliths - peridotite
DS1989-1383
1989
Kadik, A.A.Shilobreyeva, S.N., Kadik, A.A., Minayev, V.M., Kazakov, S.S.Determination of carbon in natural plutonic olivine crystalDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 297, No. 1-6, pp. 137-141RussiaSpectroscopic analysis, Olivine Mineral chemistry
DS1990-0791
1990
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A.Redox state of the upper mantleProceedings Indian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 99, No. 1, March pp. 141-152GlobalMantle, Redox
DS1990-0792
1990
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Dorfman, A.M., Bagdasarov, N.Sh., Lebedev, Ye.B.Influence of pyroxenes on the melt distribution in the intergranular spacein a peridotiteGeochemical Int, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 131-134RussiaPyroxenes, Mantle melt
DS1990-0793
1990
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Sobolev, N.V., Zharkova, Ye.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Redox conditions of formation of diamond bearing peridotite xenoliths In the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe, YakutiaGeochemistry Int, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 41-54RussiaRedox Udachnaya, Peridotite
DS1991-0816
1991
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Lukanin, O.A., Portnyagin, A.L.Magma generation during rise of mantle material temperatures and composition of melts formed by adiabatic decompression of mantle ultrabasitesGeochemistry International, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 40-52RussiaMantle, Ultrabasites
DS1991-0817
1991
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, Y.Y., Spetsius, Z.V.Redox conditions of the formation of diamond bearing kyanites of eclogites(kimberlite pipe Udachnaya, Yakutia).(Russian)Dan. SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 320, No. 2, pp. 440-444Russia, YakutiaEclogites, kyanites, Diamonds
DS1992-0812
1992
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Shilobreeva, S.N.Role of carbon in formation of volatile components of mantle magmaEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p.350MantleGraphite, Experimental petrology
DS1993-0767
1993
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, E.V., Efimova, E.S., Sobolev, N.V.Electrochemical determination of intrinsic oxygen fugacity of diamondcrystals. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 328, No. 3, January pp. 386-389Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), YakutiaDiamond morphology
DS1993-0768
1993
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, Ye.V., Tolochko, V.V.Redox conditions during the generation of diamond-bearing kyanite eclogitein the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia.Doklady Academy of Sciences USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 321, No. 8, August 1993, pp. 217-221.Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), YakutiaGenesis, Deposit -Udachnaya
DS1994-0858
1994
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Matveev, S.V., et al.Gamma activation determination of nitrogen in silicate in the studies Of the earth's mantle degassing.Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan. pp. 110-115.MantleBlank
DS1994-0859
1994
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Shilobreeva, S.N.The primary carbon and the formation of carbon species in terrestrialmagmas.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58A, pp. 460-461. AbstractMantleMagmas, Carbon
DS1994-0860
1994
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, E.V., Kislev, A.I.The redox condition of spinel and garnet lherzolites from the Baikal riftzone. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Nauk, (Russian), Vol. 337, No. 1, pp. 100-103.Russia, BaikalLherzolites
DS1995-0902
1995
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, E.V., Lutkov, V.S., Tadjibae, G.T.Redox state of peridotite xenoliths from south and middle Tian Shan, experimental determination. (Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 8, August pp. 1094-99. #ry508ChinaXenoliths
DS1995-0903
1995
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, Ye.V., et al.Electrochemical determinations of the oxygen fugacity of diamond crystalsDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 329A, No. 3, April, pp. 155-158.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1996-0705
1996
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A.Formation of the volatile components of the earth's mantle: development ofVinogradov's ideas.Geochemistry International, Vol. 33, No. 4, April, pp. 95-108.RussiaMantle, Geochemistry
DS1996-0706
1996
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, Ye.V., Lutkov, V.S., TadzhivayevDetermination of the redox state of central and south Tian Shun mantlexenoliths.Geochemistry International, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 33-38.Russia, Tajikistan, MantleXenoliths
DS1996-1604
1996
Kadik, A.A.Zharkova, E.V., Kadik, A.A., Sobolev, N.V.Olivine from diamonds -bearing peridotite xenoliths: redox conditions of their formation (Udachnaya pipe).International Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 391.RussiaIGF -olivines, Deposit -Udachnaya
DS1997-0568
1997
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Zharkova, E.V., Efimova, E.S., Sobolev, N.Redox conditions of the formation of diamond crystals: electrochemicalinvestigations.Doklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 355A, No. 6, July-Aug. pp. 1370-74.GlobalDiamond morphology, Crystallography
DS200412-1150
2004
Kadik, A.A.Litvin, V.Y., Litvin, Yu.A., Kadik, A.A.Kinetic barriers o diamond nucleation in silica rich silicate carbonate carbon melts by experimental dat a at 5.5 - 8.5 GPas.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S72. abstractTechnologyDiamond nucleation
DS200612-0651
2006
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A.Oxygen fugacity regime in the upper mantle as a reflection of the chemical differentiation of planetary materials.Geochemistry International, Vol. 44, 1, pp. 56-71.MantleGeochemistry
DS200612-0652
2006
Kadik, A.A.Kadik, A.A., Litvin, Y.A., Koltashev, V.V., Kryukova, E.B., Plotnichenko, V.G.Solubility of hydrogen and carbon in reduced magmas of the early Earth's mantle.Geochemistry International, Vol. 44, 1, pp. 33-47.MantleGeochemistry
DS200812-0672
2008
Kadik, A.A.Litvin, Yu.A., Litvin, V.Y., Kadik, A.A.Experimental characterization of diamond crystallization in melts of mantle silicate carbonate carbon systems at 7.0-8.5 GPa.Geochemistry International, Vol. 46, 6, pp. 531-553.MantleMelting
DS200812-0673
2008
Kadik, A.A.Litvin, Yu.A., Litvin, V.yu., Kadik, A.A.Study of diamond and graphite crystallization from eclogite carbonatite melts at 8.5GPa: the role of silicates in diamond genesis.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 419A, no. 3, pp. 486-491.TechnologyDiamond genesis
DS201112-0489
2011
Kadima, E.Kadima, E., Delvaux, D., Sebagenzi, S.N., Tack, L., Kabeya, S.M.Structure and geological history of the Congo basin: an integrated interpretation of gravity, magnetic and reflection seismic data.Basin Research, in press availableAfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-0490
2011
Kadima, E.Kadima, E., Delvaux, D., Sebagenzi, S.N., Tack, L., Kaybeya, S.M.Structure and geological history of the Congo basin: an integrated interpretation of gravity, magnetic and reflection seismic data.Basin Research, Vol. 23, 5, Oct. pp. 499-527.Africa, Democratic Republic of CongoGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-1150
2006
KadirovReilinger, R., McClusky, S., Vernant, P., Lawrence, S., Ergintav, Cakmak, Ozener, Kadirov, Guliev, StepanyanGPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa Arabia Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111,B5 B05411.AfricaGeodynamics
DS1950-0221
1955
Kadlec, D.W.Kadlec, D.W.Restudy of the Ithaca DikesBsc. Thesis, Cornell University, United States, Appalachia, New YorkPetrology
DS2001-0562
2001
Kadoshima, K.Kadoshima, K., Arai, S.Chemical analysis of detrital chromian spinels from the Lizard area: an attempt for lithological and petrologyNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, No. 5, pp. 193-205.GlobalPeridotites
DS201112-0025
2011
Kadoshima, K.Arai, S., Okamura, H., Kadoshima, K., Tanaka, C., Suzuki, K., Ishimaru, S.Chemical characteristics of chromian spinel in plutonic rocks: implications for deep magma processes and discrimination of tectonic setting.Island Arc, Vol. 20, 1, pp. 125-137.MantleMagmatism - tectonics
DS1996-0707
1996
Kadryavtseva, G.P.Kadryavtseva, G.P., Garinan, V.K., et al.Comparison of the diamond crystals from Arkangelsk and Yakutian kimberliteprovinces.International Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 387.Russia, Arkangelsk, YakutiaDiamond morphology
DS1996-1472
1996
Kadryavtseva, G.P.Vasilyeva, E.R., Garanin, V.K., Kadryavtseva, G.P.Mineralogy of garnets from kimberlites of Arkangelsk diamond bearingprovince.International Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 386.RussiaGarnet mineralogy, Kimberlites
DS201912-2795
2019
Kadyrova, G.I.Krivovichev, S.V., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Panikorovskii, T.L., Savchenko, E.E., Pakhailova, Yu, A., Selivanova, E.A., Kadyrova, G.I., Ivanyuk, G.Yu.,Krivovchev, S.V.Nikmelnikovite: Ca 12 Fe 2+ Fe 3+3 Al3(SiO4) 6(OH)20: a new mineral from the Kovdor Massif ( Kola Peninsula, Russia)Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 488, 2, pp. 1200-1202.Russia, Kola Peninsuladeposit - Kovdor
DS201612-2309
2016
Kaercher, P.Kaercher, P., Miyagi, L., Kanitpanyacharoen, W., Zepeda-Alarcon, E., Wang, Y., Parkinson, D., Lebensohn, R.A., De Carlo, F., Wenk, H.R.Two phase deformation of lower mantle mineral analogs.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 456, pp. 134-145.MantleBridgemanite

Abstract: The lower mantle is estimated to be composed of mostly bridgmanite and a smaller percentage of ferropericlase, yet very little information exists for two-phase deformation of these minerals. To better understand the rheology and active deformation mechanisms of these lower mantle minerals, especially dislocation slip and the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), we deformed mineral analogs neighborite (NaMgF3, iso-structural with bridgmanite) and halite (NaCl, iso-structural with ferropericlase) together in the deformation-DIA at the Advanced Photon Source up to 51% axial shortening. Development of CPO was recorded in situ with X-ray diffraction, and information on microstructural evolution was collected using X-ray microtomography. Results show that when present in as little as 15% volume, the weak phase (NaCl) controls the deformation. Compared to single phase NaMgF3 samples, samples with just 15% volume NaCl show a reduction of CPO in NaMgF3 and weakening of the aggregate. Microtomography shows both NaMgF3 and NaCl form highly interconnected networks of grains. Polycrystal plasticity simulations were carried out to gain insight into slip activity, CPO evolution, and strain and stress partitioning between phases for different synthetic two-phase microstructures. The results suggest that ferropericlase may control deformation in the lower mantle and reduce CPO in bridgmanite, which implies a less viscous lower mantle and helps to explain why the lower mantle is fairly isotropic.
DS200912-0348
2009
Kaeser, B.Kaeser, B., Olker, B., Kait, A., Altherr, R., Pettke, T.Pyroxenite xenoliths from Marsabit ( northern Kenya): evidence for different magmatic events in the lithospheric mantle and interaction between peridotiteContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 157, 4, pp. 453-472.Africa, KenyaMagmatism
DS200512-0492
2005
Kafino, C.V.Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J-C., Brod, J.A., Jost, H., Rocha Barbosa, E.S., Kafino, C.V.Emplacement of kamafugitic lavas from the Goais alkaline province, Brazil: constraints from whole rock simulations. (mafurite, ugandite)Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, 3-4, March pp. 323-335.South America, BrazilSanto Antonio da Barra, Aguas Emendadas, carbonatite
DS200512-0493
2005
Kafino, C.V.Junqueira-Brod, T.C., Gaspar, J-C., Brod, J.A., Kafino, C.V.Kamafugitic diatremes: their textures and field relationships with examples from the Goais alkaline province, Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, 3-4, March pp. 337-353.South America, BrazilBreccia, lapilli, peperite, surge
DS201212-0345
2012
Kafino, C.V.Kafino, C.V., Brod, J.A., Brod, T.C., Freitas, N.M.Mineral chemistry of mantle xenoliths from Kamafugite diatremes in the Goias alkaline Province, Brazil.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractIndiaDeposit - Goias
DS1975-0884
1978
Kafkas, Y.Vartiainen, H., Kresten, P., Kafkas, Y.Alkaline Lamprophyres from the Sokli Complex, Northern Finland.Comptes Rendus Geol. De la Soc. Finlande., Vol. 50, PP. 59-68.GlobalCarbonatite, Petrology, Alnoite, Damkjernite
DS2001-0801
2001
KagamiMorikiyo, Miyazaki, Kagami, Vldadykin, ChernyshevaStrontium, neodymium, Carbon, and Oxygen isotope characteristics of Siberian carbonatites.Alkaline Magmatism -problems mantle source, pp. 69-84.Russia, SiberiaAlkaline rocks, Geochronology
DS1987-0324
1987
Kagami, H.Kagami, H., Koide, Y.Evolution of the earth's mantle: as deduced from neodymium isotopes.*JAPChikyu Kagaku, *JAP, Vol.41, No. 1, (208) pp. 1-22JapanKimberlite
DS1987-0325
1987
Kagami, H.Kagami, H., Koide, Y.Evolution of the earth's mantle- considering neodymium isotope.*JPNChikyu Kagaku, *JPN., Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 1-22JapanBlank
DS2001-0784
2001
Kagami, H.Miyazaki, T., Kagami, H., Moan, V.K., Shuto, MorikiyoEvolution of South Indian enriched lithospheric mantle: evidence from YelagAlkaline Magmatism -problems mantle source, pp. 189-203.India, South, Tamil NaduGeochronology
DS200412-1369
2003
Kagami, H.Morikiyo, T., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Weerakoon, M.W.K., Miyaazaki, T., Vladykin, N.V., Kagami, H., Shuto, K.Sr and Nd isotopic difference between kimberlites and carbonatites from the Siberian Platform.8 IKC Program, Session 7, AbstractRussia, YakutiaKimberlite petrogenesis Geochronology - four zones
DS200512-0738
2001
Kagami, H.Miyazaki, T., Kagami, H., Mohan, V.R., Shuto, K., Morikiyo, T.Evolution of South Indian enriched lithospheric mantle: evidence from the Yelagiri and Evattur alkaline plutonism Tamil Nadu, south India.Alkaline Magmatism and the problems of mantle sources, pp. 189-203.IndiaAlkalic
DS200512-0746
2001
Kagami, H.Morikiyo, T., Miyazaki, T., Kagami, H., Vladykin, N.V., Chernysheva, E.A., Panina, L.I., Podgornych, N.M.Sr Nd C and O isotope characteristics of Siberian carbonatites.Alkaline Magmatism and the problems of mantle sources, pp. 69-84.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology
DS200512-0747
2004
Kagami, H.Morikiyo, T., Weerakoon, M.W.K., Miyazaki, T., Vladykin, N.V., Kostrovitsky, S.L., Kagami, H., Shuto, K.Difference in Sr and Nd isotopic character of carbonatites and kimberlites from Siberia.Deep seated magmatism, its sources and their relation to plume processes., pp. 112-127.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology
DS1995-0574
1995
Kagan, B.Gaft, M., Kagan, B., Shoval, S.Laseroluminescent sorting and identification of diamondsProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 172-74.Russia, SiberiaDiamond morphology, Diamond luminescence
DS200612-1574
2006
Kageyama, A.Yoshida, M., Kageyama, A.Low degree mantle convection with strongly temperature and depth dependent viscosity in a three dimensional spherical shell.Journal of Geophysical Reesarch, Vol. 111, B3, B03412MantleGeophysics - seismics, convection
DS201112-1156
2011
KagiZedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, Shatsky, Kagi, Odake, Griffin, Araujo, YuryevaEvidence for evolution of growth media in superdeep diamonds from Sao-Luis Brazil.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.2244.South America, BrazilCl imaging
DS1990-0794
1990
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Takahashi, K., Masuda, A.Laser-induced luminescence from micro-diamonds of urelliteNatur-wissenschaften, Vol. 77, No. 11, November pp. 531-532GlobalMicrodiamonds, Lumininesence
DS1991-0818
1991
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Masuda, A.Laser induced luminescence from natural polycrystal diamond, carbonado- A new possible thermal indicator of meteoritic diamondsNaturwissenschaften, Vol. 78, No. 8, August pp. 355-358GlobalCarbonado, Geothermometry - luminescenece
DS1991-0819
1991
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Takahashi, K., Masuda, A.Raman-scattering and laser induced luminesence from micro-diamonds inurelitesMeteoritics, Vol. 26, No. 4, December p. 354GlobalUrelites, Micro-diamonds
DS1994-0861
1994
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Takahashi, K., et al.Chemical properties of Central African carbonado and its geneticimplications.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 2669-2618.Central African RepublicGeochemistry, Carbonado
DS2000-0460
2000
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Lu, R., Hemley, R.J.Evidence for ice VI as an inclusion in cuboid diamonds from high pressure -temperature near infrared spectroscopy.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 6, Dec. 1, pp. 1089-98.GlobalDiamond - inclusions, Diamond - morphology
DS2002-0799
2002
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Sato, S., Kanda, T., Akagi, T.Internal strain and thermal history of carbonado inferred from photoluminescence spectroscopy: relationship to carbon isotopic compositions.Eos, American Geophysical Union, Spring Abstract Volume, Vol.83,19, 1p.Central African RepublicDiamond - morphology, carbonado
DS2002-1757
2002
Kagi, H.Yamamoto, J., Kagi, H., Kaneoka, Lai, Prikhodko,AraiFossil pressures of fluid inclusions in mantle xenoliths exhibiting rheology of mantle minerals...Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.198,3-4,pp.511-19., Vol.198,3-4,pp.511-19.MantleSpectroscopy, Geobarometry - mantle minerals
DS2002-1758
2002
Kagi, H.Yamamoto, J., Kagi, H., Kaneoka, Lai, Prikhodko,AraiFossil pressures of fluid inclusions in mantle xenoliths exhibiting rheology of mantle minerals...Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.198,3-4,pp.511-19., Vol.198,3-4,pp.511-19.MantleSpectroscopy, Geobarometry - mantle minerals
DS2003-0697
2003
Kagi, H.Kawakami, Y., Yamamoto, J., Kagi, H.Micro raman densimeter for CO2 inclusions in mantle derived mineralsApplied Spectroscopy, Vol. 57, 11, pp. 1333-1339.MantleMineralogy - technology
DS200412-0965
2003
Kagi, H.Kawakami, Y., Yamamoto, J., Kagi, H.Micro raman densimeter for CO2 inclusions in mantle derived minerals.Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 57, 11, pp. 1333-1339.MantleMineralogy - technology
DS200412-2165
2004
Kagi, H.Yamamoto, J., Kaneoka, I., Nakai, S., Kagi, H., Prikhodko, V.S., Arai, S.Evidence for subduction related components in the subcontinental mantle from low 3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar ratio in mantle xenolithsChemical Geology, Vol. 207, 3-4, July 16, pp. 237-259.RussiaGeochemistry - noble gases, subduction, lherzolite
DS200412-2199
2004
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Kagi, H., Shatsky, V.S., Sobolev, N.V.Carbonatitic melts in cuboid diamonds from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe ( Yukatia): evidence from vibrational spectroscopy.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 6, 1, pp. 61-73.Russia, YakutiaDiamond morphology
DS200612-0418
2006
Kagi, H.Fukura, S., Kagi, H., Nakagawa, T.Photoluminescence, Rama and infrared studies of carbonado.International Mineralogical Association 19th. General Meeting, held Kobe, Japan July 23-28 2006, Abstract p. 138.Africa, Central African Republic, South America, BrazilCarbonado - morphology
DS200612-0653
2006
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Fukura, S., Nakai, M., Sugiyama, K.Development of a Built in scanning near field microscope head for an atomic force microscope system and its application to natural polycrystalline diamondsInternational Mineralogical Association 19th. General Meeting, held Kobe, Japan July 23-28 2006, Abstract p. 114.TechnologyCarbonado
DS200612-0824
2006
Kagi, H.Litasov, K.D., Ohtain, E., Kagi, H., Lakshtanov, D.L., Bass, J.D.Hydrogen solubility in Al rich stidhovite and water transport to the lower mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 23. abstract only.MantleWater
DS200612-0825
2006
Kagi, H.Litasov, K.D., Ohtani, E., Kagi, H., Ghosh, S.Water partitioning between olivine and wadsleyite near 410 km seismic discontinuity.International Mineralogical Association 19th. General Meeting, held Kobe, Japan July 23-28 2006, Abstract p.102.MantleDiscontinuity - width
DS200612-1584
2006
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Shiryaev, A.A., Shatsky, V.S., Kagi, H.Water related IR characteristics in natural fibrous diamonds.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 70, 2, April pp. 219-229.Russia, Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada, Northwest TerritoriesSpectroscopy, microinclusions
DS200712-0158
2007
Kagi, H.Cayzer, N.J., Odake, S., Harte, B., Kagi, H.Plastic deformation of lower mantle diamonds by inclusion phases transformations.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.188-189.MantleDiamond morphology
DS200712-0159
2007
Kagi, H.Cayzer, N.J., Odake, S., Harte, B., Kagi, H.Plastic deformation of lower mantle diamonds by inclusion phases transformations.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.188-189.MantleDiamond morphology
DS200712-0502
2007
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Sato, S., Akagi, T., Kanda, H.Generation history of carbonado inferred from photoluminescence spectra, cathodluminesence imaging, and carbon isotope composition.American Mineralogist, Vol. 91, 1, pp. 217-224.Africa, Central African RepublicCarbonado, radiation damage
DS200712-0513
2007
Kagi, H.Kawakami, Y., Junji, Y., Kagi, H.Micro-raman densimeter for CO2 inclusions in mantle derived minerals.Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 57, 11, pp. 320A-340A-previous Nov 2003 pp.1333-9.TechnologySpectroscopy - xenolith
DS200712-0514
2006
Kagi, H.Kawakami, Y., Yamamoto, J., Kagi, H.Micro-raman densimeter for CO2 inclusions in mantle derived minerals.Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 57, 11, pp. 1333-1339.TechnologyMineral inclusions
DS200712-0630
2007
Kagi, H.Litasov, K.D., Kagi, H., Shatskiy, A., Lakshtanov, D., Bass, J.D., Ito, E.High hydrogen solubility in Al rich stishovite and water transport in the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 262, 3-4, Oct. 30, pp. 620-634.MantleWater
DS200712-1197
2007
Kagi, H.Yamamoto, J., Kagi, H., Kawakami, Y., Hirano, N., Nakamura, M.Paleo-Moho depth determined from the pressure of CO2 fluid inclusions: Raman spectroscopic barometry of mantle crust derived rocks.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 253, 3-4, pp. 369-377.MantleGeothermometry
DS200812-0189
2008
Kagi, H.Cayzer, N.J., Odake, S., Harte, B., Kagi, H.Plastic deformation of lower mantle diamonds by inclusion phase transformation.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 20, no. 3, 333-339.MantleDiamond inclusions
DS200812-0532
2008
Kagi, H.Kagi, H.Near infrared spectroscopic determination of salinity and internal pressure of fluid inclusions in cuboid diamonds.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A444.TechnologySpectroscopy
DS200812-0533
2008
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Fukura, S.Infrared and Raman spectroscopic observations of central African carbonado and implications for its origin.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 387-393.Africa, Central African RepublicCarbonado
DS200812-0757
2008
Kagi, H.Mizukami, T., Wallis, S., Enami, M., Kagi, H.Forearc diamond from Japan.Geology, Vol. 36, 3 March pp. 219-222.JapanLamprophyre, dykes
DS200812-1288
2008
Kagi, H.Yamamoto, J., Ando, J-i., Kagi, H., Inoue, T., Yamada, A., Yamazaki, D., Irifune, T.In situ strength measurements on natural upper mantle minerals.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 35, pp. 249-257.MantleRheology, geocbarometry
DS200912-0349
2008
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Odake, S., Zedgenizov, D.Depth of diamonds formation: a novel spectroscopic approach to the 3-D mapping of stress patterns.American Geological Union, Fall meeting Dec. 15-19, Eos Trans. Vol. 89, no. 53, meeting supplement, 1p. abstractMantleUHP
DS200912-0544
2009
Kagi, H.Odake, S., Fukura, S., Arakawa, S., Ohta, M., Harte, B., Kagi, H.Divalent chromium in ferropericlase inclusions in lower mantle diamonds revealed by morco XANES measurements.Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, Vol. 103, 5, pp. 350-353.TechnologyDiamond inclusions
DS200912-0545
2009
Kagi, H.Odake, S., Kagi, H., Arakawa, M., Ohta, A., Harte, B.Oxidation state of chromium in ferropericlese inclusions in lower mantle diamonds determined with micro-XANES measurements.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A962 Abstract.MantleDiamond inclusions
DS200912-0849
2009
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Shjatsky, V.S., Araujo, D., Griffin, W.L., Kagi, H.Mg and Fe rich carbonate silicate high density fluids in cuboid diamonds from the Internationalnaya kimberlite pipe. Yakutia.Lithos, In press availableRussia, YakutiaDeposit - International
DS201012-0331
2010
Kagi, H.Kagi, H.Finding primary fluid inclusions in carbonado diamond and its implication to the origin.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, AbstractTechnologyCarbonado
DS201012-0332
2009
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Odake, S., Fukura, S., Zedgenizov, D.A.Raman spectroscopic estimation of depth of diamond origin: technical developments and the application.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 50, 12, pp. 1183-1187.TechnologyDiamond genesis
DS201112-1018
2011
Kagi, H.Sumino, H., Dobrzhinetskaya, I.F., Burgess, R., Kagi, H.Deep mantle derived noble gases in metamorphic diamonds from the Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 307, 3-4, pp. 439-449.Russia, KazakhstanMicrodiamonds - SCLM, metasomatism, subduction
DS201212-0332
2012
Kagi, H.Ishibashi, H., Kagi, H., Sakuai, H., Ohfuji, H., Sumino, H.Hydrous fluid as the growth media of natural polycrystalline diamond, carbonado: implication from IR spectra and microtextural observations.American Mineralogist, Vol. 97, pp. 1366-1372.Africa, Central African RepublicCarbonado
DS201312-1006
2014
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Kagi, H., Shatsky, V.S., Ragozin, A.Local variations of carbon isotope composition in diamonds from Sao-Luis ( Brazil): evidence for heterogenous carbon reservoir in sublithospheric mantle.Chemical Geology, Vol. 363, pp. 114-124.South America, BrazilDeposit - Sao Luis area
DS201412-0436
2014
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Ishibashi, H., Zedgenizov, D., Shatsky, V., Ragozin, A.Growth condition of super-deep diamonds inferred from carbon isotopic compositions and chemical compositions of nano-inclusions.Goldschmidt Conference 2014, 1p. AbstractMantleMineral chemistry
DS201412-0718
2014
Kagi, H.Ragozin, A.L., Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatskii, V.S., Orihashi, Y., Agashev, A.M., Kagi, H.U Pb age of rutile from the eclogite xenolith of the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 457, 1, pp. 861-864.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201412-1022
2014
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D., Kagi, H., Shatsky, V.The deep carbon cycle: new evidence from superdeep diamonds.V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences International Symposium Advances in high pressure research: breaking scales and horizons ( Courtesy of N. Poikilenko), Held Sept. 22-26, 2p. AbstractSouth America, BrazilDeposit - Sao-Luis alluvials
DS201412-1023
2014
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatskiy, A., Ragozin, A.L., Kagi, H., Shatsky, V.S.Merwinite in diamond from Sao Luiz, Brazil: a new mineral of the Ca-rich mantle environment.American Mineralogist, Vol. 99, pp. 547-550.South America, BrazilMineralogy
DS201502-0128
2015
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatsky, V.S., Panin, A.V., Evtushenko, O.V., Ragozin, A.L., Kagi, H.Evidence for phase transitions in mineral inclusions in superdeep diamonds of the Sao Luiz deposit, Brazil.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 56, 1, pp. 296-305.South America, BrazilDeposit - Sao Luiz
DS201507-0328
2015
Kagi, H.Mironov, V.P., Rakevich, A.L., Stepanov, F.A., Emelyanova, A.S., Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatsky, V.S., Kagi, H., Martynovich, E.F.Luminescence in diamonds of the Sao Luiz placer ( Brazil).Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 56, pp. 729-736.South America, BrazilDiamond luminesence
DS201509-0440
2015
Kagi, H.Yuryeva, O.P., Rakhmanova, M.I., Nadolinny, V.A., Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatsky, V.S., Kagi, H., Komarovskikh, A.Yu.The characteristic photoluminescence and EPR features of superdeep diamonds ( Sao Luis, Brazil).Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, In press available 16p.South America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDeposit - Juina area

Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used for the first time to characterize properties of superdeep diamonds from the São-Luis alluvial deposits (Brazil). The infrared measurements showed the low nitrogen content (>50 of 87 diamonds from this locality were nitrogen free and belonged to type IIa) and simultaneously the extremely high level of nitrogen aggregation (pure type IaB being predominant), which indicates that diamonds under study might have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions. In most cases, PL features excited at various wavelengths (313, 473, and 532 nm) were indicative of different growth and post-growth processes during which PL centers could be formed via interaction between vacancies and nitrogen atoms. The overall presence of the 490.7 nm, H3, and H4 centers in the luminescence spectra attests to strong plastic deformations in these diamonds. The neutral vacancy known as the GR1 center has probably occurred in a number of crystals due to radiation damage in the post-growth period. The 558.5 nm PL center is found to be one of the most common defects in type IIa samples which is accompanied by the EPR center with g-factor of 2.00285. The 536 and 576 nm vibronic systems totally dominated the PL spectra of superdeep diamonds, while none of "normal" diamonds from the Mir pipe (Yakutia) with similar nitrogen characteristics showed the latter three PL centers.
DS201511-1892
2015
Kagi, H.Yuryeva, O.P., Rakhmanova, M.I., Nadolinny, V.A., Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatsky, V.S., Kagi, H., Komarovskikh, A.Yu.The characteristic photoluminescence and EPR features of superdeep diamonds ( Sao-Luis, Brazil).Physics and chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 42, 9, pp. 707-722.South America, BrazilSao-Luis alluvials

Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used for the first time to characterize properties of superdeep diamonds from the São-Luis alluvial deposits (Brazil). The infrared measurements showed the low nitrogen content (>50 of 87 diamonds from this locality were nitrogen free and belonged to type IIa) and simultaneously the extremely high level of nitrogen aggregation (pure type IaB being predominant), which indicates that diamonds under study might have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions. In most cases, PL features excited at various wavelengths (313, 473, and 532 nm) were indicative of different growth and post-growth processes during which PL centers could be formed via interaction between vacancies and nitrogen atoms. The overall presence of the 490.7 nm, H3, and H4 centers in the luminescence spectra attests to strong plastic deformations in these diamonds. The neutral vacancy known as the GR1 center has probably occurred in a number of crystals due to radiation damage in the post-growth period. The 558.5 nm PL center is found to be one of the most common defects in type IIa samples which is accompanied by the EPR center with g-factor of 2.00285. The 536 and 576 nm vibronic systems totally dominated the PL spectra of superdeep diamonds, while none of "normal" diamonds from the Mir pipe (Yakutia) with similar nitrogen characteristics showed the latter three PL centers.
DS201603-0434
2015
Kagi, H.Yureva, O.P., Rakhmanova, M.I., Nadolinny, V.A., Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatsjy, V.S., Kagi, H., Komarovskikh, A.Y.The characteristic photoluminesence and EPR features of super deep diamonds ( Sao-Luis, Brazil).Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 42, 9, pp. 707-722.South America, BrazilDeposit - Sao-Luis

Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used for the first time to characterize properties of superdeep diamonds from the São-Luis alluvial deposits (Brazil). The infrared measurements showed the low nitrogen content (>50 of 87 diamonds from this locality were nitrogen free and belonged to type IIa) and simultaneously the extremely high level of nitrogen aggregation (pure type IaB being predominant), which indicates that diamonds under study might have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions. In most cases, PL features excited at various wavelengths (313, 473, and 532 nm) were indicative of different growth and post-growth processes during which PL centers could be formed via interaction between vacancies and nitrogen atoms. The overall presence of the 490.7 nm, H3, and H4 centers in the luminescence spectra attests to strong plastic deformations in these diamonds. The neutral vacancy known as the GR1 center has probably occurred in a number of crystals due to radiation damage in the post-growth period. The 558.5 nm PL center is found to be one of the most common defects in type IIa samples which is accompanied by the EPR center with g-factor of 2.00285. The 536 and 576 nm vibronic systems totally dominated the PL spectra of superdeep diamonds, while none of “normal” diamonds from the Mir pipe (Yakutia) with similar nitrogen characteristics showed the latter three PL centers.
DS201611-2117
2016
Kagi, H.Kagi, H., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ohfuji, H., Ishibashi, H.Micro- and nano-inclusions in a superdeep diamond from Sao Luiz, Brazil.Geochemistry International, Vol. 54, 10, pp. 834-838.South America, BrazilDeposit - Sao Luiz

Abstract: We report cloudy micro- and nano-inclusions in a superdeep diamond from São-Luiz, Brazil which contains inclusions of ferropericlase (Mg, Fe)O and former bridgmanite (Mg, Fe)SiO3 and ringwoodite (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. Field emission-SEM and TEM observations showed that the cloudy inclusions were composed of euhedral micro-inclusions with grain sizes ranging from tens nanometers to submicrometers. Infrared absorption spectra of the cloudy inclusions showed that water, carbonate, and silicates were not major components of these micro- and nano-inclusions and suggested that the main constituent of the inclusions was infrared-inactive. Some inclusions were suggested to contain material with lower atomic numbers than that of carbon. Mineral phase of nano- and micro-inclusions is unclear at present. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis clarified that the micro-inclusions contained transition metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) possibly as metallic or sulfide phases. The cloudy inclusions provide an important information on the growth environment of superdeep diamonds in the transition zone or the lower mantle.
DS201809-2023
2018
Kagi, H.Fukuyama, K., Kagi, H., Inoue, T., Shinmei, T., Kakizawa, S., Takahata, N., Sano, Y.in corporation of nitrogen into lower mantle minerals under high pressure and high temperature.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractMantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen occupies about 80% of the Earth 's atmosphere and had an impact on the climate in the early Earth. However, the behavior of nitrogen especially in the deep Earth is still unclear. Nitrogen is depleted compared to other volatile elements in deep mantle (Marty et al., 2012). "Missing" nitrogen is an important subject in earth science. In this study, we compared nitrogen incorporation into lower-mantle minerals (bridgmanite, periclase and stishovite) from high-temperature high-pressure experiment using multianvil apparatus installed at Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University under the conditions of 27 GPa and 1600°C-1900°C. In these experiments, we used Fe-FeO buffer in order to reproduce the redox state of the lower mantle. Two types of starting materials: a powder mixture of SiO2 and MgO and a powder mixture of SiO2, MgO, Al2O3 and Mg(OH)2 were used for starting materials. Nitrogen in recovered samples was analyzed using NanoSIMS installed at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute. A series of experimental results revealed that stishovite and periclase can incorporate more nitrogen than bridgmanite. This suggests that periclase, the major mineral in the lower mantle, may be a nitrogen reservoir. Furthermore, the results suggest that stishovite, which is formed by the transition of the SiO2-rich oceanic crustal sedimentary rocks transported to the lower mantle via subducting slabs, can incorporate more nitrogen than bridgmanite (20 ppm nitrogen solubility reported by Yoshioka et al. (2018)). Our study suggests that nitrogen would continue to be supplied to the lower mantle via subducting slabs since approximate 4 billion years ago when the plate tectonics had begun, forming a "Hidden" nitrogen reservoir in the lower mantle.
DS201906-1315
2019
Kagi, H.Litasov, K.D., Kagi, H., Voropaev, S.A., Hirata, T., Ohfuji, H., Ishibashi., Makino, Y., Bekker, T.B., Sevastyanov, V.S., Afanasiev,V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.Comparison of enigmatic diamonds from the Tolbachik arc volcano ( Kamchatka) and Tibetan ophiolites: assessing the role of contamination by synthetic materials. Gondwana Research, in press available 38p.Russia, Asia, Tibetdeposit - Tolbachik

Abstract: The enigmatic appearance of cuboctahedral diamonds in ophiolitic and arc volcanic rocks with morphology and infrared characteristics similar to synthetic diamonds that were grown from metal solvent requires a critical reappraisal. We have studied 15 diamond crystals and fragments from Tolbachik volcano lava flows, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). FTIR spectra of Tolbachik diamonds correspond to typical type Ib patterns of synthetic diamonds. In TEM films prepared using focused ion beam technique, we find Mn-Ni and Mn-Si inclusions in Tolbachik diamonds. SRXRF spectra indicate the presence of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-Mn inclusions with Cr, Ti, Cu, and Zn impurities. LA-ICP-MS data show variable but significantly elevated concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu reaching up to 70?ppm. These transition metal concentration levels are comparable with those determined by LA-ICP-MS for similar diamonds from Tibetan ophiolites. Mn-Ni (+Fe) solvent was widely used to produce industrial synthetic diamonds in the former USSR and Russia with very similar proportions of these metals. Hence, it appears highly probable that the cuboctahedral diamonds recovered from Kamchatka arc volcanic rocks represent contamination and are likely derived from drilling tools or other hard instruments. Kinetic data on diamond dissolution in basaltic magma or in fluid phase demonstrate that diamond does not form under the pressures and temperature conditions prevalent within the magmatic system beneath the modern-day Klyuchevskoy group of arc volcanoes. We also considered reference data for inclusions in ophiolitic diamonds and compared them with the composition of solvent used in industrial diamond synthesis in China. The similar inclusion chemistry close to Ni70Mn25Co5 for ophiolitic and synthetic Chinese diamonds scrutinized here suggests that most diamonds recovered from Tibetan and other ophiolites are not natural but instead have a synthetic origin. In order to mitigate further dubious reports of diamonds from unconventional tectonic settings and source rocks, we propose a set of discrimination criteria to better distinguish natural cuboctahedral diamonds from those produced synthetically in industrial environments and found as contaminants in mantle- and crust-derived rocks.
DS201910-2311
2019
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D., Kagi, H., Ohtani, E., Tsujimori, T., Komatsu, K.Inclusions of (Mg,Fe)Si03 in superdeep diamonds - former bridgmanite?Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractMantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: Bridgmanite (Mg,Fe)SiO3, a high pressure silicate with a perovskite structure, is dominant material in the Lower Mantle and therefore is probably the most abundant mineral in the Earth. One single-phase and two composite inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 coexisting with jeffbenite ((Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12), and with jeffbenite and olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) have been analyzed to identify retrograde phases of former bridgmanite in diamonds from Juina (Brazil). XRD and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that (Mg,Fe)SiO3 inclusions are orthopyroxene at ambient conditions. XRD patterns of these inclusions indicate that they consist of polycrystals. This polycrystalline textures together with high lattice strain of host diamond around these inclusions observed from EBSD may be an evidence for the retrograde phase transition of former bridgmanite. Single-phase inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in superdeep diamonds are suggested to represent a retrograde phase of bridgmanite and fully inherit its initial chemical composition, including a high Al and low Ni contents [1,2]. The composite inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 with jeffbenite and other silicate and oxide phases may be interpreted as exsolution products from originally homogeneous bridgmanite [3]. The bulk compositions of these inclusions are rich in Al, Ti, and Fe which are similar to bridgmanite produced in experiments on the MORB composition. However, the retrograde origin of composite inclusions due to decomposition of Al-rich bridgmanite may be doubtful because each of observed phases may represent single-phase inclusions, i.e. bridgmanite and high pressure garnet (majoritic garnet), with similar compositional features.
DS201910-2312
2019
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Kagi, H., Yurimoto, H., Shatsky, V. S.SiO2 inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds.Geochemistry International, Vol. 57, 9, pp. 964-972.Mantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: The paper describes mineralogical characteristics of SiO2 inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, which typically have complicated growth histories showing alternating episodes of growth, dissolution, and postgrowth deformation and crushing processes. Nitrogen contents in all of the crystals do not exceed 71 ppm, and nitrogen is detected exclusively as B-defects. The carbon isotope composition of the diamonds varies from d13? = -26.5 to -6.7‰. The SiO2 inclusions occur in association with omphacitic clinopyroxenes, majoritic garnets, CaSiO3, jeffbenite, and ferropericlase. All SiO2 inclusions are coesite, which is often associated with micro-blocks of kyanite in the same inclusions. It was suggested that these phases have been produced by the retrograde dissolution of primary Al-stishovite, which is also evidenced by the significant internal stresses in the inclusions and by deformations around them. The oxygen isotope composition of SiO2 inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds (d18O up to 12.9‰) indicates a crustal origin of the protoliths. The negative correlation between the d18O of the SiO2 inclusions and the d13C of their host diamonds reflects interaction processes between slab-derived melts and reduced mantle rocks at depths greater than 270 km.
DS201911-2556
2019
Kagi, H.Ragozin, A., Zedgenizov, D., Kagi, H., Kuper, K.E., Shatsky, V.Deformation features of superdeep diamonds.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractSouth America, Brazil, Russia, Siberiadeposit - Juina

Abstract: Much of our knowledge of the Earth’s deep interior comes from theoretical models, which are based on the results of experimental petrology and seismology. Diamonds in such models are the unique natural samples because they contain and preserve inclusions of mantle materials that have been entrapped during diamond growth and remained unchanged for long geologic time. In the present study for superdeep sublithospheric diamonds from Saõ-Luiz (Juina, Brazil) and northeastern Siberian Platform with mineral inclusions of the Transition Zone and Lower Mantle (majorite garnet, coesite (stishovite), ferropericlase and Mg-Si-, Ca-Si-, Ca-Ti, Ca-Si- Ti-perovskite), the diffraction of backscattered electrons technique (EBSD) revealed features of the internal structure. Superdeep diamonds are characterized by a defective and imperfect internal structure, which is associated with the processes of growth and post-growth plastic deformation. The deformation is manifested both in the form of stripes parallel to the (111) direction, and in the form of an unordered disorientation of crystal blocks up to 2°. In addition, for many crystals, a block structure was established with a greater disorientation of the sub-individuals, as well as the presence of “diamond-in-diamond” inclusions and microtwins. Additional stresses are often observed around inclusions associated with the high remaining internal pressure. It has previously been shown that the crystal structure of superdeep diamonds is significantly deformed around inclusions of perovskites, SiO2 (stishovite?), and Mg2SiO4 (ringwoodite?). The significant plastic deformations detected by the EBSD around inclusions testify to phase transitions in superdeep minerals (perovskites, stishovite, and ringwoodite) [1].
DS202007-1187
2020
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D., Kagi, H., Ohtani, E., Tsujimori, T., Komatsu, K.Retrograde phases of former bridgemanite inclusions in superdeep diamonds.Lithos, in press available, 25p. PdfSouth America, Brazil, Africa, South Africa, Guinea, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Sao Luis, Juina

Abstract: Bridgmanite (Mg,Fe)SiO3, a high pressure silicate with a perovskite structure, is dominant material in the lower mantle at the depths from 660 to 2700 km and therefore is probably the most abundant mineral in the Earth. Although synthetic analogues of this mineral have been well studied, no naturally occurring samples had ever been found in a rock on the planet’s surface except in some shocked meteorites. Due to its unstable nature under ambient conditions, this phase undergoes retrograde transformation to a pyroxene-type structure. The identification of the retrograde phase as ‘bridgmanite’ in so-called superdeep diamonds was based on the association with ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O and other high-pressure (supposedly lower-mantle) minerals predicted from theoretical models and HP-HT experiments. In this study pyroxene inclusions in diamond grains from Juina (Brazil), one single-phase (Sample SL-14) and two composite inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 coexisting with (Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12 (Sample SL-13), and with (Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12 and (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (Sample SL-80) have been analyzed to identify retrograde phases of former bridgmanite. XRD and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that these are orthopyroxene (Opx). (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 and (Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12 in these inclusions are identified as olivine and jeffbenite (TAPP). These inclusions are associated with inclusions of (Mg,Fe)O (SL-14), CaSiO3 (SL-80) and composite inclusion of CaSiO3+CaTiO3 (SL-13). XRD patterns of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 inclusions indicate that they consist of polycrystals. This polycrystalline textures together with high lattice strain of host diamond around these inclusions observed from EBSD may be an evidence for the retrograde phase transition of former bridgmanite. Single-phase inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in superdeep diamonds are suggested to represent a retrograde phase of bridgmanite and fully inherit its initial chemical composition, including a high Al and low Ni contents [Harte, Hudson, 2013; Kaminsky, 2017]. The composite inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 with jeffbenite and other silicate and oxide phases may be interpreted as exolusion products from originally homogeneous bridgmanite [Walter et al., 2011]. The bulk compositions of these composite inclusions are rich in Al, Ti, and Fe which are similar to Al-rich bridgmanite produced in experiments on the MORB composition. However, the retrograde origin of composite inclusions due to decomposition of Al-rich bridgmanite may be doubtful because each of observed phases may represent single-phase inclusions, i.e. bridgmanite and high pressure garnet (majoritic garnet), with similar compositional features.
DS202008-1460
2020
Kagi, H.Zedgenizov, D., Kagi, H., Ohtaini, E., Tsujimori, T., Komatsu, K.Retrograde phases of former bridgemanite inclusions in superdeep diamonds.Lithos, Vol. 370-371, 105659 7p. PdfAfrica, South Africa, Guinea, Australia,South America, Brazil, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Koffiefontein, Kankan, Lac de Gras, Juina, Machado, Orroroo

Abstract: (Mg,Fe)SiO3 bridgmanite is the dominant phase in the lower mantle; however no naturally occurring samples had ever been found in terrestrial samples as it undergoes retrograde transformation to a pyroxene-type structure. To identify retrograde phases of former bridgmanite single-phase and composite inclusions of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in a series of superdeep diamonds have been examined with electron microscopy, electron microprobe, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Our study revealed that (Mg,Fe)SiO3 inclusions are represented by orthopyroxene. Orthopyroxenes in single-phase and composite inclusions inherit initial chemical composition of bridgmanites, including a high Al and low Ni contents. In composite inclusions they coexist with jeffbenite (ex-TAPP) and olivine. The bulk compositions of these composite inclusions are rich in Al, Ti, and Fe, which are similar but not fully resembling Al-rich bridgmanite produced in experiments on the MORB composition. The retrograde origin of composite inclusions due to decomposition of Al-rich bridgmanite may be doubtful because each of observed minerals may represent coexisting HP phases, i.e. bridgmanite or ringwoodite.
DS1999-0346
1999
Kah, L.C.Kah, L.C., Sherman, A.G., Narbonne, Knoll, KaufmanDelta 13 C stratigraphy of the Proterozoic Bylot Supergroup Baffin Island:implications for regionalCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 3, Mar. pp. 313-332.Northwest Territories, Baffin IslandLithostratigraphy, Correlations
DS2002-1726
2002
KahleWinkler, B., Knorr, Kahle, Vontobel, Lehmann, HennionNeutron imaging and neutron tomography as non-destructive tools to study bulk rock samples.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.14,2,pp.349-54.GlobalTechnology
DS2002-1727
2002
KahleWinkler, B., Knorr, Kahle, Vontobel, Lehmann, HennionNeutron imaging and neutron tomography as non-destructive tools to study bulk rock samples.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 14,pp.349-54., Vol. 14,pp.349-54.GlobalTomography - neutron imaging - not specific to diamonds
DS2002-1728
2002
KahleWinkler, B., Knorr, Kahle, Vontobel, Lehmann, HennionNeutron imaging and neutron tomography as non-destructive tools to study bulk rock samples.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 14,pp.349-54., Vol. 14,pp.349-54.GlobalTomography - neutron imaging - not specific to diamonds
DS201412-0327
2014
Kahle, B.Gurney, J.J., Kahle, R., Kahle, B., Richardson, S.H., du Plessis, A.X-ray Cat scanning of Diamondiferous mantle xenoliths.GSSA Kimberley Diamond Symposium and Trade Show provisional programme, Sept. 12, title onlyTechnologyX-Ray scanning
DS1991-1262
1991
Kahle, C.F.Onasch, C.M., Kahle, C.F.Recurrent tectonics in a cratonic setting: an example from NorthwesternOhioGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 10, October pp. 1259-1269GlobalTectonics, Kanakee Arch, Cincinnati Arch, Findlay Arch, rifting
DS201701-0037
2016
Kahle, J-L.Walker, R.T., Telfer, M., Kahle, R.L., Dee, M.W., Kahle, J-L., Schwenninger, J-L., Sloan, R.A., Watts, A.B.Rapid mantle driven uplift along the Angolan margin in the Quaternary.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 909-914.Africa, AngolaTectonics

Abstract: Mantle flow can cause the Earth’s surface to uplift and subside, but the rates and durations of these motions are, in general, poorly resolved due to the difficulties in making measurements of relatively small vertical movements (hundreds of metres) over sufficiently large distances (about 1,000?km). Here we examine the effect of mantle upwelling through a study of Quaternary uplift along the coast of Angola. Using both optically stimulated luminescence on sediment grains, and radiocarbon dating of fossil shells, we date a 25?m coastal terrace at about 45 thousand years old, when sea level was about 75?m lower than today, indicating a rapid uplift rate of 1.8-2.6?mm?yr-1 that is an order of magnitude higher than previously obtained rates averaged over longer time periods. Automated extraction and correlation of coastal terrace remnants from digital topography uncovers a symmetrical uplift with diameter of more than 1,000?km. The wavelength and relatively short timescale of the uplift suggest that it is associated with a mantle process, possibly convective upwelling, and that the topography may be modulated by rapid short-lived pulses of mantle-derived uplift. Our study shows that stable continental regions far from the effects of glacial rebound may experience rapid vertical displacements of several millimetres per year.
DS201412-0327
2014
Kahle, R.Gurney, J.J., Kahle, R., Kahle, B., Richardson, S.H., du Plessis, A.X-ray Cat scanning of Diamondiferous mantle xenoliths.GSSA Kimberley Diamond Symposium and Trade Show provisional programme, Sept. 12, title onlyTechnologyX-Ray scanning
DS201701-0037
2016
Kahle, R.L.Walker, R.T., Telfer, M., Kahle, R.L., Dee, M.W., Kahle, J-L., Schwenninger, J-L., Sloan, R.A., Watts, A.B.Rapid mantle driven uplift along the Angolan margin in the Quaternary.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 909-914.Africa, AngolaTectonics

Abstract: Mantle flow can cause the Earth’s surface to uplift and subside, but the rates and durations of these motions are, in general, poorly resolved due to the difficulties in making measurements of relatively small vertical movements (hundreds of metres) over sufficiently large distances (about 1,000?km). Here we examine the effect of mantle upwelling through a study of Quaternary uplift along the coast of Angola. Using both optically stimulated luminescence on sediment grains, and radiocarbon dating of fossil shells, we date a 25?m coastal terrace at about 45 thousand years old, when sea level was about 75?m lower than today, indicating a rapid uplift rate of 1.8-2.6?mm?yr-1 that is an order of magnitude higher than previously obtained rates averaged over longer time periods. Automated extraction and correlation of coastal terrace remnants from digital topography uncovers a symmetrical uplift with diameter of more than 1,000?km. The wavelength and relatively short timescale of the uplift suggest that it is associated with a mantle process, possibly convective upwelling, and that the topography may be modulated by rapid short-lived pulses of mantle-derived uplift. Our study shows that stable continental regions far from the effects of glacial rebound may experience rapid vertical displacements of several millimetres per year.
DS201112-1096
2011
Kahlenberg, V.Vulic, P., Balic-Zunic, T., Belmonte, L.J., Kahlenberg, V.Crystal chemistry of nephelines from ijolites and nepheline rich pegmatites: influence of composition and genesis on the crystal structure investigated by X-ray diffraction.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 101, 3-4, pp. 185-194.MantleIjolite
DS2003-0737
2003
Kahlert, B.H.Kolebaba, M.R., Read, G.H., Kelsch, D., Kahlert, B.H.Diamondiferous kimberlites on Victoria Island, Canada: a northern extension of the8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 1 POSTER abstractNorthwest Territories, Victoria IslandKimberlite geology and economics
DS2001-1151
2001
Kahn, H.Tassinari, M.M.L., Kahn, H., Ratti, G.Process mineralogy studies of Corrego do Garimpo REE ore, Catalao I alkaline complex, Goais, Brasil.Minerals Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 12, Dec. pp. 1609-17.BrazilCarbonatite, rare earth elements, Deposit - Catalao
DS200612-0654
2006
Kahn, J.Kahn, J.Nanotechnology. Overview not specific to mining or geology but interesting article on potential.National Geographic, June pp. 98-116.TechnologyNanotechnology
DS2001-0563
2001
Kahn, J.R.Kahn, J.R., Francheschi, D., Curi, A., Vale, E.Economic and financial aspects of mine closureNatural Res. Forum, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 265-74.GlobalLegal - economics, Mine closure
DS200812-0534
2008
Kahoui, M.Kahoui, M., Mahdjoub, Y., Kaminsky, F.V.Possible primary sources of diamond in the North African Diamondiferous province.Geological Society of London, Ennih and Ligeois eds. The Boundaries of the West African Craton., Special Publication SP297, pp. 77-108.Africa, AlgeriaDiamond genesis
DS201201-0851
2011
Kahoui, M.Kahoui, M., Kemainsky, F.V., Griffin, W.L., Belousova, E., Mahdjoub, Y., Chabane, M.Detrital pyrope garnets from the El Kseibat area, Algeria: a glimpse into the lithospheric mantle beneath the north-eastern edge of the West African Craton.Journal of African Earth Sciences, In press available, 46p.Africa, AlgeriaGeochemistry - El Kseibat
DS201212-0346
2012
Kahoui, M.Kahoui, M., Kaminsky, F.V., Griffin, W.L., Belousova, E., Mahdjoub, Y., Chabane, M.Detrital pyrope garnets from the El Kseibat area, Algeria: a glimpse into lithospheric mantle beneath the north eastern edge of the west African Craton.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 63, Feb. pp. 1-11.AfricaEglab shield
DS201312-0454
2012
Kahoui, M.Kaminsky, F.V., Kahoui, M.,Mahdjoub, Y., Belousova, E., Griffin, W.L.,O'Reilly, S.Y.Pyrope garnets from the Eglab Shield, Algeria: look inside the Earth's mantle in the West African Craton and suggestions about primary sources of diamond and indicator minerals.Vladykin, N.V. ed. Deep seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 73-103.Africa, AlgeriaMineralogy
DS201610-1919
2016
Kaichev, V.V.Yelisseyev, A.P., Afansiev, V.P., Panchenko, A.V., Gromilov, S.A., Kaichev, V.V., Sarasev, A.A.Yakutites: are they impact diamonds from the Popigai crater?Lithos, in press available 14p.RussiaImpact diamonds

Abstract: Yakutites are coarse (up to 15 mm or larger) aggregates dispersed for more than 500 km around the Popigai meteorite crater. They share many features of similarity with impact diamonds found inside the crater, in elemental and phase compositions, texture, and optical properties as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy (Raman, absorption, luminescence and microscopic) studies. The N3 vibronic system appearing in the luminescence spectra of Popigai impact diamonds (PIDs) indicates a presence of nitrogen impurity and a high-temperature annealing of diamonds that remained in the crater after solid-phase conversion from graphite. Yakutites lack nitrogen-vacancy centers as signatures of annealing, which may indicate quenching at the time of ejection. Thus, both PIDs and yakutites originated during the Popigai impact event and yakutites were ejected to large distances.
DS201901-0037
2018
Kaiden, H.Grantham, G., Eglinton, B., Macey, P.H., Ingram,B., Radeneyer, M., Kaiden, H., Manhica, V.The chemistry of Karoo age andesitic lavas along the northern Mozambique coast, southern Africa and possible implications for Gondwana breakup.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, pp. 271-286.Africa, Mozambiquegeodynamics

Abstract: Major, trace, radiogenic isotope and stable isotope data from lavas along the northeastern coast of Mozambique are described. The whole rock composition data demonstrate that the rocks are dominantly andesitic with compositions typical of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from arc environments. SHRIMP U/Pb data from zircons indicate that the zircons are xenocrystic, having ages of between 500 Ma and 660 Ma, with the age of the lava constrained by Rb/Sr data at ~184 Ma. Strontium, Nd and Pb radiogenic isotope data support an interpretation of extensive mixing between a Karoo age basaltic magma (dolerite) from Antarctica and continental crust similar in composition to the Mozambique basement. Oxygen isotope data also imply a significant crustal contribution to the lavas. Possible tectonic settings for the lavas are at the margin of a plume or from a locally restricted compressional setting during Gondwana breakup processes.
DS1999-0347
1999
Kaihla, P.Kaihla, P.They shoot, he scores.. Luigi Giglio has a knack for dodging assassins and finding diamonds....penny stocksCanadian Business, May 28, pp. 34, 35.BrazilNews item, Black Swan Gold Mines Ltd.
DS1999-0348
1999
Kaikkonen, P.Kaikkonen, P.Thin sheet modelling for deep electromagnetic studies in the FennoscandianShield.Deep Electromagnetic Exploration, Springer, pp. 364-86.GlobalGeophysics - electromagnetic
DS2000-0461
2000
Kaikkonen, P.Kaikkonen, P., Moisio, K., Heeremans, M.Thermomechanical lithospheric structure of the Central Fennoscandian ShieldPhysical Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 119, No.3-4, May. pp.209-35.Finland, Baltic Shield, FennoscandiaGeothermometry, Tectonics, seismicity
DS2000-0676
2000
Kaikkonen, P.Moisio, K., Kaikkonen, P., Beekman, F.Rheological structure and dynamic response of the DSS profile Baltic in the southeast Fennoscandian Shield.Tectonophysics, Vol. 320, No. 3-4, May pp. 175-94.Finland, ScandinaviaGeodynamics, tectonics, Geophysics - seismics
DS2001-0790
2001
Kaikkonen, P.Moisio, K., Kaikkonen, P.Geodynamics and rheology of the lithosphere along the DSS profile SVEKA in theTectonophysics, Vol. 340, No. 1-2, pp. 61-77.Finland, Scandinavia, BalticaTectonics, Geophysics
DS200612-0757
2005
Kaikkonen, P.Lahti, I., Korja, T., Kaikkonen, P., Vaittinen, K.Decomposition analysis of the BEAR magnetotelluric data: implications for the upper mantle conductivity in the Fennoscandian Shield.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 163, 3, Dec. pp. 900-914.Europe, Fennoscandia, Finland, SwedenGeophysics - magnetotelluric
DS200712-0740
2006
Kaikkonen, P.Moisio, K., Kaikkonen, P.Three dimensional numerical thermal and rheological modelling in the central Fennoscandian Shield.Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 42, 4-5, Nov-Dec. pp. 95-210.Europe, Finland, SwedenGeothermometry
DS201212-0742
2012
Kaikkonen, P.Vaittinen, K., Korja, T., Kaikkonen, P., Lahti, I., Smirnov, M.Yu.High resolution magnetotelluric studies of the Archean Proterozoic border zone in the Fennoscandian shield, FinlandGeophysical Journal International, inpress availableEurope, FinlandGeophysics, magetics
DS1970-0106
1970
Kailasam, L.N.Kailasam, L.N.Mining Geophysics in India and the Role of Government in This Field.Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Economic Geology Report, No. 26, PP. 688-706.IndiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1970-0322
1971
Kailasam, L.N.Kailasam, L.N.Geophysics in Diamond ExplorationIndia Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publishing, No. 19, PP. 60-68.IndiaKimberlite, Geophysics, Groundmag, Gravity
DS2003-0564
2003
Kaiminsky, F.V.Hayman, P.C., Kopylova, M.G., Kaiminsky, F.V.Alluvial diamonds from Rio Soriso ( Juina, Brazl)8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractBrazilDiamonds, Deposit - Rio Soriso
DS200612-1076
2006
Kaindl, R.Perraki, M., Proyer, A., Mposkos, E., Kaindl, R., Hoinkes, G.Raman micro spectroscopy on diamond, graphite and other carbon polymorphs from the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic Kimi Complex of the Rhodope metamorphic province.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 241, 3-4, pp. 672-685.Europe, GreeceUHP
DS1900-0769
1909
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Ueber Diamanten aus D.s.w.aZentrall Bl. Min.(stuttgart), Vol. 8, PP. 235-244.Africa, NamibiaGeology, Marine Diamond Placers
DS1900-0770
1909
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Discussion on the Paper by Lotz Entitled das Vorkommen der Diamanten in Deutsch Suedwestafrika.Zentrall. Bl. Min., Vol. 8, PP. 251-254.Africa, NamibiaLittoral Diamond Placers
DS1900-0771
1909
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Das Vorkommen von Diamanten in D.s.w.aAus Der Natur (leipzig), Vol. 11, PP. 328-337.Africa, NamibiaGeology, Marine Diamond Placers
DS1910-0291
1912
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Die Sued afrikanischen Diamant VorkommenOberhess. Ges. Natur. Heilk. (berlin), Vol. 4, PP. 133-137.South AfricaGeology
DS1920-0182
1924
Kaiser, E.Beetz, W., Kaiser, E.Das Suedliche Diamanten gebiet Suedwestafrikas. Erlauterungen Zu Einer Geologischen Spezialkarte des Sued lichen Diamantgebietes.Berlin: D. Reimer., MAP 1: 25, 000.Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamond Occurrences
DS1920-0236
1925
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Neue Topographische und Geologische Karten der Sued lichen Namib Suedwestafrikas.Verh. 21. Deutsch. Georgrtags, Breslau, PP. 71-93.Southwest Africa, NamibiaTopography, Geology, Map, Diamond Occurrences
DS1920-0286
1926
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Hochenschichtenkarte der Deflations landschaft in der Namib Suedwestafrikas.Bayer Akad. Wiss, Math-naturw. Abb., Vol. 30, PT. 9Southwest Africa, NamibiaGeomorphology
DS1920-0287
1926
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Die Diamanten wuste Suedwestafrikas. Mit Einer Erlauterung Zu Einer Geologischen Specialkarte der Sued lichen Diamantfelder.Berlin: D. Reimer., TWO VOLUMES, 321P.; 535P. MAP: 1:25, 000, Vol. 2, PP. 329-343;Southwest Africa, NamibiaKimberley, Janlib, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Marine Diamond
DS1920-0288
1926
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Der Bau der Suelichen NamibSber. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Math. Naturw. Abt., Vol. 30, PT. 9, PP. 105-133.Southwest Africa, NamibiaRegional Geology, Tectonics
DS1920-0388
1928
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Die Neuen Sued afrikanischen Diamant VorkommenKol. Rundschau (berlin), PP. 164-169; PP. 199-204.South AfricaMarine Diamond Placers
DS1930-0068
1931
Kaiser, E.Kaiser, E.Die Diamant lagerstatten SuedafrikasBerlin: Mineralische Bodenschatze Im Suedlichen Afrika. Edit, PP. 20-32.Southwest Africa, Namibia, South AfricaDiamond Occurrences
DS1950-0178
1954
Kaiser, E.P.Fryklund, V.C.Jr., Harner, R.S., Kaiser, E.P.Niobium (columbium) and Titanium at Magnet Cove and Potash Sulfur Springs, Arkansaw.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin., No. 1015B, PP. 23-56.United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Hot Spring County, Garland CountyNiobium, Columbium, Titanium
DS200812-0535
2008
Kaiser, J.Kaiser, J.Speculating rationally... a step by step means of evaluating juniors.Northern Miner, Mining Markets, Vol. 1, 1, pp. 12-17.GlobalProject - valuation
DS200912-0350
2009
Kaiser, J.Kaiser, J.A market pricing model for publically traded diamond exploration companies.PDAC 2009, 1p. abstractGlobalExploration companies
DS1992-0813
1992
Kaiser, P.K.Kaiser, P.K., McCreath, D.R.Rock support in mining and underground constructionA.a. Balkema, 706p. $ 175.00GlobalBook -ad, Mining -rock support
DS200912-0348
2009
Kait, A.Kaeser, B., Olker, B., Kait, A., Altherr, R., Pettke, T.Pyroxenite xenoliths from Marsabit ( northern Kenya): evidence for different magmatic events in the lithospheric mantle and interaction between peridotiteContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 157, 4, pp. 453-472.Africa, KenyaMagmatism
DS200912-0549
2009
Kait, A.Olker, B., Kait, A., Altherr, R., Pettke, T.Evidence for different magmatic events in the lithospheric mantle and interaction between peridotite and pyroxenite. East African RiftPetrology, Vol. 157, 4, pp. 453-472.MantleGeothermometry
DS200612-1553
2006
Kaixing, W.Xianwu, B., Ruizhong, H., Jiantang, P., Li, L., Kaixing, W., Wenchao, S.Geochemical characteristics of the Yaoan and Machangqing alkaline rich intrusions in the Ailaoshan Jinshajiang belt, western Yunnan, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.ChinaAlkalic
DS1991-1350
1991
Kaiyi WangPhilpotts, J., Tatsumoto, M., Xianhua Li, Kaiyi WangSome neodymium and Strontium isotopic systematics for the rare earth elements (REE) enriched deposit at Bayan Obo, ChinaChemical Geology, Vol. 90, pp. 177-188ChinaGeochronology, rare earth elements (REE)., Carbonatite
DS201412-0719
2013
KajaljyotiRai, S.Borah, Kajaljyoti, Das, Gupta, R., Srivastava, S., Shalivahan, P., Sivaram, K., Kumar, K., Meena, S.The South India Precambrian crust and shallow lithospheric mantle: initial results from the India Deep Imaging Experiment ( INDEX).Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 122, 6, pp. 1435-1453.IndiaDrilling
DS201604-0636
2016
Kajara, S.Thomas, R.J, Spencer, C., Bushi, A.M., Baglow, N., Gerrit de Kock, B., Hortswood, M.S.A., Hollick, L., Jacobs, J., Kajara, S., Kaminhanda, G., Key, R.M., Magana, Z., McCourt, M.W., Momburi, P., Moses, F., Mruma, A., Myamilwa, Y., Roberts, N.M.W., HamisiGeochronology of the centra Tanzania craton and its southern and eastern orogenic margins.Precambrian Research, in press available 57p.Africa, TanzaniaGeochronology

Abstract: Geological mapping and zircon U-Pb/Hf isotope data from 35 samples from the central Tanzania Craton and surrounding orogenic belts to the south and east allow a revised model of Precambrian crustal evolution of this part of East Africa. The geochronology of two studied segments of the craton shows them to be essentially the same, suggesting that they form a contiguous crustal section dominated by granitoid plutons. The oldest orthogneisses are dated at ca. 2820 Ma (Dodoma Suite) and the youngest alkaline syenite plutons at ca. 2610 Ma (Singida Suite). Plutonism was interrupted by a period of deposition of volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed to greenschist facies, directly dated by a pyroclastic metavolcanic rock which gave an age of ca. 2725 Ma. This is supported by detrital zircons from psammitic metasedimentary rocks, which indicate a maximum depositional age of ca. 2740 Ma, with additional detrital sources 2820 and 2940 Ma. Thus, 200 Ma of episodic magmatism in this part of the Tanzania Craton was punctuated by a period of uplift, exhumation, erosion and clastic sedimentation/volcanism, followed by burial and renewed granitic to syenitic magmatism. In eastern Tanzania (Handeni block), in the heart of the East African Orogen, all the dated orthogneisses and charnockites (apart from those of the overthrust Neoproterozoic granulite nappes), have Neoarchaean protolith ages within a narrow range between 2710 and 2630 Ma, identical to (but more restricted than) the ages of the Singida Suite. They show evidence of Ediacaran "Pan-African" isotopic disturbance, but this is poorly defined. In contrast, granulite samples from the Wami Complex nappe were dated at ca. 605 and ca. 675 Ma, coeval with previous dates of the "Eastern Granulites" of eastern Tanzania and granulite nappes of adjacent NE Mozambique. To the south of the Tanzania Craton, samples of orthogneiss from the northern part of the Lupa area were dated at ca. 2730 Ma and clearly belong to the Tanzania Craton. However, granitoid samples from the southern part of the Lupa "block" have Palaeoproterozoic (Ubendian) intrusive ages of ca. 1920 Ma. Outcrops further south, at the northern tip of Lake Malawi, mark the SE continuation of the Ubendian belt, albeit with slightly younger ages of igneous rocks (ca. 1870-1900 Ma) which provide a link with the Ponte Messuli Complex, along strike to the SE in northern Mozambique. In SW Tanzania, rocks from the Mgazini area gave Ubendian protolith ages of ca. 1980-1800 Ma, but these rocks underwent Late Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism between 1015 and 1040 Ma. One granitoid gave a crystallisation age of ca. 1080 Ma correlating with known Mesoproterozoic crust to the east in SE Tanzania and NE Mozambique. However, while the crust in the Mgazini area was clearly one of original Ubendian age, reworked and intruded by granitoids at ca. 1 Ga, the crust of SE Tanzania is a mixed Mesoproterozoic terrane and a continuation from NE Mozambique. Hence the Mgazini area lies at the edge of the Ubendian belt which was re-worked during the Mesoproterozoic orogen (South Irumide belt), providing a further constraint on the distribution of ca. 1 Ga crust in SE Africa. Hf data from near-concordant analyses of detrital zircons from a sample from the Tanzania Craton lie along a Pb-loss trajectory (Lu/Hf = 0), extending back to ~3.9 Ga. This probably represents the initial depleted mantle extraction event of the cratonic core. Furthermore, the Hf data from all igneous samples, regardless of age, from the entire study area (including the Neoproterozoic granulite nappes) show a shallow evolution trend (Lu/Hf = 0.028) extending back to the same mantle extraction age. This implies the entire Tanzanian crust sampled in this study represents over 3.5 billion years of crustal reworking from a single crustal reservoir and that the innermost core of the Tanzanian Craton that was subsequently reworked was composed of a very depleted, mafic source with a very high Lu/Hf ratio. Our study helps to define the architecture of the Tanzanian Craton and its evolution from a single age-source in the early Eoarchaean.
DS1990-0795
1990
Kajiwara, Y.Kajiwara, Y.Sulfur deep within the earth: revival of a chondritic earth modelSci. Rep. Institute Geosc. University of Tsukuba, Sec. B., Vol. 11, March 31, pp. 1-11GlobalMantle, Chondrites
DS1996-0711
1996
Kajizuka, I.Kamioka, H., Shibata, K., Kajizuka, I., Ohta, T.Rare earth element patterns and carbon isotopic composition of carbonados -implications for originGeochem. Journal, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 189-194.GlobalCrustal origin -rare earth elements (REE)., Carbonados
DS1992-0814
1992
Kajner, L.Kajner, L., Sparks, G.Quantifying the value of flexibility when conducting stochastic mine investment analysisThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 85, No. 964, October pp. 68-71GlobalEconomics, ore reserves, Suspending operations -limit losses
DS200812-0769
2008
Kakabadse, A.P.Mostovicz, E.I.,Kakabadse, N.K., Kakabadse, A.P.The diamond industry as a virtual organization: past success and challenging future.Strategic Change, Vol. 16, 8, pp. 371-384.GlobalEconomics
DS200812-0769
2008
Kakabadse, N.K.Mostovicz, E.I.,Kakabadse, N.K., Kakabadse, A.P.The diamond industry as a virtual organization: past success and challenging future.Strategic Change, Vol. 16, 8, pp. 371-384.GlobalEconomics
DS200912-0237
2009
Kakegawa, T.Furukawa, Y., Sekine, T., Oba, M., Kakegawa, T., Nakazawa, H.Biomolecule formation by oceanic impacts on early Earth. ( subducting .. conversion to graphite or diamond....)Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 62-66.MantleSubduction
DS201809-2023
2018
Kakizawa, S.Fukuyama, K., Kagi, H., Inoue, T., Shinmei, T., Kakizawa, S., Takahata, N., Sano, Y.in corporation of nitrogen into lower mantle minerals under high pressure and high temperature.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractMantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen occupies about 80% of the Earth 's atmosphere and had an impact on the climate in the early Earth. However, the behavior of nitrogen especially in the deep Earth is still unclear. Nitrogen is depleted compared to other volatile elements in deep mantle (Marty et al., 2012). "Missing" nitrogen is an important subject in earth science. In this study, we compared nitrogen incorporation into lower-mantle minerals (bridgmanite, periclase and stishovite) from high-temperature high-pressure experiment using multianvil apparatus installed at Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University under the conditions of 27 GPa and 1600°C-1900°C. In these experiments, we used Fe-FeO buffer in order to reproduce the redox state of the lower mantle. Two types of starting materials: a powder mixture of SiO2 and MgO and a powder mixture of SiO2, MgO, Al2O3 and Mg(OH)2 were used for starting materials. Nitrogen in recovered samples was analyzed using NanoSIMS installed at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute. A series of experimental results revealed that stishovite and periclase can incorporate more nitrogen than bridgmanite. This suggests that periclase, the major mineral in the lower mantle, may be a nitrogen reservoir. Furthermore, the results suggest that stishovite, which is formed by the transition of the SiO2-rich oceanic crustal sedimentary rocks transported to the lower mantle via subducting slabs, can incorporate more nitrogen than bridgmanite (20 ppm nitrogen solubility reported by Yoshioka et al. (2018)). Our study suggests that nitrogen would continue to be supplied to the lower mantle via subducting slabs since approximate 4 billion years ago when the plate tectonics had begun, forming a "Hidden" nitrogen reservoir in the lower mantle.
DS200912-0870
2009
Kalachev, V.Yu.Zozulya, D.R., Mitrofanov, F.P., Peltonen, P., O'Brien, H., Lehtonen, M., Kalachev, V.Yu.Lithospheric mantle structure and diamond prospects in the Kola region: chemical and thermobarometric analyses of kimberlite pyrope.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 427, 5, pp. 746-750.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeothermometry
DS1993-0216
1993
Kalamarides, R.I.Carlson, R.W., Wiebe, R.A., Kalamarides, R.I.Isotopic study of basaltic dikes in the Nain Plutonic Suite: evidence for enriched mantle sourcesCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 6, June pp. 1141-1146LabradorDikes
DS1986-0414
1986
Kalamarides, R.L.Kalamarides, R.L., Varekamp, J.C.Leucite tephrites from Latera Italy: three dimensional hybridsEos, Vol. 67, No. 44, Nov. 4, p. 1281. (abstract.)ItalyBlank
DS1995-0913
1995
KalantzisKanesewich, E.R., Burianyk, Dubuc, Lemieux, KalantzisThree dimensional seismic reflection studies of the Alberta basementCanadian Journal of Exploration Geophysics, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, pp. 1-10.AlbertaGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS201507-0325
2015
Kalashnikov, A.O.Mikhailova, J.A., Kalashnikov, A.O., Sokharev, V.A., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Bazai, A.V., Goryainov, P.M., Ivanyuk, G.Yu.3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex, Russia.Mineralium Deposita, In press available. 19p.RussiaCarbonatite
DS201511-1849
2016
Kalashnikov, A.O.Kalashnikov, A.O., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Pakhomovsky, Y.A.A., Bazai, A.V., Sokharev, V.A., Konopleva, N.G., Mikhailova, J.A., Goryainov, P.M., Ivanyuk, G.Yu.Scandium of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit ( Murmansk region, Russia): mineralogy, spatial distribution, and potential source.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 72, pp. 532-537.RussiaCarbonatite
DS201602-0226
2016
Kalashnikov, A.O.Mikhailova, J.A., Kalashnikov, A.O., Sokharev, V.A., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Bazai, A.V., Goryainov, P.M., Ivanyuk, G.Y.3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite carbonatite complex ( Russia).Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 51, 1, pp. 131-149.RussiaDeposit - Kovdor

Abstract: The Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit in the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe is situated in the western part of the zoned alkali-ultrabasic Kovdor intrusion (NW part of the Fennoscandinavian shield; Murmansk Region, Russia). We describe major intrusive and metasomatic rocks of the pipe and its surroundings using a new classification of phoscorite-carbonatite series rocks, consistent with the IUGS recommendation. The gradual zonation of the pipe corresponds to the sequence of mineral crystallization (forsterite-hydroxylapatite-magnetite-calcite). Crystal morphology, grain size, characteristic inclusions, and composition of the rock-forming and accessory minerals display the same spatial zonation pattern, as do the three minerals of economic interest, i.e. magnetite, hydroxylapatite, and baddeleyite. The content of Sr, rare earth elements (REEs), and Ba in hydroxylapatite tends to increase gradually at the expense of Si, Fe, and Mg from early apatite-forsterite phoscorite (margins of the pipe) through carbonate-free, magnetite-rich phoscorite to carbonate-rich phoscorite and phoscorite-related carbonatite (inner part). Magnetite displays a trend of increasing V and Ca and decreasing Ti, Mn, Si, Cr, Sc, and Zn from the margins to the central part of the pipe; its grain size initially increases from the wall rocks to the inner part and then decreases towards the central part; characteristic inclusions in magnetite are geikielite within the marginal zone of the phoscorite-carbonatite pipe, spinel within the intermediate zone, and ilmenite within the inner zone. The zoning pattern seems to have formed due to both cooling and rapid degassing (pressure drop) of a fluid-rich magmatic column and subsequent pneumatolytic and hydrothermal processes.
DS201604-0611
2016
Kalashnikov, A.O.Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Kalashnikov, A.O., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Mikhailov, J.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Konopleva, N.G., Sokharev, V.A., Bazai, A.V., Goryainov, P.M.Economic minerals of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit, Russia: mineralogy, spatial distribution and ore processing optimization.Ore Geology Reviews, in press available 73p.RussiaDeposit - Kovdor

Abstract: The comprehensive petrographical, petrochemical and mineralogical study of the Kovdor magnetite-apatite-baddeleyite deposit in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Murmansk Region, Russia) revealed a spatial distribution of grain size and chemical composition of three economically extractable minerals — magnetite, apatite, and baddeleyite, showing that zonal distribution of mineral properties mimics both concentric and vertical zonation of the carbonatite-phoscorite pipe. The marginal zone of the pipe consists of (apatite)-forsterite phoscorite carrying fine grains of Ti-Mn-Si-rich magnetite with ilmenite exsolution lamellae, fine grains of Fe-Mg-rich apatite and finest grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Mg, Fe, Si and Mn. The intermediate zone accommodates carbonate-free magnetite-rich phoscorites that carry medium to coarse grains of Mg-Al-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of spinel, medium-grained pure apatite and baddeleyite. The axial zone hosts carbonate-rich phoscorites and phoscorite-related carbonatites bearing medium-grained Ti-V-Ca-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of geikielite-ilmenite, fine grains of Ba-Sr-Ln-rich apatite and comparatively large grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Hf, Ta, Nb and Sc. The collected data enable us to predict such important mineralogical characteristics of the multicomponent ore as chemical composition and grain size of economic and associated minerals, presence of contaminating inclusions, etc. We have identified potential areas of maximum concentration of such by-products as scandium, niobium and hafnium in baddeleyite and REEs in apatite.
DS201605-0847
2016
Kalashnikov, A.O.Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Kalashnikov, A.O., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Mikhailova, J.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Konopleva, N.G., Sokharev, V.A., Bazai, A.V., Goryainov, P.M.Economic minerals of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit, Russia: mineralogy, spatial distribution and ore procesing optimization.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 77, pp. 279-311.RussiaCarbonatite, Kovdor

Abstract: The comprehensive petrographical, petrochemical and mineralogical study of the Kovdor magnetite-apatite-baddeleyite deposit in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Murmansk Region, Russia) revealed a spatial distribution of grain size and chemical composition of three economically extractable minerals — magnetite, apatite, and baddeleyite, showing that zonal distribution of mineral properties mimics both concentric and vertical zonation of the carbonatite-phoscorite pipe. The marginal zone of the pipe consists of (apatite)-forsterite phoscorite carrying fine grains of Ti-Mn-Si-rich magnetite with ilmenite exsolution lamellae, fine grains of Fe-Mg-rich apatite and finest grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Mg, Fe, Si and Mn. The intermediate zone accommodates carbonate-free magnetite-rich phoscorites that carry medium to coarse grains of Mg-Al-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of spinel, medium-grained pure apatite and baddeleyite. The axial zone hosts carbonate-rich phoscorites and phoscorite-related carbonatites bearing medium-grained Ti-V-Ca-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of geikielite-ilmenite, fine grains of Ba-Sr-Ln-rich apatite and comparatively large grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Hf, Ta, Nb and Sc. The collected data enable us to predict such important mineralogical characteristics of the multicomponent ore as chemical composition and grain size of economic and associated minerals, presence of contaminating inclusions, etc. We have identified potential areas of maximum concentration of such by-products as scandium, niobium and hafnium in baddeleyite and REEs in apatite.
DS201608-1413
2016
Kalashnikov, A.O.Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Kalashnikov, A.O., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Mikhailova, J.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Konopleva, N.G., Sokharev, V.A., Bazai, A.V., Goryainov, P.M.Economic minerals of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit, Russia: mineralogy, spatial distribution and ore processing optimization.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 77, pp. 279-311.RussiaDeposit - Kovdor

Abstract: The comprehensive petrographical, petrochemical and mineralogical study of the Kovdor magnetite-apatite-baddeleyite deposit in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Murmansk Region, Russia) revealed a spatial distribution of grain size and chemical composition of three economically extractable minerals — magnetite, apatite, and baddeleyite, showing that zonal distribution of mineral properties mimics both concentric and vertical zonation of the carbonatite-phoscorite pipe.The marginal zone of the pipe consists of (apatite)-forsterite phoscorite carrying fine grains of Ti-Mn-Si-rich magnetite with ilmenite exsolution lamellae, fine grains of Fe-Mg-rich apatite and finest grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Mg, Fe, Si and Mn. The intermediate zone accommodates carbonate-free magnetite-rich phoscorites that carry medium to coarse grains of Mg-Al-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of spinel, medium-grained pure apatite and baddeleyite. The axial zone hosts carbonate-rich phoscorites and phoscorite-related carbonatites bearing medium-grained Ti-V-Ca-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of geikielite-ilmenite, fine grains of Ba-Sr-Ln-rich apatite and comparatively large grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Hf, Ta, Nb and Sc. The collected data enable us to predict such important mineralogical characteristics of the multicomponent ore as chemical composition and grain size of economic and associated minerals, presence of contaminating inclusions, etc. We have identified potential areas of maximum concentration of such by-products as scandium, niobium and hafnium in baddeleyite and REEs in apatite.
DS201611-2118
2016
Kalashnikov, A.O.Kalashnikov, A.O., Konpleva, N.G., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Ivanyuk, G.Yu.Rare earth deposits of the Murmansk region, Russia - a review.Economic Geology, Vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 1529-1559.RussiaRare earths

Abstract: This paper reviews the available information on the geology, mineralogy, and resources of the significant rare earth element (REE) deposits and occurrences in the Murmansk Region, northwest Russia. The region has one of the largest endowments of REE in the world, primarily the light REE (LREE); however, most of the deposits are of potential economic interest for the REE, only as by-products of other mining activity, because of the relatively low REE grade. The measured and indicated REE2O3 resources of all deposits in the region total 22.4, and 36.2 million tonnes, respectively. The most important resources occur in (1) the currently mined Khibiny titanite-apatite deposits, and (2) the Lovozero loparite-eudialyte deposit. The Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit is a potentially important resource of scandium. These deposits all have polymetallic ores, i.e., REE would be a by-product of P, Ti, and Al mining at Khibiny, Fe, Zr, Ta, and Nb mining at Lovozero, and Fe and Ti mining at Afrikanda. The Keivy block has potential for heavy REE exploitation in the peralkaline granite-hosted Yumperuaiv and Large Pedestal Zr-REE deposits and the nepheline syenite-hosted Sakharyok Zr-REE deposit. With the exception of the Afrikanda perovskite-magnetite deposit (LREE in perovskite) and the Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit (scandium in baddelyite), carbonatite-bearing complexes of the Murmansk Region appear to have limited potential for REE by-products. The sound transport, energy, and mining infrastructure of the region are important factors that will help ensure future production of the REE.
DS202004-0536
2020
Kalashnikova, T.Sun, J., Rudnick, R.L., Kostrovitsky, S., Kalashnikova, T., Kitajima, K., Li, R., Shu, Q.The origin of low-MgO eclogite xenoliths from Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 22p. Pdf.Russiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: The petrology, mineral major and trace-element concentrations, and garnet oxygen isotopic composition of low-MgO (11-16 wt%) eclogites from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton, are used to infer their petrogenesis. These eclogites contain two types of compositionally distinct garnet: granular coarse garnet, and garnet exsolution (lamellae and fine-grained garnet) in clinopyroxene. The former record higher temperatures at lower pressures than the latter, which record the last stage of equilibrium at moderate pressure-temperature conditions 2.3-3.7 GPa and 855-1095 °C in the upper mantle at the time of entrainment. Although derived from the garnet stability field, these rocks have low-pressure cumulate protoliths containing plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene as reflected by pronounced positive Eu and Sr anomalies in all eclogites, and low heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents in both minerals and reconstructed bulk rocks for a number of samples. Major elements, transition metals, and the HREE compositions of the reconstructed whole rocks are analogous to modern oceanic gabbro cumulates. Despite geochemical signatures supporting an oceanic crust origin, mantle-like d18O of the garnets (5.07-5.62‰) for most samples indicates that the protoliths either did not interact with seawater or have coincidently approximately normal igneous values. Some of the eclogite xenoliths have lower SiO2 contents and depleted light REE ((Nd/Yb)N?
DS202008-1450
2020
Kalashnikova, T.Sun, J., Rudnick, R.L., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Kalashnikova, T., Kitajima, K., Li, R.P., Shu, Q.The origin of low-MgO eclogite xenoliths from Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberia craton.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractRussia, Siberiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: The petrology, mineral major and trace element concentrations, and garnet oxygen isotopic composition of low-MgO (11-16 wt.%) eclogites from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton, are used to infer their petrogenesis. These eclogites equilibrated at moderate pressure-temperature conditions 2.3-3.7 GPa and 855- 1095?C at the time of entrainment. Although derived from the garnet stability field, these rocks have low-pressure cumulate protoliths containing plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene as reflected by pronounced positive Eu and Sr anomalies in all eclogites, and low heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents in both minerals and reconstructed bulk rocks for a number of samples. Major elements, transition metals, and the HREE compositions of the reconstructed whole rocks are analogous to modern oceanic gabbro cumulates. Despite geochemical signatures supporting an oceanic crust origin, mantle-like d18O of the garnets (5.07-5.62 ‰ ) for most samples indicates that the protoliths either did not interact with seawater or have coincidently approximately normal igneous values. Some of the eclogite xenoliths have lower SiO2 contents and depleted light REE ((Nd/Yb)N < 1) compared to modern oceanic gabbros, suggesting that they experienced partial melting. Positively inclined middle to heavy-REE patterns ((Dy/Yb)N <1) of the reconstructed bulk rocks mostly result from repeated partial melting in the eclogite stability field, based on melting model calculations. We therefore suggest that the Obnazhennaya low-MgO eclogites may represent the gabbroic section of subducted or foundered basaltic crust that underwent continued partial melting processes at high pressures where garnet was the main residual phase.
DS201212-0377
2012
Kalashnikova, T.V.Kostrovitsky, S.I., Kopylova, M.G., Egorov, K.N., Yakolev, D.A., Kalashnikova, T.V., Sandmirova, G.P.The exceptionally fresh Udachnaya -East kimberlite: evidence for brine and evaporite contamination.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya -east
DS201412-0867
2014
Kalashnikova, T.V.Soloveva, L.V., Kalashnikova, T.V., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Suvorova, L.F.Zoning of garnets in deformed peridotites from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 457, 2, pp. 997-1002.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201907-1578
2019
Kalashnikova, T.V.Solovera, L., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Kalashnikova, T.V., Ivanov, A.V.The nature of phlogopite - ilmenite and ilmenite parageneses in deep seated xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 486, 1, pp. 537-540.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: The article describes the petrography and mineralogy of xenoliths ilmenite-phlogopite containing deformed and granular peridotites from the Udachnaya-Eastern pipe. The age of pholopite porphyroclast from the studied deformed xenoliths matches with age of Phl megacryst and itself hosted kimberlites from Udachnaya pipe indicating the following processes closed in time: (1) crystallization of the low-Cr megacryst association; (2) deformation of rocks on the mantle lithosphere-asthenosphere border during the kimberlite-forming cycle; (3) formation of protokimberlite melts.
DS201502-0066
2015
Kalashnyk, A.Kalashnyk, A.Regularities of spatial association of major endogenous uranium deposits and kimberlitic dykes in the uranium ore regions of the Ukrainian Shield.Economic Geology Research Institute 2015, Vol. 17,, # 2872, 1p. AbstractRussia, UkraineKimberlite dykes
DS202007-1124
2020
Kalashnyk, H.A.Ashchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, N.V., Kalashnyk, H.A., Medvedev, N.S., Saprykin, A.I., Downes, H., Khmelnikova, O.S.Incompatible element enriched mantle lithosphere beneath kimberlitic pipes in Priazovie Ukrainian shield: volatile enriched focused melt flow and connection to mature crust?International Geology Review, in press available 24p. PdfEurope, Ukrainedeposit - Priazovie

Abstract: Major, minor and trace element compositions of mantle xenocrysts from Devonian kimberlite pipes in the Priazovie give an insight into the mantle structure beneath the SE Ukranian Shield and its evolution. Garnets yield low temperature conditions as determined by monomineral thermobarometry. The mantle lithosphere is sharply divided at 4.2 GPa, marked by a high temperature Cpx-Ilm-Phl trend, eclogites and changes in pyrope geochemistry. Seven layers are detected: Ist layer at 2.5-1 GPa is enriched mantle (Fe#Ol ~ 0.11 - 0.14) with Gar- pyroxenites and Sp peridotites; IInd at 2.5-3.2 GPa - Gar-Sp (Fe#Ol 0.08 - 0.10) peridotite. IIId at 4.3-3.2 GPa is formed of Archaean- Proterozoic peridotites with Fe#Ol ~0.07 - 0.095. IVth at 3.2-5 GPa- contains pyroxenitic Gar with higher Ca, eclogites, Chr and Cpx (Fe#Ol ~0.10 - 0.125); Vth at 5.8 - 5 GPa is marked by sub-Ca garnets, Cr-rich chromites and Mg-Cr ilmenites; VIth layer at 5.8-6.8 GPa contains Fe-enriched pyropes, almandines and Cr-Mg ilmenites near the lithosphere base; VIIth layer > 6.8 GPa consists of ‘hot’ Fe-rich garnets. Garnets show increasing enrichment in LREE, LILE, Hf, Zr with decreasing pressure. Primitive garnets have round REE patterns; depleted ones have S-type patterns inflected at Nd. Garnets from 6.5 to 3 GPa show increasing La/Ybn, Zr-Hf, LILE. Peridotitic clinopyroxenes have inclined linear trace element patterns rounded from La to Pr with high LILE and HFSE levels. The Fe-rich group (reacted with eclogites) shows bell-shaped irregular patterns with LILE close to the LREE levels. A possible reason for LILE (HFSE and) enrichment of the upper part of the mantle is subduction metasomatsm in Archaean times (with participation of mature continental sediments) activated by plumes at 1.8 Ga and earlier which produced pervasive focused melt flow with remelting of mica-amphibole metasomatites giving continuous REE and LILE enrichment in mantle lithologies from 5.8 to 2.5 GPa.
DS201709-2008
2017
Kalasnikova, T.V.Kalasnikova, T.V., Solovea, L.V., Kostrovitsky, S.I.Metasomatic features in the mantle xenoliths from Obnajennaya kimberlite pipe - the mineral composition evidence.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Russiadeposit - Obnajennaya

Abstract: The modal metasomatic alteration for lithosphere mantle may be investigated using mantle xenoliths from kimberlite pipes. The mantle xenoliths from upper-Jurassic Obnajennaya kimberlite pipe (Kuoika field, Yakutia) were studied. Three main xenoliths groups in Obnajennaya pipe were distinguished based on the petrographic and geochemical features: 1. Sp, Sp-Grt, Grt harzburgites - lherzolites, Sp, Sp-Grt, Grt olivine websterites and Sp, Sp-Grt, Grt websterite (so-called magnesium group - about 80 % from xenoliths). The high magnesium mineral composition, high estimated temperature (1250 - 1500°?) for exsolution pyroxene megacrystals, presence of sulphide globules and distribution curves for rare earth elements in garnets (La-Yb increasing) are to assume the crystallisation from melt. The 10% magnesium mantle xenoliths are observed the secondary metasomatic phlogopite and amphibole (pargasite). The clinopyroxene distribution curves demonstrate the wide range of values and altered samples show higher content HFSE group elements that primary clinopyroxene. The increasing of HFSE and rare earth element concentrations can also be traced by the amphibole chemical composition. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of phlogopite from was result 1639 ± 5 Ma nearly corresponding to the time of Siberian craton accretion Thus during Siberian craton accretion (about 1.7 Ga) the melts-fluids enriching Nb + Ta and REE impacted on lithosphere mantle under Kuoika field. 2. Eclogites and Grt clinopyroxenites with similar mineral composition (about 10-15% xenoliths). The high dO18 for garnet and clinopyroxene (5.7–5.8‰) allows to assume subduction genesis. 3. Phl-Ilm rocks characterizing ferrous mineral composition (~ 10 % xenoliths). This group are charactetrized are ferrous mineral composition. The 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite dating resulted to 800-500 Ma, signed the potassium and titanium metasomatic fluide – melt influenced
DS201012-0333
2010
Kaldos, R.Kaldos, R., Seghedi, I., Szabo, Cs.Silicate melt and fluid inclusions in olivine phenocryst from the Gataia lamproite ( Banat, Romania).International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 199.Europe, RomaniaLamproite
DS201511-1850
2015
Kaldos, R.Kaldos, R., Guzmics, T., Mitchell, R.H., Dawson, J.B., Milke, R., Szabo, C.A melt evolution model for Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania: evidence from carbonate melt inclusions in jacupirangite.Lithos, Vol. 238, pp. 101-119.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite

Abstract: This study presents compositional data for a statistically significant number (n=180) of heated and quenched (recreated) carbonate melt inclusions trapped in magnetite and clinopyroxene in jacupirangite from Kerimasi volcano (Tanzania). On the basis of homogenization experiments for clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions and forsterite-monticellite-calcite phase relations, a range of 1000 to 900 °C is estimated for their crystallization temperatures. Petrographic observations and geochemical data show that during jacupirangite crystallization, a CaO-rich and alkali-"poor" carbonate melt (relative to Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite) existed and was entrapped in the precipitating magnetite, forming primary melt inclusions, and was also enclosed in previously crystallized clinopyroxene as secondary melt inclusions. The composition of the trapped carbonate melts in magnetite and clinopyroxene are very similar to the parental melt of Kerimasi calciocarbonatite; i.e., enriched in Na2O, K2O, F, Cl and S, but depleted in SiO2 and P2O5 relative to carbonate melts entrapped at an earlier stage and higher temperature (1050-1100 °C) during the formation of Kerimasi afrikandite. Significant compositional variation is shown by the major minerals of Kerimasi plutonic rocks (afrikandite, jacupirangite and calciocarbonatite). Magnetite and clinopyroxene in the jacupirangite are typically transitional in composition between those of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. These data suggest that the jacupirangite represents an intermediate stage between the formation of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. Jacupirangite most probably formed when immiscible silicate and carbonate melts separated from the afrikandite body, although the carbonate melt was not separated completely from the silicate melt fraction. In general, during the evolution of the carbonate melt at Kerimasi, concentrations of P2O5 and SiO2 decreased, whereas volatile content (alkalis, S, F, Cl and H2O) increased. Volatiles were incorporated principally in nyerereite, shortite, burbankite, nahcolite and sulfohalite as identified by Raman spectrometry. These extremely unstable minerals cannot be found in the bulk rock, because of alteration by secondary processes. On the basis of these data, an evolutionary model is developed for Kerimasi plutonic rocks.
DS201601-0024
2015
Kaldos, R.Kaldos, R., Guzmics, T., Mitchell, R.H., Dawson, J.B., Milke, R., Szabo, C.A melt evolution model for Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania: evidence from carbonate melt inclusions in jacupirangite.Lithos, Vol. 238, pp. 101-119.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite

Abstract: This study presents compositional data for a statistically significant number (n = 180) of heated and quenched (recreated) carbonate melt inclusions trapped in magnetite and clinopyroxene in jacupirangite from Kerimasi volcano (Tanzania). On the basis of homogenization experiments for clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions and forsterite-monticellite-calcite phase relations, a range of 1000 to 900 °C is estimated for their crystallization temperatures. Petrographic observations and geochemical data show that during jacupirangite crystallization, a CaO-rich and alkali-"poor" carbonate melt (relative to Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite) existed and was entrapped in the precipitating magnetite, forming primary melt inclusions, and was also enclosed in previously crystallized clinopyroxene as secondary melt inclusions. The composition of the trapped carbonate melts in magnetite and clinopyroxene is very similar to the parental melt of Kerimasi calciocarbonatite; i.e., enriched in Na2O, K2O, F, Cl and S, but depleted in SiO2 and P2O5 relative to carbonate melts entrapped at an earlier stage and higher temperature (1050-1100 °C) during the formation of Kerimasi afrikandite. Significant compositional variation is shown by the major minerals of Kerimasi plutonic rocks (afrikandite, jacupirangite and calciocarbonatite). Magnetite and clinopyroxene in the jacupirangite are typically transitional in composition between those of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. These data suggest that the jacupirangite represents an intermediate stage between the formation of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. Jacupirangite most probably formed when immiscible silicate and carbonate melts separated from the afrikandite body, although the carbonate melt was not separated completely from the silicate melt fraction. In general, during the evolution of the carbonate melt at Kerimasi, concentrations of P2O5 and SiO2 decreased, whereas volatile content (alkalis, S, F, Cl and H2O) increased. Volatiles were incorporated principally in nyerereite, shortite, burbankite, nahcolite and sulfohalite as identified by Raman spectrometry. These extremely unstable minerals cannot be found in the bulk rock, because of alteration by secondary processes. On the basis of these data, an evolutionary model is developed for Kerimasi plutonic rocks.
DS201603-0388
2015
Kaldos, R.Kaldos, R.,Guzmics, T., Mitchell, R.H., Dawson, J.B., Milke, R., Szabo, C.A melt evolution for Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania: evidence from carbonate melt inclusions in jacupirangite.Lithos, Vol. 238, pp. 101-119.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite

Abstract: This study presents compositional data for a statistically significant number (n = 180) of heated and quenched (recreated) carbonate melt inclusions trapped in magnetite and clinopyroxene in jacupirangite from Kerimasi volcano (Tanzania). On the basis of homogenization experiments for clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions and forsterite-monticellite-calcite phase relations, a range of 1000 to 900 °C is estimated for their crystallization temperatures. Petrographic observations and geochemical data show that during jacupirangite crystallization, a CaO-rich and alkali-"poor" carbonate melt (relative to Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite) existed and was entrapped in the precipitating magnetite, forming primary melt inclusions, and was also enclosed in previously crystallized clinopyroxene as secondary melt inclusions. The composition of the trapped carbonate melts in magnetite and clinopyroxene is very similar to the parental melt of Kerimasi calciocarbonatite; i.e., enriched in Na2O, K2O, F, Cl and S, but depleted in SiO2 and P2O5 relative to carbonate melts entrapped at an earlier stage and higher temperature (1050-1100 °C) during the formation of Kerimasi afrikandite. Significant compositional variation is shown by the major minerals of Kerimasi plutonic rocks (afrikandite, jacupirangite and calciocarbonatite). Magnetite and clinopyroxene in the jacupirangite are typically transitional in composition between those of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. These data suggest that the jacupirangite represents an intermediate stage between the formation of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. Jacupirangite most probably formed when immiscible silicate and carbonate melts separated from the afrikandite body, although the carbonate melt was not separated completely from the silicate melt fraction. In general, during the evolution of the carbonate melt at Kerimasi, concentrations of P2O5 and SiO2 decreased, whereas volatile content (alkalis, S, F, Cl and H2O) increased. Volatiles were incorporated principally in nyerereite, shortite, burbankite, nahcolite and sulfohalite as identified by Raman spectrometry. These extremely unstable minerals cannot be found in the bulk rock, because of alteration by secondary processes. On the basis of these data, an evolutionary model is developed for Kerimasi plutonic rocks.
DS201607-1358
2016
Kaldos, R.Kaldos, R.3D modelling of carbonate melt inclusions of Kerimasi alkaline rocks by Raman spectrometry and FIB-SEM.IGC 35th., Session A Dynamic Earth 1p. AbstractAfrica, TanzaniaSpectrometry
DS201709-2009
2017
Kaldos, R.Kaldos, R., Guzmics, T., Vaczi, T., Berkesi, M., Dankhazi, Z., Szabo, C.3D Raman mapping of melt inclusions in Kerimasi alkaline and carbonatite rocks.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Kerimasi

Abstract: The use of confocal HR-Raman mapping opens new perspectives in studying melt inclusions. Our major goal is to show advantages of this powerful technique through case studies carried out on alkaline and carbonatite rocks of Kerimasi volcano (East African Rift). Raman spectrometry is one of the few methods that enable qualitative nondestructive analysis of both solid and fluid phases, therefore it is widely used for the identification of minerals and volatiles within melt and fluid inclusions. For better understanding of petrogenetic processes in carbonatite systems it is essential to find all mineral phases in the melt inclusions trapped in intrusive or volcanic rocks. Previous Raman spectroscopic point measurements in melt inclusions revealed the presence of daughter phases (e.g. alkali carbonates, hydrocarbonates) [1] but utilizing Raman mapping on them even provides information on their size, shape and distribution. Raman 3D mapping were applied on unheated multiphase melt inclusions of intrusive and volcanic rocks with high spatial resolution (XY plane < 1 micron) with a depth scan (Z step) as low as 0.5 micron at every XY point, parallel to the surface of the host minerals. Analysis below the surface of the host mineral is especially useful because we can avoid the loss of sensitive (e.g. water soluble) phases and contamination of the melt inclusions, moreover unexposed melt inclusions are suitable for further analytical measurements (e.g. EPMA, microthermometry). By scanning multiple layers 2D or 3D Raman images can be gained, thus we can get an insight into post entrapment crystallization processes that contribute to a more precise description of the evolution of alkaline and carbonatite rocks.
DS200612-0343
2005
Kale, H.S.Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Kale, H.S.Is megacrystic/xenocrystic ilmenite entrainment in the source magma responsible for the non-Diamondiferous nature of the Maddur-Kotakonda-Narayanpet kimberlitesGeological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 72.India, Andhra Pradesh, Dharwar CratonIlmenite, chemistry
DS200812-0200
2008
Kale, H.S.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Kamde, G.D., Kale, H.S., Dongre, A.Geological setting and petrographic diversity of the lamproite dykes at the northern and north eastern margin of the Cuddapah Basin, southern India.Indian Dykes: editors Srivastava, Sivaji, Chalapathi Rao, pp. 281-290.IndiaLamproite
DS1995-0859
1995
Kaleganov, B.A.Ivanov, O.K., Kaleganov, B.A.New dat a on the age of the concentrically zoned dunite pyroxenite intrusions in the Ural platiniferous beltDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 329, No. 2, Jan. pp. 94-99Russia, Uralsplatinum group elements (PGE)
DS200412-0541
2004
Kaleganov, B.A.Fedorov, Y.N., Krinochkin, V.G., Ivanov, K.S., Krasnobaev, A.A., Kaleganov, B.A.Stages of tectonic reactivation of the west Siberian platform ( based on K Ar dating).Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 397, 5, pp. 628-631.Russia, SiberiaTectonics
DS1992-0815
1992
Kaleman, P.G.Kaleman, P.G.Depletion of niobium relative to other highly incompatible elements by melt rock reaction in the upper mantleEos, Transactions, Annual Fall Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 73, No. 43, October 27, abstracts p. 656MantleGeochronology, Clinopyroxene
DS1989-1321
1989
Kalenchuk, G.Ye.Ryabchikov, I.D., Orlova, G.P., Kalenchuk, G.Ye., et al.Reactions of spinel lherzolite with H2O-CO2 fluids at 20KBAR and 900CGeochemistry International, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 56-62GlobalLherzolite, Petrology
DS1990-1286
1990
Kalenchuk, G.Ye.Ryabchikov, I.D., Orlova, G.P., Trubkin, N.V., Kalenchuk, G.Ye.Primary minerals and quench minerals in the peridotiteH2O Co2 system at900 C and 20 kbarInternational Geology Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, January pp. 23-33GlobalLherzolite, Experimental petrology
DS201412-0275
2014
Kalendra, V.Gaubas, E., Ceponis, T., Jasiunas, A., Kalendra, V., Pavlov, J., Kazuchits, N., Naumchik, E., Rusetsky, M.Lateral scan profiles of the recombination parameters correlated with distribution of grown-in impurities in HPHT diamond.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 47, pp. 15-26.TechnologySynthetics
DS2002-0800
2002
Kalfoun, F.Kalfoun, F., Ionov, D., Merlet, C.HFSE residence and Nb Ta ratios in metasomatized, rutile bearing mantle peridotitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.199,1-2,pp.49-65., Vol.199,1-2,pp.49-65.MantleMetasomatism, Peridotites
DS2002-0801
2002
Kalfoun, F.Kalfoun, F., Ionov, D., Merlet, C.HFSE residence and Nb Ta ratios in metasomatized, rutile bearing mantle peridotitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.199,1-2,pp.49-65., Vol.199,1-2,pp.49-65.MantleMetasomatism, Peridotites
DS201812-2826
2018
Kalikowski Weska, R.Kalikowski Weska, R.Indicator mineral chemistry and geothermobarometry of Sante Fe kimberlitic intrusion.7th Symposio Brasileiro de Geologia do Diamante , Title only South America, Brazil, Mato Grossodeposit - Sante Fe
DS1988-0337
1988
KalimantanKalimantanDiamonds?World Mining Equipment, Vol. 12, No. 3, March p. 12GlobalBlank
DS201901-0059
2017
Kalimina, V.Ragozin, A., Zedgenizov, D., Kuper, K., Kalimina, V., Zemnukhov, A.The internal structure of yellow cuboid diamonds from alluvial placers of the northeastern Siberian platform.Crystals MDPI, Vol. 7, 8, 13p. Doi.org/10. 3390/cryst7080238Russiadiamond morphology

Abstract: Yellow cuboid diamonds are commonly found in diamondiferous alluvial placers of the Northeastern Siberian platform. The internal structure of these diamonds have been studied by optical microscopy, X-Ray topography (XRT) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. Most of these crystals have typical resorption features and do not preserve primary growth morphology. The resorption leads to an evolution from an originally cubic shape to a rounded tetrahexahedroid. Specific fibrous or columnar internal structure of yellow cuboid diamonds has been revealed. Most of them are strongly deformed. Misorientations of the crystal lattice, found in the samples, may be caused by strains from their fibrous growth or/and post-growth plastic deformation.
DS2001-0724
2001
Kalindekafe, L.S.Malunga, G.W.P., Kalindekafe, L.S.Geology and economic potential of Malawi carbonatitesJournal of South African Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, p. A 25. (abs)MalawiCarbonatite, Chilwa Alkaline Province
DS200712-1003
2006
Kalinia, V.Smirnov, S., Ananyev, S., Kalinia, V., Vins, V.Color grading of color enhanced natural diamonds: a case study of Imperial red diamonds.Gems & Gemology, 4th International Symposium abstracts, Fall 2006, p.126-7. abstract onlyTechnologyColour grading
DS1983-0430
1983
Kalinin, A.A.Malinovskii, I.I., Doroshev, A.M., Kalinin, A.A.Investigation of the Stability of Pyrope-grossular Garnets Under the Pressure of 30kbar.Doklady Academy of Sciences AKAD. NAUK SSSR., Vol. 268, No. 1, PP. 163-168.RussiaBlank
DS1990-0419
1990
Kalinin, A.A.Doroshev, A.M., Galkin, V.M., Turkin, A.I., Kalinin, A.A.Thermal expansion of garnets of pyrope grossularite and pyrope Knorringiteseries.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 1, January 1990, pp. 152-155RussiaGarnet-pyrope, Geochemistry
DS1990-0420
1990
Kalinin, A.A.Doroshev, A.M., Galkin, V.M., Turkin, A.I., Kalinin, A.A.Thermal expansion in the pyrope-grossular and pyrope-knorringite garnetseriesGeochemistry International, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 144-149RussiaMineralogy, Pyrope
DS1996-0708
1996
Kalinin, A.A.Kalinin, A.A., Basalayev, A.A.Rare earth elements in the metamorphic rock complexes of the Key vyastructure of the Kola Peninsula.Doklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 341A No. 3, April, pp. 101-104.Russia, Kola Peninsularare earth elements (REE), Metamorphic rocks
DS200812-0617
2008
Kalinin, A.A.Kupriyanov, I.N., Paynamov, Yu.N., Kalinin, A.A., Sokol, A.G., Khokhryakov, A.F., Gusev, V.A.The effect of HPHT treatment on the spectroscopic features of type IIb synthetic diamonds.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 17, 7-10, pp. 1203-1206.TechnologyType IIb synthetics
DS201612-2327
2016
Kalinin, A.A.Ragozin, A.L., Palyanov, Yu.N., Zedgenizov, D.A., Kalinin, A.A., Shatsky, V.S.Homogenization of carbonate bearing Micro inclusions in diamond at P-T parameters of the upper mantle.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 470, 2, pp. 1059-1062.RussiaDeposit - Internationalskaya

Abstract: The staged high-pressure annealing of natural cubic diamonds with numerous melt microinclusions from the Internatsional’naya kimberlite pipe was studied experimentally. The results mainly show that the carbonate phases, the daughter phases in partially crystallized microinclusions in diamonds, may undergo phase transformations under the mantle P-T conditions. Most likely, partial melting and further dissolution of dolomite in the carbonate-silicate melt (homogenization of inclusions) occur in inclusions. The experimental data on the staged high-pressure annealing of diamonds with melt microinclusions allow us to estimate the temperature of their homogenization as 1400-1500°C. Thus, cubic diamonds from the Internatsional’naya pipe could have been formed under quite high temperatures corresponding to the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary. However, it should be noted that the effect of selective capture of inclusions with partial loss of volatiles in relation to the composition of the crystallization medium is not excluded during the growth. This may increase the temperature of their homogenization significantly between 1400 and 1500°C.
DS202002-0211
2020
Kalinin, A.A.Nadolly, V.A., Shatsky, V.S., Yuryeva, O.P., Rakhmanova, M.I., Komarovskikh, A.Yu., Kalinin, A.A., Palyanov, Yu.N.Formation features of N3V centers in diamonds from the Kholomolokh placer in the Northeast Siberian craton.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 47, 4, 7p. PdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Khololmolokh

Abstract: In recent years, despite significant progress in the development of new methods for the synthesis of diamond crystals and in their post-growth treatment, many questions remain unclear about the conditions for the formation and degradation of aggregate impurity nitrogen forms. Meanwhile, they are very important for understanding (evaluating) the origin, age, and post-growth conditions of natural diamonds. In the present work, an attempt was made to analyze the causes of the formation of high concentrations of N3V centers in natural IaB-type diamonds from the Kholomolokh placer (the Northeast Siberian craton). The possibility of decay of B centers during the plastic deformation of diamonds is analyzed and experiments on the high-temperature annealing of diamonds containing B centers are reported. The formation of N3V centers during the destruction of the B centers at high-pressure annealing of crystals has been established by experiment. It is assumed that, in the post-growth period, diamond crystals were exposed to tectono-thermal stages of raising the superplumes of the Earth's crust of the Siberian craton.
DS1985-0031
1985
Kalinin, B.N.Babadzha, R.D., Borobev, S.A., Kalinin, B.N., Mun, V.V.Effect of Supressing the Outcome of the Ultrarelativistic Electron X-ray Diffraction Radiation in Diamonds.Zhurn. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 55, No. 8, PP. 1645-1646.RussiaDiamond Refraction
DS1985-0149
1985
Kalinin, B.N.Didenko, A.N., Kalinin, B.N., et al.Observation of Monochromatic X Ray Radiation from 900 Mev Electrons Transmitting through a Diamond Crystal.Phys. Letter, Section A., Vol. 110, No. 3, JULY 15, PP. 177-179.GlobalPetrology
DS1997-0339
1997
Kalinin, E.V.Fedorenko, V.S., Kalinin, E.V., Poletaev, A.I.Construction of geodynamic models of the endogenic and exogenic activity Of the earth's crustMoscow University of Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 40-43RussiaGeodynamic, tectonic
DS2002-0134
2002
Kalinin, Y.A.Belevantsev, V.I., Roslyakov, N.A., Kalinin, Y.A.Geochemical relation of gold to NH 4 in hydrothermal gold depositsGeochemistry International, Vol.40,4,pp. 411-19.GlobalGold - geochemistry, mineralogy
DS201603-0435
2016
Kalinina, V.Zedgenizov, D., Rubatto, D., Shatsky, V., Ragozin, A., Kalinina, V.Eclogitic diamonds from variable crustal protoliths in the northeastern Siberian Craton: trace elements and coupled Delta13C-delta 180 signatures in diamonds and garnet inclusions.Chemical Geology, Vol. 422, pp. 46-59.RussiaGeochronology
DS201908-1813
2019
Kalinina, V.Shatsky, V., Zedgenizov, D., Ragozin, A., Kalinina, V.Silicate melt inclusions in diamonds of eclogite paragenesis from placers on the northeastern Siberian craton.Minerals, Vol. 9, 7, pp. 412 ( 11p)Russia, Siberiadeposit - Kholomolokh

Abstract: New findings of silicate-melt inclusions in two alluvial diamonds (from the Kholomolokh placer, northeastern Siberian Platform) are reported. Both diamonds exhibit a high degree of N aggregation state (60-70% B) suggesting their long residence in the mantle. Raman spectral analysis revealed that the composite inclusions consist of clinopyroxene and silicate glass. Hopper crystals of clinopyroxene were observed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses; these are different in composition from the omphacite inclusions that co-exist in the same diamonds. The glasses in these inclusions contain relatively high SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and, K2O. These composite inclusions are primary melt that partially crystallised at the cooling stage. Hopper crystals of clinopyroxene imply rapid cooling rates, likely related to the uplift of crystals in the kimberlite melt. The reconstructed composition of such primary melts suggests that they were formed as the product of metasomatised mantle. One of the most likely source of melts/fluids metasomatising the mantle could be a subducted slab.
DS202004-0549
2020
Kalinina, V.Zedgenizov, D., Bogush, I., Shatsky, V., Kovalchuk, O., Ragozin, A., Kalinina, V.Mixed habit type Ib-IaA diamond from an Udachnaya eclogite.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 9, 9120741, 12p. PdfRussiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: The variety of morphology and properties of natural diamonds reflects variations in the conditions of their formation in different mantle environments. This study presents new data on the distribution of impurity centers in diamond type Ib-IaA from xenolith of bimineral eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe. The high content of non-aggregated nitrogen C defects in the studied diamonds indicates their formation shortly before the stage of transportation to the surface by the kimberlite melt. The observed sectorial heterogeneity of the distribution of C- and A-defects indicates that aggregation of nitrogen in the octahedral sectors occurs faster than in the cuboid sectors.
DS201112-0944
2011
Kalinina, V.V.Shatski, V.S., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Kalinina, V.V., Reutskii, V.N.Local variations in carbon isotopes and nitrogen contents in diamonds from placers of the northeastern portion of the Siberian Platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 440, 1, pp.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology
DS201412-0801
2014
Kalinina, V.V.Shatsky, V.S., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Kalinina, V.V.Carbon isotopes and nitrogen contents in placer diamonds from the NE Siberian craton: implications for diamond origins.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 26, 1, pp. 41-52.RussiaAlluvials
DS201412-0802
2015
Kalinina, V.V.Shatsky, V.S., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Kalinina, V.V.Diamondiferous subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the northeastern Siberian craton: evidence from mineral inclusions in alluvial diamonds.Gondwana Research, Vol. 28, 1, pp. 106-120.Russia, SiberiaMineral inclusions
DS201507-0335
2015
Kalinina, V.V.Shatsky, V.S., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Kalinina, V.V.Diamondiferous subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the northeastern Siberian Craton: evidence from mineral inclusions in alluvial diamonds. Kapchan Fold Belt Olenek ProvinceGondwana Research, Vol. 28, 1, pp. 106-120.RussiaDiamond - inclusions
DS201612-2351
2016
Kalinina, V.V.Zedgenizov, D.A., Kalinina, V.V., Reutsky, V.N., Yuryeva, O.P., Rakhmanova, M.I.Regular cuboid diamonds from placers on the northeastern Siberian platform.Lithos, Vol. 265, pp. 125-137.Russia, SiberiaDiamond morphology

Abstract: Alluvial placers of the northeastern Siberian Platform are characterized by a specific diamond population: regular cuboids, forming a continuous color series from yellowish-green to yellow and dark orange. This is the first comprehensive study of a large number of cuboid diamonds focusing on their morphology, N content and aggregation state, photoluminescence, C isotopic composition and inclusions. The cuboids are cubic (i.e. nearly flat faced) to subrounded crystals; most of them are resorbed. The cathodolominescence images and the birefringence patterns show that many cuboid diamonds record deformation. The cuboid diamonds are characterized by unusual FTIR spectra with the presence of C- (single nitrogen atom) and A- (pair of neighbour nitrogen atoms) centers, and two centers of unknown origin, termed X and Y. The presence of single substitutional nitrogen defects (C centers) in all cuboid diamonds testifies either storage in the mantle at relatively cool conditions or formation just prior to eruption of their host kimberlites. The studied diamonds are also characterized by the presence of specific set of luminescence centers: N3, H3, S1, NVo and NV-, some of which are suggested to have formed during deformation subsequent to diamond growth. The cuboid diamonds show a wide range of carbon isotope compositions from mantle-like values towards strongly 13C depleted compositions (- 6.1 to - 20.2‰ d13C). Combined with the finding of an eclogitic sulfide inclusion, the light carbon isotope compositions link the formation of the studied cuboids to deeply subducted basic protoliths, i.e. former oceanic crust.
DS202005-0774
2020
Kalinina, V.V.Yuryeva, O.P., Rakhmanova, M.I., Zedgenizov, D.A., Kalinina, V.V.Spectroscopic evidence of the origin of brown and pink diamonds family from Internatsionalnaya kimberlite pipe ( Siberian craton).Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 47, 20 doi.org/10/1007/ s00269-020-01088-5 19p. PdfRussiadeposit - International

Abstract: New spectroscopic data were obtained to distinguish the specific features of brown and pink diamonds from Internatsionalnaya kimberlite pipe (Siberian craton). It is shown that pink and brown samples differ markedly in the content and degree of aggregation of nitrogen defects. Pink diamonds generally have higher nitrogen content and a lower aggregation state compared to brown samples, which often show significant variations in nitrogen content and aggregation state between different growth zones. The 491 and 576 nm luminescent centres, which are signs of deformed brown diamonds, are absent or of low intensity in pink diamonds implying that high nitrogen content predominantly in A form in the pink diamonds had stiffened the diamonds against natural plastic deformation. The GR1 centre, formed by a neutrally charged vacancy, was observed only in pink diamonds, which may be due to their formation and storage in the mantle at lower-temperature conditions. Mineral inclusions indicate peridotitic and eclogitic paragenesis for studied brown and pink diamonds, respectively. It is suggested that brown diamonds have been formed in a primitive mantle at higher temperatures and/or stored there much longer.
DS202011-2070
2020
Kalinina, V.V.Zemnukhov, A.L., Reutsky, V.N., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Zhelonkin, R.Y., Kalinina, V.V.Subduction related population of diamonds in Yakutian placers, northeastern Siberian platform.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 98 10.1007/s00410-020-01741-w 11p. PdfRussia, Yakutiadiamond crystallography

Abstract: The 35 paired diamond intergrowths of rounded colorless transparent and gray opaque crystals from the placers of northeastern Siberian Platform were investigated. Mineral inclusions (KFsp, Coe, E-Grt, Po) detected in studied samples belong to eclogitic paragenesis. The majority of studied samples have uniform ranges of nitrogen content (1126-1982 at. ppm) and carbon isotope composition (-?16.8 to -?23.2 ‰). These characteristics pointing towards subducted material are possible sources for their genesis. Two samples consist of a gray opaque crystal with the subduction-related characteristics (d13C ca. -?21‰ and N ca. 1300 at. ppm) and a transparent crystal with low nitrogen content (412 and 29 at. ppm) and a heavy carbon isotopic composition (d13C -?4.2 and -?4.6‰) common for primary mantle range. The higher degree of nitrogen aggregation in the crystals with mantle-like characteristics testifies their longer storage in the mantle conditions. These samples reflect multistage diamond growth history and directly indicate the mixing of mantle and subduction carbon sources at the basement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle of northeastern Siberian Platform.
DS202012-2256
2020
Kalinina, V.V.Zedgenizov, D.A., Skuzovatov, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pomazansky, B.S., Ragozin, A.:., Kalinina, V.V.Diamond forming HDFs tracking episodic mantle metasomatism beneath Nyurbinskaya kimberlite pipe (Siberian craton).Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 106, 21p. PdfRussiadeposit - Nyurbinskaya

Abstract: We present a new dataset on the composition of high-density fluids (HDFs) in cloudy (n?=?25), coated (n?=?10) and cuboid (n?=?10) diamonds from the Nyurbinskaya kimberlite pipe. These diamonds represent different populations each showing distinct growth histories. The cores of coated diamonds display multiple growth stages and contrasting sources of carbon. Fibrous coats and cuboid diamonds have similar carbon isotopes and nitrogen systematics, suggesting their formation in the last metasomatic events related to kimberlite magmatism, as is common for most such diamonds worldwide. The HDFs in most of these diamonds span a wide range from low-Mg carbonatitic to hydrous silicic compositions. The major- and trace-element variations suggest that the sources for such HDFs range in composition between the depleted mantle and more fertile mantle reservoirs. Hydrous-silicic HDFs could originate from a 13C-enriched source, which originates through subduction of crustal metasedimentary material. Percolation of such HDFs through carbonated eclogites and peridotites facilitates the formation of cuboid diamonds and fibrous coats in the mantle section beneath the corresponding area of the Siberian craton. Cloudy diamonds represent an apparently older population, reflecting continuous diamond formation predominantly from high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs that caused discrete episodes of diamond precipitation. Their high Mg# and enrichment in incompatible elements support a metasomatized peridotitic source for these HDFs.
DS1991-0820
1991
Kalinkin, M.M.Kalinkin, M.M., Arzamastsev, A.A.Alkaline ultramafic rocks in the pipes of the Tersky coast of Kola Peninsula- a new type of Paleozoic magmatism. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 316, No. 3, pp. 702-707RussiaAlkaline rocks, Diatremes
DS1992-0816
1992
Kalinkin, M.M.Kalinkin, M.M., Arzamastev, A.A.Alkalic ultramafics in diatremes on the Terskiy coast of the KolaPeninsula: a new type of Paleozoic magmatismDoklady Academy of Sciences USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 316, No. 1-9, December pp. 162-165Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)Alkalic rocks, Diatremes
DS1993-0769
1993
Kalinkin, M.M.Kalinkin, M.M., Arzamastsev, A.A., Polyakov, I.V.Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kola Peninsula.(Russian)Petrologiya, (Russian), Vol. 1, No. 2, April, pp. 205-214.RussiaKimberlites, Geochronology
DS1993-1254
1993
Kalinkin, M.M.Polyakov, I.V., Kalinkin, M.M.Diamonds and associated minerals in kimberlites and loose sediments of Tersky shore (Kola Peninsula).(Russian)Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society, (Russian), No. 1, pp. 96-101.Russia, Kola PeninsulaDiamonds, Geomorphology
DS1982-0483
1982
Kalinovskiy, A.V.Ostashenko, B.A., Litoshko, D.N., Kalinovskiy, A.V.Exploration Significance of Mineral Complexes in Ore Formations.In: Novyye Mineralog. Met. Poiskov Mestordz., Fishman, M.v., No. 38, PP. 71-90.RussiaKimberlite, Genesis
DS1996-1529
1996
Kaliokowski, R.Weska, Kaliokowski, R.Diamond geology in the Poxoreu region and adjacent areas, Mato Grosso, Brasil.Ph.d. Universidada de Sao Paulo, Please note notice onlyBrazil, Mato GrossoPlacers, Tamburi intrusion, microdiamonds, Deposit - Poxoreu
DS201112-0125
2010
Kaliwood, M.Buikin, A.I., Trieloff, M., Korochantseeva, E.V., Hopp, J., Kaliwood, M., Meyer, H-P.,Altherr, R.Distribution of mantle and atmospheric argon in mantle xenoliths from western Arabian Peninsula: constraints on timing and composition of metasomatizing agents....Journal of Petrology, Vol. 51, pp. 2547-2570.Africa, ArabiaMetasomatism
DS1950-0456
1959
Kalix, Z.Barrie, J., Kalix, Z.Gemstones; 1959B.m.r. Min. Res. Geol. Geophys. Summ. Report, Vol. 43, 48P.AustraliaDiamond
DS201606-1118
2016
Kalkan, B.Solomatova, N.V., Jackson, J.M., Sturhahn, W., Wicks, J.K., Zhao, J., Toellner, T.S., Kalkan, B., Steinhardt, W.M.Equation of state and spin crossover of ( Mg,Fe)O at high pressure, with implications for explaining topographic relief at the core mantle boundary.American Mineralogist, Vol. 101, 5, pp. 1084-1093.MantleCore, mantle boundary
DS201312-0941
2013
Kalkowski, T.Vivian, G., Hrkac, C., Kalkowski, T.3D till sampling: a committed strategy for the hidden kimberlite. 2013 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts, p. 30. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - North Arrow
DS1910-0064
1910
KallusKallusDie Diamant vorkommen in Deutsch Suedwest afrika und Ihre Bedeutung Fuer das Schutzgebiet.Zeitschr. Kolonpol. Kolonrect Kolonwirt., Vol. 11, No. 12, PP. 944-960.; Vol. 12, No. 1, PP. 29-58.Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamond Occurrences, Mining
DS200612-0809
2006
Kalmanovich, E.Levin, Y., Kalmanovich, E.Results of the preliminary geological and mineralogical investigations for the discovery of diamonds and precious stones in the Qishon basin area.Israel Geological Society, 2006 p. 75, abstract Ingenta 1064296808Europe, IsraelBrief - mention of diamonds
DS200712-0299
2007
Kalmaovitch, E.Eskel, M., Kalmaovitch, E., Rop, A.The diamonds and kimberlitic indicative minerals within the context of stratigraphy and source in Shefa Yamim drill SY-15, Pliocene-Pleistcene Qishon River Valley.Isreal Geological Society, p. 29. abstractEurope, IsraelGeochemistry
DS1990-1190
1990
KalmychkovaPlyusnin, G.S., Kolyago, Ye.K., Pakholchenko, Yu.A., KalmychkovaRubidium-strontium age and genesis of the Kiya alkalic pluton, YeniseyRidgeDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 305, No. 2, Sept. pp. 207-210RussiaAlkalic pluton, Geochronology -rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr)
DS200412-1826
2004
Kalmykov, A.Simakov, S., Kalmykov, A., Sorokin, L., Grebenshchikova, E.Chaoite synthesis at lower temperatures and pressures.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S102. abstractTechnologyDiamond like carbon phase
DS200512-0987
2004
Kalmykov, A.E.Simakov, S.K., Kalmykov, A.E., Sorokin, L.M., Novikov, Drozdova, Yagovkina, GrebenshchikovaChaoite formation from carbon bearing fluid at low PT parameters.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 399A, 9, Nov-Dec. pp. 1289-1290.Mineralogy - chaoite
DS1960-0564
1965
Kalmykov, N.T.Kalmykov, N.T.Volcanic Vents of Minusinsk Intermontane TroughInternational Geology Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, PP. 116-122.RussiaDiatreme
DS1995-1706
1995
Kalmykov, V.D.Serokurov, Yu.N., Kalmykov, V.D., Smirnova, L.S.Botswana diamond potential (according to satellite surveys)Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 54-61.BotswanaRemote Sensing
DS1998-1378
1998
Kalmykov, V.D.Sokolovsky, A.K., Serokurov, Yu.N., Kalmykov, V.D.System analysis of remote sensing dat a on structural control of diamondiferous areas.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 838-40.RussiaRemote sensing, Tectonics, structure
DS1998-1652
1998
Kalmykov, V.D.Zuev, V.M., Serokurov, Y.N., Kalmykov, V.D.Assessment of Diamondiferous perspectives of east European Platform according to the dat a of sounding...7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 1034-6.Russia, East European Platform, Finland, Kola, Baltic StatesStructure, tectonics, Remote sensing
DS201505-0240
2015
Kalnins, L.M.Kalnins, L.M., Simons, F.J., Kirby, J.F., Wang, D.V., Olhede, S.C.On the robustness of estimates of mechanical anisotropy in the continental lithosphere: a North American case study and global reanalysis.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 419, pp. 43-51.United States, CanadaTectonics
DS201702-0232
2016
Kalnins, L.M.Plethean, J.J.J., Kalnins, L.M., van Hunen, J., Biffi, P.G., Davies, R.J., McCaffrey, K.J.W.Madagascar's escape from Africa: a resolution plate reconstruction for the Western Somali Basin and for supercontinent dispersal.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 17, 2, pp. 5036-5055.Africa, MadagascarTectonics

Abstract: Accurate reconstructions of the dispersal of supercontinent blocks are essential for testing continental breakup models. Here, we provide a new plate tectonic reconstruction of the opening of the Western Somali Basin during the breakup of East and West Gondwana. The model is constrained by a new comprehensive set of spreading lineaments, detected in this heavily sedimented basin using a novel technique based on directional derivatives of free-air gravity anomalies. Vertical gravity gradient and free-air gravity anomaly maps also enable the detection of extinct mid-ocean ridge segments, which can be directly compared to several previous ocean magnetic anomaly interpretations of the Western Somali Basin. The best matching interpretations have basin symmetry around the M0 anomaly; these are then used to temporally constrain our plate tectonic reconstruction. The reconstruction supports a tight fit for Gondwana fragments prior to breakup, and predicts that the continent-ocean transform margin lies along the Rovuma Basin, not along the Davie Fracture Zone (DFZ) as commonly thought. According to our reconstruction, the DFZ represents a major ocean-ocean fracture zone formed by the coalescence of several smaller fracture zones during evolving plate motions as Madagascar drifted southwards, and offshore Tanzania is an obliquely rifted, rather than transform, margin. New seismic reflection evidence for oceanic crust inboard of the DFZ strongly supports these conclusions. Our results provide important new constraints on the still enigmatic driving mechanism of continental rifting, the nature of the lithosphere in the Western Somali Basin, and its resource potential.
DS201212-0380
2012
Kaloyan, A.A.Kovalenko, E.S., Shiryaev, A.A., Kaloyan, A.A., Podurets, K.M.X-ray tomographic study of spatial distribution of Micro inclusions in natural fibrous diamonds.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 30, pp. 31-41.TechnologyDiamond inclusion
DS1996-0709
1996
Kalra, G.D.Kalra, G.D.Indian liberalization and privatization with specific reference to minerals and metals.Raw Materials Alert, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 29-36.IndiaEconomics, legal-privatization, Diamonds p. 33 brief
DS2002-1237
2002
KalsbeekPedersen, S. Craig, Upton, TapaniRamo, Jepsen, KalsbeekPaleoproterozoic (1740 Ma) rift related volcanism in the Hekla Sund region, field occurrence, geochemistryPrecambrian Research, Vol. 114, No. 3-4, Mar.15, pp.327-46.Greenland, eastern northTectonics
DS1984-0389
1984
Kalsbeek, F.Kalsbeek, F., Taylor, P.N., Henriksen, N.Age of rocks, structures and metamorphism in the Nagssugtoqidian Mobile belt - fold and lead isotope evidence.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, pp. 1126-31.Greenland, WesternGeochronology
DS1988-0158
1988
Kalsbeek, F.Dawes, P.R., Larsen, O., Kalsbeek, F.Archean and Proterzoic crust in Northwest Greenland: evidence from Rubidium-Strontium whole rock age determinations.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 25, pp. 1365-73.GreenlandGeochronology
DS1988-0338
1988
Kalsbeek, F.Kalsbeek, F., Taylor, P.N., Pidgeon, R.T.Unreworked Archean basement and Proterozoic supracrustal rocks from northeastern Disko Bugt.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 25, pp. 773-82.GreenlandProterozoic mobile belts
DS1994-0862
1994
Kalsbeek, F.Kalsbeek, F.Archean and early Proterozoic basement provinces in GreenlandGreenland Geol. Unders, Vol. 160, pp. 37-40GreenlandTectonics, Geochronology
DS1994-0863
1994
Kalsbeek, F.Kalsbeek, F.Archean and early Proterzoic basement provinces in GreenlandGreenland Geol. Unders., Vol. 160, pp. 37-40.GreenlandTectonics, Geochronology
DS1995-0904
1995
Kalsbeek, F.Kalsbeek, F.Geochemistry, tectonic setting, poly orogenic history of Paleoproterozoic basement rocks from Caledonian beltPrecambrian Research, Vol. 72, No. 3-4, April pp. 301-316GreenlandGeochemistry, Caledonian Belt
DS1999-0349
1999
Kalsbeek, F.Kalsbeek, F., Manatschal, G.Geochemistry and tectonic significance of peridotitic and metakomatiitic rocks from Us suit area.Precambrian Research, Vol. 94, No. 1-2, Mar. pp. 101-120.GreenlandOrogeny - Nagssugtoqidian, Tectonics
DS200512-1110
2005
Kalsbeek, F.Upton, B.G.J., Ramo, O.T., Heaman, L.M., Blichert-Toft, J., Kalsbeek, F., Barry, T.L., Jepsen, H.F.The Mesoproterozoic Zig-Zag Dal basalts and associated intrusions of eastern North Greenland: mantle plume lithosphere interaction.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 149, 1, pp. 40-56.Europe, GreenlandTectonics
DS1997-0569
1997
Kalt, A.Kalt, A., Hegner, E., Satir, M.neodymium, Strontium, and lead isotopic evidence for diverse lithospheric mantle sources of East African carbonatiteTectonophysics, Vol. 278, No. 1-4, Sept. 15, pp. 31-46.Africa, east Africa, Tanzania, KenyaTectonics, Rifting, Carbonatite
DS202101-0019
2020
Kalugina, A.D.Kalugina, A.D., Zedgenizov, D.A.Micro-Raman spectroscopy assessment of chemical compounds of mantle clinopyroxenes. ( diamond)Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1084, doi:10.3390/ min10121084 10p. PdfMantlespectroscopy

Abstract: The composition of clinopyroxenes is indicative for chemical and physical properties of mantle substrates. In this study, we present the results of Raman spectroscopy examination of clinopyroxene inclusions in natural diamonds (n = 51) and clinopyroxenes from mantle xenoliths of peridotites and eclogites from kimberlites (n = 28). The chemical composition of studied clinopyroxenes shows wide variations indicating their origin in different mantle lithologies. All clinopyroxenes have intense Raman modes corresponding to metal-oxygen translation (~300-500 cm-1), stretching vibrations of bridging O-Si-Obr (?11~670 cm-1), and nonbridging atoms O-Si-Onbr (?16~1000 cm-1). The peak position of the stretching vibration mode (?11) for the studied clinopyroxenes varies in a wide range (23 cm-1) and generally correlates with their chemical composition and reflects the diopside-jadeite heterovalent isomorphism. These correlations may be used for rough estimation of these compounds using the non-destructive Raman spectroscopy technique.
DS200512-0844
2001
Kalukov, A.V.Perepelov, A.B., Volynets, O.N., Anoshin, G.N., Puzankov, Yu.M., Antipin, V.S., Kalukov, A.V.Western Kamchatka alkali potassic basaltoid volcanism: geological and geochemical review.Alkaline Magmatism and the problems of mantle sources, pp. 52-68.Russia, KamchatkaAlkalic
DS1994-0864
1994
Kalvig, P.Kalvig, P., Appel, P.W.U.Greenlandic mineral resources for use in advanced materialsIndustrial Minerals, No. 319, April pp. 45-52.GreenlandCarbonatite
DS202006-0926
2020
Kalvig, P.Keulen, N., Thomsen, T.B., Schumacher, J.C., Poulsen, M.D., Kalvig, P., Vennemann, T., Salimi, R.Formation, origin and geographic typing of corundum ( ruby and pink sapphire) from the Fiskenaesst complex, Greenland.Lithos, Vol. 366-367, 26p. PdfEurope, Greenlandruby

Abstract: Metamorphic petrology observations on rubies found in-situ in their host-rock are combined with geochemical measurements and optical microscopy observations on the same rubies, with the aim of connecting the ruby-forming metamorphic reaction to a unique fingerprint for these minerals. The Fiskenæsset complex in Greenland is used as an area of this case study. Isochemical pressure-temperature sections were calculated based on electron microprobe and whole-rock geochemistry analyses, and compared to field observations. Rubies formed from reaction between olivine/serpentine and anorthite, triggered by the intrusion of a 2.71 Ga pegmatite. Al is sourced from the anorthite reacting to calcic amphibole, silica from the pegmatite reacts with olivine/serpentine to anthophyllite, Cr3+ is mobile in the pegmatitic fluid, giving colour to the rubies. The ruby-forming reaction occurs at about 640 °C and 7 kbar. In order to establish the unique fingerprint for this ruby-bearing ultramafic complex, laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry trace-element measurements, oxygen isotope compositions, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were applied. Due to the setting in an ultramafic rock-anorthosite-leucogabbro complex, the fingerprint of the rubies from the Fiskenæsset complex is rather unique. Compared to rubies from other localities, Fiskenæsset complex rubies contain high Cr, intermediate Fe, and low V, Ga, and Ti concentrations, low oxygen isotope values (1.6-4.2‰) and a rarely-observed combination of optical growth features and mineral inclusions like anthophyllite+biotite. Results for other Greenland localities are presented and discussed as well. Even though these are derived from ultramafic rock settings too, they record different trace-element ratios and oxygen isotope values, resulting from variations in the Archaean ruby-forming reaction.
DS1950-0461
1959
Kam, W.Callahan, J.T., Kam, W., Akers, J.P.The Occurrence of Ground Water in Diatremes of the Hopi Buttes Area, Arizona.Plateau, Vol. 32, No. 1, PP. 1-12, JULY.United States, Arizona, Colorado PlateauDiatreme
DS201012-0014
2009
Kamada, S.Asanuma, H., Ohtani, E., Sakai, T., Terasaki, H., Kamada, S., Kondo, T., Kikegawa, T.Melting of iron silicon alloy up to the core mantle boundary pressure: implications to the thermal structure of the Earth's core.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 37, 6, pp. 353-359.MantleMelting
DS201412-0542
2014
Kamada, S.Maeda, F., Ohtani, E., Kamada, S., Sakamaki, T., Ohishi, Y., Hirao, N.The reactions in the MgCO3-SiO2 system in the slabs subducted into the lower mantle and formation of deep diamond.V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences International Symposium Advances in high pressure research: breaking scales and horizons ( Courtesy of N. Poikilenko), Held Sept. 22-26, 1p. AbstractSouth America, BrazilCarbon
DS201503-0164
2015
Kamada, S.Ohtani, E., Amaike, Y., Kamada, S., Sakamaki, T., Hirao, N.Stability of hydrous phase H MgSi04H2 under lower mantle conditions.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, 23, pp. 8283-8287.MantleMineralogy
DS201704-0638
2017
Kamada, S.Maeda, F., Ohtani, E., Kamada, S., Sakamaki, T., Hirao, N., Ohishi, Y.Diamond formation in the deep lower mantle: a high pressure reaction of MgCO3 and SiO2.Nature Scientific reports, Jan. 13, 7p. PdfMantleDiamond, genesis

Abstract: Diamond is an evidence for carbon existing in the deep Earth. Some diamonds are considered to have originated at various depth ranges from the mantle transition zone to the lower mantle. These diamonds are expected to carry significant information about the deep Earth. Here, we determined the phase relations in the MgCO3-SiO2 system up to 152?GPa and 3,100?K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. MgCO3 transforms from magnesite to the high-pressure polymorph of MgCO3, phase II, above 80?GPa. A reaction between MgCO3 phase II and SiO2 (CaCl2-type SiO2 or seifertite) to form diamond and MgSiO3 (bridgmanite or post-perovsktite) was identified in the deep lower mantle conditions. These observations suggested that the reaction of the MgCO3 phase II with SiO2 causes formation of super-deep diamond in cold slabs descending into the deep lower mantle.
DS202007-1182
2020
Kamada, S.Tanaka, R., Sakamaki, T., Ohtani, E., Fukui, H., Kamada, S., Suzuki, A., Tsutsui, S., Uchiyama, H., Baron, A.Q.R.The sound velocity of wustite at high pressures: implications for low-velocity anomalies at the base of the lower mantle.Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 7, 23, 7p. PdfMantlewustite

Abstract: The longitudinal sound velocity (VP) and the density (?) of wüstite, FeO, were measured at pressures of up to 112.3?GPa and temperatures of up to 1700?K using both inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction combined with a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The linear relationship between VP and ?, Birch’s law, for wüstite can be expressed as VP = 1.55 (1) × ? [g/cm3] - 2.03 (8) [km/s] at 300?K and VP = 1.61 (1) × ? [kg/m3] - 2.82 (10) [km/s] at 1700?K. The sound velocity of wüstite is significantly lower than that of bridgmanite and ferropericlase under lower mantle conditions. In other words, the existence of wüstite in the lower mantle can efficiently decrease the seismic velocity. Considering its slow velocity and several mechanisms for the formation of FeO-rich regions at the core-mantle boundary, we confirm earlier suggestions indicating that wüstite enrichment at the bottom of the Earth’s mantle may contribute to the formation of denser ultra-low velocity zones.
DS201312-0674
2013
Kamanetsky, V.S.Osovetskii, B.M., Reguir, E.P., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Veksler, I.V., Yang, P., Kamanetsky, V.S., Camacho, A.Trace element analysis and U-Pb geochronology of perovskite and its importance for tracking unexposed rare metal and diamond deposits.GAC-MAC 2013 SS4: Diamond: from birth to the mantle emplacement in kimberlite., abstract onlyMantleGeochronology
DS201708-1563
2017
Kamanetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamanetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).Chemical Geology, in press available, 16p.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit, Roger, Ekati

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements
DS201708-1564
2017
Kamanetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamanetsky, V.S., Pearson, D.G., Kamenetsky, M., Ehrig, K., Goemann, K., Rodemann, T.Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parallel melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing. Leslie, Pipe 1Chemical Geology, in press available, 54p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, Finlanddeposit, Leslie

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25–45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Monticellite in group-I kimberlites: Implications for evolution of parental melts and post-emplacement CO 2 degassing (PDF Download Available).
DS201607-1337
2016
Kamanga, T.F.Chisenga, C., Kamanga, T.F.Integrating magnetic and gravity for mapping the Earth structure using color scheme: a case study of Botswana.IGC 35th., Session The Deep Earth 1 p. abstractAfrica, BotswanaGeophysics
DS2000-0035
2000
KamanovAshchepkov, V., Kamanov, KanakinXenoliths in kimberlite, melilitite and carbonatite dykes from the East Sayan foothill carbonatite complexIgc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Russia, East SayanCarbonatite, Dike swarm
DS1981-0229
1981
Kamara, A.Y.S.Kamara, A.Y.S.Review: Geophysical Methods for Kimberlite ProspectingAust. Society of Exploration Geophysics Bulletin., Vol. 12, No. 3, PP. 43-51.Sierra Leone, South Africa, Russia, Canada, United States, Lesotho, West AfricaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1995-0905
1995
Kambani, S.M.Kambani, S.M.The illegal trading of high unit value minerals in developing countriesNatural Resources forum, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 107-112.ColombiaGemstones, Legal - illegal trading
DS2001-0845
2001
KamberNutman, A.P., McGregor, V.R., reply Whitehouse, KamberAge significance of uranium-thorium-lead zircon dat a from early Archean rocks of West Greenland - a reassessment basedChemical Geology, Vol. 175, No. 3-4, June 1, pp. 191-99, 201-8.GreenlandGeochronology - ion microprobe, imaging studies
DS1995-1282
1995
Kamber, B.Mkwell, S., Kamber, B., Berger, M.Westward continuation of the craton-Limpopo Belt tectonic break in Zimbabwe and new age constraints..Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 152, No. 1, Jan. pp. 77-84.ZimbabweTectonics, Limpopo Belt -craton
DS1995-1283
1995
Kamber, B.Mkwell, S., Kamber, B., Berger, M.1995.Westward continuation of the craton-Limpopo Belt tectonic break and new age constraints of the thrustingJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 152, No. 1, Jan. pp. 77-84ZimbabweTectonics, Limpopo Belt -craton
DS201709-2065
2017
Kamber, B.C.Tomlinson, E.L., Kamber, B.C., Hoare, C.V., Stead, C.V., Ildefonse, B.An exsolution origin for Archaean mantle garnet.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Mantlegarnet

Abstract: It is now well established that the cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) represents a residue of extensively melted fertile peridotite. The widespread occurrence of garnet in the Archaean SCLM remains a paradox because many experiments agree that garnet is exhausted beyond c. 20% melting. It has been suggested that garnet may have formed by exsolution from Al-rich orthopyroxene [1,2,3]. However, the few examples of putative garnet exsolution in cratonic samples remain exotic and have not afforded a link to garnet that occurs as distinct grains in granular harzburgite. We present crystallographic (EBSD), petrographic and chemical (SEM-EDS and LA-ICP-MS) data for an exceptionally well-preserved orthopyroxene megacryst juxtaposed against granular harzburgite. Garnet lamellae within the megacryst show crystallographic continuity and have a strong fabric relative to the host orthopyroxene, strongly indicating that the megacryst formed by exsolution. Garnet lamellae are sub-calcic Cr-pyropes with sinusoidal rare earth element patterns, while the orthopyroxene host is high-Mg enstatite; the reconstructed precursor is clinoestatite. The megacryst shows evidence for disintegrating into granular peridotite, and garnet and orthopyroxene within the granular peridotite are texturally and chemically identical to equivalent phases in the megacryst. Collectively, this evidence supports a common origin for the granular and exsolved portions of the sample. The compositions of the exsolved Cr pyrope and enstatite are typical of harzburgites and depleted lherzolites from the SCLM. Furthermore, garnet inclusions within orthopyroxene in several granular peridotites exhibit the same fabric as those in the exsolved megacryst. We hypothesise that clinoenstatite was a common phase in cratonic SCLM and that exsolution is the likely origin of many sub-calcic garnets in depleted peridotites.
DS1995-0906
1995
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Blenkinsop, T.G., Villa, I.M., Dahl, P.S.Proterozoic transpressive deformation in the northern marginal zone, Limpopo Belt, ZimbabweJournal of Geology, Vol. 103, No. 5, Sept. pp. 493-508ZimbabweTectonics,, Limpopo Belt
DS1995-0907
1995
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Kramers, J.D., Napier, R., Cliff, R.A.The Triangle shearzone, Zimbabwe revisited: new dat a on event at 2.0 Ga in Limpopo Belt.Precambrian Research, Vol. 70, No. 3-4, Jan. pp. 191-214.ZimbabweGeochronology, Limpopo Belt
DS1995-0908
1995
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Kramers, J.D., Napier, R., et al.The Triangle shear zone, Zimbabwe: revisited: new dat a document event at2.0 Ga in Limpopo BeltPrecambrian Research, Vol. 70, No. 3-4, Jan. pp. 191-214ZimbabweGeochronology, Limpopo Belt
DS1996-0710
1996
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Biino, G.G., Wijbrans, J.W., et al.Archean granulites of the Limpopo Belt, Zimbabwe: one slow exhumation or two rapid events?Tectonics, Vol. 15, No. 6, Dec. pp. 1414-1430ZimbabweLimpopo Belt, Tectonics, Mantle, Northern Marginal Zone, metamorphism
DS1997-0832
1997
Kamber, B.S.Nagler, Th. F., Kramers, J.D., Kamber, B.S., Frei, R.Growth of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Zimbabwe started at or before 3.8 Ga: Re -Os studyGeology, Vol. 25, No. 11, Nov. pp. 983-986.ZimbabweMantle, Geochronology, chromites
DS1998-0712
1998
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Frei, R., Gibb, A.J.pit falls and new approaches in granulite chronometry. an example from the Limpopo Belt, ZimbabwePrecambrian Research, Vol. 91, No. 3-4, Aug. 31, pp. 269-286ZimbabweGeochronology, Limpopo Belt
DS1999-0789
1999
Kamber, B.S.Whitehouse, M.J., Kamber, B.S., Moorbath, S.Age significance of uranium-thorium-lead-zircon dat a from early Archean rocks of West Greenland - a reassessment..Chemical Geology, Vol. 160, No. 3, Aug. 10, pp. 201-24.GreenlandGeochronology, Ion-microprobe, imaging studies
DS2000-0462
2000
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Collerson, K.D.The role of hidden deeply subducted slabs in mantle depletionChemical Geology, Vol. 166, No. 3-4, May 22, pp. 241-54.MantleSubduction, Slabs
DS2002-0802
2002
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Ewart, A., Collerson, K.D., Bruce, M.C., McDonald, G.D.Fluid mobile trace element constraints on the role of slab melting and implications for Archean crustal growth models.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 144, 1, Oct. pp. 38-56.CrustSubduction, Tectonics
DS2002-1115
2002
Kamber, B.S.Murphy, D.T., Collerson, K.D., Kamber, B.S.Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antartica: possible transition zone melts of Archean subducted sediments.Journal of Petrology, Vol.43,6,pp.981-1002.AntarcticaLamproites, Petrology
DS2002-1116
2002
Kamber, B.S.Murphy, D.T., Collerson, K.D., Kamber, B.S.Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antarctica: possible transition zone melts of Archean subducted sediments.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 981-1001.AntarcticaLamproites, sampling, major element chemistry, Geochemistry, isotope, melting environment
DS2002-1424
2002
Kamber, B.S.Schoenberg, R., Kamber, B.S., Collerson, K.D., Moorbath, S.Tungsten isotope evidence from ~3.8 Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth.Nature, Vol. 418, July 25, pp. 403-5.MantleMeteorites
DS2003-0682
2003
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Greig, A., Schoenberg, R., Collerson, K.D.A refined solution to Earth's hidden niobium: implications for evolution of continentalPrecambrian Research, Vol. 126, 3-4, Oct. pp.289-308.MantleGeochemistry - niobium
DS200412-0943
2003
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Greig, A., Schoenberg, R., Collerson, K.D.A refined solution to Earth's hidden niobium: implications for evolution of continental crust and mode of core formation.Precambrian Research, Vol. 126, 3-4, Oct. pp.289-308.MantleGeochemistry - niobium
DS200712-0984
2007
Kamber, B.S.Shirey, S.B., Kamber, B.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Mueller, P.A., Basu, A.R.Mantle and crustal processes in the Hadean and Archean: evidence for the onset of subduction at 3.8 Ga.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A933.MantleSubduction
DS200812-0536
2008
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Mohan, M.R., Piercey, S.Fluid mobile elements in evolved Archean magmas: implications for Archean subduction processes.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A446.MantleSubduction
DS200812-1059
2008
Kamber, B.S.Shirey, S.B., Kamber, B.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Mueller, P.A., Basu, A.R.A review of isoptopic and trace element evidence for mantle and crustal processes in the Hadean and Archean: implications for the onset of plate tectonic subductionGeological Society of America Special Paper, 440, pp. 1-30.MantlePlate Tectonics
DS201012-0113
2010
Kamber, B.S.Collerson, K.D., Williams, Q., Kamber, B.S., Omori, S., Arai, H., Ohtani, E.Majoritic garnet: a new approach to pressure estimation of shock events in meteorites and the encapsulation of sub-lithospheric inclusions in diamonds.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 74, 20, pp. 5939-5937.TechnologyMeteorite
DS201412-0684
2015
Kamber, B.S.Petrus, J.A., Ames, D.E., Kamber, B.S.On the track of the elusive Sudbury impact: geochemical evidence for a chondrite or comet bolide.Terra Nova, Vol. 27, pp. 9-20.Canada, OntarioMeteorite
DS201502-0090
2015
Kamber, B.S.Petrus, J.A., Ames, D.E., Kamber, B.S.On the track of the elusive Sudbury impact: geochemical evidence for a chondrite or comet bolide.Terra Nova, Vol. 27, 1, pp. 9-20.Canada, OntarioMeteorite
DS201606-1097
2016
Kamber, B.S.Kenny, G.G., Whitehouse, M.J., Kamber, B.S.Differentiated impact melt sheets may be potential source of Hadean detrital zircon.Geology, in press availableCanada, OntarioMentions Sudbury impact

Abstract: Constraining the origin and history of very ancient detrital zircons has unique potential for furthering our knowledge of Earth's very early crust and Hadean geodynamics. Previous applications of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer to >4 Ga zircons have identified a population with relatively low crystallization temperatures (Tzirxtln) of ~685 °C. This could possibly indicate wet minimum-melting conditions producing granitic melts, implying very different Hadean terrestrial geology from that of other rocky planets. Here we report the first comprehensive ion microprobe study of zircons from a transect through the differentiated Sudbury impact melt sheet (Ontario, Canada). The new zircon Ti results and corresponding Tzirxtln fully overlap with those of the Hadean zircon population. Previous studies that measured Ti in impact melt sheet zircons did not find this wide range because they analyzed samples only from a restricted portion of the melt sheet and because they used laser ablation analyses that can overestimate true Ti content. It is important to note that internal differentiation of the impact melt is likely a prerequisite for the observed low Tzirxtln in zircons from the most evolved rocks. On Earth, melt sheet differentiation is strongest in subaqueous impact basins. Thus, not all Hadean detrital zircon with low Ti necessarily formed during melting at plate boundaries, but at least some could also have crystallized in melt sheets caused by intense meteorite bombardment of the early, hydrosphere-covered protocrust.
DS201612-2340
2016
Kamber, B.S.Stead, C.V., Tomlinson, E.L., Kamber, B.S., Babechuk, M.G., McKenna, C.A.REE determination in olivine by LA-Q-ICP-MS: an analytical strategy and applications.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press availableTechnologyREE mass fractions

Abstract: Olivine offers huge, largely untapped, potential for improving our understanding of magmatic and metasomatic processes. In particular, a wealth of information is contained in rare earth element (REE) mass fractions, which are well studied in other minerals. However, REE data for olivine are scarce, reflecting the difficulty associated with determining mass fractions in the low ng g-1 range and with controlling the effects of LREE contamination. We report an analytical procedure for measuring REEs in olivine using laser ablation quadrupole-ICP-MS that achieved limits of determination (LOD) at sub-ng g-1 levels and biases of ~ 5-10%. Empirical partition coefficients (D values) calculated using the new olivine compositions agree with experimental values, indicating that the measured REEs are structurally bound in the olivine crystal lattice, rather than residing in micro-inclusions. We conducted an initial survey of REE contents of olivine from mantle, metamorphic, magmatic and meteorite samples. REE mass fractions vary from 0.1 to double-digit ng g-1 levels. Heavy REEs vary from low mass fractions in meteoritic samples, through variably enriched peridotitic olivine to high mass fractions in magmatic olivines, with fayalitic olivines showing the highest levels. The variable enrichment in HREEs demonstrates that olivine REE patterns have petrological utility.
DS201709-2010
2017
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S.Why Archean cratons differ from younger continental lithosphere.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Mantlecraton

Abstract: The most outstanding features of Archaean cratons are their extraordinary thickness and enduring longevity. Seismically, Archaean cratonic fragments are sharplybounded deep roots of buoyant cold lithospheric mantle, clearly distinguishable from non-cratonic lithosphere. The age of diamond inclusions and the Os-isotope composition of deep cratonic xenoliths support a model of coeval formation of the crustal and residual mantle portions. Archaean and post-Archaean crust also differ, not in bulk composition, but in crustal architecture. Key drivers of crustal rearrangment were the radioactive heat-producers U, Th and K. In the early Earth, high radioactive heat production led to self-organisation into evolved, potassic upper and refractory lower crust. The lag time between crust formation and reorganisation was much shorter than today. An additional factor contributing to cratonic restructuring was the emplacement of dense supracrustal rocks in ensialic greenstone belts, leading to gravitational inversion. The dome and keel architecture of Archaean cratons was thus driven by crustal radioactive heat and high temperature mantle melting, yielding dense, low viscosity lavas piling up at surface. A pleasing complementary observation from cratonic mantle roots is that refractory mantle nodules also suggest very high degrees of melting and extraction. Thus, the most logical conclusion seems that the komatiite mantle source was up to 500ºC hotter than modern asthenosphere. With higher degree and depth of melting, a thicker and severely depleted bouyant cratonic residue was formed, perfectly equipped to preserve the Archaean crustal record. However, there are significant inconsistencies in this otherwise convincing line of reasoning. They include: Archaean crust is not especially thick, the dunites expected after very high degree melting are rare, many cratonic harzburgites are much richer in orthopyroxene than predicted [1], and cratonic harzburgites often contain garnet. Finding a solution to these issues has important ramifications for secular evolution of the continents and thermal evolution of the mantle. In this presentation, I will contrast the various proposed solutions, including purging of surprisingly carbonated ancient mantle [e.g. 2], onset of plate tectonics, a Neoarchaean superplume event and collapse of Hadean cumulate barriers.
DS201710-2215
2017
Kamber, B.S.Bolhar, R., Hofman, A., Kemp, A.I.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Wind, S., Kamber, B.S.Juvenile crust formation in the Zimbabwean Craton deduced from the O-Hf isotopic record 3.8-3.1 Ga detrital zircons.Geochimica et Cosmochinica Acta, Vol. 215, pp. 432-446.Africa, Zimbabwecraton

Abstract: Hafnium and oxygen isotopic compositions measured in-situ on U-Pb dated zircon from Archaean sedimentary successions belonging to the 2.9–2.8 Ga Belingwean/Bulawayan groups and previously undated Sebakwian Group are used to characterize the crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton prior to 3.0 Ga. Microstructural and compositional criteria were used to minimize effects arising from Pb loss due to metamorphic overprinting and interaction with low-temperature fluids. 207Pb/206Pb age spectra (concordance >90%) reveal prominent peaks at 3.8, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.35 Ga, corresponding to documented geological events, both globally and within the Zimbabwe Craton. Zircon d18O values from +4 to +10‰ point to both derivation from magmas in equilibrium with mantle oxygen and the incorporation of material that had previously interacted with water in near-surface environments. In eHf-time space, 3.8–3.6 Ga grains define an array consistent with reworking of a mafic reservoir (176Lu/177Hf ~0.015) that separated from chondritic mantle at ~3.9 Ga. Crustal domains formed after 3.6 Ga depict a more complex evolution, involving contribution from chondritic mantle sources and, to a lesser extent, reworking of pre-existing crust. Protracted remelting was not accompanied by significant mantle depletion prior to 3.35 Ga. This implies that early crust production in the Zimbabwe Craton did not cause complementary enriched and depleted reservoirs that were tapped by later magmas, possibly because the volume of crust extracted and stabilised was too small to influence (asthenospheric) mantle isotopic evolution. Growth of continental crust through pulsed emplacement of juvenile (chondritic mantle-derived) melts, into and onto the existing cratonic nucleus, however, involved formation of complementary depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle since the early Archaean, indicative of strongly coupled evolutionary histories of both reservoirs, with limited evidence for recycling and lateral accretion of arc-related crustal blocks until 3.35 Ga.
DS201805-0983
2018
Kamber, B.S.Tomlinson, E.L., Kamber, B.S., Hoare, B.C., Stead, C.V., Ildefonse, B.An exsolution origin for Archean mantle garnet. C-SCLM KaapvaalGeology, Vol. 46, 2, pp. 123-126.Africa, South Africacraton

Abstract: It is well established that the cratonic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (C-SCLM) represents a residue of extensively melted peridotite. The widespread occurrence of garnet in C-SCLM remains a paradox because experiments show that it should be exhausted beyond ~20% melting. It has been suggested that garnet may have formed by exsolution from Al-rich orthopyroxene; however, the few documented examples of garnet exsolution in cratonic samples are exotic and do not afford a direct link to garnet in granular harzburgite. We report crystallographic, petrographic, and chemical data for an exceptionally well preserved orthopyroxene megacryst containing garnet lamellae, juxtaposed against granular harzburgite. Garnet lamellae are homogeneously distributed within the host orthopyroxene and occur at an orientation that is unrelated to orthopyroxene cleavage, strongly indicating that they formed by exsolution. Garnet lamellae are subcalcic Cr-pyrope, and the orthopyroxene host is high-Mg enstatite; these phases equilibrated at 4.4 GPa and 975 °C. The reconstructed precursor is a high-Al enstatite that formed at higher pressure and temperature conditions of ~6 GPa and 1750 °C. The megacryst shows evidence for disintegrating into granular peridotite, and garnet and orthopyroxene within the granular peridotite are texturally and chemically identical to equivalent phases in the megacryst. Collectively, this evidence supports a common origin for the granular and exsolved portions of the sample. We hypothesize that high-Al enstatite was a common phase in the C-SCLM and that exsolution during cooling and stabilization of the C-SCLM could be the origin of most subcalcic garnets in depleted peridotites.
DS201905-1049
2019
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Tomlinson, E.L.Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical pecularities of Archaean cratons.Chemical Geology, Vol. 511, 1, pp. 122-151.Globalcraton

Abstract: The most outstanding features of Archaean cratons are their extraordinary thickness and enduring longevity. Seismically, Archaean cratonic fragments are sharply-bounded deep roots of mechanically strong, cold lithospheric mantle, clearly distinguishable from non-cratonic lithosphere. Rhenium-depletion of deep cratonic xenolith whole rocks and sulphide inclusions in diamond indicate that melting was broadly coeval with formation of the overlying proto-cratonic crust, which was of limited mechanical strength. A very important process of proto-cratonic development was vertical crustal reorganisation that eventually yielded a thermally stable, cratonised crust with a highly K-U-Th-rich uppermost crust and much more depleted deeper crust. Clastic sedimentary rocks available for geochemical study are predominantly found in the youngest parts of supracrustal stratigraphies and over-represent the highly evolved rocks that appeared during cratonisation. Vertical crustal reorganisation was driven by crustal radiogenic heat and emplacement of proto-craton-wide, incubating and dense supracrustal mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks. Statistical analysis of these cover sequences shows a preponderance of basalt and a high abundance of ultramafic lavas with a dearth of picrite. The ultramafic lavas can be grouped into Ti-enriched and Ti-depleted types and high pressure and temperature experimental data indicate that the latter formed from previously depleted mantle at temperatures in excess of 1700?°C. Most mantle harzburgite xenoliths from cratonic roots are highly refractory, containing very magnesian olivine and many have a high modal abundance of orthopyroxene. High orthopyroxene mode is commonly attributed to metasomatic silica-enrichment or a non-pyrolitic mantle source but much of the excess silica requirement disappears if melting occurred at high pressures of 4-6?GPa. Analysis of experimental data demonstrates that melting of previously depleted harzburgite can yield liquids with highly variable Si/Mg ratios and low Al2O3 and FeO contents, as found in komatiites, and complementary high Cr/Al residues. In many harzburgites, there is an intimate spatial association of garnet and spinel with orthopyroxene, which indicates formation of the Al-phase by exsolution upon cooling and decompression. New and published rare earth element (REE) data for garnet and orthopyroxene show that garnet has inherited its sinusoidal REE pattern from the orthopyroxene. The lack of middle-REE depletion in these refractory residues is consistent with the lack of middle- over heavy-REE fractionation in most komatiites. This suggests that such pyroxene or garnet (or precursor phases) were present during komatiite melting. In the Kaapvaal craton, garnet exsolution upon significant cooling occurred as early as 3.2?Ga and geobarometry of diamond inclusions from ancient kimberlites also supports cool Archaean cratonic geotherms. This requires that some mantle roots have extended to 300 to possibly 400?km and that early cratons must have been much larger than 500?km in diameter. We maintain that the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary continues to be of geological significance, despite the recognition that upper crustal chemistry, as sampled by sedimentary rocks, became more evolved from ca. 3?Ga onwards. The boundary coincides with the disappearance of widespread komatiite and marks the end of formation of typical refractory cratonic lithosphere. This may signify a fundamental change in the thermal structure of the mantle after which upwellings no longer resulted in very high temperature perturbations. One school of thought is that the thermal re-ordering occurred at the core-mantle boundary whereas others envisage Archaean plumes to have originated at the base of the upper mantle. Here we speculate that Archaean cratonic roots may contain remnants of older domains of non-convecting mantle. These domains are potential carriers of isotope anomalies and their base could have constituted a mechanical and thermal boundary layer. Above laterally extensive barriers, emerging proto-cratons were protected from the main mantle heat loss. The eventual collapse of these mechanical barriers terminated very high temperature upwellings and dismembered portions of the barrier were incorporated into the cratonic mantle during the final Neoarchaean ‘superplume’ event. The surviving cratons may therefore preserve biased evidence of geological processes that operated during the Archaean.
DS201911-2535
2019
Kamber, B.S.Kamber, B.S., Petrus, J.A.The Influence of large bolide impacts on Earth's carbon cycle.Elements, Vol. 15, pp. 313-318.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: Human society's rapid release of vast quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere is a significant planetary experiment. An obvious natural process capable of similar emissions over geologically short time spans are very large bolide impacts. When striking a carbon-rich target, bolides significantly, and potentially catastrophically, disrupt the global biogeochemical carbon cycle. Independent factors, such as sulfur-rich targets, redox state of the oceans or encountering ecosystems already close to a tipping point, dictated the magnitude of further consequences and determined which large bolide strikes shaped Earth's evolution. On the early Earth, where carbon-rich sedimentary targets were rare, impacts may not have been purely destructive. Instead, enclosed subaqueous impact structures may have contributed to initiating Earth's unique carbon cycle.
DS200912-0351
2009
Kamber, S.Kamber, S.Geochemical fingerprinting: 40 years of analytical development and real world applications.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 24, 6, pp. 1074-1086.TechnologyGeochemistry - not specific to diamonds
DS1990-0524
1990
Kambin, R.C.Gates, A.E., Kambin, R.C.Comparison of the natural deformation of the State Line Sepentinite USA, with experimental studies.Tectonophysics, Vol. 182, pp. 249-58.AppalachiaLizardite
DS201412-0244
2014
Kambrock, K.Fernandes, A.F., Karfunkel, J., Hoover, D.B., Sgarbi, G.N.C., Walde, D., Gomes, J., Kambrock, K.O garimpo Canastrel, Coromandel-MG: ocorrencia de diamante no conglomerado cretaceo do grupo Mat a de Corda.6 Simposio Brasileiro de Geologia do Diamante, Aug. 3-7, 5p. AbstractSouth America, Brazil, Minas GeraisDeposit - Coromandel
DS201412-0442
2014
Kambrock, K.Karfunkel, J., Hoover, D.B., Fernandes, A.F., Sgarbi, G.N.C., Kambrock, K., Walde, D., Michelfelder, G.Origin of diamonds southeast of Coromandel ( Minas Gerais Brazil): a different hypothesis.6 Simposio Brasileiro de Geologia do Diamante, Aug. 3-7, 5p. AbstractSouth America, Brazil, Minas GeraisDeposit - Coromandel
DS201501-0008
2014
Kambrock, K.Fernandes, A.F., Karfunkel, J., Hoover, D.B., Sgarbi, P.B.De Al., Sgarbo, G.N.C., Oliveira, G.D., Gomes, J.C.de S.P., Kambrock, K.The basal conglomerate of the Capacete Formation ( Mat a da Corda Group) and its relation to diamond distributions in Coromandel, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.Brazil Journal of Geology, Vol. 44, 1, pp. 91-103.South America, BrazilCoromandel district

Abstract: The diamond bearing district of Coromandel is located in the northwestern part of Minas Gerais, within the Alto Paranaíba Arch, famous for the discovery of most of Brazil's large diamonds above 100 ct. Detailed mapping, aimed at characterizing the Mata da Corda Group of Upper Cretaceous age of Coromandel, has been carried out. This Group was divided into the Patos Formation, composed of kimberlitic and kamafugitic rocks, and the Capacete Formation, presented by conglomerates, pyroclastic rocks, arenite and tuffs. Exposures of the latter Formation have been studied in detail at the small abandoned mine called Canastrel, as well as in the headwater of Santo Antônio do Bonito River. The results have been compared to studies of the kimberlite bodies in the nearby Douradinho River. Kimberlite indicator minerals from these localities show the same compositional trend. Moreover, in the basal conglomerate of the Garimpo Canastrel two diamonds diamonds have been recovered and described. The Garimpo Wilson, situated in the headwater of the river Santo Antônio do Bonito in paleo-alluvium, is composed of material exclusively derived from the erosion of the Capacete Formation and Precambrian (sterile) Canastra quartzites and schists. These detailed investigations suggest that the basal conglomerates of the Capacete Formation represent the main source rock of the alluvial diamond deposits in the Coromandel region.
DS201509-0407
2014
Kambrock, K.Karfunkel, J., Hoover, D., Fernandes, A.F., Sgarbi, G.M.C., Kambrock, K., Oliviera, G.D.Diamonds from the Coromandel area, west Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an update and new dat a on surface sources and origin.Brazil Journal of Geology, Vol. 44, 2, pp. 325-338.South America, Brazil, Minas GeraisDeposit - Coromandel

Abstract: Important diamond deposits southeast of Coromandel and the local geology have been studied in an attempt to understand what surface source provided the stones. River gravels of Pleistocene to Recent age from this region have supplied most of Brazil’s large diamonds over 100 ct. The upper cretaceous Capacete Formation of the Mata da Corda Group, composed of mafic volcanoclastic, pyroclastic and epiclastic material, has been worked locally for diamonds, nevertheless considered non-economic. The authors present results of their study of a deactivated small mine, representing the first report with description and analyses of two gem diamonds washed from this material. Hundreds of kimberlites, discovered in the last half century in the region, are sterile or non-economic. We propose that the surface source of the diamonds is the Capacete “conglomerado”. The volume of this material is enormous representing a potential resource for large-scale mining. The authors suggest detailed studies of the volcanic facies of this unit focusing on the genesis, distribution and diamond content. As to the question concerning the origin of these diamondiferous pyroclastic rocks, the authors exclude the kimberlites and point towards the large Serra Negra and Salitre alkaline complexes which are considered the primary source for the pyroclastic units of the Mata da Corda Group. They propose that early eruptive phases of this alkaline complex brought diamonds from a mantle source to the surface, much as happens with traditional kimberlites, to explain the association of such huge carbonatite complexes and diamonds.
DS200612-0343
2005
Kamde, G.Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Kale, H.S.Is megacrystic/xenocrystic ilmenite entrainment in the source magma responsible for the non-Diamondiferous nature of the Maddur-Kotakonda-Narayanpet kimberlitesGeological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 72.India, Andhra Pradesh, Dharwar CratonIlmenite, chemistry
DS200812-0199
2008
Kamde, G.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Srivisastra, R.K., Sridhar, M., Kaminisky, F.V.Petrology, geochemistry and genesis of new Mesoproterozoic high magnesian calcite rich kimberlites of Siddanpalli, eastern Dharwar Craton...products9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractIndiaSubduction related magmatic sources?
DS200812-0291
2008
Kamde, G.Dongre, A., Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Kamde, G.Limestone xenolith in Siddanpalli kimberlite, Gadwal granite greenstone terrain, eastern Dhwar Craton: remnant of Proterozoic platformal cover sequence - ageJournal of Geology, Vol. 116, pp. 184-191.IndiaDeposit - Siddanpalli
DS200812-0292
2008
Kamde, G.Dongre, A., Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Kamde, G.Limestone xenolith in Siddanpalli kimberlite, Gadwal granite - greenstone terrain, Eastern Dhawar Craton, southern India: remnant of Proterozoic platformal cover sequence of BJournal of Petrology, Vol. 116, pp. 184-191.IndiaGeochronology - Bhima Kurnool age
DS200912-0104
2009
Kamde, G.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Srivastava, R.K., Sridhar, M., Kaminsky, F.V.Petrology, geochemistry and genesis of newly discovered Mesoproterozoic highly magnesian, calcite rich kimberlites from Siddanpalli, Eastern Dharwar CratonMineralogy and Petrology, Online availableIndiaProducts of subduction-related magmatic sources?
DS201012-0098
2010
Kamde, G.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Srivastava, R.K., Sridhar, M., Kaminisky, F.V.Petrology, geochemistry and genesis of newly discovered Mesoproterozoic highly magnesian, calcite rich kimberlites from Siddanpalli, eastern Dharwar Craton...Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 98, 1-4, pp. 313-328.IndiaSubduction related magmatic sources?
DS200812-0200
2008
Kamde, G.D.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Kamde, G.D., Kale, H.S., Dongre, A.Geological setting and petrographic diversity of the lamproite dykes at the northern and north eastern margin of the Cuddapah Basin, southern India.Indian Dykes: editors Srivastava, Sivaji, Chalapathi Rao, pp. 281-290.IndiaLamproite
DS1991-0821
1991
Kamel, A.F.Kamel, A.F.Analysis of structural lineaments and their effect on the distribution of ring complexes in southeastern desert, EgyptJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 193-200EgyptStructure, Ring complexes
DS201412-0437
2014
Kamel, O.A.Kamel, O.A., Eglal, A.New contribution to the diamond bearing REE gold silver mineralization at Kasr El-Bassel area, south El-Fayoum, Upper Egypt.30th. International Conference on Ore Potential of alkaline, kimberlite and carbonatite magmatism. Sept. 29-, Africa, EgyptDiamonds
DS201212-0353
2012
Kamenenetsky, M.B.Kemenetsky, V.S., Chung, S-L., Kamenenetsky, M.B., Kuzmin, D.V.Picrites from the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China: a compositional continuum in primitive magms and their respective mantle sources.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 53, 10, pp. 2095-2113.ChinaPicrite
DS200812-0537
2008
Kamenenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenenetsky, V.S., Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, Sharygin, Demouchy, Faure, KuzminOlivine in the Udachnaya East kimberlite ( Yakutia, Russia): morphology, compositional zoning and origin.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya petrograaphy
DS200612-1269
2006
Kamenentsky, V.S.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenentsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Alkali carbonates and sulfides in kimberlite hosted chloride carbonate nodules Udachnaya pipe, Russia.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 24. abstract only.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya - nodule chemistry
DS1997-1282
1997
Kamenets, V.Yaxley, G.M., Kamenets, V., Green, D.H., Falloon, T.J.Classes in mantle xenoliths from Western Victoria Australia, and their relevance to mantle processes.Earth Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 148, No. 3-4, May pp. 433-446.AustraliaXenoliths, Mantle
DS200712-0970
2007
Kamenetskaya, M.B.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetskaya, M.B., Seretkin, Yu.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Rasvumite from the Udachnaya East pipe: the first finding in kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 445, 6, pp. DOI:10.1134/S1028334 X07060232Russia, YakutiaMineralogy
DS1993-0770
1993
Kamenetskiy, V.S.Kamenetskiy, V.S., Portnyagin, M.V., Sobolev, A.V., DanyushevskiyMagma composition and crystallization conditions of the picrite-basalt suite in the Tumrok Ridge, East KamchatkaGeochemistry International, Vol.30, No. 3, March pp. 58-73RussiaPicrites
DS201012-0334
2010
KamenetskyKamenetskyUdachnaya East kimberlite: a major resource of diamonds and knowledge.13th. IAGOD Symposium, April 6-9, Adelaide Australia, RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200512-1218
2004
Kamenetsky, M.Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Norman, M.D., Francis, D.Origins of compositional heterogeneity in olivine hosted melt inclusions from the Baffin Island picrites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 148, 4, pp. 426-442.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandPicrite
DS201708-1563
2017
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamanetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).Chemical Geology, in press available, 16p.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit, Roger, Ekati

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements
DS201708-1564
2017
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamanetsky, V.S., Pearson, D.G., Kamenetsky, M., Ehrig, K., Goemann, K., Rodemann, T.Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parallel melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing. Leslie, Pipe 1Chemical Geology, in press available, 54p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, Finlanddeposit, Leslie

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25–45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Monticellite in group-I kimberlites: Implications for evolution of parental melts and post-emplacement CO 2 degassing (PDF Download Available).
DS201802-0216
2018
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 148-163.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Roger

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements.
DS201802-0217
2018
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Pearson, D.G., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parental melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing.Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 76-88.Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, Finlanddeposit - Leslie, Pipe 1

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25-45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Primary multiphase melt inclusions in monticellite, perovskite and Mg-magnetite contain assemblages dominated by alkali (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates, chlorides, phosphates, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite) and sulphides. These melt inclusions probably represent snapshots of a variably differentiated kimberlite melt that evolved in-situ towards carbonatitic and silica-poor compositions. Although unconstrained in their concentration, the presence of alkali-carbonates and chlorides in melt inclusions suggests they are a more significant component of the kimberlite melt than commonly recorded by whole-rock analyses. We present petrographic and textural evidence showing that pseudomorphic Mtc-II resulted from an in-situ reaction between olivine and the carbonate component of the kimberlite melt in the decarbonation reactio. This reaction is supported by the preservation of abundant primary inclusions of periclase and to a lesser extent Fe-Mg-oxides in monticellite, perovskite and Mg-magnetite. Based on the preservation of primary periclase inclusions, we infer that periclase also existed in the groundmass, but was subsequently altered to brucite. We suggest that CO2 degassing in the latter stages of kimberlite emplacement into the crust is largely driven by the observed reaction between olivine and the carbonate melt. For this reaction to proceed, CO2 should be removed (i.e. degassed), which will cause further reaction and additional degassing in response to this chemical system change (Le Chatelier's principle). Our study demonstrates that these proposed decarbonation reactions may be a commonly overlooked process in the crystallisation of monticellite and exsolution of CO2, which may in turn contribute to the explosive eruption and brecciation processes that occur during kimberlite magma emplacement and pipe formation.
DS201811-2552
2018
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Golovin, A.V., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K.Was crustal contamination involved in the formation of the serpentine-free Udachnaya-East kimberlite? New insights into parental melts, liquids, liquidus assemblage and effects of alteration.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 59, 8, pp. 1467-1492.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya-East

Abstract: The petrologically unique Udachnaya-East kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) is characterised by unserpentinised and H2O-poor volcaniclastic and coherent units that contain fresh olivine, along with abundant alkali-rich carbonates, chlorides, sulphides and sulphates in the groundmass. These mineralogical and geochemical characteristics have led to two divergent models that advocate different origins. It has been suggested that the unserpentinised units from Udachnaya-East are representative of pristine unaltered kimberlite. Conversely, the alkali-chlorine-sulphur enrichment has been attributed to interactions with crustal materials and/or post-emplacement contamination by brines. The mineralogical and geochemical features and the compositions of melt inclusions in unserpentinised and serpentinised Udachnaya-East kimberlite varieties are compared in this study. Both varieties of kimberlite have similar major, compatible and incompatible trace element concentrations and primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns, groundmass textures and silicate, oxide and sulphide mineral compositions. However, these two kimberlite varieties are distinguished by: (i) the presence of unaltered olivine, abundant Na-K-Cl-S-rich minerals (i.e. chlorides, S-bearing alkali-carbonates, sodalite) and the absence of H2O-rich phases (i.e. serpentine, iowaite (Mg4Fe3+(OH)8OCl•3(H2O)) in unserpentinised samples, and (ii) the absence of alkali- and chlorine-enriched phases in the groundmass and characteristic olivine alteration (i.e. replacement by serpentine and/or iowaite) in serpentinised samples. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in olivine, monticellite, spinel and perovskite from unserpentinised and serpentinised kimberlite contain identical daughter phase assemblages that are dominated by alkali-carbonates, chlorides and sulphates/sulphides. This enrichment in alkalis, chlorine and sulphur in melt inclusions demonstrates that these elements were an intrinsic part of the parental magma. The paucity of alkali-carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of serpentinised Udachnaya-East kimberlite is attributed to their instability and removal during post-emplacement alteration. All evidence previously used in support of crustal and brine contamination of the Udachnaya-East kimberlite is thoroughly evaluated. We demonstrate that ‘contamination models’ are inconsistent with petrographic, geochemical and melt inclusion data. Our combined data suggest that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite crystallised from an essentially H2O-poor, Si-Na-K-Cl-S-bearing carbonate-rich melt.
DS201812-2771
2018
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thomspon, J., Kamenetsky,M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016 /jlithos.2018 .11.017 32p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
DS201902-0254
2019
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thompson, J., Kamenetsky, M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, Vol. 324-325, pp. 297-314.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel - magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
DS201902-0255
2019
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Giuliani, A., Rodemann, T., Spetsius, Z.V., Kamenetsky, M.Djerfisherite in kimberlites and their xenoliths: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 8 22p. Africa, South Africa, Russia, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Bultfontein, Roberts Victor, Udachnaya-East, Obnazhennaya, Vtorogodnitsa, Koala, Leslie

Abstract: Djerfisherite (K6(Fe,Ni,Cu)25S26Cl) occurs as an accessory phase in the groundmass of many kimberlites, kimberlite-hosted mantle xenoliths, and as a daughter inclusion phase in diamonds and kimberlitic minerals. Djerfisherite typically occurs as replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides (i.e. pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite), but can also occur as individual grains, or as poikilitic phase in the groundmass of kimberlites. In this study, we present new constraints on the origin and genesis of djerfisherite in kimberlites and their entrained xenoliths. Djerfisherite has extremely heterogeneous compositions in terms of Fe, Ni and Cu ratios. However, there appears to be no distinct compositional range of djerfisherite indicative of a particular setting (i.e. kimberlites, xenoliths or diamonds), rather this compositional diversity reflects the composition of the host kimberlite melt and/or interacting metasomatic medium. In addition, djerfisherite may contain K and Cl contents less than the ideal formula unit. Raman spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed that these K-Cl poor sulphides still maintain the same djerfisherite crystal structure. Two potential mechanisms for djerfisherite formation are considered: (1) replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides by djerfisherite, which is attributed to precursor sulphides reacting with metasomatic K-Cl bearing melts/fluids in the mantle or the transporting kimberlite melt; (2) direct crystallisation of djerfisherite from the kimberlite melt in groundmass or due to kimberlite melt infiltration into xenoliths. The occurrence of djerfisherite in kimberlites and its mantle cargo from localities worldwide provides strong evidence that the metasomatising/infiltrating kimberlite melt/fluid was enriched in K and Cl. We suggest that kimberlites originated from melts that were more enriched in alkalis and halogens relative to their whole-rock compositions.
DS202008-1365
2020
Kamenetsky, M.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Fedortchouk, Y., Ehrig, K., Kamenetsky, M.Evolution of kimberlite magmas in the crust: a case study of groundmass and mineral hosted inclusions in the Mark kimberlite ( Lac de Gras, Canada).Lithos, in press available, 55p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Kimberlites are the surface manifestation of deeply-derived (>150 km) and rapidly ascended magmas. Fresh kimberlite rocks are exceptionally rare, as most of them are invariably modified by pervasive deuteric and/or post-magmatic fluids that overprint the original mineralogy. In this study, we examined fresh archetypal kimberlite from the Mark pipe (Lac de Gras, Canada), which is characterised by well-preserved olivine and groundmass minerals. The sequence of crystallisation of the parental melt and its major compositional features, including oxygen fugacity, were reconstructed using textural relationships between magmatic minerals, their zoning patterns and crystal/melt/fluid inclusions. Crystal and multiphase primary, pseudosecondary and secondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine, Cr-diopside, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite/kinoshitalite, apatite and calcite preserve a record of different stages of kimberlite melt evolution. Melt/fluid inclusions are generally more depleted in silica and more enriched in alkalis (K, Na), alkali-earth (Ba, Sr) and halogens (Cl, F) relative to the whole-rock composition of the Mark kimberlite. These melt/fluid inclusion compositions, in combination with presence of elevated CaO (up to 1.73 wt%), in Mg-rich olivine rinds, crystallisation of groundmass kinoshitalite, carbonates (calcite, Sr-Ba-bearing) and alkali-enriched rims around apatite suggest that there was progressive enrichment in CO2, alkalis and halogens in the evolving parental melt. The Mark kimberlite groundmass is characterised by the following stages of in-situ crystallisation: (1) olivine rims around xenocrystic cores + Cr-spinel/TIMAC. (2) Mg-rich olivine rinds around olivine rims/cores + MUM-spinel (followed by pleonaste and Mg-magnetite) + monticellite (+ partial resorption of olivine, along with the formation of ferropericlase and CO2 as a result of decarbonation reactions) + perovskite + apatite. (3) Olivine outmost rinds, which are coeval with phlogopite/kinoshitalite + apatite + sulphides + carbonate (calcite, Ba-Sr-Na-bearing varieties). In addition, oxygen fugacity of the Mark kimberlite was constrained by olivine-chromite, perovskite and monticellite oxygen barometry and showed that the parental melt became progressively more oxidised in response to fractional crystallisation. (4) Deuteric (i.e. late-stage magmatic) and/or post-magmatic (i.e. external fluids) alteration of magmatic minerals (e.g., olivine, monticellite, ferropericlase) and crystallisation of mesostasis serpentine, K-bearing chlorite and brucite (i.e. replacement of ferropericlase). The absence of any alkali (Na, K) and halogen (F, Cl) rich groundmass minerals in the Mark kimberlite may be attributed to these elements becoming concentrated in the late-stage melt where they potentially formed unstable, water-soluble carbonates (such as those observed in melt inclusions). Consequently, these minerals were most likely removed from the groundmass by deuteric and/or post-magmatic alteration.
DS200512-0495
2004
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Danyushevsky, L.V., Thomas, R., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Kimberlite melts rich in alkali chlorides and carbonates: a potent metasomatic agent in the mantle.Geology, Vol. 32, 10, Oct. pp. 845-848.Russia, Siberia, YakutiaUdachnaya, Group I, volatiles, metasomatism, inclusions
DS200512-0666
2005
Kamenetsky, M.B.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sobolev, N.V.Sr Nd Pb isotope evidence for a mantle origin of alkali chlorides and carbonates in the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia.Geology, Vol. 33, 7, July, pp. 549-552.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology - Udachnaya
DS200612-0655
2006
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Crawford, Chung, S-L., Kuzmin, A.J.D.V., Sobolev, A.V.Heterogeneous primary melts of the Emeishan picrites: contribution from eclogite to plume magmas.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 2. abstract only.ChinaEclogite
DS200612-0660
2006
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Maas, R., Faure, K., Sobolev, A.V.Why are Udachnaya East pipe kimberlites enriched in Cl and alkalis but poor in H2O?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 3. abstract only.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya mineral chemistry
DS200612-1269
2006
Kamenetsky, M.B.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenentsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Alkali carbonates and sulfides in kimberlite hosted chloride carbonate nodules Udachnaya pipe, Russia.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 24. abstract only.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya - nodule chemistry
DS200712-0504
2006
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Faure, K., Golovin, A.V.Chloride and carbonate immiscible liquids at the closure of the kimberlite magma evolution ( Udachnaya-East kimberlite, Siberia).Chemical Geology, Available in press,Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya, geochronology
DS200712-0505
2007
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Golovin, A.V.Carbonate chloride enrichment in fresh kimberlites of the Udachnaya East pipe, Siberia: a clue to physical properties of kimberlite magmas?Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, 9, May 16, L09316RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200712-0506
2007
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Golovin, A.V.Carbonate chloride enrichment in fresh kimberlites of the Udachnaya East pipe, Siberia: a clue to physical properties of kimberlite magmas?Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, 9, May 16, L09316RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200712-0507
2007
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Shaygin, V.V., Faure, K., Golovin, A.V.Chloride and carbonate immiscible liquids at the closure of the kimberlite magma evolution ( Udachnaya-East kimberlite) Siberia.Chemical Geology, Vol. 237m 3-4, March 5, pp. 384-400.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200812-0423
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Golovin, A.V., Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sharygin, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Groundmass of unaltered kimberlites of the Udachnaya East pipe (Yakutia Russia): a sample of the kimberlite melt.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200812-0537
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenenetsky, V.S., Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, Sharygin, Demouchy, Faure, KuzminOlivine in the Udachnaya East kimberlite ( Yakutia, Russia): morphology, compositional zoning and origin.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya petrograaphy
DS200812-0538
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenetsky, V.S, Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, A.V.Can pyroxenes be liquidus minerals in the kimberlite magma?9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200812-0539
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V., Maas, R., Sharygin, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya East pipe ( Yakutia, Russia): a petrological oddity, victim of contamination or a new magma type?9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya - taste!
DS200812-0540
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y., Navon, O., Nielsen, T.F.D., Mernagh, T.P.Alkali carbonates and chlorine in kimberlites from Canada and Greenland: evidence from melt inclusions and serpentine.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractCanada, Northwest Territories, Greenland, RussiaMelting
DS200812-1044
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V.Mineralogy and genesis of kimberlite hosted chloride containing nodules from Udachnaya East pipe, Yakutia, Russia.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200812-1045
2008
Kamenetsky, M.B.Sharygin, V.V., Lamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Potassium sulfides in kimberlite hosted chloride nyereite and chloride clasts of the Udachnaya East pipe, Yakutia, Russia.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 46, 4, August pp.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200912-0352
2009
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Mass, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Paton, C., Phillips, D., Golovin, A.V., Gornova, M.A.Chlorine from the mantle: magmatic halides in the Udachnaya-East kimberlite, Siberia.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 285, pp. 96-104.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201012-0335
2009
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, A.V., Sharyginb, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Can pyroxenes be liquidus minerals in the kimberlite magma?Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 213-235.MantleChemistry
DS201012-0336
2009
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y., Naov, O., Nielsen, T.F.D., Mernagh, T.P.How unique is the Udachnaya East kimberlite? Comparison with kimberlites from the Slave Craton (Canada) and SW Greenland.Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 334-346.Russia, Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, GreenlandOlivine, phenocrysts
DS201112-0495
2011
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Mass, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Paton, C., Phillips, D., Golovin, A.V.Chlorine from the mantle: magmatic halides in the Udachnaya East kimberlite, Siberia.Deep Seated Magmatism, its sources and plumes, Ed. Vladykin, N.V., pp. 132-149.Russia, SiberiaModel magma compositions
DS201112-1148
2011
Kamenetsky, M.B.Zaitsev, A.N., Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption nephelinite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.164-166.Africa, TanzaniaOldoinyo Lengai
DS201112-1149
2011
Kamenetsky, M.B.Zaitsev, A.N., Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption nephelinite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.164-166.Africa, TanzaniaOldoinyo Lengai
DS201112-1150
2011
Kamenetsky, M.B.Zaitsev, A.N., Sharygin, V.V., Sobolev, V.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate carbonate liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption nephelinite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201212-0347
2012
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V., Shaygin, V.V., Maas, R.Ultrafresh salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya-East pipe ( Yakutia, Russia): a petrological oddity or fortuitous discovery?Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 173-186.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya-East
DS201212-0639
2012
Kamenetsky, M.B.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Zaitsev, A.N., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate-natrocarbonatite liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 23-39.Africa, TanzaniaDeposit - Oldoinyo-Lengai
DS201312-0451
2013
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Grutter, H., Kamenetsky, M.B., Gomann, K.Parental carbonatitic melt of the kaola kimberlite ( Canada): constraints from melt inclusions in olivine and Cr-spinel, and groundmass carbonateChemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 96-111.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Kaola
DS201412-0438
2014
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Belousova, E.A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Goemann, K., Griffin, W.L.Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: implications for the composition of kimberlite melts.Chemical Geology, Vol. 383, pp. 76-85.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Monastery
DS201412-0439
2014
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Golovin, A.V., Maas, R., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y.Towards a new model for kimberlite petrogenesis: evidence from unaltered kimberlites and mantle minerals. Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 139, pp. 145-151.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201509-0387
2015
Kamenetsky, M.B.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Manuel, J., Alfonso, P., Kamenetsky, M.B., Bambi, A.C.J.M., Goncalves, A.O.Carbonatitic lavas in CatAnd a ( Kwanza Sul, Angola): mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the parental melt.Lithos, Vol. 232, pp. 1-11.Africa, AngolaCarbonatite

Abstract: A set of small volcanic edifices with tuff ring and maar morphologies occur in the Catanda area, which is the only locality with extrusive carbonatites reported in Angola. Four outcrops of carbonatite lavas have been identified in this region and considering the mineralogical, textural and compositional features, we classify them as: silicocarbonatites (1), calciocarbonatites (2) and secondary calciocarbonatites produced by the alteration of primary natrocarbonatites (3). Even with their differences, we interpret these lava types as having been a single carbonatite suite related to the same parental magma. We have also estimated the composition of the parental magma from a study of melt inclusions hosted in magnetite microphenocrysts from all of these lavas. Melt inclusions revealed the presence of 13 different alkali-rich phases (e.g., nyerereite, shortite, halite and sylvite) that argues for an alkaline composition of the Catanda parental melts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional and isotopic features of some Catanda lavas are also similar to those described in altered natrocarbonatite localities worldwide such as Tinderet or Kerimasi, leading to our conclusion that the formation of some Catanda calciocarbonatite lavas was related to the occurrence of natrocarbonatite volcanism in this area. On the other hand, silicocarbonatite lavas, which are enriched in periclase, present very different mineralogical, compositional and isotopic features in comparison to the rest of Catanda lavas. We conclude that its formation was probably related to the decarbonation of primary dolomite bearing carbonatites.
DS201510-1776
2015
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S.,Park, J-W., Mungall, J.E., Pushkarev, E.V., Ivanov, A.V., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M.Crystallization of platinum group minerals from silicate melts: evidence from Cr-spinel hosted inclusions in volcanic rocks.Geology, Vol. 43, 10, pp. 903-906.RussiaMeimechite

Abstract: The formation of platinum-group minerals (PGM) during magma differentiation has been suggested to be an important process in primitive magma evolution, but decisive textural evidence is difficult to obtain because PGM tend to be very small and very rare. We have investigated Cr-spinel phenocrysts from two oxidized magmas (Siberian meimechite and Vanuatu [Ambae Island] arc picrite) and one reduced magma (Uralian [Russia] ankaramite) for PGM inclusions and their platinum-group element (PGE) contents. We observed Os-Ir and Pt-Fe alloys entrapped as inclusions in Cr-spinel in all three suites of lava. The alloys may occur in association with PGE-bearing sulfides and co-trapped silicate melt. Cr-spinel crystals also contain measurable amounts of Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh, which are at concentrations 2×–100× higher than mantle values. Thermodynamic models indicate that the arc picrite and ankaramite melts were probably both saturated with the observed PGM phases, whereas the Os-Ir alloy grain observed in the meimechite is not in equilibrium with the “bulk” melt. Our results demonstrate that PGM (alloys and sulfides) occur as liquidus phases in primitive (unfractionated) melts at high temperature and at a variety of redox conditions, and that Cr-spinel is a significant host of PGE, either in the crystal structure or as PGM inclusions.
DS201610-1877
2016
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M., Ehrig, K., Zellmer, G.F., Bindeman, I.N., Sobolev, A.V., Kuzmin, D.V., Ivanov, A.V., Woodhead, J., Schilling, J-G.Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from "high-Ti" picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces.Chemical Geology, in press available 10p.Africa, South AfricaLIP magmatism

Abstract: Magmas forming large igneous provinces (LIP) on continents are generated by extensive melting in the deep crust and underlying mantle and associated with break-up of ancient supercontinents, followed by formation of a new basaltic crust in the mid-oceanic rifts. A lack of the unifying model in understanding the sources of LIP magmatism is justified by lithological and geochemical complexity of erupted magmas on local (e.g. a cross-section) and regional (a single and different LIP) scales. Moreover, the majority of LIP rocks do not fit general criteria for recognizing primary/primitive melts (i.e. < 8 wt% MgO and absence of high-Fo olivine phenocrysts). This study presents the mineralogical (olivine, Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene), geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositional characteristics of a single primitive (16 wt% MgO), high-Ti (2.5 wt% TiO2) picrite with high-Mg olivine (up to 91 mol% Fo) from the Letaba Formation in the ~ 180 Ma Karoo LIP (south Africa). The olivine compositions (unusually high d18O (6.17‰), high NiO (0.36-0.56 wt%) and low MnO and CaO (0.12-0.20 and 0.12-0.22 wt%, respectively)) are used to argue for a non-peridotitic mantle source. This is supported by the enrichment of the rock and melts in most incompatible trace elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements (e.g. high Gd/Yb) that reflects residual garnet in the source of melting. The radiogenic isotopes resemble those of the model enriched mantle (EM-1) and further argue for a long-term enrichment of the source in incompatible trace elements. The enriched high-Ti compositions, strongly fractionated incompatible trace elements, presence of primitive olivine and high-Cr spinel in the Letaba picrites are closely matched by olivine-phyric rocks from the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan (Yongsheng area, SW China) and ~ 250 Ma Siberian (Maimecha-Kotuy region, N Siberia) LIPs. However, many other compositional parameters (e.g. trace element and d18O compositions of olivine phenocrysts, Fe2 +/Fe3 + in Cr-spinel, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios) only partially overlap or even diverge. We thus imply that parental melts of enriched picritic rocks with forsteritic olivine from three major continental igneous provinces - Karoo, Emeishan and Siberia cannot be assigned to a common mantle source and similar melting conditions. The Karoo picrites also exhibit some mineralogical and geochemical similarities with rocks and glasses in the south Atlantic Ridge and adjacent fracture zones. The geodynamic reconstructions of the continental plate motions since break-up of the Gondwanaland in the Jurassic support the current position of the source of the Karoo magmatism in the southernmost Atlantic. Co-occurrence of modern and recent anomalous rocks with normal mid-ocean ridge basalts in this region can be related to blocks/rafts of the ancient lithosphere, stranded in the ambient upper mantle and occasionally sampled by rifting-related decompressional melting.
DS201707-1337
2017
Kamenetsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M., Ehrig, K., Zellmer, G.F., Bindeman, I.N., Sobolev, A.V., Kuzmin, D.V., Ivanov, A.V., Woodhead, J., Schilling, J-G.Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from high Ti picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 22-31.Africa, South Africamagmatism

Abstract: Magmas forming large igneous provinces (LIP) on continents are generated by extensive melting in the deep crust and underlying mantle and associated with break-up of ancient supercontinents, followed by formation of a new basaltic crust in the mid-oceanic rifts. A lack of the unifying model in understanding the sources of LIP magmatism is justified by lithological and geochemical complexity of erupted magmas on local (e.g. a cross-section) and regional (a single and different LIP) scales. Moreover, the majority of LIP rocks do not fit general criteria for recognizing primary/primitive melts (i.e. < 8 wt% MgO and absence of high-Fo olivine phenocrysts). This study presents the mineralogical (olivine, Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene), geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositional characteristics of a single primitive (16 wt% MgO), high-Ti (2.5 wt% TiO2) picrite with high-Mg olivine (up to 91 mol% Fo) from the Letaba Formation in the ~ 180 Ma Karoo LIP (south Africa). The olivine compositions (unusually high d18O (6.17‰), high NiO (0.36–0.56 wt%) and low MnO and CaO (0.12–0.20 and 0.12–0.22 wt%, respectively)) are used to argue for a non-peridotitic mantle source. This is supported by the enrichment of the rock and melts in most incompatible trace elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements (e.g. high Gd/Yb) that reflects residual garnet in the source of melting. The radiogenic isotopes resemble those of the model enriched mantle (EM-1) and further argue for a long-term enrichment of the source in incompatible trace elements. The enriched high-Ti compositions, strongly fractionated incompatible trace elements, presence of primitive olivine and high-Cr spinel in the Letaba picrites are closely matched by olivine-phyric rocks from the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan (Yongsheng area, SW China) and ~ 250 Ma Siberian (Maimecha-Kotuy region, N Siberia) LIPs. However, many other compositional parameters (e.g. trace element and d18O compositions of olivine phenocrysts, Fe2 +/Fe3 + in Cr-spinel, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios) only partially overlap or even diverge. We thus imply that parental melts of enriched picritic rocks with forsteritic olivine from three major continental igneous provinces – Karoo, Emeishan and Siberia cannot be assigned to a common mantle source and similar melting conditions. The Karoo picrites also exhibit some mineralogical and geochemical similarities with rocks and glasses in the south Atlantic Ridge and adjacent fracture zones. The geodynamic reconstructions of the continental plate motions since break-up of the Gondwanaland in the Jurassic support the current position of the source of the Karoo magmatism in the southernmost Atlantic. Co-occurrence of modern and recent anomalous rocks with normal mid-ocean ridge basalts in this region can be related to blocks/rafts of the ancient lithosphere, stranded in the ambient upper mantle and occasionally sampled by rifting-related decompressional melting.
DS202003-0357
2020
Kamenetsky, M.B.Potter, N.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Goemann, K., Rodemann, T.Polymineralic inclusions in oxide minerals of the Afrikanda alkaline ultramafic complex: implications for the evolution of perovskite mineralization.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 13p. PdfRussiaperovskite

Abstract: The exceptional accumulation of perovskite in the alkaline-ultramafic Afrikanda complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) led to the study of polymineralic inclusions hosted in perovskite and magnetite to understand the development of the perovskite-rich zones in the olivinites, clinopyroxenites and silicocarbonatites. The abundance of inclusions varies across the three perovskite textures, with numerous inclusions hosted in the fine-grained equigranular perovskite, fewer inclusions in the coarse-grained interlocked perovskite and rare inclusions in the massive perovskite. A variety of silicate, carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and oxide phases are assembled randomly and in variable proportions in the inclusions. Our observations reveal that the inclusions are not bona fide melt inclusions. We propose that the inclusions represent material trapped during subsolidus sintering of magmatic perovskite. The continuation of the sintering process resulted in the coarsening of inclusion-rich subhedral perovskite into inclusion-poor anhedral and massive perovskite. These findings advocate the importance of inclusion studies for interpreting the origin of oxide minerals and their associated economic deposits and suggest that the formation of large scale accumulations of minerals in other oxide deposits may be a result of annealing of individual disseminated grains.
DS202008-1411
2020
Kamenetsky, M.B.Korneeva, A.A., Nikolai, N.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Portnyagin, M.V., Savelyev, D.P., Krasheninnikov, S.P., Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Zelenski, M.E., Shcherbakov, V.D., Botcharnikov, R.E.Composition, crystallization conditions and genesis of sulfide saturated parental melts of olivine-phyric rocks from Kamchatsky Mys ( Kamchatka, Russia).Lithos, 10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105657Russia, Kamchatkapicrites

Abstract: Sulfide liquids that immiscibly separate from silicate melts in different magmatic processes accumulate chalcophile metals and may represent important sources of the metals in Earth's crust for the formation of ore deposits. Sulfide phases commonly found in some primitive mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) may support the occurrence of sulfide immiscibility in the crust without requiring magma contamination and/or extensive fractionation. However, the records of incipient sulfide melts in equilibrium with primitive high-Mg olivine and Cr-spinel are scarce. Sulfide globules in olivine phenocrysts in picritic rocks of MORB-affinity at Kamchatsky Mys (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia) represent a well-documented example of natural immiscibility in primitive oceanic magmas. Our study examines the conditions of silicate-sulfide immiscibility in these magmas by reporting high precision data on the compositions of Cr-spinel and silicate melt inclusions, hosted in Mg-rich olivine (86.9-90 mol% Fo), which also contain globules of magmatic sulfide melt. Major and trace element contents of reconstructed parental silicate melts, redox conditions (?QFM = +0.1 ± 0.16 (1s) log. units) and crystallization temperature (1200-1285 °C), as well as mantle potential temperatures (~1350 °C), correspond to typical MORB values. We show that nearly 50% of sulfur could be captured in daughter sulfide globules even in reheated melt inclusions, which could lead to a significant underestimation of sulfur content in reconstructed silicate melts. The saturation of these melts in sulfur appears to be unrelated to the effects of melt crystallization and crustal assimilation, so we discuss the reasons for the S variations in reconstructed melts and the influence of pressure and other parameters on the SCSS (Sulfur Content at Sulfide Saturation).
DS1997-1281
1997
Kamenetsky, V.Yaxley, G.M., Green, D.H., Kamenetsky, V.Carbonatite metasomatism in the southeastern Australian lithosphere. #1Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Abstracts, AustraliaCarbonatite
DS1998-1616
1998
Kamenetsky, V.Yaxley, G.M., Green, D.H., Kamenetsky, V.Carbonatite metasomatism in the southeastern Australian lithosphere. #2Journal of Petrology, Vol. 39, No. 11-12, Nov-Dec. pp. 1917-30.AustraliaCarbonatite, Metasomatism
DS1999-0819
1999
Kamenetsky, V.Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.In situ origin for glass in mantle xenoliths from southeastern Australia:insights from trace elements...Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 172, No. 1-2, Oct. 15, pp. 97-110.AustraliaXenoliths - glass, Metasomatism
DS200812-0694
2008
Kamenetsky, V.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, V., Paton, C., Sharygin, V.Low 87Sr 86 Sr in kimberlitic perovskite - further evidence for recycled oceanic crust as a possible source of kimberlites.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201112-0491
2011
Kamenetsky, V.Kamenetsky, V.A quest for a kimberlite primary melt: separating facts from myths.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, AbstractMantleMelting
DS201312-0121
2013
Kamenetsky, V.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Bambi, A., Manuel, J.CatAnd a carbonatitic lavas ( Angola): melt inclusion evidence.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, AngolaCarbonatite
DS201312-0122
2013
Kamenetsky, V.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Bambi, A., Manuel, J.Sodium rich magmas parental to CatAnd a carbonatitic lavas ( Angola): melt inclusion evidence.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, AngolaCarbonatite
DS200812-0538
2008
Kamenetsky, V.SKamenetsky, M.B., Kamenetsky, V.S, Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, A.V.Can pyroxenes be liquidus minerals in the kimberlite magma?9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS1991-0822
1991
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S.New dat a on picrites of Sharmomsky Mys Mountain (Kamchatka).(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 4, April pp. 597-604RussiaGeochemistry, Picrites
DS1991-0823
1991
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Danyushevskiy, L.V., Zinkevich, V.P., TsukanovNew dat a on the picrites in the Cape Sharom Hills, KamchatkaGeochemistry International, Vol. 28, No. 11, pp. 133-140RussiaPicrites, Geochemistry
DS2001-0443
2001
Kamenetsky, V.S.Hanski, E., Huhma, H., Rastas, P., Kamenetsky, V.S.The Paleoproterozoic komatiite picrite association of Finnish LaplandJournal of Petrology, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 855-76.Finland, LaplandPicrites, Petrology
DS2001-0564
2001
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Crawford, A.J., Meffre, S.Factors controlling chemistry of magmatic spinel: an empirical study of associated olivine, chromium spinel meltJournal of Petrology, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 655-71.MantleChemistry, Inclusions from primitive rocks
DS2001-0565
2001
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Sushchevskaya, Norman, CartwrightRemnants of Gondwanan continental lithosphere in oceanic upper mantle:evidence from South Atlantic RidgeGeology, Vol. 29, No. 3, Mar. pp.243-6.GondwanaMantle heterogeneities, geochronology
DS2002-0803
2002
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Davidson, Mernagh, Crawford, GemmellFluid bubbles in melt inclusions and pillow rim glasses: high temperature precursors to hydrothermal..Chemical Geology, Vol.183, 1-4, pp.349-64.MantleMelt - inclusions, Geochemistry
DS2002-0804
2002
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R.Mantle melt evolution (dynamic source) in the origin of single MORB suite: a perspective from magnesian glasses of MacQuarie Island.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 10, Oct.pp. 1909-22.Australia, MacQuarie IslandMelt - chemistry
DS2002-0805
2002
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Sobolev, A.V., Eggins, S.M., CrawfordOlivine enriched melt inclusions in chromites from low Ca boninites, Cape Vogel: ultramafic primary magmaChemical Geology, Vol.183, 1-4, pp.287-303.Papua New GuineaMagma - refractory mantle source and enriched component, sub calcic, Geochemistry
DS2002-1153
2002
Kamenetsky, V.S.Norman, M.D., Garcia, M.O., Kamenetsky, V.S., NielsenOlivine hosted melt inclusions in Hawaiian picrites: equilibration, melting and plume source characteristicsChemical Geology, Vol.183, 1-4, pp.143-68.HawaiiPicrites, Geochemistry
DS2003-1348
2003
Kamenetsky, V.S.Sun, W., Bennett, V.C., Eggins, S.M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Arculus, R.J.Enhanced mantle to crust rhenium transfer in under gassed arc magmasNature, No. 6929, March 20, pp. 294-6.MantleGeochemistry
DS200512-0495
2004
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Danyushevsky, L.V., Thomas, R., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Kimberlite melts rich in alkali chlorides and carbonates: a potent metasomatic agent in the mantle.Geology, Vol. 32, 10, Oct. pp. 845-848.Russia, Siberia, YakutiaUdachnaya, Group I, volatiles, metasomatism, inclusions
DS200512-0666
2005
Kamenetsky, V.S.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sobolev, N.V.Sr Nd Pb isotope evidence for a mantle origin of alkali chlorides and carbonates in the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia.Geology, Vol. 33, 7, July, pp. 549-552.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology - Udachnaya
DS200512-1218
2004
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Norman, M.D., Francis, D.Origins of compositional heterogeneity in olivine hosted melt inclusions from the Baffin Island picrites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 148, 4, pp. 426-442.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandPicrite
DS200612-0370
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Elburg, M.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Arculus, R., Thomas, R.Low calcium olivine crystals in subduction related magmas: messengers from the mantle or the magma chamber?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, 1, p. 157, abstract only.MantleSubduction
DS200612-0534
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Harlou, R., Pearson, D.G., Davidson, J.P., Kamenetsky, V.S., Yaxley, G.M.Source variability and crustal contamination of the Baffin Island picrites - coupled Sr isotope and trace element study of individual melt inclusions.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, 1, p. 11, abstract only.Canada, Nunavut, Baffin IslandPicrite
DS200612-0655
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Crawford, Chung, S-L., Kuzmin, A.J.D.V., Sobolev, A.V.Heterogeneous primary melts of the Emeishan picrites: contribution from eclogite to plume magmas.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 2. abstract only.ChinaEclogite
DS200612-0656
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S.Melt inclusion record of magmatic immiscibility in crustal and mantle magmas.Melt Inclusions in plutonic rocks - Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course, No. 36, pp. 81-98.MantleMagmatism
DS200612-0657
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Elburg, M., Arculus, R., Thomas, R.Magmatic origin of low Ca olivine in subduction related magmas: co-existence of contrasting magmas.Chemical Geology, In press availableAsia, Indonesia, Solomon IslandsMagmatism, picrites, subduction
DS200612-0658
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Elburg, M., Arculus, R., Thomas, R.Magmatic origin of low Ca olivine in subduction related magmas: co-existence of contrasting magmas.Chemical Geology, Vol. 233, 3-4, Oct. 15, pp. 346-357.MantleSubduction
DS200612-0659
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Elburg, M., Arculus, R., Thomas, R.Magmatic origin of low Ca olivine in subduction related magmas: co-existence of contrasting magmas.Chemical Geology, In press availableIndonesia, Solomon Islands, KamchatkaSubduction, magmatism, picrites
DS200612-0660
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Maas, R., Faure, K., Sobolev, A.V.Why are Udachnaya East pipe kimberlites enriched in Cl and alkalis but poor in H2O?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 3. abstract only.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya mineral chemistry
DS200712-0503
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Gurenko, A.A.Cryptic crustal contamination of MORB primitive melts recorded in olive hosted glass and mineral inclusions.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 153, 4, pp. 465-481..TechnologyMelting
DS200712-0504
2006
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Faure, K., Golovin, A.V.Chloride and carbonate immiscible liquids at the closure of the kimberlite magma evolution ( Udachnaya-East kimberlite, Siberia).Chemical Geology, Available in press,Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya, geochronology
DS200712-0505
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Golovin, A.V.Carbonate chloride enrichment in fresh kimberlites of the Udachnaya East pipe, Siberia: a clue to physical properties of kimberlite magmas?Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, 9, May 16, L09316RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200712-0506
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sharygin, V.V., Golovin, A.V.Carbonate chloride enrichment in fresh kimberlites of the Udachnaya East pipe, Siberia: a clue to physical properties of kimberlite magmas?Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, 9, May 16, L09316RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200712-0507
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Shaygin, V.V., Faure, K., Golovin, A.V.Chloride and carbonate immiscible liquids at the closure of the kimberlite magma evolution ( Udachnaya-East kimberlite) Siberia.Chemical Geology, Vol. 237m 3-4, March 5, pp. 384-400.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200712-0662
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Maas, R., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sharygin, V.V.Recycled oceanic crust as a possible source of kimberlites - isotopic evidence from perovskite, Udachnaya-East pipe, Siberia.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A608.Russia, SiberiaUdachnaya-East
DS200712-0903
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Rohrbach, A., Ballhaus, C., Golla-Schindler, U., Ulmer, P., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kuzmin, D.V.Metal saturation in the upper mantle.Nature, Vol. 449, no. 7161, Sept. 27, pp.456-458.MantleOxygen fugacity
DS200712-0969
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Sharp, Z.D., Barnes, J.D., Brearley, A.J., Chaussidon, M., Fischer, T.P., Kamenetsky, V.S.Chlorine isotope homogeneity of the mantle, crust and carbonaceous chondrites.Nature, Vol. 446, 7139, pp. 1062-1065.MantleGeochronology
DS200712-0970
2007
Kamenetsky, V.S.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetskaya, M.B., Seretkin, Yu.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Rasvumite from the Udachnaya East pipe: the first finding in kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 445, 6, pp. DOI:10.1134/S1028334 X07060232Russia, YakutiaMineralogy
DS200812-0423
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Golovin, A.V., Kamenetsky, M.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sharygin, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Groundmass of unaltered kimberlites of the Udachnaya East pipe (Yakutia Russia): a sample of the kimberlite melt.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200812-0539
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V., Maas, R., Sharygin, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya East pipe ( Yakutia, Russia): a petrological oddity, victim of contamination or a new magma type?9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya - taste!
DS200812-0540
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y., Navon, O., Nielsen, T.F.D., Mernagh, T.P.Alkali carbonates and chlorine in kimberlites from Canada and Greenland: evidence from melt inclusions and serpentine.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractCanada, Northwest Territories, Greenland, RussiaMelting
DS200812-0541
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamentsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, A.V., Demouchy, S., Faure, Sharygin, KuzminOlivine in the Udachnaya east kimberlite ( Yakutia, Russia): types, compositions and origins.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 49, 4, pp. 823-839.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200812-0542
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R.The merits of 'recycled oceanic crust - eclogite' lineage in the mantle source of group I kimberlite melts.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A446.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya-East
DS200812-0572
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.S.The role of carbonated eclogite in kimberlite and carbonatite petrogenesis.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractMantleModels, eclogite
DS200812-0755
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Mitchell, R.H., Kamenetsky, V.S.Trace element geochemistry of nyerereite and gregoryite phenocrysts from Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite lava.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A637.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS200812-1044
2008
Kamenetsky, V.S.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V.Mineralogy and genesis of kimberlite hosted chloride containing nodules from Udachnaya East pipe, Yakutia, Russia.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractRussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200912-0352
2009
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Mass, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Paton, C., Phillips, D., Golovin, A.V., Gornova, M.A.Chlorine from the mantle: magmatic halides in the Udachnaya-East kimberlite, Siberia.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 285, pp. 96-104.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS200912-0382
2009
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.S.Melting of carbonated eclogite at 3.5-5.5 GPa: an experimental study.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A663 Abstract.MantleKimberlite genesis
DS201012-0335
2009
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, A.V., Sharyginb, V.V., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Can pyroxenes be liquidus minerals in the kimberlite magma?Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 213-235.MantleChemistry
DS201012-0336
2009
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y., Naov, O., Nielsen, T.F.D., Mernagh, T.P.How unique is the Udachnaya East kimberlite? Comparison with kimberlites from the Slave Craton (Canada) and SW Greenland.Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 334-346.Russia, Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, GreenlandOlivine, phenocrysts
DS201012-0689
2010
Kamenetsky, V.S.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S.Major and trace elements in pervoskite from a micacous kimberlite nodule, Udachnaya East pipe, Siberia.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 446.Russia, SiberiaMineral chemistry
DS201112-0492
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S.Volatiles in the kimberlite melt - what drives ascent and causes explosive eruption?Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1139.RussiaUdachnaya
DS201112-0493
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S.A quest for a kimberlite primary melt: separating facts from myths.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p. 63-65.RussiaUdachnaya-East
DS201112-0494
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S.A quest for a kimberlite primary melt: separating facts from myths.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p. 63-65.RussiaUdachnaya-East
DS201112-0495
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Mass, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Paton, C., Phillips, D., Golovin, A.V.Chlorine from the mantle: magmatic halides in the Udachnaya East kimberlite, Siberia.Deep Seated Magmatism, its sources and plumes, Ed. Vladykin, N.V., pp. 132-149.Russia, SiberiaModel magma compositions
DS201112-0900
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Safonov, O.G., Kamenetsky, V.S., Perchuk, L.L.Links between carbonatite and kimberlite melts in chloride-carbonate-silicate systems: experiments and application to natural assemblages.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 52, 7-8, pp. 1307-1331.TechnologyMelting
DS201112-1135
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Woodland, A.B., Paterson, D., De Jong, M.D., Howard, D.L.Redox profile through the Siberian craton: Fe K edge XANES determination of Fe3/Fe2 in garnet from peridotite xenoliths in the Udachnaya kimberlite.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.2217.RussiaThermobarometry
DS201112-1148
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Zaitsev, A.N., Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption nephelinite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.164-166.Africa, TanzaniaOldoinyo Lengai
DS201112-1149
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Zaitsev, A.N., Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption nephelinite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.164-166.Africa, TanzaniaOldoinyo Lengai
DS201112-1150
2011
Kamenetsky, V.S.Zaitsev, A.N., Sharygin, V.V., Sobolev, V.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate carbonate liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption nephelinite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, PosterAfrica, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201212-0190
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Evans, K.A., Elburg, M.A., Kamenetsky, V.S.Oxidation state of subarc mantle.Geology, Vol. 40, 9, pp. 783-786.MantleMagmatism
DS201212-0243
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giulani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D., Wyatt, B.A., Hutchinson, G.Alkali-carbonate fluids in the lithospheric mantle.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractMantleCarbonatite
DS201212-0244
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Phillips, D., Goemann, K.Nickel rich metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by pre-kimberlitic alkali S Cl rich C-O-H fluids.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press availableAfrica, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein
DS201212-0245
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M.A., Wyatt, B.A., Goemann, K.Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle.Geology, Vol. 40, 11, pp. 967-970.Mantle, RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201212-0246
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A.,Kamenetsky, V.S., Lendrick, M.A., Phillips, D., Goemann, K.Nickel-rich metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by pre-kimberlitic alkali-S-Cl-rich C-O-H fluids.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 17p.MantleMetasomatism
DS201212-0347
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M.B., Golovin, A.V., Shaygin, V.V., Maas, R.Ultrafresh salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya-East pipe ( Yakutia, Russia): a petrological oddity or fortuitous discovery?Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 173-186.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya-East
DS201212-0357
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Litasov, K.D., Yaxley, G.M., Ohtani, E., Kamenetsky, V.S.Phase relations of eclogite + 4% CO2 at 9-21 GPA: implications for diamond formation in the deep mantle.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractMantleDiamond genesis
DS201212-0358
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Yaxley, G.M., Hermann, J., Litasov, K.D., Rosenthal, A., Kamenetsky, V.S.An experimental study of carbonated eclogite at 3 - 5-5 GPA - implications for silicate and carbonate metasomatism in the cratonic mantle.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 53, pp. 727-759.MantleMetasomatism
DS201212-0481
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Mitchell, R.H., Kamenetsky, V.S.Trace element geochemistry of myerereite and gregoyryite phenocrysts from natrocarbonatite lava, Oldoinyo-Lengai, Tanzania: implications for magma mixing.Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 56-65.Africa, TanzaniaDeposit - Oldoinyo-Lengai
DS201212-0639
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Sharygin, V.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Zaitsev, A.N., Kamenetsky, M.B.Silicate-natrocarbonatite liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite, Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: melt inclusion study.Lithos, Vol. 152, pp. 23-39.Africa, TanzaniaDeposit - Oldoinyo-Lengai
DS201212-0696
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Spetsius, Z.V., Kamenetsky, V.S.Mapping of mineral phases around diamonds in eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe ( Yakutia): remarks to their metasomatic genesis.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201212-0802
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Woodland, A.B., Golovin, A.V.An oxygen fugacity profile through the Siberian craton - Fe K-edge XANES determinations of Fe3 Fe in garnets in peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya East kimberlite.Lithos, in press availableRussia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201212-0803
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Woodland, A.B., Paterson, D., DeJonge, M.D., Howard, D.Application of Fe K-edge xanes determinations of Fe3+/OFE in garnet to peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201212-0804
2012
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Woodland, A.B., Paterson, D., DeJonge, M.D., Howard, D.Application of Fe K-edge xanes determinations of Fe3+/OFE in garnet to peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201312-0077
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Berry, A.J., Yaxley, G.M., Hanger, B.J., Woodland, A.B., De Jonge, M.D., Howard, D.L., Paterson, D., Kamenetsky, V.S.Quantitative mapping of the oxidative effects of mantle metasomatism.Geology, Vol. 41, pp. 683-686.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Wesselton
DS201312-0136
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Reguir, E.P., Kamenetsky, V.S., Sharygin, V.V., Golovin, A.V.Trace element partitioning between perovskite and kimberlite to carbonatite melt: new experimental constraints.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 112-131.MantleMineral chemistry
DS201312-0313
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Phillips, D., Wyatt, B.A., Maas, R.Oxide, sulphide and carbonate minerals in a mantle polymict breccia: metasomatism by proto-kimberlite magmas, and relationship to the kimberlite megacrystic suite.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 4-18.Africa, South AfricaKimberley district
DS201312-0314
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M.K., Maas, R., Greig, A., Armstrong, R., Felgate, M.R., Kamenetsky, V.S.Dating mantle metasomatism: a new tool ( U/PB LIMA Titanate) and an imposter ( 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite).Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleMetasomatism
DS201312-0344
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Guiliani, A., Phillips, D., Fiorentini, M.L., Kendrick, M.A., Maas, R., Wing, B.A., Woodhead, J.D., Bui, T.H., Kamenetsky, V.S.Mantle oddities: a sulphate fluid preserved in a MARID xenolith from the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley South Africa).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 376, pp. 74-86.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein
DS201312-0361
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Hanski, E., Kamenetsky, V.S.Chrome spinel hosted melt inclusions in Paleoproterozoic primitive volcanic rocks, northern Finland: evidence for coexistence and mixing of komatiitic and picritic magmas.Chemical Geology, Vol. 343, pp. 25-37.Europe, FinlandMagmatism, melting
DS201312-0451
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Grutter, H., Kamenetsky, M.B., Gomann, K.Parental carbonatitic melt of the kaola kimberlite ( Canada): constraints from melt inclusions in olivine and Cr-spinel, and groundmass carbonateChemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 96-111.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Kaola
DS201312-0486
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Litasov, K.D., Yaxley, G.M., Ohtani, E., Kamenetsky, V.S.Melting and phase relations of carbonated eclogite at 9-21 GPa and the petrogenesis of alkali rich melts in the deep mantle.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 54, 8, pp. 1555-1583.MantleEclogite
DS201312-0487
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Yaxley, G.M., Stepanov, A.S., Tkalcic, H., Litasov, K.D., Kamenetsky, V.S.Metapyroxenite in the mantle transition zone revealed from majorite inclusions in diamonds.Geology, Vol. 41, 8, pp. 883-886.MantleClassification - comparison majorites
DS201312-0993
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J., Woodland, A.B., Hanger, B.J., Kamenetsky, V.S.Xenoliths, XANES and redox related processes in the cratonic lithosphere.Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractMantleRedox
DS201312-1003
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Zaitsev, A.N., Kamenetsky, V.S.Magnetite hosted melt inclusions from phoscorites and carbonatites ( Kovdor, Kola): a hydrous analog of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites?Goldschmidt 2013, 1p. AbstractRussia, Kola Peninsula, Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201412-0293
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Fiorentini, M.L., Farqukar, J., Kendrick, M.A.Stable isotope ( C,O,S) compositions of volatile rich minerals in kimberlites: a review.Chemical Geology, Vol. 374-375, pp. 61-83.Africa, South Africa, Canada, Northwest Territories, RussiaDeposit - Kimberley, Lac de Gras, Udachnaya
DS201412-0294
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Wyatt, B.A., Goemann, K., Hutchinson, G.Petrogenesis of mantle polymict breccias: insights into mantle processes coeval with kimberlite magmatism.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 831-858.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein
DS201412-0296
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, G., Phillips, D., Maas, R., Woodhead, J.D., Kendrick, M.A., Greig, A., Armstrong, R.A., Chew, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Fiorentini, M.I.LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 401, pp. 132-147.Africa, South AfricaKimberlite
DS201412-0338
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Hanger, B.J., Yaxley, G.M., Berry, A.J., Kamenetsky, V.S.Relationships between oxygen fugacity and metasomatism in the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle, represented by garnet peridotite xenoliths in the Wesselton kimberlite, South Africa.Lithos, Vol. 212-215 pp. 443-452.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Wesselton
DS201412-0438
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Belousova, E.A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Goemann, K., Griffin, W.L.Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: implications for the composition of kimberlite melts.Chemical Geology, Vol. 383, pp. 76-85.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Monastery
DS201412-0439
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Golovin, A.V., Maas, R., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Weiss, Y.Towards a new model for kimberlite petrogenesis: evidence from unaltered kimberlites and mantle minerals. Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 139, pp. 145-151.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201412-1006
2013
Kamenetsky, V.S.Yaxley, G.M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Nichols, G.T., Maas, R., Belousova, E., Rosenthal, A., Norman, M.The discovery of kimberlites in Antarctica extends the vast Gondwanan Cretaceous province.Nature Communications, Dec. 17, 7p.AntarcticaPrince Charles Mountains
DS201506-0279
2015
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Yaxley, G.M.Carbonate-silicate iquid immiscibility in the mantle propels kimberlite magma ascent.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 158, pp. 48-56.MantleCarbonatite, content of kimberlite melts
DS201509-0387
2015
Kamenetsky, V.S.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Manuel, J., Alfonso, P., Kamenetsky, M.B., Bambi, A.C.J.M., Goncalves, A.O.Carbonatitic lavas in CatAnd a ( Kwanza Sul, Angola): mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the parental melt.Lithos, Vol. 232, pp. 1-11.Africa, AngolaCarbonatite

Abstract: A set of small volcanic edifices with tuff ring and maar morphologies occur in the Catanda area, which is the only locality with extrusive carbonatites reported in Angola. Four outcrops of carbonatite lavas have been identified in this region and considering the mineralogical, textural and compositional features, we classify them as: silicocarbonatites (1), calciocarbonatites (2) and secondary calciocarbonatites produced by the alteration of primary natrocarbonatites (3). Even with their differences, we interpret these lava types as having been a single carbonatite suite related to the same parental magma. We have also estimated the composition of the parental magma from a study of melt inclusions hosted in magnetite microphenocrysts from all of these lavas. Melt inclusions revealed the presence of 13 different alkali-rich phases (e.g., nyerereite, shortite, halite and sylvite) that argues for an alkaline composition of the Catanda parental melts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional and isotopic features of some Catanda lavas are also similar to those described in altered natrocarbonatite localities worldwide such as Tinderet or Kerimasi, leading to our conclusion that the formation of some Catanda calciocarbonatite lavas was related to the occurrence of natrocarbonatite volcanism in this area. On the other hand, silicocarbonatite lavas, which are enriched in periclase, present very different mineralogical, compositional and isotopic features in comparison to the rest of Catanda lavas. We conclude that its formation was probably related to the decarbonation of primary dolomite bearing carbonatites.
DS201509-0405
2015
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Mitchell, R.H., Maas, R., Giuliani, A., Gaboury, D., Zhitova, L.Chlorine in mantle derived carbonatite melts revealed by halite in the St. Honore intrusion ( Quebec, Canada).Geology, Vol. 43, 8, pp. 687-690.Canada, QuebecCarbonatite

Abstract: Mantle-derived carbonatites are igneous rocks dominated by carbonate minerals. Intrusive carbonatites typically contain calcite and, less commonly, dolomite and siderite as the only carbonate minerals. In contrast, lavas erupted by the only active carbonatite volcano on Earth, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, are enriched in Na-rich carbonate phenocrysts (nyerereite and gregoryite) and Na-K halides in the groundmass. The apparent paradox between the compositions of intrusive and extrusive carbonatites has not been satisfactorily resolved. This study records the fortuitous preservation of halite in the intrusive dolomitic carbonatite of the St.-Honoré carbonatite complex (Québec, Canada), more than 490 m below the present surface. Halite occurs intergrown with, and included in, magmatic minerals typical of intrusive carbonatites; i.e., dolomite, calcite, apatite, rare earth element fluorocarbonates, pyrochlore, fluorite, and phlogopite. Halite is also a major daughter phase of melt inclusions hosted in early magmatic minerals, apatite and pyrochlore. The carbon isotope composition of dolomite (d13C = –5.2‰) and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of individual minerals (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70287 in apatite, to 0.70443 in halite; eNd = +3.2 to +4.0) indicate a mantle origin for the St.-Honoré carbonatite parental melt. More radiogenic Sr compositions of dolomite and dolomite-hosted halite and heavy oxygen isotope composition of dolomite (d18O = +23‰) suggest their formation at some time after magma emplacement by recrystallization of original magmatic components in the presence of ambient fluids. Our observations indicate that water-soluble chloride minerals, common in the modern natrocarbonatite lavas, can be significant but ephemeral components of intrusive carbonatite complexes. We therefore infer that the parental magmas that produce primary carbonatite melts might be enriched in Na and Cl. This conclusion affects existing models for mantle source compositions, melting scenarios, temperature, rheological properties, and crystallization path of carbonatite melts.
DS201510-1776
2015
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S.,Park, J-W., Mungall, J.E., Pushkarev, E.V., Ivanov, A.V., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M.Crystallization of platinum group minerals from silicate melts: evidence from Cr-spinel hosted inclusions in volcanic rocks.Geology, Vol. 43, 10, pp. 903-906.RussiaMeimechite

Abstract: The formation of platinum-group minerals (PGM) during magma differentiation has been suggested to be an important process in primitive magma evolution, but decisive textural evidence is difficult to obtain because PGM tend to be very small and very rare. We have investigated Cr-spinel phenocrysts from two oxidized magmas (Siberian meimechite and Vanuatu [Ambae Island] arc picrite) and one reduced magma (Uralian [Russia] ankaramite) for PGM inclusions and their platinum-group element (PGE) contents. We observed Os-Ir and Pt-Fe alloys entrapped as inclusions in Cr-spinel in all three suites of lava. The alloys may occur in association with PGE-bearing sulfides and co-trapped silicate melt. Cr-spinel crystals also contain measurable amounts of Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh, which are at concentrations 2×–100× higher than mantle values. Thermodynamic models indicate that the arc picrite and ankaramite melts were probably both saturated with the observed PGM phases, whereas the Os-Ir alloy grain observed in the meimechite is not in equilibrium with the “bulk” melt. Our results demonstrate that PGM (alloys and sulfides) occur as liquidus phases in primitive (unfractionated) melts at high temperature and at a variety of redox conditions, and that Cr-spinel is a significant host of PGE, either in the crystal structure or as PGM inclusions.
DS201601-0018
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K.Constraints on kimberlite ascent mechanisms revealed by phlogopite compositions in kimberlites and mantle xenoliths.Lithos, Vol. 240, pp. 189-201.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: Kimberlite magmas are of economic and scientific importance because they represent the major host to diamonds and are probably the deepest magmas from continental regions. In addition, kimberlite magmas transport abundant mantle and crustal xenoliths, thus providing fundamental information on the composition of the sub-continental lithosphere. Despite their importance, the composition and ascent mechanism(s) of kimberlite melts remain poorly constrained. Phlogopite is one of the few minerals that preserves a history of fluid migration and magmatism in the mantle and crust and is therefore an invaluable petrogenetic indicator of kimberlite magma evolution. Here we present major and trace element compositional data for phlogopite from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa; i.e. the kimberlite type-locality) and from entrained mantle xenoliths. Phlogopite macrocrysts (~ > 0.3-0.5 mm) and microcrysts (between ~ 0.1 and 0.3 mm) in the Bultfontein kimberlite display concentric compositional zoning patterns. The cores of these phlogopite grains exhibit compositions typical of phlogopite contained in peridotite mantle xenoliths. However, the rims of some grains show compositions analogous to kimberlite groundmass phlogopite (i.e. high Ti, Al and Ba; low Cr), whereas other rims and intermediate zones (between cores and rims) exhibit unusually elevated Cr and lower Al and Ba concentrations. The latter compositions are indistinguishable from matrix phlogopite in polymict breccia xenoliths (considered to represent failed kimberlite intrusions) and from Ti-rich overgrowth rims on phlogopite in other mantle xenoliths. Consequently, it is likely that these phlogopite grains crystallized from kimberlite melts and that the high Ti-Cr zones originated from earlier kimberlite melts at mantle depths. We postulate that successive pulses of ascending kimberlite magma progressively metasomatised the conduit along which later kimberlite pulses ascended, producing progressively decreasing interaction with the surrounding mantle rocks. In our view, these processes represent the fundamental mechanism of kimberlite magma ascent. Our study also indicates that, in addition to xenoliths/xenocrysts and magmatic phases, kimberlite rocks incorporate material crystallized at various mantle depths by previous kimberlite intrusions (mantle-derived ‘antecrysts’).
DS201606-1119
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Soltys, A., Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Woodhead, J., Rodemann, T.In-situ assimilation of mantle minerals by kimberlitic magmas - direct evidence from a garnet wehrlite xenolith entrained in the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley, South Africa).Lithos, Vol. 256-257, pp. 182-196.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The lack of consensus on the possible range of initial kimberlite melt compositions and their evolution as they ascend through and interact with mantle and crustal wall rocks, hampers a complete understanding of kimberlite petrogenesis. Attempts to resolve these issues are complicated by the fact that kimberlite rocks are mixtures of magmatic, xenocrystic and antecrystic components and, hence, are not directly representative of their parental melt composition. Furthermore, there is a lack of direct evidence of the assimilation processes that may characterise kimberlitic melts during ascent, which makes understanding their melt evolution difficult. In this contribution we provide novel constraints on the interaction between precursor kimberlite melts and lithospheric mantle wall rocks. We present detailed textural and geochemical data for a carbonate-rich vein assemblage that traverses a garnet wehrlite xenolith [equilibrated at ~ 1060 °C and 43 kbar (~ 140-145 km)] from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). This vein assemblage is dominated by Ca-Mg carbonates, with subordinate oxide minerals, olivine, sulphides, and apatite. Vein phases have highly variable compositions indicating formation under disequilibrium conditions. Primary inclusions in the vein minerals and secondary inclusion trails in host wehrlite minerals contain abundant alkali-bearing phases (e.g., Na-K bearing carbonates, Mg-freudenbergite, Na-bearing apatite and phlogopite). The Sr-isotope composition of vein carbonates overlaps those of groundmass calcite from the Bultfontein kimberlite, as well as perovskite from the other kimberlites in the Kimberley area. Clinopyroxene and garnet in the host wehrlite are resorbed and have Si-rich reaction mantles where in contact with the carbonate-rich veins. Within some veins, the carbonates occur as droplet-like, globular segregations, separated from a similarly shaped Si-rich phase by a thin meniscus of Mg-magnetite. These textures are interpreted to represent immiscibility between carbonate and silicate melts. The preservation of reaction mantles, immiscibility textures and disequilibrium in the vein assemblage, suggests quenching, probably triggered by entrainment and rapid transport toward the Earth's surface in the host kimberlite magma. Based on the Sr-isotope systematics of vein carbonate minerals, and the close temporal relationship between carbonate-rich metasomatism and kimberlite magmatism, we suggest that the carbonate-rich vein assemblage was produced by the interaction between a melt genetically related to the Bultfontein kimberlite and wehrlitic mantle wall rock. If correct, this unique xenolith sample provides a rare snapshot of the assimilation processes that might characterise parental kimberlite melts during their ascent through the lithospheric mantle.
DS201607-1312
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Savelyeva, V.B., Demonterova, E.I., Danilova, Yu.V., Bazarova, E.P., Ivanov, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S.New carbonatite complex in the western Baikal area, southern Siberian craton: mineralogy, age, geochemistry, and petrogenesis.Petrology, Vol. 24, 3, pp. 271-302.RussiaCarbonatite

Abstract: A dike -vein complex of potassic type of alkalinity recently discovered in the Baikal ledge, western Baikal area, southern Siberian craton, includes calcite and dolomite -ankerite carbonatites, silicate-bearing carbonatite, phlogopite metapicrite, and phoscorite. The most reliable 40Ar -39Ar dating of the rocks on magnesioriebeckite from alkaline metasomatite at contact with carbonatite yields a statistically significant plateau age of 1017.4 ± 3.2 Ma. The carbonatite is characterized by elevated SiO2 concentrations and is rich in K2O (K2O/Na2O ratio is 21 on average for the calcite carbonatite and 2.5 for the dolomite -ankerite carbonatite), TiO2, P2O5 (up to 9 wt %), REE (up to 3300 ppm), Nb (up to 400 ppm), Zr (up to 800 ppm), Fe, Cr, V, Ni, and Co at relatively low Sr concentrations. Both the metapicrite and the carbonatite are hundreds of times or even more enriched in Ta, Nb, K, and LREE relative to the mantle and are tens of times richer in Rb, Ba, Zr, Hf, and Ti. The high (Gd/Yb)CN ratios of the metapicrite (4.5 -11) and carbonatite (4.5 -17) testify that their source contained residual garnet, and the high K2O/Na2O ratios of the metapicrite (9 -15) and carbonatite suggest that the source also contained phlogopite. The Nd isotopic ratios of the carbonatite suggest that the mantle source of the carbonatite was mildly depleted and similar to an average OIB source. The carbonatites of various mineral composition are believed to be formed via the crystallization differentiation of ferrocarbonatite melt, which segregated from ultramafic alkaline melt.
DS201610-1838
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D.Petrographic and melt inclusion constraints on the petrogenesis of a magmaclast from the Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa.Chemical Geology, in press available 11p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Venetia

Abstract: Kimberlitic magmaclasts are discrete ovoid magmatic fragments that formed prior to emplacement from disrupted kimberlite magma. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of the kimberlite melts, we document the mineralogy and petrography of a magmaclast recovered from one of the ca. 520 Ma Venetia kimberlites, South Africa. The sample (BI9883) has a sub-spherical shape and consists of a ~ 10 mm diameter central olivine macrocryst, surrounded by porphyritic kimberlite. The kimberlitic material consists of concentrically aligned, altered olivine phenocrysts, set in a crystalline groundmass of calcite, chromite, perovskite, phlogopite, apatite, ilmenite, titanite, sulphides, rutile and magnetite along with abundant alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, talc and secondary calcite). These features are typical of archetypal hypabyssal kimberlites. We examined primary fluid/melt inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite containing a diversity of daughter phases. Chromite and perovskite host polycrystalline inclusions containing abundant alkali-carbonates (i.e. enriched in K, Na, Ba, Sr), phosphates, Na-K chlorides, sulphides and equal to lesser quantities of olivine, phlogopite and pleonaste. In contrast, apatite hosts polycrystalline assemblages with abundant alkali-carbonates and Na-K chlorides and lesser amounts of olivine, monticellite and phlogopite. Numerous solid inclusions of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3), Na-Sr-carbonates and apatite occur in groundmass calcite along with fluid inclusions containing daughter crystals of Na-carbonates and Na-chlorides. The primary inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite are considered to represent remnants of fluid(s)/melt(s) trapped during crystallisation of the host minerals, whereas the fluid inclusions in calcite are probably secondary in origin. The component proportions of these primary fluid/melt inclusions were estimated in an effort to constrain the composition of the evolving kimberlite melt. These estimates suggest melt evolution from a silicate-carbonate kimberlite melt that became increasingly enriched in carbonates, phosphates, alkalis and chlorides, in response to the fractional crystallisation of constituent minerals (i.e. olivine to apatite). The concentric alignment of crystals around the olivine kernel and ovoid shape of the magmaclast can be ascribed to the low viscosity of the kimberlite melt and rapid rotation whilst in a liquid or partial crystalline state, or to progressive layer-by-layer growth of the magmaclast. Although the mineralogy of our sample is similar to hypabyssal kimberlites worldwide, it differs from hypabyssal kimberlite units in the main Venetia pipes, which contain monticellite-phlogopite rich assemblages and segregationary matrix textures. Therefore magmaclast BI9883 probably originated from a batch of magma distinct from those that produced known hypabyssal units within the Venetia kimberlite cluster.-
DS201610-1877
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M., Ehrig, K., Zellmer, G.F., Bindeman, I.N., Sobolev, A.V., Kuzmin, D.V., Ivanov, A.V., Woodhead, J., Schilling, J-G.Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from "high-Ti" picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces.Chemical Geology, in press available 10p.Africa, South AfricaLIP magmatism

Abstract: Magmas forming large igneous provinces (LIP) on continents are generated by extensive melting in the deep crust and underlying mantle and associated with break-up of ancient supercontinents, followed by formation of a new basaltic crust in the mid-oceanic rifts. A lack of the unifying model in understanding the sources of LIP magmatism is justified by lithological and geochemical complexity of erupted magmas on local (e.g. a cross-section) and regional (a single and different LIP) scales. Moreover, the majority of LIP rocks do not fit general criteria for recognizing primary/primitive melts (i.e. < 8 wt% MgO and absence of high-Fo olivine phenocrysts). This study presents the mineralogical (olivine, Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene), geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositional characteristics of a single primitive (16 wt% MgO), high-Ti (2.5 wt% TiO2) picrite with high-Mg olivine (up to 91 mol% Fo) from the Letaba Formation in the ~ 180 Ma Karoo LIP (south Africa). The olivine compositions (unusually high d18O (6.17‰), high NiO (0.36-0.56 wt%) and low MnO and CaO (0.12-0.20 and 0.12-0.22 wt%, respectively)) are used to argue for a non-peridotitic mantle source. This is supported by the enrichment of the rock and melts in most incompatible trace elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements (e.g. high Gd/Yb) that reflects residual garnet in the source of melting. The radiogenic isotopes resemble those of the model enriched mantle (EM-1) and further argue for a long-term enrichment of the source in incompatible trace elements. The enriched high-Ti compositions, strongly fractionated incompatible trace elements, presence of primitive olivine and high-Cr spinel in the Letaba picrites are closely matched by olivine-phyric rocks from the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan (Yongsheng area, SW China) and ~ 250 Ma Siberian (Maimecha-Kotuy region, N Siberia) LIPs. However, many other compositional parameters (e.g. trace element and d18O compositions of olivine phenocrysts, Fe2 +/Fe3 + in Cr-spinel, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios) only partially overlap or even diverge. We thus imply that parental melts of enriched picritic rocks with forsteritic olivine from three major continental igneous provinces - Karoo, Emeishan and Siberia cannot be assigned to a common mantle source and similar melting conditions. The Karoo picrites also exhibit some mineralogical and geochemical similarities with rocks and glasses in the south Atlantic Ridge and adjacent fracture zones. The geodynamic reconstructions of the continental plate motions since break-up of the Gondwanaland in the Jurassic support the current position of the source of the Karoo magmatism in the southernmost Atlantic. Co-occurrence of modern and recent anomalous rocks with normal mid-ocean ridge basalts in this region can be related to blocks/rafts of the ancient lithosphere, stranded in the ambient upper mantle and occasionally sampled by rifting-related decompressional melting.
DS201611-2133
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Potter, N.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Simonetti, A., Goemann, K.Different types of liquid immiscibility in carbonatite magmas: a case study of the Oldoinyo Lengai 1993 lava and melt inclusions.Chemical Geology, in press available 9p.Africa, TanzaniaDeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Oldoinyo Lengai is situated within the Gregory Rift Valley (northern Tanzania) and is the only active volcano erupting natrocarbonatite lava. This study investigates the texture and mineralogy of the June 1993 lava at Oldoinyo Lengai, and presents petrographic evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate, carbonate, chloride, and fluoride melt phases. The 1993 lava is a porphyritic natrocarbonatite consisting of abundant phenocrysts of alkali carbonates, nyerereite and gregoryite, set in a quenched groundmass, composed of sodium carbonate, khanneshite, Na-sylvite and K-halite, and a calcium fluoride phase. Dispersed in the lava are silicate spheroids (< 2 mm) with a cryptocrystalline silicate mineral assemblage wrapped around a core mineral. We have identified several textural features preserved in the silicate spheroids, melt inclusions, and carbonatite groundmass that exhibit evidence of silicate-carbonate, carbonate-carbonate and carbonate-halide immiscibility. Rapid quenching of the lava facilitated the preservation of the end products of these liquid immiscibility processes within the groundmass. Textural evidence (at both macro- and micro-scales) indicates that the silicate, carbonate, chloride and fluoride phases of the lava unmixed at different stages of evolution in the magmatic system.
DS201701-0029
2016
Kamenetsky, V.S.Savelieva, V.B., Danilova, Yu.V., Bazarova, E.P., Ivanov, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S.Carbonatite magmatism of the southern Siberian Craton 1 Ga ago: evidence for the beginning of breakup of Laurasia in the early Neoproterozoic.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 471, 1, pp. 1140-1143.RussiaCarbonatite

Abstract: Apatite and biotite from dolomite?ankerite and calcite?dolomite carbonatite dikes emplaced into the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rock complex in the southern part of the Siberian Craton are dated by the U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) and 40Ar-39Ar methods, respectively. Proceeding from the lower intercept of discordia with concordia, the age of apatite from calcite?dolomite carbonatite is estimated to be 972 ± 21 Ma and that for apatite from dolomite?ankerite carbonatite, as 929 ± 37 Ma. Values derived from their upper intercept have no geological sense. The ages obtained for biotite by the 40Ar-39Ar method are 965 ± 9 and 975 ± 14 Ma. It means that the formation of carbonatites reflects the earliest phases of the Neoproterozoic stage in extension of the continental lithosphere.
DS201704-0632
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kendrick, M.A., Hemond, C., Kamenetsky, V.S., Danyushevsky, L., Devey, C.W.Seawater cycled throughout Earth's mantle in partially serpentinized lithosphere.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 10, 3, pp. 222-228.MantleGeochemistry - water

Abstract: The extent to which water and halogens in Earth’s mantle have primordial origins, or are dominated by seawater-derived components introduced by subduction is debated. About 90% of non-radiogenic xenon in the Earth’s mantle has a subducted atmospheric origin, but the degree to which atmospheric gases and other seawater components are coupled during subduction is unclear. Here we present the concentrations of water and halogens in samples of magmatic glasses collected from mid-ocean ridges and ocean islands globally. We show that water and halogen enrichment is unexpectedly associated with trace element signatures characteristic of dehydrated oceanic crust, and that the most incompatible halogens have relatively uniform abundance ratios that are different from primitive mantle values. Taken together, these results imply that Earth’s mantle is highly processed and that most of its water and halogens were introduced by the subduction of serpentinized lithospheric mantle associated with dehydrated oceanic crust.
DS201707-1299
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D.Petrographic and melt inclusion constraints on the petrogenesis of a magmaclast from the Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 331-341.Africa, South Africadeposit - Venetia

Abstract: Kimberlitic magmaclasts are discrete ovoid magmatic fragments that formed prior to emplacement from disrupted kimberlite magma. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of the kimberlite melts, we document the mineralogy and petrography of a magmaclast recovered from one of the ca. 520 Ma Venetia kimberlites, South Africa. The sample (BI9883) has a sub-spherical shape and consists of a ~ 10 mm diameter central olivine macrocryst, surrounded by porphyritic kimberlite. The kimberlitic material consists of concentrically aligned, altered olivine phenocrysts, set in a crystalline groundmass of calcite, chromite, perovskite, phlogopite, apatite, ilmenite, titanite, sulphides, rutile and magnetite along with abundant alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, talc and secondary calcite). These features are typical of archetypal hypabyssal kimberlites. We examined primary fluid/melt inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite containing a diversity of daughter phases. Chromite and perovskite host polycrystalline inclusions containing abundant alkali-carbonates (i.e. enriched in K, Na, Ba, Sr), phosphates, Na-K chlorides, sulphides and equal to lesser quantities of olivine, phlogopite and pleonaste. In contrast, apatite hosts polycrystalline assemblages with abundant alkali-carbonates and Na-K chlorides and lesser amounts of olivine, monticellite and phlogopite. Numerous solid inclusions of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3), Na-Sr-carbonates and apatite occur in groundmass calcite along with fluid inclusions containing daughter crystals of Na-carbonates and Na-chlorides. The primary inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite are considered to represent remnants of fluid(s)/melt(s) trapped during crystallisation of the host minerals, whereas the fluid inclusions in calcite are probably secondary in origin. The component proportions of these primary fluid/melt inclusions were estimated in an effort to constrain the composition of the evolving kimberlite melt. These estimates suggest melt evolution from a silicate-carbonate kimberlite melt that became increasingly enriched in carbonates, phosphates, alkalis and chlorides, in response to the fractional crystallisation of constituent minerals (i.e. olivine to apatite). The concentric alignment of crystals around the olivine kernel and ovoid shape of the magmaclast can be ascribed to the low viscosity of the kimberlite melt and rapid rotation whilst in a liquid or partial crystalline state, or to progressive layer-by-layer growth of the magmaclast. Although the mineralogy of our sample is similar to hypabyssal kimberlites worldwide, it differs from hypabyssal kimberlite units in the main Venetia pipes, which contain monticellite-phlogopite rich assemblages and segregationary matrix textures. Therefore magmaclast BI9883 probably originated from a batch of magma distinct from those that produced known hypabyssal units within the Venetia kimberlite cluster.
DS201707-1327
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., Woodhead, J.D., Drysdale, R.N., Griffin, W.L.The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-C-O isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley, South Africa.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 342-256.Africa, South Africadeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The petrogenesis of kimberlites is commonly obscured by interaction with hydrothermal fluids, including deuteric (late-magmatic) and/or groundwater components. To provide new constraints on the modification of kimberlite rocks during fluid interaction and the fractionation of kimberlite magmas during crystallisation, we have undertaken a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of a hypabyssal sample (BK) from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Sample BK consists of abundant macrocrysts (> 1 mm) and (micro-) phenocrysts of olivine and lesser phlogopite, smaller grains of apatite, serpentinised monticellite, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite and ilmenite in a matrix of calcite, serpentine and dolomite. As in kimberlites worldwide, BK olivine grains consist of cores with variable Mg/Fe ratios, overgrown by rims that host inclusions of groundmass phases (spinel, perovskite, phlogopite) and have constant Mg/Fe, but variable Ni, Mn and Ca concentrations. Primary multiphase inclusions in the outer rims of olivine and in Fe-Ti-rich (‘MUM’) spinel are dominated by dolomite, calcite and alkali carbonates with lesser silicate and oxide minerals. Secondary inclusions in olivine host an assemblage of Na-K carbonates and chlorides. The primary inclusions are interpreted as crystallised alkali-Si-bearing Ca-Mg-rich carbonate melts, whereas secondary inclusions host Na-K-rich C-O-H-Cl fluids. In situ Sr-isotope analyses of groundmass calcite and perovskite reveal similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios to perovskite in the Bultfontein and the other Kimberley kimberlites, i.e. magmatic values. The d18O composition of the BK bulk carbonate fraction is above the mantle range, whereas the d13C values are similar to those of mantle-derived magmas. The occurrence of different generations of serpentine and occasional groundmass calcite with high 87Sr/86Sr, and elevated bulk carbonate d18O values indicate that the kimberlite was overprinted by hydrothermal fluids, which probably included a significant groundwater component. Before this alteration the groundmass included calcite, monticellite, apatite and minor dolomite, phlogopite, spinel, perovskite and ilmenite. Inclusions of groundmass minerals in olivine rims and phlogopite phenocrysts show that olivine and phlogopite also belong to the magmatic assemblage. We therefore suggest that the crystallised kimberlite was produced by an alkali-bearing, phosphorus-rich, silica-dolomitic melt. The alkali-Si-bearing Ca-Mg-rich carbonate compositions of primary melt inclusions in the outer rims of olivine and in spinel grains with evolved compositions (MUM spinel) support formation of these melts after fractionation of abundant olivine, and probably other phases (e.g., ilmenite and chromite). Finally, the similarity between secondary inclusions in kimberlite olivine of this and other worldwide kimberlites and secondary inclusions in minerals of carbonatitic, mafic and felsic magmatic rocks, suggests trapping of residual Na-K-rich C-O-H-Cl fluids after groundmass crystallisation. These residual fluids may have persisted in pore spaces within the largely crystalline BK groundmass and subsequently mixed with larger volumes of external fluids, which triggered serpentine formation and localised carbonate recrystallisation.
DS201707-1337
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kamenetsky, V.S., Maas, R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Yaxley, G.M., Ehrig, K., Zellmer, G.F., Bindeman, I.N., Sobolev, A.V., Kuzmin, D.V., Ivanov, A.V., Woodhead, J., Schilling, J-G.Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from high Ti picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 22-31.Africa, South Africamagmatism

Abstract: Magmas forming large igneous provinces (LIP) on continents are generated by extensive melting in the deep crust and underlying mantle and associated with break-up of ancient supercontinents, followed by formation of a new basaltic crust in the mid-oceanic rifts. A lack of the unifying model in understanding the sources of LIP magmatism is justified by lithological and geochemical complexity of erupted magmas on local (e.g. a cross-section) and regional (a single and different LIP) scales. Moreover, the majority of LIP rocks do not fit general criteria for recognizing primary/primitive melts (i.e. < 8 wt% MgO and absence of high-Fo olivine phenocrysts). This study presents the mineralogical (olivine, Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene), geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositional characteristics of a single primitive (16 wt% MgO), high-Ti (2.5 wt% TiO2) picrite with high-Mg olivine (up to 91 mol% Fo) from the Letaba Formation in the ~ 180 Ma Karoo LIP (south Africa). The olivine compositions (unusually high d18O (6.17‰), high NiO (0.36–0.56 wt%) and low MnO and CaO (0.12–0.20 and 0.12–0.22 wt%, respectively)) are used to argue for a non-peridotitic mantle source. This is supported by the enrichment of the rock and melts in most incompatible trace elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements (e.g. high Gd/Yb) that reflects residual garnet in the source of melting. The radiogenic isotopes resemble those of the model enriched mantle (EM-1) and further argue for a long-term enrichment of the source in incompatible trace elements. The enriched high-Ti compositions, strongly fractionated incompatible trace elements, presence of primitive olivine and high-Cr spinel in the Letaba picrites are closely matched by olivine-phyric rocks from the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan (Yongsheng area, SW China) and ~ 250 Ma Siberian (Maimecha-Kotuy region, N Siberia) LIPs. However, many other compositional parameters (e.g. trace element and d18O compositions of olivine phenocrysts, Fe2 +/Fe3 + in Cr-spinel, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope ratios) only partially overlap or even diverge. We thus imply that parental melts of enriched picritic rocks with forsteritic olivine from three major continental igneous provinces – Karoo, Emeishan and Siberia cannot be assigned to a common mantle source and similar melting conditions. The Karoo picrites also exhibit some mineralogical and geochemical similarities with rocks and glasses in the south Atlantic Ridge and adjacent fracture zones. The geodynamic reconstructions of the continental plate motions since break-up of the Gondwanaland in the Jurassic support the current position of the source of the Karoo magmatism in the southernmost Atlantic. Co-occurrence of modern and recent anomalous rocks with normal mid-ocean ridge basalts in this region can be related to blocks/rafts of the ancient lithosphere, stranded in the ambient upper mantle and occasionally sampled by rifting-related decompressional melting.
DS201707-1338
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kiseeva, E.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Yaxley, G.M., Shee, S.R.Mantle melting versus mantle metasomatism - the chicken or the egg dilemma.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 120-130.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Most eclogitic mantle xenoliths brought to the surface exhibit a certain degree of enrichment with incompatible elements, usually attributed to the effect of mantle metasomatism by a putative metasomatic fluid. The metasomatic overprint is represented mainly by enrichments in Na, K, Ba, Ti and LREE and the original source of this fluid remains unknown. In this paper, we present a detailed petrological study of a typical eclogitic mantle xenolith from the Roberts Victor kimberlite mine in South Africa. We find that its textural and mineralogical features present strong evidence for incipient melting. The melting assemblage we observe did not necessarily require introduction of additional components, that is: in-situ melting alone could produce highly incompatible element enriched melt without involvement of a hypothetical and speculative “metasomatic event”. Due to the higher abundance in incompatible elements and lower solidus temperature than peridotites, mantle eclogites, some of which represent previously subducted oceanic crust, are much more plausible sources of mantle metasomatism, but on the other hand, they can be considered as highly metasomatised themselves. This brings us to the “chicken or egg” dilemma – was the secondary mineral assemblage in mantle lithologies a result or a source of mantle metasomatism?
DS201707-1357
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Potter, N.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Simonetti, A., Goemann, K.Different types of liquid immiscibility in carbonatite magmas: a case stufy of the Oldoinyo Lengai 1993 lava and melt inclusions.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 376-384.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Oldoinyo Lengai is situated within the Gregory Rift Valley (northern Tanzania) and is the only active volcano erupting natrocarbonatite lava. This study investigates the texture and mineralogy of the June 1993 lava at Oldoinyo Lengai, and presents petrographic evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate, carbonate, chloride, and fluoride melt phases. The 1993 lava is a porphyritic natrocarbonatite consisting of abundant phenocrysts of alkali carbonates, nyerereite and gregoryite, set in a quenched groundmass, composed of sodium carbonate, khanneshite, Na-sylvite and K-halite, and a calcium fluoride phase. Dispersed in the lava are silicate spheroids (< 2 mm) with a cryptocrystalline silicate mineral assemblage wrapped around a core mineral. We have identified several textural features preserved in the silicate spheroids, melt inclusions, and carbonatite groundmass that exhibit evidence of silicate-carbonate, carbonate-carbonate and carbonate-halide immiscibility. Rapid quenching of the lava facilitated the preservation of the end products of these liquid immiscibility processes within the groundmass. Textural evidence (at both macro- and micro-scales) indicates that the silicate, carbonate, chloride and fluoride phases of the lava unmixed at different stages of evolution in the magmatic system.
DS201801-0017
2017
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Afonso, J.C., Maas, R., Melgarejo, J.C., Kohn, B.P., Matchen, E.L., Mangas, J., Goncalves, A.O., Manuel, J.Southwestern Africa on the burner: Pleistocene carbonatite volcanism linked to deep mantle upwelling in Angola.Geology, Vol. 45, 11, pp. 971=974.Africa, Angolacarbonatite - Catanda

Abstract: The origin of intraplate carbonatitic to alkaline volcanism in Africa is controversial. A tectonic control, i.e., decompression melting associated with far-field stress, is suggested by correlation with lithospheric sutures, repeated magmatic cycles in the same areas over several million years, synchronicity across the plate, and lack of clear age progression patterns. Conversely, a dominant role for mantle convection is supported by the coincidence of Cenozoic volcanism with regions of lithospheric uplift, positive free-air gravity anomalies, and slow seismic velocities. To improve constraints on the genesis of African volcanism, here we report the first radiometric and isotopic results for the Catanda complex, which hosts the only extrusive carbonatites in Angola. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages of Catanda aillikite lavas indicate eruption at ca. 500-800 ka, more than 100 m.y. after emplacement of abundant kimberlites and carbonatites in this region. The lavas share similar high-µ (HIMU)-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope compositions with other young mantle-derived volcanics from Africa (e.g., Northern Kenya Rift; Cameroon Line). The position of the Catanda complex in the Lucapa corridor, a long-lived extensional structure, suggests a possible tectonic control for the volcanism. The complex is also located on the Bié Dome, a broad region of fast Pleistocene uplift attributed to mantle upwelling. Seismic tomography models indicate convection of deep hot material beneath regions of active volcanism in Africa, including a large area encompassing Angola and northern Namibia. This is strong evidence that intraplate late Cenozoic volcanism, including the Catanda complex, resulted from the interplay between mantle convection and preexisting lithospheric heterogeneities.
DS201802-0216
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 148-163.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Roger

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements.
DS201802-0217
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Pearson, D.G., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parental melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing.Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 76-88.Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, Finlanddeposit - Leslie, Pipe 1

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25-45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Primary multiphase melt inclusions in monticellite, perovskite and Mg-magnetite contain assemblages dominated by alkali (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates, chlorides, phosphates, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite) and sulphides. These melt inclusions probably represent snapshots of a variably differentiated kimberlite melt that evolved in-situ towards carbonatitic and silica-poor compositions. Although unconstrained in their concentration, the presence of alkali-carbonates and chlorides in melt inclusions suggests they are a more significant component of the kimberlite melt than commonly recorded by whole-rock analyses. We present petrographic and textural evidence showing that pseudomorphic Mtc-II resulted from an in-situ reaction between olivine and the carbonate component of the kimberlite melt in the decarbonation reactio. This reaction is supported by the preservation of abundant primary inclusions of periclase and to a lesser extent Fe-Mg-oxides in monticellite, perovskite and Mg-magnetite. Based on the preservation of primary periclase inclusions, we infer that periclase also existed in the groundmass, but was subsequently altered to brucite. We suggest that CO2 degassing in the latter stages of kimberlite emplacement into the crust is largely driven by the observed reaction between olivine and the carbonate melt. For this reaction to proceed, CO2 should be removed (i.e. degassed), which will cause further reaction and additional degassing in response to this chemical system change (Le Chatelier's principle). Our study demonstrates that these proposed decarbonation reactions may be a commonly overlooked process in the crystallisation of monticellite and exsolution of CO2, which may in turn contribute to the explosive eruption and brecciation processes that occur during kimberlite magma emplacement and pipe formation.
DS201803-0450
2014
Kamenetsky, V.S.Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Maas, R., Woodhead, J.D., Kendrick, M.A., Greig, A., Armstrong, R.A., Chew, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Fiorentini, M.L.LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 401, pp. 132-147.Africa, South Africametasomatism

Abstract: The Karoo igneous rocks (174-185 Ma) of southern Africa represent one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces on Earth. Available evidence indicates that Karoo magmas either originated in the asthenosphere and were extensively modified by interaction with the lithospheric mantle prior to emplacement in the upper crust; or were produced by partial melting of enriched mantle lithosphere. However, no direct evidence of interaction by Karoo melts (or their precursors) with lithospheric mantle rocks has yet been identified in the suites of mantle xenoliths sampled by post-Karoo kimberlites in southern Africa. Here we report U-Pb ages for lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) titanate minerals (crichtonite series) from three metasomatised, phlogopite and clinopyroxene-rich peridotite xenoliths from the ~84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa), located in the southern part of the Karoo magmatic province. The LIMA minerals appear to have formed during metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by fluids enriched in HFSE (Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb), LILE (K, Ba, Ca, Sr) and LREE. LIMA U-Pb elemental and isotopic compositions were measured in situ by LA-ICP-MS methods, and potential matrix effects were evaluated by solution-mode analysis of mineral separates. LIMA minerals from the three samples yielded apparent U-Pb ages of , and (). A single zircon grain extracted from the ~190 Ma LIMA-bearing sample produced a similar U-Pb age of , within uncertainty of the LIMA ages. These data provide the first robust evidence of fluid enrichment in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley region at ~180-190 Ma, and suggest causation of mantle metasomatism by Karoo melts or their precursor(s). The results further indicate that U-Pb dating of LIMA minerals provides a new, accurate tool for dating metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle.
DS201805-0946
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Korsakov, A.V., Yaxley, G.M.Alkali-carbonate melts from the base of cratonic lithospheric mantle: links to kimberlites.Chemical Geology, Vol. 483, pp. 261-274.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: Identification of the primary compositions of mantle-derived melts is crucial for understanding mantle compositions and physical conditions of mantle melting. However, these melts rarely reach the Earth's surface unmodified because of contamination, crystal fractionation and degassing, processes that occur almost ubiquitously after melt generation. Here we report snapshots of the melts preserved in sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe, in the central part of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths are among the deepest mantle samples and were delivered by kimberlite magma from 180-230?km depth interval, i.e. from the base of the cratonic lithosphere. The olivine grains of the sheared peridotites contain secondary inclusions of the crystallized melt with bulk molar (Na?+?K)/Ca?~?3.4. Various Na-K-Ca-, Na-Ca-, Na-Mg-, Ca-Mg- and Ca-carbonates, Na-Mg-carbonates with additional anions, alkali sulphates and halides are predominant among the daughter minerals in secondary melt inclusions, whereas silicates, oxides, sulphides and phosphates are subordinate. These inclusions can be considered as Cl-S-bearing alkali-carbonate melts. The presence of aragonite, a high-pressure polymorph of CaCO3, among the daughter minerals suggests a mantle origin for these melt inclusions. The secondary melt inclusions in olivine from the sheared peridotite xenoliths and the melt inclusions in phenocrystic olivines from the host kimberlites demonstrate similarities, in daughter minerals assemblages and trace-element compositions. Moreover, alkali-rich minerals (carbonates, halides, sulphates and sulphides) identified in the studied melt inclusions are also present in the groundmass of the host kimberlites. These data suggests a genetic link between melt enclosed in olivine from the sheared peridotites and melt parental to the Udachnaya-East kimberlites. We suggest that the melt inclusions in olivine from mantle xenoliths may represent near primary, kimberlite melts. These results are new evidence in support of the alkali-carbonate composition of kimberlite melts in their source regions, prior to the kimberlite emplacement into the crust, and are in stark contrast to the generally accepted ultramafic silicate nature of parental kimberlite liquids.
DS201805-0953
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Ivanov, A.V., Mukasa, S.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Ackerman, M., Demonterova, E.I., Pokrovsky, B.G., Vladykin, N.V., Kolesnichenko, M.V., Litasov, K.D., Zedgenizov, D.A.Origin of high-Mg melts by volatile fluxing without significant excess of temperature.Chemical Geology, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j .chemgeo. 2018.03.11Russiameimechites
DS201811-2552
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Golovin, A.V., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K.Was crustal contamination involved in the formation of the serpentine-free Udachnaya-East kimberlite? New insights into parental melts, liquids, liquidus assemblage and effects of alteration.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 59, 8, pp. 1467-1492.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya-East

Abstract: The petrologically unique Udachnaya-East kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) is characterised by unserpentinised and H2O-poor volcaniclastic and coherent units that contain fresh olivine, along with abundant alkali-rich carbonates, chlorides, sulphides and sulphates in the groundmass. These mineralogical and geochemical characteristics have led to two divergent models that advocate different origins. It has been suggested that the unserpentinised units from Udachnaya-East are representative of pristine unaltered kimberlite. Conversely, the alkali-chlorine-sulphur enrichment has been attributed to interactions with crustal materials and/or post-emplacement contamination by brines. The mineralogical and geochemical features and the compositions of melt inclusions in unserpentinised and serpentinised Udachnaya-East kimberlite varieties are compared in this study. Both varieties of kimberlite have similar major, compatible and incompatible trace element concentrations and primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns, groundmass textures and silicate, oxide and sulphide mineral compositions. However, these two kimberlite varieties are distinguished by: (i) the presence of unaltered olivine, abundant Na-K-Cl-S-rich minerals (i.e. chlorides, S-bearing alkali-carbonates, sodalite) and the absence of H2O-rich phases (i.e. serpentine, iowaite (Mg4Fe3+(OH)8OCl•3(H2O)) in unserpentinised samples, and (ii) the absence of alkali- and chlorine-enriched phases in the groundmass and characteristic olivine alteration (i.e. replacement by serpentine and/or iowaite) in serpentinised samples. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in olivine, monticellite, spinel and perovskite from unserpentinised and serpentinised kimberlite contain identical daughter phase assemblages that are dominated by alkali-carbonates, chlorides and sulphates/sulphides. This enrichment in alkalis, chlorine and sulphur in melt inclusions demonstrates that these elements were an intrinsic part of the parental magma. The paucity of alkali-carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of serpentinised Udachnaya-East kimberlite is attributed to their instability and removal during post-emplacement alteration. All evidence previously used in support of crustal and brine contamination of the Udachnaya-East kimberlite is thoroughly evaluated. We demonstrate that ‘contamination models’ are inconsistent with petrographic, geochemical and melt inclusion data. Our combined data suggest that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite crystallised from an essentially H2O-poor, Si-Na-K-Cl-S-bearing carbonate-rich melt.
DS201812-2771
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thomspon, J., Kamenetsky,M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016 /jlithos.2018 .11.017 32p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
DS201901-0057
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Potter, N.J., Ferguson, M.R.M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Sharygin, V.V., Thompson, J.M., Goemann, K.Textural evolution of perovskite in the Afrikanda alkaline-ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 173, 12, pp. 106-Russia, Kola Peninsuladeposit - Afrikanda

Abstract: Perovskite is a common accessory mineral in a variety of mafic and ultramafic rocks, but perovskite deposits are rare and studies of perovskite ore deposits are correspondingly scarce. Perovskite is a key rock-forming mineral and reaches exceptionally high concentrations in olivinites, diverse clinopyroxenites and silicocarbonatites in the Afrikanda alkaline-ultramafic complex (Kola Peninsula, NW Russia). Across these lithologies, we classify perovskite into three types (T1-T3) based on crystal morphology, inclusion abundance, composition, and zonation. Perovskite in olivinites and some clinopyroxenites is represented by fine-grained, equigranular, monomineralic clusters and networks (T1). In contrast, perovskite in other clinopyroxenites and some silicocarbonatites has fine- to coarse-grained interlocked (T2) and massive (T3) textures. Electron backscatter diffraction reveals that some T1 and T2 perovskite grains in the olivinites and clinopyroxenites are composed of multiple subgrains and may represent stages of crystal rotation, coalescence and amalgamation. We propose that in the olivinites and clinopyroxenites, these processes result in the transformation of clusters and networks of fine-grained perovskite crystals (T1) to mosaics of more coarse-grained (T2) and massive perovskite (T3). This interpretation suggests that sub-solidus processes can lead to the development of coarse-grained and massive perovskite. A combination of characteristic features identified in the Afrikanda perovskite (equigranular crystal mosaics, interlocked irregular-shaped grains, and massive zones) is observed in other oxide ore deposits, particularly in layered intrusions of chromitites and intrusion-hosted magnetite deposits and suggests that the same amalgamation processes may be responsible for some of the coarse-grained and massive textures observed in oxide deposits worldwide.
DS201902-0254
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thompson, J., Kamenetsky, M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, Vol. 324-325, pp. 297-314.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel - magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
DS201902-0255
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Giuliani, A., Rodemann, T., Spetsius, Z.V., Kamenetsky, M.Djerfisherite in kimberlites and their xenoliths: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 8 22p. Africa, South Africa, Russia, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Bultfontein, Roberts Victor, Udachnaya-East, Obnazhennaya, Vtorogodnitsa, Koala, Leslie

Abstract: Djerfisherite (K6(Fe,Ni,Cu)25S26Cl) occurs as an accessory phase in the groundmass of many kimberlites, kimberlite-hosted mantle xenoliths, and as a daughter inclusion phase in diamonds and kimberlitic minerals. Djerfisherite typically occurs as replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides (i.e. pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite), but can also occur as individual grains, or as poikilitic phase in the groundmass of kimberlites. In this study, we present new constraints on the origin and genesis of djerfisherite in kimberlites and their entrained xenoliths. Djerfisherite has extremely heterogeneous compositions in terms of Fe, Ni and Cu ratios. However, there appears to be no distinct compositional range of djerfisherite indicative of a particular setting (i.e. kimberlites, xenoliths or diamonds), rather this compositional diversity reflects the composition of the host kimberlite melt and/or interacting metasomatic medium. In addition, djerfisherite may contain K and Cl contents less than the ideal formula unit. Raman spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed that these K-Cl poor sulphides still maintain the same djerfisherite crystal structure. Two potential mechanisms for djerfisherite formation are considered: (1) replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides by djerfisherite, which is attributed to precursor sulphides reacting with metasomatic K-Cl bearing melts/fluids in the mantle or the transporting kimberlite melt; (2) direct crystallisation of djerfisherite from the kimberlite melt in groundmass or due to kimberlite melt infiltration into xenoliths. The occurrence of djerfisherite in kimberlites and its mantle cargo from localities worldwide provides strong evidence that the metasomatising/infiltrating kimberlite melt/fluid was enriched in K and Cl. We suggest that kimberlites originated from melts that were more enriched in alkalis and halogens relative to their whole-rock compositions.
DS201902-0294
2018
Kamenetsky, V.S.Malyeshev, S.V., Pasenko, A.M., Ivanov, A.V., Gladkochub, D.P., Savatenkov, V.M., Meffre, S., Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Shcherbakov, V.D.Geodynamic significance of the Mesoproterozoic magmatism of the Udzha paleo-rift ( Northern Siberian craton) based in U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetic data.Minerals ( mdpi.com), Vol. 8, 12, 11p. PdfRussia, Siberiacraton

Abstract: The emplacement age of the Great Udzha Dyke (northern Siberian Craton) was determined by the U-Pb dating of apatite using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). This produced an age of 1386 ± 30 Ma. This dyke along with two other adjacent intrusions, which cross-cut the sedimentary units of the Udzha paleo-rift, were subjected to paleomagnetic investigation. The paleomagnetic poles for the Udzha paleo-rift intrusions are consistent with previous results published for the Chieress dyke in the Anabar shield of the Siberian Craton (1384 ± 2 Ma). Our results suggest that there was a period of intense volcanism in the northern Siberian Craton, as well as allow us to reconstruct the apparent migration of the Siberian Craton during the Mesoproterozoic.
DS201903-0520
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Ivanov, A.V., Levitskii, I.V., Levitskii, V.I., Corfu, F., Demonterova, E.I., Reznitskii, L.Z., Pavlova, L.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Savatenkov, V.M., Powerman, V.I.Shoshonitic magmatism in the Paleoproterozoic of the south-western Siberian Craton: an analogue of the modern post-collisiion setting.Lithos, Vol. 328-329, pp. 88-100.Russiadeposit - Sharyzhalgay

Abstract: The Siberian Craton was assembled in a Paleoproterozoic episode at about 1.88?Ga by the collision of older blocks, followed at about 1.86?Ga by post-collisional felsic magmatism. We have found a set of extremely fresh mica-bearing lamprophyre-looking rocks within the Sharyzhalgay metamorphic complex of the south-western Siberian Craton. Zircon from these rocks yields a UPb TIMS age of 1864.7?±?1.8?Ma, which coincides perfectly with the peak of the post-collisional granite ages and postdates by ~15?Ma the peak of ages obtained for metamorphism. The same ages were reported earlier for a mafic dyke with ocean island basalt (OIB) geochemical signatures and a Pt-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion found in the same region. Mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes show that the studied rocks (1) have shoshonitic affinity, (2) are hybrid rocks with mineral assemblages which could not be in equilibrium, (3) where derived by recycling of an Archean crustal source and (4) resemble post-collision Tibetan shoshonitic series. The genesis of these rocks is considered to be due to melting of crustal lithologies and metasomatized lithospheric mantle within a subducted slab. Some of the resulting melts ascended through the lithospheric column and fractionated to low-Mg absarokites, whereas other melts were contaminated by orthopyroxenitic mantle material and attained unusual high-Mg mafic compositions. According to our model, the post-collisional magmatism (shoshonite- and OIB-type) occurred due to upwelling of hot asthenosphere through a slab window, when the active collision ceased as a result of the slab break off and loss of the slab pull force. Overall, our study shows that in the Paleoproterozoic shoshonitic melts were emplaced within a similar tectonic setting as seen today in modern orogenic systems.
DS201905-1014
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Gornova, M.A.Polymineralic inclusions in kimberlite hosted megacrysts: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Lithos, doi.101016/j.lithos .2019.04.004 42p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Russiadeposit - Diavik, Jericho, Leslie, Udachnaya East

Abstract: Megacrysts are large (cm to >20?cm in size) mantle-derived crystals, which are commonly entrained by kimberlite magmas, comprising of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, phlogopite, garnet, ilmenite and zircon as common phases. Numerous studies have shown megacrysts to contain polymineralic inclusions, which have been interpreted to represent entrapped kimberlite melt. To constrain the origin of these inclusions in megacrysts and their relationship to kimberlite magmatism, we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of clinopyroxene and olivine megacrysts and their hosted inclusions from the Diavik, Jericho, Leslie (Slave Craton, Canada) and Udachnaya-East (Siberian Craton, Russia) kimberlites. The studied megacrysts are between 1 and 3?cm in size and representative of both the Cr-rich and Cr-poor suites. Megacrysts contain two types of inclusions: i. Large (<0.5-5?mm in size) round-to-irregular shaped polymineralic inclusions, which are composed of minerals similar to the host kimberlite groundmass, and consist of olivine, calcite, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite and apatite (± serpentine, alkali-carbonates, alkali-chlorides, barite). ii. Swarms/trails of ‘micro melt inclusions’ (MMI; <1-5?µm in size), which surround polymineralic inclusions, veins and fractures, thereby forming a ‘spongy’ texture. MMIs generally contain multiphase assemblages similar to polymineralic inclusions as well as various additional phases, such as alkali-carbonates or alkali-chlorides, which are typically absent in polymineralic inclusions and the surrounding kimberlite groundmass. Textural and geochemical evidence suggests that polymineralic inclusions in megacrysts crystallised from kimberlite melt, which infiltrated along fracture/vein networks. The polymineralic inclusion assemblages resulted from disequilibria reactions between the host megacryst and infiltrating kimberlite melt, which was likely enhanced by rapidly changing conditions during magmatic ascent. The connectivity of polymineralic inclusions to the kimberlite groundmass via network veins/fractures suggests that they are susceptible to infiltrating post-emplacement fluids. Therefore, the vast majority of polymineralic inclusions are unlikely to represent ‘pristine’ entrapped kimberlite melt. In contrast, MMIs are isolated within megacrysts (i.e. not connected to fractures/veins and therefore shielded from post-magmatic fluids) and probably represent entrapped remnants of the variably differentiated kimberlite melt, which was more enriched in alkalis-Cl-S-CO2 than serpentinised polymineralic inclusions and the host rocks exposed at Earth's surface as kimberlites.
DS201905-1034
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Korsakov, A.V., Yaxley, G.M.Alkali-carbonate melts from the base of cratonic lithospheric mantle: links to kimberlites.Chemical Geology, Vol. 483, pp. 261-274.Russia, Yakutiadeposit - Udachnaya -East

Abstract: Identification of the primary compositions of mantle-derived melts is crucial for understanding mantle compositions and physical conditions of mantle melting. However, these melts rarely reach the Earth's surface unmodified because of contamination, crystal fractionation and degassing, processes that occur almost ubiquitously after melt generation. Here we report snapshots of the melts preserved in sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe, in the central part of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths are among the deepest mantle samples and were delivered by kimberlite magma from 180-230?km depth interval, i.e. from the base of the cratonic lithosphere. The olivine grains of the sheared peridotites contain secondary inclusions of the crystallized melt with bulk molar (Na?+?K)/Ca?~?3.4. Various Na-K-Ca-, Na-Ca-, Na-Mg-, Ca-Mg- and Ca-carbonates, Na-Mg-carbonates with additional anions, alkali sulphates and halides are predominant among the daughter minerals in secondary melt inclusions, whereas silicates, oxides, sulphides and phosphates are subordinate. These inclusions can be considered as Cl-S-bearing alkali-carbonate melts. The presence of aragonite, a high-pressure polymorph of CaCO3, among the daughter minerals suggests a mantle origin for these melt inclusions. The secondary melt inclusions in olivine from the sheared peridotite xenoliths and the melt inclusions in phenocrystic olivines from the host kimberlites demonstrate similarities, in daughter minerals assemblages and trace-element compositions. Moreover, alkali-rich minerals (carbonates, halides, sulphates and sulphides) identified in the studied melt inclusions are also present in the groundmass of the host kimberlites. These data suggests a genetic link between melt enclosed in olivine from the sheared peridotites and melt parental to the Udachnaya-East kimberlites. We suggest that the melt inclusions in olivine from mantle xenoliths may represent near primary, kimberlite melts. These results are new evidence in support of the alkali-carbonate composition of kimberlite melts in their source regions, prior to the kimberlite emplacement into the crust, and are in stark contrast to the generally accepted ultramafic silicate nature of parental kimberlite liquids.
DS201905-1045
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Ivanov, A.V., Mukasa, S.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Ackerson, M., Zedgenizov, D.A.Volatile concentrations in olivine hosted melt inclusions from meimechite and melanephenelinite lavas of the Siberian Trap Large Igneous Province: evidence for flux related high Ti, high Mg magmatism.Chemical Geology, Vol. 483, pp. 442-462.Russiameimechite
DS201910-2259
2019
Kamenetsky, V.S.Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I., Korsakov, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Abersteiner, A.Can primitive kimberlite melts be alkali-carbonate liquids: composition of the melt snapshots preserved in deepest mantle xenoliths.Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, in press available, 19p. PdfRussiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: The study of kimberlite rocks is important as they provide critical information regarding the composition and dynamics of the continental mantle and are the principal source of diamonds. Despite many decades of research, the original compositions of kimberlite melts, which are thought to be derived from depths > 150 km, remain highly debatable due to processes that can significantly modify their composition during ascent and emplacement. Snapshots of the kimberlite-related melts were entrapped as secondary melt inclusions hosted in olivine from sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East pipe (Siberian craton). These xenoliths originated from 180- to 220-km depth and are among the deepest derived samples of mantle rocks exposed at the surface. The crystallised melt inclusions contain diverse daughter mineral assemblages (>30 mineral species), which are dominated by alkali-rich carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides. The presence of aragonite as a daughter mineral suggests a high-pressure origin for these inclusions. Raman-mapping studies of unexposed inclusions show that they are dominated by carbonates (>65 vol.%), whereas silicates are subordinate (<13 vol.%). This indicates that the parental melt for the inclusions was carbonatitic. The key chemical features of this melt are very high contents of alkalis, carbon dioxide, chlorine, and sulfur and extremely low silica and water. Alkali-carbonate melts entrapped in xenolith minerals likely represent snapshots of the primitive kimberlite melt. This composition is in contrast with the generally accepted notion that kimberlites originated as ultramafic silicate water-rich melts. Experimental studies revealed that alkali-carbonate melts are a very suitable diamond-forming media. Therefore, our findings support the idea that some diamonds and kimberlite magmatism may be genetically related.
DS202003-0329
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K.A genetic study of olivine crystallization in the Mark kimberlite ( Canada) revealed by zoning and melt inclusions.Lithos, In press available 46p. pdf.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Elucidating the composition of primary kimberlite melts is essential to understanding the nature of their source, petrogenesis, rheology, transport and ultimately the origin of diamonds. Kimberlite rocks are typically comprised of abundant olivine (~2560 vol%), which occurs as individual grains of variable size and morphology, and includes xenocrysts and zoned phenocrysts. Zoning patterns and inclusions in olivine can be used to decipher the petrogenetic history of kimberlites, starting from their generation in the mantle through to emplacement in the crust. This study examines well-preserved, euhedral, zoned olivine crystals from the Mark kimberlite (Lac de Gras, Canada). Olivine typically consists of xenocrystic cores, which are homogeneous in composition but vary widely between grains (Fo88.193.6). These cores are in turn surrounded by (in order of crystallisation) magmatic rims and Mg-rich rinds (Fo95.398.1). In addition, we document a new type of olivine zone (‘outmost rind’) that overgrows Mg-rich rinds. Crystal and melt/fluid inclusions are abundant in olivine and preserve a record of kimberlite melt evolution. For the first time in the studies of kimberlite olivine, we report primary melt inclusions hosted in Mg-rich olivine rinds. In addition, we observe that pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions are restricted to interior olivine zones (cores, rims) and are considered to have formed prior to rind formation. Pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions are inferred to have been entrapped at depth, as evidenced by measured densities in thermometric experiments of CO2 and decrepitation haloes, indicating a minimum entrapment pressure of ~200450 MPa (or ~615 km). Both primary and pseudosecondary melt inclusions in olivine have daughter minerals dominated by CaMg and K-Na-Ba-Sr-bearing carbonates, K-Na-chlorides along with subordinate silicates (e.g., phlogopite, monticellite), Fe-Mg-Al-Ti-spinel, perovskite, phosphates and sulphates/sulphides and periclase. In addition to phases reported in primary melt inclusions, pseudosecondary melt inclusions contain more diverse and exotic daughter mineral assemblages, where they contain phases such as tetraferriphlogopite Ba- or K-sulphates, kalsilite and Na-phosphates. The daughter mineral assemblages are consistent with a silica-poor, alkali dolomitic carbonatite melt. We demonstrate that the different types of inclusions in olivine can assist in constraining the timing of multi-stage olivine growth and the composition of the crystallising melt. The large variance in olivine zoning patterns, morphologies and Ni distribution (i.e. both coupling with and decoupling from Fo) indicates that olivine in the studied Mark kimberlite samples represent an accumulation of olivine, where olivine was derived from successive stages of the ascending magma and/or from multiple, but related pulses of magma. Primary and pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine indicate that a variably differentiated silica-poor, halogen-bearing, alkali-dolomitic melt crystallised and transported olivine in the Mark kimberlite.
DS202003-0357
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Potter, N.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Kamenetsky, M.B., Goemann, K., Rodemann, T.Polymineralic inclusions in oxide minerals of the Afrikanda alkaline ultramafic complex: implications for the evolution of perovskite mineralization.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 13p. PdfRussiaperovskite

Abstract: The exceptional accumulation of perovskite in the alkaline-ultramafic Afrikanda complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) led to the study of polymineralic inclusions hosted in perovskite and magnetite to understand the development of the perovskite-rich zones in the olivinites, clinopyroxenites and silicocarbonatites. The abundance of inclusions varies across the three perovskite textures, with numerous inclusions hosted in the fine-grained equigranular perovskite, fewer inclusions in the coarse-grained interlocked perovskite and rare inclusions in the massive perovskite. A variety of silicate, carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and oxide phases are assembled randomly and in variable proportions in the inclusions. Our observations reveal that the inclusions are not bona fide melt inclusions. We propose that the inclusions represent material trapped during subsolidus sintering of magmatic perovskite. The continuation of the sintering process resulted in the coarsening of inclusion-rich subhedral perovskite into inclusion-poor anhedral and massive perovskite. These findings advocate the importance of inclusion studies for interpreting the origin of oxide minerals and their associated economic deposits and suggest that the formation of large scale accumulations of minerals in other oxide deposits may be a result of annealing of individual disseminated grains.
DS202007-1178
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Soltys, A., Giuliani, A,m Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S.Kimberlite metasomatism of the lithosphere and the evolution of olivine in carbonate rich melts evidence from the Kimberley kimberlites ( South Africa).Journal of Petrology, 10.1093/petrology /egaa062/5857610 90p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: Olivine is the most abundant phase in kimberlites and is stable throughout most of the crystallisation sequence, thus providing an extensive record of kimberlite petrogenesis. To better constrain the composition, evolution, and source of kimberlites we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of olivine from multiple dyke, sill, and root zone kimberlites in the Kimberley cluster (South Africa). Olivine grains in these kimberlites are zoned, with a central core, a rim overgrowth, and occasionally an external rind. Additional ‘internal’ and ‘transitional’ zones may occur between the core and rim, and some samples of root zone kimberlites contain a late generation of high-Mg olivine in cross-cutting veins. Olivine records widespread pre-ascent (proto-)kimberlite metasomatism in the mantle including: (a) Relatively Fe-rich (Mg# <89) olivine cores interpreted to derive from the disaggregation of kimberlite-related megacrysts (20% of cores); (b) Mg-Ca-rich olivine cores (Mg# >89; >0.05?wt.% CaO) suggested to be sourced from neoblasts in sheared peridotites (25% of cores); (c) transitional zones between cores and rims probably formed by partial re-equilibration of xenocrysts (now cores) with a previous pulse of kimberlite melt (i.e., compositionally heterogeneous xenocrysts); and (d) olivine from the Wesselton water tunnel sills, internal zones (I), and low-Mg# rims, that crystallised from a kimberlite melt that underwent olivine fractionation within the shallow lithospheric mantle. Magmatic crystallisation begins with internal olivine zones (II), which are common but not ubiquitous in the Kimberley olivine. These zones are euhedral, contain rare inclusions of chromite, and have a higher Mg# (90.0 ± 0.5), NiO, and Cr2O3 contents, but are depleted in CaO compared to the rims. Internal olivine zones (II) are interpreted to crystallise from a primitive kimberlite melt during its ascent and transport of olivine toward the surface. Their compositions suggest assimilation of peridotitic material (particularly orthopyroxene) and potentially sulfides prior to or during crystallisation. Comparison of internal zones (II) with liquidus olivine from other mantle-derived carbonate-bearing magmas (i.e., orangeites, ultramafic lamprophyres, melilitites) show that low (100×) Mn/Fe (~1.2), very low Ca/Fe (~0.6), and moderate Ni/Mg ratios (~1.1) appear to be the hallmarks of olivine in melts derived from carbonate-bearing garnet-peridotite sources. Olivine rims display features indicative of magmatic crystallisation, which are typical of olivine rims in kimberlites worldwide - i.e. primary inclusions of chromite, Mg-ilmenite and rutile, homogeneous Mg# (88.8 ± 0.3), decreasing Ni and Cr, increasing Ca and Mn. Rinds and high-Mg olivine are characterised by extreme Mg-Ca-Mn enrichment and Ni depletion, and textural relationships indicate these zones represent replacement of pre-existing olivine, with some new crystallisation of rinds. These zones likely precipitated from evolved, oxidised, and relatively low-temperature kimberlite fluids after crustal emplacement. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of combined petrography and olivine geochemistry to trace the evolution of kimberlite magmatic systems from early metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by (proto-)kimberlite melts, to crystallisation at different depths en route to surface, and finally late-stage deuteric/hydrothermal fluid alteration processes after crustal emplacement.
DS202008-1365
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Fedortchouk, Y., Ehrig, K., Kamenetsky, M.Evolution of kimberlite magmas in the crust: a case study of groundmass and mineral hosted inclusions in the Mark kimberlite ( Lac de Gras, Canada).Lithos, in press available, 55p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Kimberlites are the surface manifestation of deeply-derived (>150 km) and rapidly ascended magmas. Fresh kimberlite rocks are exceptionally rare, as most of them are invariably modified by pervasive deuteric and/or post-magmatic fluids that overprint the original mineralogy. In this study, we examined fresh archetypal kimberlite from the Mark pipe (Lac de Gras, Canada), which is characterised by well-preserved olivine and groundmass minerals. The sequence of crystallisation of the parental melt and its major compositional features, including oxygen fugacity, were reconstructed using textural relationships between magmatic minerals, their zoning patterns and crystal/melt/fluid inclusions. Crystal and multiphase primary, pseudosecondary and secondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine, Cr-diopside, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite/kinoshitalite, apatite and calcite preserve a record of different stages of kimberlite melt evolution. Melt/fluid inclusions are generally more depleted in silica and more enriched in alkalis (K, Na), alkali-earth (Ba, Sr) and halogens (Cl, F) relative to the whole-rock composition of the Mark kimberlite. These melt/fluid inclusion compositions, in combination with presence of elevated CaO (up to 1.73 wt%), in Mg-rich olivine rinds, crystallisation of groundmass kinoshitalite, carbonates (calcite, Sr-Ba-bearing) and alkali-enriched rims around apatite suggest that there was progressive enrichment in CO2, alkalis and halogens in the evolving parental melt. The Mark kimberlite groundmass is characterised by the following stages of in-situ crystallisation: (1) olivine rims around xenocrystic cores + Cr-spinel/TIMAC. (2) Mg-rich olivine rinds around olivine rims/cores + MUM-spinel (followed by pleonaste and Mg-magnetite) + monticellite (+ partial resorption of olivine, along with the formation of ferropericlase and CO2 as a result of decarbonation reactions) + perovskite + apatite. (3) Olivine outmost rinds, which are coeval with phlogopite/kinoshitalite + apatite + sulphides + carbonate (calcite, Ba-Sr-Na-bearing varieties). In addition, oxygen fugacity of the Mark kimberlite was constrained by olivine-chromite, perovskite and monticellite oxygen barometry and showed that the parental melt became progressively more oxidised in response to fractional crystallisation. (4) Deuteric (i.e. late-stage magmatic) and/or post-magmatic (i.e. external fluids) alteration of magmatic minerals (e.g., olivine, monticellite, ferropericlase) and crystallisation of mesostasis serpentine, K-bearing chlorite and brucite (i.e. replacement of ferropericlase). The absence of any alkali (Na, K) and halogen (F, Cl) rich groundmass minerals in the Mark kimberlite may be attributed to these elements becoming concentrated in the late-stage melt where they potentially formed unstable, water-soluble carbonates (such as those observed in melt inclusions). Consequently, these minerals were most likely removed from the groundmass by deuteric and/or post-magmatic alteration.
DS202008-1406
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Kargin, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S.Links between ultramafic lamprophyres and kimberlites in the Anabar shield, Yakutia, Russia: evidence from multiphase inclusions in rock-forming minerals.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractRussia, Yakutiadeposit - Viktoria

Abstract: To provide new constraints on the evolution of ultramafic lamprophyre melts and relation to kimberlites, we examined monomineralic and primary multiphase melt inclusions in rock-forming minerals within damtjernite from Viktoria pipe, Anabar region, Siberia craton, Russia. The studied samples are relatively unaltered nepheline-bearing, carbonate-poor damtjernite with a significant amount of monticellite in the groundmass and as a replacement of olivine. Studied inclusions hosted by groundmass monticellite, magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite and perovskite. Monomineralic inclusions sized up to 10 µm are round-toeuhedral in shape and are comprised of monticellite, spinel, perovskite and nepheline. Multiphase melt inclusions sized up to 10-15 µm have rounded to elongate and amoeboid shapes. These inclusions are heterogeneous in composition and consist of perovskite, spinel group minerals, apatite (including F- and Sr-apatite), feldspathoids, multiphase alkali (Na, K) carbonate and chloride (sylvite/halite), rare K-Naand Ba-sulfates, phlogopite and baddeleyite. Despite the lack of carbonate phases in studied rocks, the composition of multiphase inclusions indicates that lamprophyre melts contained carbonate or carbonate/chlorite components. The CO2 degassing is consistent with the reaction between olivine and carbonate-bearing melt led to decarbonation reaction and generation of montichellite, as described in [1]. The composition of multiphase inclusions within minerals from lamprophyres is close to the composition of multiphase inclusions within olivine, spinel, monticellite, perovskite from kimberlites, thus indicating possible genetic links between parental melts of ultramafic lamprophyre and kimberlite.
DS202008-1411
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Korneeva, A.A., Nikolai, N.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Portnyagin, M.V., Savelyev, D.P., Krasheninnikov, S.P., Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Zelenski, M.E., Shcherbakov, V.D., Botcharnikov, R.E.Composition, crystallization conditions and genesis of sulfide saturated parental melts of olivine-phyric rocks from Kamchatsky Mys ( Kamchatka, Russia).Lithos, 10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105657Russia, Kamchatkapicrites

Abstract: Sulfide liquids that immiscibly separate from silicate melts in different magmatic processes accumulate chalcophile metals and may represent important sources of the metals in Earth's crust for the formation of ore deposits. Sulfide phases commonly found in some primitive mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) may support the occurrence of sulfide immiscibility in the crust without requiring magma contamination and/or extensive fractionation. However, the records of incipient sulfide melts in equilibrium with primitive high-Mg olivine and Cr-spinel are scarce. Sulfide globules in olivine phenocrysts in picritic rocks of MORB-affinity at Kamchatsky Mys (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia) represent a well-documented example of natural immiscibility in primitive oceanic magmas. Our study examines the conditions of silicate-sulfide immiscibility in these magmas by reporting high precision data on the compositions of Cr-spinel and silicate melt inclusions, hosted in Mg-rich olivine (86.9-90 mol% Fo), which also contain globules of magmatic sulfide melt. Major and trace element contents of reconstructed parental silicate melts, redox conditions (?QFM = +0.1 ± 0.16 (1s) log. units) and crystallization temperature (1200-1285 °C), as well as mantle potential temperatures (~1350 °C), correspond to typical MORB values. We show that nearly 50% of sulfur could be captured in daughter sulfide globules even in reheated melt inclusions, which could lead to a significant underestimation of sulfur content in reconstructed silicate melts. The saturation of these melts in sulfur appears to be unrelated to the effects of melt crystallization and crustal assimilation, so we discuss the reasons for the S variations in reconstructed melts and the influence of pressure and other parameters on the SCSS (Sulfur Content at Sulfide Saturation).
DS202009-1664
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Soltys, A., Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S.Kimberlite metasomatism of the lithosphere and the evolution of olivine in carbonate rich melts - evidence from the Kimberley kimberlites ( South Africa).Journal of Petrology, in press available, 90p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: Olivine is the most abundant phase in kimberlites and is stable throughout most of the crystallization sequence, thus providing an extensive record of kimberlite petrogenesis. To better constrain the composition, evolution, and source of kimberlites we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of olivine from multiple dyke, sill, and root zone kimberlites in the Kimberley cluster (South Africa). Olivine grains in these kimberlites are zoned, with a central core, a rim overgrowth, and occasionally an external rind. Additional ‘internal’ and ‘transitional’ zones may occur between the core and rim, and some samples of root zone kimberlites contain a late generation of high-Mg olivine in cross-cutting veins. Olivine records widespread pre-ascent (proto-)kimberlite metasomatism in the mantle including the following features: (1) relatively Fe-rich (Mg# <89) olivine cores interpreted to derive from the disaggregation of kimberlite-related megacrysts (20?% of cores); (2) Mg-Ca-rich olivine cores (Mg# >89; >0•05?wt% CaO) suggested to be sourced from neoblasts in sheared peridotites (25?% of cores); (3) transitional zones between cores and rims probably formed by partial re-equilibration of xenocrysts (now cores) with a previous pulse of kimberlite melt (i.e. compositionally heterogeneous xenocrysts); (4) olivine from the Wesselton water tunnel sills, internal zones (I), and low-Mg# rims, which crystallized from a kimberlite melt that underwent olivine fractionation and stalled within the shallow lithospheric mantle. Magmatic crystallization begins with internal olivine zones (II), which are common but not ubiquitous in the Kimberley olivine. These zones are euhedral, contain rare inclusions of chromite, and have a higher Mg# (90•0 ± 0•5), NiO, and Cr2O3 contents, but are depleted in CaO compared with the rims. Internal olivine zones (II) are interpreted to crystallize from a primitive kimberlite melt during its ascent and transport of olivine toward the surface. Their compositions suggest assimilation of peridotitic material (particularly orthopyroxene) and potentially sulfides prior to or during crystallization. Comparison of internal zones (II) with liquidus olivine from other mantle-derived carbonate-bearing magmas (i.e. orangeites, ultramafic lamprophyres, melilitites) shows that low (100×) Mn/Fe (~1•2), very low Ca/Fe (~0•6), and moderate Ni/Mg ratios (~1•1) appear to be the hallmarks of olivine in melts derived from carbonate-bearing garnet-peridotite sources. Olivine rims display features indicative of magmatic crystallization, which are typical of olivine rims in kimberlites worldwide; that is, primary inclusions of chromite, Mg-ilmenite and rutile, homogeneous Mg# (88•8 ± 0•3), decreasing Ni and Cr, and increasing Ca and Mn. Rinds and high-Mg olivine are characterized by extreme Mg-Ca-Mn enrichment and Ni depletion, and textural relationships indicate that these zones represent replacement of pre-existing olivine, with some new crystallization of rinds. These zones probably precipitated from evolved, oxidized, and relatively low-temperature kimberlite fluids after crustal emplacement. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of combined petrography and olivine geochemistry to trace the evolution of kimberlite magmatic systems from early metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by (proto-)kimberlite melts, to crystallization at different depths en route to surface, and finally late-stage deuteric or hydrothermal fluid alteration after crustal emplacement.
DS202101-0017
2020
Kamenetsky, V.S.Hughes, H.S.R., Compton-Jones, C., MvDonald, I., Kiseeva, E.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Rollinson, G., Coggon, J.A., Kinnaird, J.A., Bybee, G.M.Base metal sulphide geochemistry of southern African mantle eclogites ( Roberts Victor): implications for cratonic mafic magmatism and metallogenesis.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016/ j.lithos.2020.105918 67p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Roberts Victor

Abstract: Platinum-group elements (PGE) display a chalcophile behaviour and are largely hosted by base metal sulphide (BMS) minerals in the mantle. During partial melting of the mantle, BMS release their metal budget into the magma generated. The fertility of magma sources is a key component of the mineralisation potential of large igneous provinces (LIP) and the origin of orthomagmatic sulphide deposits hosted in cratonic mafic magmatic systems. Fertility of mantle-derived magma is therefore predicated on our understanding of the abundance of metals, such as the PGE, in the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle. Estimations of the abundance of chalcophile elements in the upper mantle are based on observations from mantle xenoliths and BMS inclusions in diamonds. Whilst previous assessments exist for the BMS composition and chalcophile element budget of peridotitic mantle, relatively few analyses have been published for eclogitic mantle. Here, we present sulphide petrography and an extensive in situ dataset of BMS trace element compositions from Roberts Victor eclogite xenoliths (Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa). The BMS are dominated by pyrite-chalcopyrite-pentlandite (± pyrrhotite) assemblages with S/Se ratios ranging 1200 to 36,840 (with 87% of analyses having S/Se this editing is incorrect. This should read "(with 87% of analyses having S/Se < 10,000)" Please note the <<10,000). Total PGE abundance in BMS range from 0.17 to 223 ppm. We recognise four end-member compositions (types i to iv), distinguished by total PGE abundance and Pt/Pd and Au/Pd ratios. The majority of BMS have low PGE abundances (< 10 ppm) but Type iv BMS have the highest concentration of PGE recorded in eclogites so far (> 100 ppm) and are characteristically enriched in Os, Ir, Ru and Rh. Nano- and micron-scale Pd-Pt antimonide, telluride and arsenide platinum-group minerals (PGM) are observed spatially associated with BMS. We suggest that the predominance of pyrite in the xenoliths reflects the process of eclogitisation and that the trace element composition of the eclogite BMS was inherited from oceanic crustal protoliths of the eclogites, introduced into the SCLM via ancient subduction during formation of the Colesberg Magnetic Lineament c. 2.9 Ga and the cratonisation of the Kaapvaal Craton. Crucially, we demonstrate that the PGE budget of eclogitic SCLM may be substantially higher than previously reported, akin to peridotitic compositions, with significant implications for the PGE fertility of cratonic mafic magmatism and metallogenesis. We quantitatively assess these implications by modelling the chalcophile geochemistry of an eclogitic melt component in parental magmas of the mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex.
DS201611-2110
2016
Kamenetsly, V.S.Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsly, V.S., Maas, R., Geomann, K., Woodhead, J.D., Drysdale, R.N., Griffin, W.L.The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-C-O isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite ( Kimberley, South Africa).Chemical Geology, in press available 15p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The petrogenesis of kimberlites commonly is obscured by interaction with hydrothermal fluids, including deuteric (late-magmatic) and/or groundwater components. To provide new constraints on the modification of kimberlite rocks during overprinting by such fluids and on the fractionation of kimberlite magmas during crystallisation, we have undertaken a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of a hypabyssal sample (BK) from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa).
DS1985-0317
1985
Kamenev, YE.A.Kamenev, YE.A., Fayzullin, R.M.Geologic Models for Apatite Nepheline Mineral DepositsInternational Geology Review, Vol. 27, No. 6, June pp. 678-683RussiaAlkaline Rocks
DS1991-1143
1991
Kamen-Kaye, M.Meyerhoff, A.A., Kamen-Kaye, M., Chin Chen, Taner, I.Chin a -stratigraphy, paleogeography and tectonicsKluwer Publ, 188p. approx. $ 125.00ChinaTectonics, Stratigraphy
DS201112-0160
2011
KamenovChakmouradian, A.R., Bohm, Coeslan, Mumin, Reguir, Demeny, Simonetti, Kressall, Martins, Kamenov, Creaser, LepekhinaPostorogenic carbonatites: more abundant than we realize and more important than given credit for.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.17-19.Canada, ManitobaCinder Lake, Eden Lake, Paint Lake
DS201112-0161
2011
KamenovChakmouradian, A.R., Bohm, Coeslan, Mumin, Reguir, Demeny, Simonetti, Kressall, Martins, Kamenov, Creaser, LepekhinaPostorogenic carbonatites: more abundant than we realize and more important than given credit for.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.17-19.Canada, ManitobaCinder Lake, Eden Lake, Paint Lake
DS201012-0596
2010
Kamenov, G.Pradhan, V.R., Meert, J.G., Pandit, M.K., Kamenov, G., Gregory, L.C., Malone, S.J.India's changing place in global Proterozoic reconstructions: a review of geochronologic constraints and paleomagnetic poles from the Dharwar Bundelk hand and MarwarJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 50, 3-4, pp. 224-242.IndiaCraton, crustal evolution
DS201112-0662
2011
Kamenov, G.Meert, J.G., Pandit, M.K.,Pradham, V.R., Kamenov, G.Preliminary report on the paleomagnetism of 1.88 Ga dykes from the Bastar and Dharwar cratons, Peninsular India.Gondwana Research, Vol. 20, 2-3, pp. 335-343.IndiaDyke system
DS201212-0572
2012
Kamenov, G.Pradham, V.R., Meert, J.G., Pandit, M.K., Kamenov, G., Mondal, E.F.A.Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies of the mafic dyke swarms of Bundelk hand craton, central India: implications for the tectonic evolution and paleogeographic reconstructions.Precambrian Research, in press available, 80p.IndiaDeposit - Bunder
DS201012-0805
2010
Kamenov, G.D.Turner, C.C., Meert, J.G., Kamenov, G.D., Pandit, M.K.A detrital zircon transect across the Son Valley sector of the Vindhyan Basin, India: further constraints on basin evolution.Geological Society of America Abstracts, 1/2p.IndiaKimberlite
DS1992-0817
1992
Kamenskiy, I.L.Kamenskiy, I.L., Tolstikhim, I.N.High 3He/4He in diamond and constraints on the age of alluviuMGeochemistry International, Vol. 29, No. 11, 94-102GlobalDiamond inclusions, Helium, age determination
DS1992-1444
1992
Kamenskiy, V.S.Sobolev, A.V., Kamenskiy, V.S., Kononkova, N.N.New dat a on Siberian meymechite petrologyGeochemistry International, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 10-20Russia, SiberiaPetrology, Meymechite
DS2002-1605
2002
KamenskyTolstikhin, I.N., Kamensky, Marty, Nivin, Vetrin et al.Rare gas isotopes and parent trace elements in ultrabasic alkaline carbonatite complexes, Kola Peninsula.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 881-901.Russia, Kola PeninsulaMantle plume component, Geochemistry
DS2001-0838
2001
Kamensky, I L.Nivin, V.A., Ikorsky, S.V., Kamensky, I L.Noble gas (lle Ar) isotope evidence for sources of Devonian alkaline magmatism and ore formation related..Alkaline Magmatism -problems mantle source, pp. 177-88.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochronology, Argon
DS200512-0786
2001
Kamensky, I.L.Nivin, V.A., Ikorsky, S.V., Kamensky, I.L.Noble gas ( He Ar) isotope evidence for sources of Devonian alkaline magmatism and ore formation related within the Kola province, NW Russia).Alkaline Magmatism and the problems of mantle sources, pp. 177-188.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochronology
DS200812-1142
2008
Kamentesky, V.S.Sun, W., Kamentesky, V.S., Eggins, S.M., Chen, M., Arculus, R.J.Constancy of NB/U in the mantle revisited.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 72, 14, pp. 3542-3549.MantleMorb chemistry
DS1988-0641
1988
Kamentseky, A.V.Sinitsyn, A.V., Kushev, V.G., Ermolaev, L.A., Kamentseky, A.V.The structural -tectonic kimberlite position of the east SiberianPlatform*(in Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 303, No. 6, pp. 1438-1441RussiaTectonics, Structure
DS200812-0541
2008
Kamentsky, M.B.Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamentsky, M.B., Sobolev, A.V., Golovin, A.V., Demouchy, S., Faure, Sharygin, KuzminOlivine in the Udachnaya east kimberlite ( Yakutia, Russia): types, compositions and origins.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 49, 4, pp. 823-839.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS1995-0411
1995
Kamentsy, V.S.Dellapasqua, F.N., Kamentsy, V.S., Gasparon, CrawfordAl-spinels in primitive arc volcanicsMineralogy Petrology, Vol. 53, No. 1-3, pp. 1-26.AustraliaMineralogy -spinels
DS1985-0318
1985
Kameswara, R.T.Kameswara, R.T., Soni, M.K.A Review of Rewa Group (vindhyan Supergroup) with Reference Topaisun information in Panna Diamond Belt, Madhya PradeshRecords of the Geological Survey of India, pp. 107-123IndiaBlank
DS1994-0865
1994
Kameswara Rao, T.Kameswara Rao, T., Sarma, K.J.A new occurrence of kimberlite near Kotakonda Mahboobnagar District, AndhraPradesh. #1Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 43, January pp. 75-85.IndiaPetrology, Dyke -Kotakonda
DS200712-1054
2007
Kameyama, M.Tagawa, M., Nakakuki, T., Kameyama, M., Tajima, F.The role of history dependent rheology in plate boundary lubrication for generating one-sided subduction.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Pageoph, Vol. 164, 5, pp. 879-907.MantleSubduction
DS200712-1055
2007
Kameyama, M.Tagawa, M., Nakakuki, T., Kameyama, M., Tajima, F.The role of history dependent rheology in plate boundary lubrication for generating one-sided subduction.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Pageoph, Vol. 164, 5, pp. 879-907.MantleSubduction
DS200712-1056
2007
Kameyama, M.Tagawa, M., Nakakuki, T., Kameyama, M., Tajima, F.The role of history dependent rheology in plate boundary lubrication for generating one sided subduction.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Pageoph, Vol. 164, 5, May pp. 879-907.MantleSubduction
DS200712-1057
2007
Kameyama, M.Tagawa, M., Nakakuki, T., Kameyama, M., Tajima, F.The role of history dependent rheology in plate boundary lubrication for generating one-sided subduction.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 164, 5, May pp. 879-907.MantleSubduction, convection
DS200812-1303
2007
Kameyama, M.Yuen, D.A., Matyska, C., Cadek, O., Kameyama, M.The dynamical influences from physical properties in the lower mantle and post perovskite phase transition.AGU American Geophysical Union Monograph, No. 174, pp. 249-270.MantleTectonics
DS201312-0413
2013
Kameyama, M.Ichikawa, H., Kameyama, M., Kawai, K.Mantle convection with continental drift and heat source around the mantle transition zone.Gondwana Research, Vol. 24, 3-4, pp. 1080-1090.MantleSubduction
DS201312-0452
2013
Kameyama, M.Kameyama, M., Kinoshita, Y.On the stability of thermal stratification of highly compressible fluids with depth dependent physical properties: implications for the mantle convection.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 195, 3, pp. 1443-1454.MantleConvection
DS201412-0389
2014
Kameyama, M.Ichikawa, H., Kameyama, M., Senshu, H., Kawai, K., Maruyama, S.Influence of majorite on hot plumes.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, pp. 461-468.MantleHotspots
DS201809-2100
2018
Kamihanda, G.Tepp, G., Ebinger, C.J., Zal, H., Gallacher, R., Accardo, N., Shillington, D.J., Gaherty, J., Keir, D., Nyblade, A.A., Mbogoni, G.J., Chindandali, P.R.N., Ferdinand-Wambura, R., Mulibo, G.D., Kamihanda, G.Seismic anistrotropy of the Upper mantle below the western rfit, East Africa.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 123, 7, pp. 5644-5660.Africa, east Africageophysics - seismic

Abstract: Although the East African rift system formed in cratonic lithosphere above a large-scale mantle upwelling, some sectors have voluminous magmatism, while others have isolated, small-volume eruptive centers. We conduct teleseismic shear wave splitting analyses on data from 5 lake-bottom seismometers and 67 land stations in the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi rift zone, including the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP), and from 5 seismometers in the Kivu rift and Virunga Volcanic Province, to evaluate rift-perpendicular strain, rift-parallel melt intrusion, and regional flow models for seismic anisotropy patterns beneath the largely amagmatic Western rift. Observations from 684 SKS and 305 SKKS phases reveal consistent patterns. Within the Malawi rift south of the RVP, fast splitting directions are oriented northeast with average delays of ~1 s. Directions rotate to N-S and NNW north of the volcanic province within the reactivated Mesozoic Rukwa and southern Tanganyika rifts. Delay times are largest (~1.25 s) within the Virunga Volcanic Province. Our work combined with earlier studies shows that SKS-splitting is rift parallel within Western rift magmatic provinces, with a larger percentage of null measurements than in amagmatic areas. The spatial variations in direction and amount of splitting from our results and those of earlier Western rift studies suggest that mantle flow is deflected by the deeply rooted cratons. The resulting flow complexity, and likely stagnation beneath the Rungwe province, may explain the ca. 17 Myr of localized magmatism in the weakly stretched RVP, and it argues against interpretations of a uniform anisotropic layer caused by large-scale asthenospheric flow or passive rifting.
DS1998-0713
1998
Kamijo, K.Kamijo, K., Hashizume, K., Matsuda, J.I.Noble gas constraints on the evolution of the atmosphere mantle systemGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 13, July pp. 2311-22.MantleDegassing, helium
DS1975-1092
1979
Kamil, F.Kamil, F.The Diamond UnderworldLondon: Allen Lane., 244P.GlobalKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Biography
DS201505-0243
2015
Kaminchik, J.Katzir, Y., Anenburg, M., Kaminchik, J., Segev, A., Blichert-Toft, J., Spicuzza, M.J., Valley, J.W.Garnet pyroxenites as markers of recurring extension and magmatism at the rifted margins of the Levant basin.Israel Geological Society, Abstracts 1p.Europe, Israel, Mt. CarmelPyroxenite
DS1989-0980
1989
Kamineni, D.C.McCrank, G.F.D., Kamineni, D.C., Ejeckam, R.B., Sikorsky, R.Geology of the East Bulletin Lake gabbro- anorthosite pluton, Algoma OntarioCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 2, February pp. 357-375OntarioAnorthosite
DS1990-0796
1990
Kamineni, D.C.Kamineni, D.C., Stone, PetermanEarly Proterozoic deformation in the western Superior Province, CanadianShield.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 102, pp. 1623-34.Ontario, ManitobaKenoran Orogeny
DS1991-1663
1991
Kamineni, D.C.Stone, D., Kamineni, D.C., Jackson, M.C.Geology of the Atikokan areaGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting held Toronto May 1991, Guidebook, No. A7, 27pOntarioStructure, Steep Rock Group
DS1992-1483
1992
Kamineni, D.C.Stone, D., Kamineni, D.C., Jackson, M.C.Precambrian geology of the Atikokan area, northwestern OntarioGeological Survey of Canada, Bulletin. No. 405, 106p. $ 23.95OntarioAtikokan area, Precambrian geology
DS1993-0771
1993
Kamineni, D.C.Kamineni, D.C., Kerrich, R., Brown, A.Effects of differential reactivity of minerals on the development of brittle to semi-brittle structures in granitic rocks: textural and oxygen isotope evidenceChemical Geology, Vol. 105, pp. 215-232OntarioGeochronology, Tectonic, structure
DS201604-0636
2016
Kaminhanda, G.Thomas, R.J, Spencer, C., Bushi, A.M., Baglow, N., Gerrit de Kock, B., Hortswood, M.S.A., Hollick, L., Jacobs, J., Kajara, S., Kaminhanda, G., Key, R.M., Magana, Z., McCourt, M.W., Momburi, P., Moses, F., Mruma, A., Myamilwa, Y., Roberts, N.M.W., HamisiGeochronology of the centra Tanzania craton and its southern and eastern orogenic margins.Precambrian Research, in press available 57p.Africa, TanzaniaGeochronology

Abstract: Geological mapping and zircon U-Pb/Hf isotope data from 35 samples from the central Tanzania Craton and surrounding orogenic belts to the south and east allow a revised model of Precambrian crustal evolution of this part of East Africa. The geochronology of two studied segments of the craton shows them to be essentially the same, suggesting that they form a contiguous crustal section dominated by granitoid plutons. The oldest orthogneisses are dated at ca. 2820 Ma (Dodoma Suite) and the youngest alkaline syenite plutons at ca. 2610 Ma (Singida Suite). Plutonism was interrupted by a period of deposition of volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed to greenschist facies, directly dated by a pyroclastic metavolcanic rock which gave an age of ca. 2725 Ma. This is supported by detrital zircons from psammitic metasedimentary rocks, which indicate a maximum depositional age of ca. 2740 Ma, with additional detrital sources 2820 and 2940 Ma. Thus, 200 Ma of episodic magmatism in this part of the Tanzania Craton was punctuated by a period of uplift, exhumation, erosion and clastic sedimentation/volcanism, followed by burial and renewed granitic to syenitic magmatism. In eastern Tanzania (Handeni block), in the heart of the East African Orogen, all the dated orthogneisses and charnockites (apart from those of the overthrust Neoproterozoic granulite nappes), have Neoarchaean protolith ages within a narrow range between 2710 and 2630 Ma, identical to (but more restricted than) the ages of the Singida Suite. They show evidence of Ediacaran "Pan-African" isotopic disturbance, but this is poorly defined. In contrast, granulite samples from the Wami Complex nappe were dated at ca. 605 and ca. 675 Ma, coeval with previous dates of the "Eastern Granulites" of eastern Tanzania and granulite nappes of adjacent NE Mozambique. To the south of the Tanzania Craton, samples of orthogneiss from the northern part of the Lupa area were dated at ca. 2730 Ma and clearly belong to the Tanzania Craton. However, granitoid samples from the southern part of the Lupa "block" have Palaeoproterozoic (Ubendian) intrusive ages of ca. 1920 Ma. Outcrops further south, at the northern tip of Lake Malawi, mark the SE continuation of the Ubendian belt, albeit with slightly younger ages of igneous rocks (ca. 1870-1900 Ma) which provide a link with the Ponte Messuli Complex, along strike to the SE in northern Mozambique. In SW Tanzania, rocks from the Mgazini area gave Ubendian protolith ages of ca. 1980-1800 Ma, but these rocks underwent Late Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism between 1015 and 1040 Ma. One granitoid gave a crystallisation age of ca. 1080 Ma correlating with known Mesoproterozoic crust to the east in SE Tanzania and NE Mozambique. However, while the crust in the Mgazini area was clearly one of original Ubendian age, reworked and intruded by granitoids at ca. 1 Ga, the crust of SE Tanzania is a mixed Mesoproterozoic terrane and a continuation from NE Mozambique. Hence the Mgazini area lies at the edge of the Ubendian belt which was re-worked during the Mesoproterozoic orogen (South Irumide belt), providing a further constraint on the distribution of ca. 1 Ga crust in SE Africa. Hf data from near-concordant analyses of detrital zircons from a sample from the Tanzania Craton lie along a Pb-loss trajectory (Lu/Hf = 0), extending back to ~3.9 Ga. This probably represents the initial depleted mantle extraction event of the cratonic core. Furthermore, the Hf data from all igneous samples, regardless of age, from the entire study area (including the Neoproterozoic granulite nappes) show a shallow evolution trend (Lu/Hf = 0.028) extending back to the same mantle extraction age. This implies the entire Tanzanian crust sampled in this study represents over 3.5 billion years of crustal reworking from a single crustal reservoir and that the innermost core of the Tanzanian Craton that was subsequently reworked was composed of a very depleted, mafic source with a very high Lu/Hf ratio. Our study helps to define the architecture of the Tanzanian Craton and its evolution from a single age-source in the early Eoarchaean.
DS1998-0714
1998
Kaminiski, E.Kaminiski, E., Jaupart, C.The size distribution of pyroclasts and the fragmentation sequence in explosive volcanic eruptions.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. 12, Dec. 10, pp. 29, 759-80.GlobalMagma - phreatomagmatic, General - not specific to diamonds
DS201601-0006
2015
Kaminiski, E.Boneh, Y., Morales, L.F.G., Kaminiski, E., Skemer, P.Modeling olivine CPO evolution with complex deformation histories: implications for the interpretation of seismic anisotropy in the mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 16, 10, pp. 3436-3455.MantleGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Relating seismic anisotropy to mantle flow requires detailed understanding of the development and evolution of olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Recent experimental and field studies have shown that olivine CPO evolution depends strongly on the integrated deformation history, which may lead to differences in how the corresponding seismic anisotropy should be interpreted. In this study, two widely used numerical models for CPO evolution—D-Rex and VPSC—are evaluated to further examine the effect of deformation history on olivine texture and seismic anisotropy. Building on previous experimental work, models are initiated with several different CPOs to simulate unique deformation histories. Significantly, models initiated with a preexisting CPO evolve differently than the CPOs generated without preexisting texture. Moreover, the CPO in each model evolves differently as a function of strain. Numerical simulations are compared to laboratory experiments by Boneh and Skemer (2014). In general, the D-Rex and VPSC models are able to reproduce the experimentally observed CPOs, although the models significantly over-estimate the strength of the CPO and in some instances produce different CPO from what is observed experimentally. Based on comparison with experiments, recommended parameters for D-Rex are: M*?=?10, ?*?=?5, and ??=?0.3, and for VPSC: a?=?10-100. Numerical modeling confirms that CPO evolution in olivine is highly sensitive to the details of the initial CPO, even at strains greater than 2. These observations imply that there is a long transient interval of CPO realignment which must be considered carefully in the modeling or interpretation of seismic anisotropy in complex tectonic settings.
DS1988-0643
1988
Kaminiskii, F.V.Smirnov, G.I., Klyuev, Yu.A., Kaminiskii, F.V.Structure of diamonds from the Lesotho kimberlites. (Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 63-68RussiaDiamond luminesence, Diamond morphology
DS1990-0506
1990
Kaminisky, F.V.Galimov, E.M., Kaminisky, F.V., Maltsev, K.A., Sobolev, N.V.The relation between delta 13 C and mineral inclusion assemblages in diamonds from paired kimberlite pipesGeochemistry International, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 134-137RussiaDiamond inclusions, carbon, Delta 13 C analyses
DS200812-0199
2008
Kaminisky, F.V.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Srivisastra, R.K., Sridhar, M., Kaminisky, F.V.Petrology, geochemistry and genesis of new Mesoproterozoic high magnesian calcite rich kimberlites of Siddanpalli, eastern Dharwar Craton...products9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractIndiaSubduction related magmatic sources?
DS201012-0098
2010
Kaminisky, F.V.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Dongre, A., Kamde, G., Srivastava, R.K., Sridhar, M., Kaminisky, F.V.Petrology, geochemistry and genesis of newly discovered Mesoproterozoic highly magnesian, calcite rich kimberlites from Siddanpalli, eastern Dharwar Craton...Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 98, 1-4, pp. 313-328.IndiaSubduction related magmatic sources?
DS201604-0612
2016
Kaminisky, F.V.Kaminisky, F.V., Wirth, R., Anikin, L.P., Morales, L., Schreiber, A.Carbonado-like diamond from the Avacha active volcano in Kamchatka, Russia.Lithos, in press available, 15p.RussiaCarbonado

Abstract: In addition to a series of finds of diamond in mafic volcanic and ultramafic massive rocks in Kamchatka, Russia, a carbonado-like diamond aggregate was identified in recent lavas of the active Avacha volcano. This aggregate differs from ‘classic carbonado’ by its location within an active volcanic arc, well-formed diamond crystallites, and cementing by Si-containing aggregates rather than sintering. The carbonado-like aggregate contains inclusions of Mn-Ni-Si-Fe alloys, native ß-Mn, tungsten and boron carbides, which are uncommon for both carbonado and monocrystalline diamonds. Mn-Ni-Si-Fe alloys, trigonal W2C and trigonal B4C are new mineral species that were not previously found in the natural environment. The formation of the carbonado-like diamond aggregate started with formation at ~ 850-1000 °C of tungsten and boron carbides, Mn-Ni-Si-Fe alloys and native ß-Mn, which were used as seeds for the subsequent crystallization of micro-sized diamond aggregate. In the final stage, the diamond aggregate was cemented by amorphous silica, tridymite, ß-SiC, and native silicon. The carbonado-like aggregate was most likely formed at near-atmospheric pressure conditions via the CVD mechanism during the course or shortly after one of the volcanic eruption pulses of the Avacha volcano. Volcanic gases played a great role in the formation of the carbonado-like aggregate.
DS201910-2298
2019
Kaminisky, F.V.Shiryaev, A.A., Kaminisky, F.V., Ludwig, W., Zolotov, D.A., Buzmakov, A.V., Titlov, S.V.Texture and genesis of polycrystalline varieties of diamond based on phase-contrast and diffraction contrast tomography.Geochemistry International, Vol. 57, 9, pp. 1015-1023.South America, Brazil, Africa, Central African Republic, Russiacarbonado

Abstract: Structural peculiarities of several types of cryptocrystalline diamond varieties: carbonado, impact-related yakutite and cryptocrystalline diamond aggregates from kimberlite were studied using Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction contrast (DCT—Diffraction Contrast Tomography) and phase contrast tomography (PCT). It is shown that the porosity of the carbonado and kimberlitic cryptocrystalline aggregates is similar being in range of 5-10 vol %, possibly indicating similar formation mechanism(s), whereas that of yakutite is essentially zero. Crystallographic texture is observed for some carbonado samples. It is suggested that at least partially the texture is explained by deformation-related bands. Infrared spectroscopy reveals presence of hydrous and, probably, of hydrocarbon species in carbonado.
DS2000-0463
2000
Kaminski, E.Kaminski, E., Jaupart, C.Lithospheric structure beneath the Phanerozoic intracratonic basins of North America.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 178, No. 1-2, May 15, pp. 139-50.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesTectonics, Craton - basins
DS200612-0767
2006
Kaminski, E.Lassak, T.M., Fouch, M.J., Hall, C.E., Kaminski, E.Seismic characterization of mantle flow in subduction systems: can we resolve a hydrated mantle wedge?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 243, 3-4, March 30, pp. 632-649.MantleSubduction, water
DS201012-0323
2010
Kaminski, E.Javoy, M., Kaminski, E., Guyot,Andrault, Sanloup, Moreira, Labrosse, Jambon, Agrinier.Davaille, JaupartThe chemical composition of the Earth: enstatite chondrite models.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 293, 3-4, pp. 259-268.MantleChemistry
DS201902-0281
2018
Kaminski, E.Kaminski, E., Okaya, D.A.How to detect water in the mantle wedge of a subduction zone using seismic anisotropy.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, 24, pp. 13,298-13,305.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: A subduction zone's mantle wedge can have a complex pattern of seismic anisotropy where the fast direction often rotates from trench-parallel close to the trench to trench-normal in the backarc. This pattern can be interpreted as induced by either 3-D trench-parallel flow or by the presence of water close to the trench. Almost all models so far favored the trench-parallel flow hypothesis, usually based on indirect or complementary indicators such as the evolution of geochemical signatures of volcanoes along the arc. Here we examine a seismic anisotropy observational signature that can be used to discriminate between the two explanations. The concept is defined using an interdisciplinary approach linking a direct modeling of the flow in the subduction wedge and a computation of seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media. We define a unique water-induced signature that is the presence of a “morph zone” characterized by a weak anisotropy and a decrease of seismic velocities. We apply the model to the Lau Basin where we find this predicted signature, demonstrating for the first time that water rather than trench-parallel flow is responsible for the observed anisotropy pattern there.
DS201012-0337
2010
Kaminski, V.Kaminski, V., Legault, J.M., Kumar, H.The Drybones kimberlite: a case study of VTEM and ZTEM airborne EM results.21st International Geophysical Conference and Exhibition Sydney NSW Australia, August 22-25, Extended abstract 5p.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - Drybones pipe
DS201608-1449
2016
Kaminski, V.Viezzoli, A., Kaminski, V.Airborne IP: examples from the Mount Milligan deposit Canada, and the Amakinskaya kimberlite pipe, Russia.Exploration Geophysics , http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EG16015 10p. AvailableRussiaDeposit Amakinskaya, Geophysics

Abstract: There have been multiple occurrences in the literature in the past several years of what has been referred to as the induced polarisation (IP) effect in airborne time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data. This phenomenon is known to be responsible for incorrect inversion modelling of electrical resistivity, lower interpreted depth of investigation (DOI) and lost information about chargeability of the subsurface and other valuable parameters. Historically, there have been many suggestions to account for the IP effect using the Cole-Cole model. It has been previously demonstrated that the Cole-Cole model can be effective in modelling synthetic TDEM transients. In the current paper we show the possibility of extracting IP information from airborne TDEM data using this same concept, including inverse modelling of chargeability from TDEM data collected by VTEM, with field examples from Canada (Mt Milligan deposit) and Russia (Amakinskaya kimberlite pipe).
DS201610-1858
2016
Kaminski, V.Di Massa, D., Kaminski, V., Viezzoli, A.Airborne IP: Drybones kimberlite VTEM dat a Cole-Cole inversion.ASEG-PESA-AIG 2016 25th Geophysical Conference, Abstract 4p.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Drybones

Abstract: A VTEM survey was flown over the Drybones kimberlite in 2005, followed by a ZTEM survey in 2009. These data sets were inverted on multiple previous occasions using various 1D, 2D, 3D and plate modelling algorithms. VTEM data showed AIP effects, manifested as negative voltages and otherwise skewed transients. This created artefacts in conventional inversions of VTEM data, which showed some inconsistencies with ZTEM inversions, as well as with the known geology. In 2015 the VTEM data were transferred to Aarhus Geophysics, reprocessed and reinverted using the modified "AarhusINV" code with Cole-Cole modelling. The results are presented in current abstract, they appear to be more interpretable and provide better data fit, than previous inversion attempts.
DS201703-0411
2017
Kaminski, V.Kaminski, V., Viezzoli, A.Modeling induced polarization effects in helicopter time domain electromagnetic data: Field case studies ( Drybones Bay, NWT)Geophysics, Vol. 82, 2, pp. B49-B61.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics, deposit - Drybones

Abstract: Induced polarization (IP) effects are becoming more evident in time-domain helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data thanks to advances in instrumentation, mainly due to improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio and hence better data quality. Although the IP effects are often manifested as negative receiver voltage values, which are easy to detect, in some cases, IP effects can distort recovered transients in other ways so they may be less obvious and require careful data analysis and processing. These effects represent a challenge for modeling and inversion of the AEM data. For proper modeling of electromagnetic transients, the chargeability of the subsurface and other parameters describing the dispersion also need to be taken into consideration. We use the Cole-Cole model to characterize the dispersion and for modeling of the IP effects in field AEM data, collected by different airborne systems over different geologies and exploration targets, including examples from diamond, gold, and base metal exploration.
DS201809-2015
2018
Kaminski, V.Di Massa, D., Fedi, M., Florio, G., Vitale, A., Viezzoli, A., Kaminski, V.Joint interpretation of AEM and aeromagnetic dat a acquired over the Drybones kimberlite, NWT ( Canada).Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 158, pp. 48-56.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Drybones

Abstract: We present the joint interpretation of airborne electromagnetic and aeromagnetic data, acquired to study kimberlite pipes. We analyse the data surveyed in 2005 over Drybones Bay, Archean Slave Province of the Northwest Territories, northern Canada. This area hosts a recently discovered kimberlite province with >150 kimberlite pipes. Magnetic and electromagnetic data were each one modelled by 1D inversion. For magnetic data we inverted vertical soundings built through upward continuations of the measured data at various altitudes. The validity of the method was prior verified by tests on synthetic data. Electromagnetic data were processed and inverted using the modified AarhusINV code, with Cole-Cole modelling, in order to take into account induced polarization effects, consisting in negative voltages and otherwise skewed transients. The integrated study of the two kinds of data has led to a better understanding of the structures at depth, even though the comparison between the magnetic and the electromagnetic models shows the different sensitivity of the two methods with respect to the geological structure at Drybones Bay.
DS1982-0307
1982
Kaminskii, F.V.Kaminskii, F.V., Shepleva, K.A., et al.Diamonds of Ultrabasic, Basic and Alkali Basalt RocksMineral. Sbornik L'vov, Vol. 36, No. 1, PP. 80-82.RussiaBlank
DS1985-0319
1985
Kaminskii, F.V.Kaminskii, F.V., Kulakova, I.I., Ogloblina, A.I.Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Carbonado and DiamondDoklady Academy of Sciences AKAD. NAUK SSSR., Vol. 283, No. 4, PP. 985-989.RussiaBlank
DS1960-0968
1968
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Potapov, S.V.Petrography and Mineralogy of the Kimberlite Rocks of the Ingili District, Eastern Aldan Shield.Geologii i Geofiziki, No. 1, PP. 50-55.RussiaBlank
DS1960-0969
1968
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Potapov, S.V.Kimberlite Bodies of in Ingili Region on the Eastern Margin of the Aldan Shield.Geologii i Geofiziki, No. 11, PP. 30-36.RussiaBlank
DS1960-0970
1968
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Potapov, S.V.A New Kimberlite Province of Precambrian Age on the Eastern margin of the Aldan Shield.Second All-union Conference, Geol. Diamond Deposits, PERM.RussiaBlank
DS1960-1138
1969
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.The Kimberlite Like Rocks: IngilitesAkad. Nauk Sssr Azerb. Baku., Pt. 4, Pp. 258-260., RussiaBlank
DS1970-0732
1973
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Distribution of Kimberlite (of Different Facies) and Associated Rocks on the Siberian PlatformDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 204, No. 1-6, PP. 87-89.RussiaBlank
DS1970-0807
1973
Kaminskiy, F.V.Prokopchuk, B.I., Frantsesson, YE.V., Kaminskiy, F.V.Conference on the Principles and Methodology of Prospecting for Diamonds.Soviet Geology, No. 5, PP. 153-154.Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1975-0303
1976
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Vaganov, V.I.Petrologic Reasons for Possible Diamond Occurrence in Alpine Type Ultramafics.Izvestiya Akad. Nauk Sssr, Geol. Ser., 1976, No. 06, PP. 35-47.RussiaPetrology, Diamond Genesis
DS1975-0747
1978
Kaminskiy, F.V.Galimov, E.M., Kaminskiy, F.V., Ivanovskaya, I.N.Carbon Isotope Compositions of Diamonds from the Urals, Timan, Sayan, the Ukraine, and Elsewhere.Geochemistry International, Vol. 15, No. 2, PP. 11-18.RussiaBlank
DS1975-0772
1978
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Klyuyev, YU.A., et al.First Carbonado and New Ballas Finds in the Soviet UnionDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 242, No. 1-6, PP. 152-155.RussiaKimberlite
DS1975-0773
1978
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Lavrova, L.D., Shepeleva, K.A.Garnets in Alpine Type Ultramafic Rocks of the UralsDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 241, No. 1-6, PP. 193-195.RussiaKimberlite
DS1975-1042
1979
Kaminskiy, F.V.Gurkina, G.A., Ivanovskaya, I.N., Kaminskiy, F.V., Galimov, E.M.The Distribution of Carbon Isotopes in Diamond Crystals.(russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya)(Russian), Vol. 1979, No. 12, pp. 1897-1905RussiaBlank
DS1980-0266
1980
Kaminskiy, F.V.Orlov, YU.L., Ivankin, P.F., Kaminskiy, F.V.Combined Studies on DiamondsTsnigri, No. 152, 115P.RussiaBlank
DS1981-0376
1981
Kaminskiy, F.V.Shilo, N.A., Kaminskiy, F.V., et al.First Diamond Find in Ultramafic Rocks of KamchatkaDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 248, No. 1-6, PP. 176-179.RussiaProspecting
DS1982-0308
1982
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Galimov, E.M., et al.Bort With Garnet from the Mir Pipe, YakutiaDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 256, No. 3, PP. 115-117.Russia, YakutiaCrystallcgraphy, Petrography
DS1983-0343
1983
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Theory of the growth of unstable phases, application to temperature, pressure and supersaturation in growth of diamond.(Russian) #1Doklady Academy of Sciences Nauk Uzb. SSR, (Russian), No. 1, pp. 26-28RussiaRef. Fleischer United States Geological Survey (usgs) Of 88-, Diamond Morphology
DS1983-0495
1983
Kaminskiy, F.V.Orlov, YU.L., Kaminskiy, F.V.Carbonado with Lonsdaleite, a New (eleventh) Variety of Polycrystalline Diamond Aggregate.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 259, JULY-AUGUST, PP. 161-164.RussiaMineralogy
DS1984-0390
1984
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Diamond Bearing of Non-kimberlitic Volcanic Rocks.(russian)Nedra Publishing*(in Russian), 173pRussiaOn File In Rus Geological Society Of Canada (gsc) No. 26058
DS1984-0391
1984
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Theory of the growth of unstable phases, application to temperature, pressure and supersaturation in growth of diamond.(Russian) #2Khim. Fiz., (Russian), No. 3, pp. 318-331RussiaRef. Fleischer United States Geological Survey (usgs) Of 88-, Diamond Morphology
DS1984-0392
1984
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Diamond Bearing Non-kimberlite Volcanic Rocks.(russian)Izd. Nedra Moscow, (Russian), 176pRussiaBlank
DS1985-0212
1985
Kaminskiy, F.V.Galinov, E.M., Kaminskiy, F.V., Kodina, L.A.New Dat a on Carbonado Carbon Isotope CompositionsGeochemistry International, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 18-21Russia, BrazilLonsdaleite, Morphology
DS1985-0320
1985
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Reliability of diamond finds in alkaline basaltoids and ultrabasic nonkimberlite rocksSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 26, No. 8, pp. 121-123RussiaAlkaline Rocks
DS1985-0321
1985
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Diamonds of Ultrabasic, Basic and Alkaline Basaltic Rocks.(in French)Bureau de Recherche Geol. et Minieres Traduction (in French), Vol. No. 5598, 7pRussiaAlnoite, Crystallography
DS1985-0322
1985
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Polycrystalline Aggregates of Diamond and Lonsdaleite, Yakutia. (russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), No. 7, pp. 27-36RussiaRef. Fleischer United States Geological Survey (usgs) Of 88-689.mineralogical Refs. 198, Diamond Morphology
DS1985-0323
1985
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Sobolev, N.V.The carbon isotopic composition variations within diamondcrystals.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 285, No. 6, pp. 1436-1438RussiaDiamond Morphology
DS1986-0415
1986
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Chernaya, I.P., Chernyi, A.V.Diamond crystals in alkaline picrites of alklaine ultrabasicformations.(Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 39-45RussiaPicrite, Alkaline rocks
DS1986-0750
1986
Kaminskiy, F.V.Smirnov, G.I., Klyuyev, Y.A., Kaminskiy, F.V.Certain characteristics of diamond crystals from the Premier Kimberlite pipe South Africa.(Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 8, No. 4, August pp. 69-74South AfricaCrystallography, Diamond
DS1987-0326
1987
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Genesis of diamond polycrystalline aggregates as carbonado.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 294, No. 2, pp. 439-440RussiaCarbonado
DS1987-0327
1987
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Bartoshinsky, Z.V., Kptil, V.I.Terminology of diamond polycrystalline aggregates.(Russian)Mineral. Sbornik (L'Vov), (Russian), Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 16-20RussiaCrystallography, Brazilian type, Carbonado
DS1987-0328
1987
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Kulakova, I.I., Ogloblina, A.I.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonado and diamondDoklady Academy of Sciences Acad. Svi. Ussr Earth Sci. Section, Vol. 283, No. 4, pp. 147-150RussiaGeochemistry, Diamond
DS1987-0329
1987
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V., Sobolev, N.V.Variations of the isotope distribution within diamond crystalsDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 285, No. 6, pp. 155-157RussiaBlank
DS1988-0339
1988
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.New type of bedrock diamond deposits.(Russian)Razv. I Okhr. Nedr. (Russian), No. 5, pp. 57-62AustraliaLamproite
DS1988-0340
1988
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Origin of polycrystalline carbonado diamond aggregatesDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 294, No. 1-6, October pp. 122-123RussiaCarbonado
DS1989-0462
1989
Kaminskiy, F.V.Galimov, E.M., Kaminskiy, F.V., Maltsev, K.A., Sobolev, N.V.Relation of carbon isotopic composition with parageneses of mineral inclusions in diamonds in paired kimberlite pipes.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 5, pp. 754-758RussiaGeochronology - C Isotope, Diamond inclusions
DS1989-0740
1989
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.Geochemical specialization of lamproites.(Russian)Izvest. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geol., (Russian), No. 9, September pp. 130-141RussiaLamproites, Geochemistry
DS1989-0741
1989
Kaminskiy, F.V.Kaminskiy, F.V.New dat a on the diamond content of nonkimberlitic igneous rocks.(Russian)Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Geol. Zaved., (Russian), No. 3, pp. 32-40RussiaNonkimberlitic rocks, Diamond content
DS201703-0437
2017
Kaminskiy, V.Viezzoli, A., Kaminskiy, V., Fiandaca, G.Modeling induced polarization effects in helicopter time domain electromagnetic data: synthetic case studies. ( kimberlite simulated)Geophysics, Vol. 82, 2, pp. E31-E50.TechnologyGeophysics - IP, EM

Abstract: We have developed a synthetic multiparametric modeling and inversion exercise undertaken to study the robustness of inverting airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data to extract Cole-Cole parameters. The following issues were addressed: nonuniqueness, ill posedness, dependency on manual processing and the effect of constraints, and a priori information. We have used a 1D layered earth model approximation and lateral constraints. Synthetic simulations were performed for several models and the corresponding Cole-Cole parameters. The possibility to recover these models by means of laterally constrained multiparametric inversion was evaluated, including recovery of chargeability distributions from shallow and deep targets based on analysis of induced polarization (IP) effects, simulated in airborne TDEM data. Different scenarios were studied, including chargeable targets associated with the conductive and resistive environments. In particular, four generic models were considered for the exercise: a sulfide model, a kimberlite model, and two generic models focusing on the depth of investigation.
DS1998-1139
1998
KaminskyPearson, N.J., Griffin, Kaminsky, Van AchterberghTrace element discrimination of garnet from Diamondiferous kimberlites andlamproites.7th. Kimberlite Conference abstract, pp. 673-5.South Africa, Russia, Siberia, Yakutia, Venezuela, GhanaGeochemistry, Garnets
DS200712-0106
2007
KaminskyBrenker, F.E., Vollmer, C., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Szymanski, Janssens, Szaloki, Nasdala, Joswig, KaminskyCarbonates from the lower part of transition zone or even the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, 1-2, pp. 1-9.MantleCarbonates
DS200712-0107
2007
KaminskyBrenker, F.E., Vollmer, C., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Szymanski, Janssens, Szaloki, Nasdala, Joswig, KaminskyCarbonates from the lower part of transition zone or even the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, 1-2, pp. 1-9.MantleCarbonates
DS200712-0108
2007
KaminskyBrenker, F.E., Vollmer, Vincze, Vekemans, Szymanski, Janssens, Szaloki, Nasdala, Joswig, KaminskyCarbonates from the lower part of transition zone or even the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, 1-2, pp. 1-9.MantleCarbonates
DS200712-0773
2007
KaminskyNasir, S., Al-Khirbashi, S., Al-Sayigh, Alharthy, Mubarek, Rollinson, Lazki, Belouova, Griffin, KaminskyThe first record of allochthonous kimberlite within the Batain Nappes, eastern Oman.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A706.Africa, OmanBatain melange
DS200812-0787
2008
KaminskyNasir, S., Al-Khirbash, Rollinson, Al-Harthy, Al-Sayigh, Al-Lazki, Belousa, Kaminsky, Theye, Massone, Al-BuaidiEvolved carbonatitic kimberlite from the Batain Nappes, eastern Oman continental margin.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractAfrica, Arabia, OmanPetrography
DS200812-0788
2008
KaminskyNasir, S., Al-Khirbash, Rollinson, Al-Harthy, Al-Sayigh, Al-Lazki, Belousa, Kaminsky, Theye, Massone, Al-BuaidiLate Jurassic Early Cretaceous kimberlite, carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyric sill and dyke swarms from the Bomethra area, northeastern Oman.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractAfrica, Arabia, OmanPetrography
DS201012-0394
2009
KaminskyKlein-BenDavid, O., Logvinova, A.M., Schrauder, M., Spetius, Z.V., Weiss, Hauri, Kaminsky, Sobolev, Navon, O.High Mg carbonatitic Micro inclusions in some Yakutian diamonds - a new type of diamond forming fluid.Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 648-659.RussiaMineral chemistry - end member