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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - C-Cg


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - C-Cg
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS201812-2785
2018
C.B.Bulanova, G.P., Speich, L. Smith, C.B., Gaillou, E., Koln, S.C., Wibberley, E., Chapman, J.G., Howell, D., Davy, A.T.Argyle deposit: The unique nature of Argyle fancy diamonds: internal structure, paragenesis, and reasons for color.Society of Economic Geology Geoscience and Exploration of the Argyle, Bunder, Diavik, and Murowa Diamond Deposits, Special Publication no. 20, pp. 169-190.Australia, western Australiadeposit - Argyle
DS1989-0200
1989
C.F. Mineral Research LtdC.F. Mineral Research LtdDiamond exploration in CanadaGeological Survey of Canada Open File, Due May 1989 now due January 1990 # 2128CanadaEconomics of kimberlite/lamproite areas, Current activity and rese
DS1990-0260
1990
C.F. Mineral Research LtdC.F. Mineral Research LtdThe development of advanced technology to distinguish between productive diamondiferous and barren diatremes #1Geological Survey Of Canada Open File, Riley's Datashare Calgary Cost:, No. 2124GlobalDiatremes, Diamondiferous economics
DS1994-0239
1994
C.F. Mineral Research LtdC.F. Mineral Research LtdThe development of advanced technology to distinguish between productive diamondiferous and barren diatremes #2Geological Survey of Canada Open File, No. 2124, Parts l, ll, lll Pt. 1 90p. 20p. fiche (ll &IIICanadaOpen file first released in 1990, Disc product $ 25.00 WK1 format
DS201804-0677
2018
Caamano-Alegre, M.Caamano-Alegre, M.Drift theory and plate tectonics: a case of embedding in geology.Foundations of Science, Vol. 23, pp. 17-35.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the semantic relation between continental drift and plate tectonics. The numerous attempts to account for this case in either Kuhnian or Lakatosian terms have been convincingly dismissed by Rachel Laudan (PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Symposia and Invited Papers, 1978), who nevertheless acknowledged that there was not yet a plausible alternative to explain the so called "geological revolution". Several decades later, the epistemological side of this revolution has received much attention (Ruse in The darwinian paradigm, essays on its history, philosophy and religious implications. London, Routledge, 1981/1989; Thagard in Conceptual revolutions. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1992; Marvin in Metascience 10:208-217, 2001; Oreskes in Plate tectonics: an insiders’ history of the modern theory of the earth. Westview Press, Boulder, 2003), while the semantic relation between drift theory and plate tectonics has remained mainly unexplored. In studying this case under a new light, the notion of embedding, as distinguished from other sorts of intertheoretical relations (Moulines in Cognitio Humana-Dynamik des Wissens und der Werte. XVII, Institut für Philosophie der Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, 1996, Time, chance, and reduction: philosophical aspects of statistical mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010, Metatheoria 1(2):11-27, 2011), will have a particular significance. After formally analyzing the relationship between continental drift and plate tectonics, it will become evident that the models of drift theory are part of the models of plate tectonics, thereby fulfilling the conditions for embedding. All theoretical concepts from drift theory are presupposed in some theoretical concepts from plate tectonics, and all empirical concepts of the former are shared by the latter. Furthermore, all the successful paradigmatic applications of continental drift are also successful applications of plate tectonics. As a consequence, under the label "geological revolution", we actually find a salient historical case of cumulative progress across theory change.
DS1988-0099
1988
Cabanes, N.Cabanes, N., Mercier, J.C.C.Insight into the upper mantle beneath an active extensional zone- the spinel peridotite xenoliths from San-Quintin (BajaCalifornia, Mexico)Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 100, No. 3, pp. 374-382California, MexicoMantle, Xenoliths
DS1988-0100
1988
Cabanes, N.Cabanes, N., Mercier, J.C.C.Mineral chemistry and equilibrium conditions of the spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Monferrier southern France.(in French)Bulletin. de Mineralogie, (in French), Vol. 111, No. 1, Jan-Feb, pp. 65-78FranceBlank
DS200712-0497
2007
Cabaret, D.Juhin, A., Cabaret, D., Galoisy, L., Hazemann, J-L., Calas, G.First principles investigation of trace element in corporation in minerals: the case of Cr3+ in spinel and pyrope garnet.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.166-167.TechnologyGarnet mineralogy
DS200712-0498
2007
Cabaret, D.Juhin, A., Cabaret, D., Galoisy, L., Hazemann, J-L., Calas, G.First principles investigation of trace element in corporation in minerals: the case of Cr3+ in spinel and pyrope garnet.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.166-167.TechnologyGarnet mineralogy
DS201904-0719
2019
Cabaret, D.Boulard, E., Harmand, M., Guyot, F., Lelong, G., Morard, D., Cabaret, D., Boccato, S., Rosa, A.D., Briggs, R., Pascarelli, S., Fiquet, G.Ferrous iron under oxygen rich conditions in the deep mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 1348-1356.MantleUHP

Abstract: Iron oxides are important end-members of the complex materials that constitute the Earth's interior. Among them, FeO and Fe2O3 have long been considered as the main end-members of the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) states of iron, respectively. All geochemical models assume that high oxygen concentrations are systematically associated to the formation of ferric iron in minerals. The recent discovery of O22- peroxide ions in a phase of chemical formula FeO2Hx stable under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions challenges this general concept. However, up to now, the valences of iron and oxygen in FeO2Hx have only been indirectly inferred from a structural analogy with pyrite FeS2. Here we compressed goethite (FeOOH), an Fe3+-bearing mineral, at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions by using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells, and we probed the iron oxidation state upon transformation of FeOOH in the pressure-temperature stability field of FeO2Hx using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The data demonstrate that upon this transformation iron has transformed into ferrous Fe2+. Such reduced iron despite high oxygen concentrations suggests that our current views of oxidized and reduced species in the lower mantle of the Earth should be reconsidered.
DS202004-0503
2020
Cabaret, D.Chasse, M., Blanchard, M., Cabaret, D., Vantelon, D., Juan, A., Calas, G.First principles modeling of X-ray absorption spectra enlightens the process of scandium sequestration by iron oxides.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, 7, 10.2138/am-2020-730Globalscandium

Abstract: Scandium is often associated with iron oxides in the environment. Despite the use of scandium as a geochemical tracer and the existence of world-class supergene deposits, uncertainties on speciation obscure the processes governing its sequestration and concentration. Here, we use first-principles approaches to interpret experimental K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of scandium either incorporated in or adsorbed on goethite and hematite, at concentrations relevant for the environment. This modeling helps to interpret the characteristic spectral features, providing key information to determine scandium speciation when associated with iron oxides. We show that scandium is substituted into iron oxides at low concentration without modifying the crystal structure. When scandium is adsorbed onto iron oxide surfaces, the process occurs through outer-sphere complexation with a reduction in the coordination number of the hydration shell. Considering available X-ray absorption spectra from laterites, the present results confirm that scandium adsorption onto iron oxides is the dominant mechanism of sequestration in these geochemical conditions. This speciation explains efficient scandium recovery through mild metallurgical treatments of supergene lateritic ores. The specificities of scandium sorption mechanisms are related to the preservation of adsorbed scandium in million-years old laterites. These results demonstrate the emerging ability to precisely model fine X-ray absorption spectral features of trace metals associated with mineral phases relevant to the environment. It opens new perspectives to accurately determine trace metals speciation from high-resolution spatially-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy in order to constrain the molecular mechanisms controlling their dynamics.
DS201910-2249
2019
Cabareta, D.Chasse, M., Blanchard, M., Cabareta, D., Juhin, A., Vantelon, D., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Calas, G.Deciphering molecular-scale mechanisms covering scandium dynamics in the critical zone. Goldschmidt2019, in press available, 71 ppt.Australialaterites

Abstract: Scandium is often considered as immobile during chemical weathering, based on its low solubility. In contrast to other conservative (i.e. relatively immobile) elements incorporated into accessory minerals resistant to weathering (e.g. zirconium, thorium or niobium), the scarcity of scandium minerals indicates that the processes accounting for scandium's immobilisation are distinctive. However, the evolution of scandium speciation during weathering is unknown, limiting the understanding of the processes controlling its dynamics in the critical zone. Exceptional scandium concentrations in east Australian laterites provide the possibility of unravelling these mechanisms. We follow scandium speciation through thick lateritic profiles (> 30 m) using a multiscale mineralogical and spectroscopic approach involving electron microprobe, laser-ablation--inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selective leaching and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, complemented by mass-transfer calculations. We show that the initial reservoir of scandium contained in the parent rock is preserved under reducing conditions occurring in the lowest horizons of the profiles. The dissolution of scandium-bearing clinopyroxene generates smectitic clays that immobilise and concentrate scandium. It is subsequently trapped in the lateritic duricrust by goethite. Scandium mobilisation appears in this horizon and increases upward as a result of the dissolution of goethite, possibly assisted by dissolved organic matter, and the precipitation of hematite. Molecular-scale analyses demonstrate that changes in speciation govern scandium dynamics, with substitution in smectitic clays and adsorption on iron oxyhydroxides playing a crucial role in scandium immobility in the saprolite and lower lateritic duricrust. The higher affinity of scandium for goethite relative to hematite drives scandium mobilisation in the upper lateritic duricrust, leading to its concentration downward in the lower lateritic duricrust. These successive mechanisms illustrate how the unique complexity of the critical zone leads to scandium concentrations that may form new types of world-class scandium deposits. Comparison with conservative elements and with rare-earth elements, expected to have similar geochemical properties, emphasizes the unique behaviour of scandium in the critical zone. While scandium remains immobile during the early stages of weathering, intense and long-term alteration processes, observed in lateritic contexts, lead to scandium mobilisation. This study highlights the dependence of scandium mobility on weathering conditions.
DS201112-0131
2011
Cabral, R.A.Cabral, R.A., Jackson, M.G., Rose-Koga, E.F., Fay, J.M.D., Shimizu, N.Volatile and trace element abundances in HIMU melt inclusions.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.610.Polynesia, Cook IslandsWater, carbonatite
DS201312-0117
2013
Cabral, R.A.Cabral, R.A., Jackson, M.A., Rose-Kaga, E.F., Koga, K.T., Whitehouse, MJ., Antonelli, M.A., Farquhar, J., Day, J.M.D., Hauri, E.H.Anomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archean crust.Nature, Vol. 496, April 25, pp. 490-493.Mantle, Cook IslandsSubduction
DS201412-0974
2014
Cabral Neto, I.Weska, R.K., Cabral Neto, I., Silveira, F.V.Fontes primarias e secundariaras do diamante, Morro do Chapadao, Juina, MT. Brasil.6 Simposio Brasileiro de Geologia do Diamante, Aug. 3-7, 1p. AbstractSouth America, Brazil, Mato GrossoDeposit - Juina
DS201702-0234
2016
Cabral-Antunez, N.D.Presser, J.L.B., Farina-Dolsa, S., Larroza-Cristaldo, F.A., Rocca, M., Alonso, R.N., Acededo, R.D., Cabral-Antunez, N.D., Baller, L., Zarza-Lima, P.R., Sekatcheff, J.M.Modeled mega impact structures in Paraguay: II the eastern region. **PortBoletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Narural del Paraguay, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 205-213. pdf available in * PortSouth America, ParaguayImpact Crater

Abstract: We report here the discovery and study of several new modeled large impact craters in Eastern Paraguay, South America. They were studied by geophysical information (gravimetry, magnetism), field geology and also by microscopic petrography. Clear evidences of shock metamorphic effects were found (e.g., diaplectic glasses, PF, PDF in quartz and feldspar) at 4 of the modeled craters: 1) Negla: diameter:~80-81 km., 2) Yasuka Renda D:~96 km., 3) Tapyta, D: ~80 km. and 4) San Miguel, D: 130-136 km. 5) Curuguaty, D: ~110 km. was detected and studied only by geophysical information. Target-rocks range goes from the crystalline Archaic basement to Permian sediments. The modeled craters were in some cases cut by tholeiitic/alkaline rocks of Mesozoic age and partially covered by lavas of the basaltic Mesozoic flows (Negla, Yasuka Renda, Tapyta and Curuguaty). One of them was covered in part by sediments of Grupo Caacupé (age: Silurian/Devonian). Some of these modeled craters show gold, diamonds, uranium and REE mineral deposits associated. All new modeled large impact craters are partially to markedly eroded.
DS201710-2257
2017
Cabral-Antunez, N.D.Presser, J.L.B., Tondo, M.J., Dolsa, S.F., Rocca, M.C.L., Alonso, R.N., Benetiz, P., Larroza, F.A., Duarte, B.J.R., Cabral-Antunez, N.D.Brief comments on the impact metamorphism in Cerro Leon quartzites, western Paraguay. English abstract ** in PORTPyroclastic Flow, Vol. 7, 1,pp. 16-24.South America, Paraguayimpact diamonds

Abstract: The petrographic study of two samples (quartzite and impactite) of Cerro León, a mountain range located in the middle of very probable impact basins (Cerro Leon-1, 2, 3 and 4-department of Alto Paraguay, Western-Paraguay) indicated evidences of impact metamorphism: PDFs (Not decorated and decorated) and diaplectic glass. Associated with diaplectic glass, impact diamonds or diamond/lonsdaleite crystals (micro and small macros) were observed with a range of morphologies including isolated and mostly agglutinated crystal varieties. Impact diamonds estimated to have formed by carbonate impact metamorphism present in the sedimentary target-rock of the Silurian/Devonian age. The identification of elements that reveal the impact metamorphism, in the analyzed samples of the Cerro León, evidences that the area of occurrence that would have been indicated as Very Probable Impact Basin, would be more of an Impact Basin.
DS201907-1556
2019
Cabrera, B.Kurinsky, N., Yu, C., Hochberg, Y., Cabrera, B.Diamond detectors for direct detection of sub-GeV dark matter.Physical Review, Vol. 99, June 15, 123005Spacediamond morphology

Abstract: We propose to use high-purity lab-grown diamond for the detection of sub-GeV dark matter. Diamond targets can be sensitive to both nuclear and electron recoils from dark matter scattering in the MeV and above mass range, as well as to absorption processes of dark matter with masses between sub-eV to 10's of eV. Compared to other proposed semiconducting targets such as germanium and silicon, diamond detectors can probe lower dark matter masses via nuclear recoils due to the lightness of the carbon nucleus. The expected reach for electron recoils is comparable to that of germanium and silicon, with the advantage that dark counts are expected to be under better control. Via absorption processes, unconstrained QCD axion parameter space can be successfully probed in diamond for masses of order 10 eV, further demonstrating the power of our approach.
DS1996-0213
1996
Cabri, L.Campbell, J.L., Teesdale, W.J., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Cabri, L.Micro-pixe analysis of silicate reference standards for trace nickel copper Zn GaGe As Sr Y Zr Nb Mo lead -Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 34, pp. 37-48.Northwest TerritoriesNickel garnet thermometry, proton induced electron emission analyses, General reference -not specific to diamonds only
DS201112-0132
2011
Cabri, L.Cabri, L.Product - electric pulse disaggregator.... test facility in Ottawacnt-mc.com, or lcabri @sympatico.caTechnologyLab facility
DS1989-1037
1989
Cabri, L.J.Mitchell, R.H., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J.Rhenium sulphide from the Coldwell Complex,northwestern Ontario, CanadaMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 53, No. 373, Pt. 5, December pp. 635-636OntarioCarbonatite, Coldwell Complex -sulphid
DS1998-0196
1998
Cabri, L.J.Cabri, L.J., VaughanModern approaches to ore and environmental mineralogyMineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Spec. Publishing No. 27, 410p. $ 48.00GlobalBook - table of contents, Ore mineralogy
DS201201-0857
2011
Cabri, L.J.McClenaghan, M.B., Cabri, L.J.Review of gold and platinum group elements (PGE) indicator minerals methods for surficial sediment sampling.Geochemistry, Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 11, 4, Nov. pp. 251-263.TechnologyGeochemistry - review not specific to diamonds
DS201706-1073
2017
Cabri, L.J.Good, D.J., Cabri, L.J., Ames, D.E.PGM facies variations for Cu-PGE deposits in the Coldwell alkaline complex, Ontario, Canada.Ore Geology Reviews, in press available 36p.Canada, Ontarioalkaline rocks

Abstract: Accurate characterization of the platinum group mineral (PGM) assemblages for Cu-Ni-PGE deposits are typically constrained by sample size and the difficulty of finding statistically significant numbers of grains, which is expected given the low concentrations of platinum group elements (<2 ppm), the great variety of PGM, and the likelihood that a few large grains (>75 µm) can account for large fractions of total mass. Despite these limitations, an accurate survey of PGM from different deposit types would have significant value towards developing deposit models and respective exploration strategies. In this study, we present results for a comprehensive evaluation of PGM at four copper-PGE occurrences hosted within separate but co-genetic gabbro or troctolite intrusions in the Coldwell Alkaline Complex and confirm that accurate surveys are possible with sufficient sample material and efficient PGM concentration methods. The PGM concentration methods used include: (1) hydroseparation of sieved size fractions of pulverized material, and (2) panning of grain separates produced by electric pulse disaggregation of drill core specimens. A favourable comparison of the results has verified the reliability of each method and added confidence that the PGM assemblages identified at three of the four locations are fully characterized. Precious metal mineral (PMM) assemblages are determined for the Main zone and W Horizon at the Marathon deposit, and the main zones at each of the Geordie Lake deposit and Area 41 occurrence. A total of 10,824 PMM grains (PGE and Au-Ag) and 68 mineral species, including 16 unknown minerals, were identified, of which 768 grains and 31 species occur at the Main zone, 523 grains and 41 species at Area 41,9485 grains and 43 species at W horizon, and 56 grains and 12 species at Geordie Lake. The PMM are grouped as follows: Pd-Ge, PGE-S-As, Pt-Fe alloy, Pd-Cu-Pb-Au, Pd-Ni-S, Pd-Pt-Sn, Pt-As, Pd-As, Pd-Pt-Sb-As, Pd-Pt-Bi-Te, and Au-Ag. All of the deposits were found to contain similar proportions of Pd-Pt-Sb-As, Pd-Pt-Bi-Te and Au-Ag minerals. But the W Horizon and Area 41 are distinguished from the Marathon Main zone and Geordie Lake deposits by the presence of minerals in the PGE-S-As, Pt-Fe alloy, Pd ± Cu ± Pb ± Au and Pd-Ge groups. Taken together, the PMM assemblages for deposits in the Coldwell exhibit a strong correlation to PGE enrichment relative to the range for mantle Cu/Pd values (1000-10,000). And there is no relationship between the abundances of Pd-Pt-Bi-Te and Pd-Pt-Sb-As minerals that are commonly associated with hydrous phases, and the intensity of hydrothermal alteration. Thus minerals found only at the W Horizon and Area 41, where significant PGE upgrading has occurred, including Pt-Fe alloys, rustenburgite, marathonite, palladogermanide, unknown Rh-Ni-Fe-sulfide, Au-Pd-Cu alloy, braggite, coldwellite, laurite, zvyagintsevite, laflammeite, and unknown phases Pd5As2, Pd3As, Pd3(As,Pb,Bi) might be considered as index minerals for PGE enriched types of mineralization in the Coldwell.
DS1975-0948
1979
Caby, R.Black, R., Caby, R., et al.Evidence for Late Precambrian Plate Tectonics in West AfricaNature., Vol. 278, PP. 223-227.West Africa, GuineaStructure, Tectonics
DS1987-0051
1987
Caby, R.Bertrandsarfati, J., Moussinepouchkine, A., Caby, R.Correlations in West Africa from Proterozoic to Cambrian- a new geodynamicinterpretation.*freBulletin. Soc. Geologique de France, (in French), Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 855-866West AfricaTectonics
DS1992-0131
1992
Caby, R.Blanc, A., Bernard-Griffiths, J., Caby, R., Caruba, C., Caruba, R.uranium-lead (U-Pb) (U-Pb) dating and isotopic signature of the alkaline ring complexes of BouJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 301-311GlobalAlkaline ring complexes, Geochronology
DS1994-0240
1994
Caby, R.Caby, R.Precambrian coesite from Mali: first record and implications for plate tectonics trans-Saharan segment.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 6, pp. 235-244.GlobalMineralogy, Coesite
DS1994-0241
1994
Caby, R.Caby, R.Precambrian coesite from northern Mali: first record and implications for plate tectonics in the Trans-Saharan segment of the Pan African belt.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 6, pp. 235-244.GlobalTectonics, Coesite
DS1995-0249
1995
Caby, R.Caby, R., Arthaud, M.H., Archanjo, C.J.Lithostratigraphy and petrostructural characterization of supracrustal units in the Brasiliano belt of BrasilJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, pp. 235-246BrazilStratigraphy, Petrology
DS1996-0302
1996
Caby, R.Corsini, M., Vauchez, A., Caby, R.Ductile duplexing at a band of a continental scale strike slip shear zone:example from northeast BrasilJournal of Structural Geology, Vol. 18, No. 4, Apr.1, pp. 385-394BrazilStructure, Lineament
DS1997-0811
1997
Caby, R.Monie, P., Caby, R., Arthaud, M.H.The Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Orogeny in northeast Brasil: 40 Ar/39Ar and petrostructural dat a CearaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 81. No. 3-4, Feb. 1, pp. 241-264BrazilTectonics, Argon, Proterozoic
DS1999-0158
1999
Caby, R.Da Costa Campos Neto, M., Caby, R.Neoproterozoic high pressure metamorphism and tectonic constraint from the Nappe system south Sao Francisco...Precambrian Research, Vol. 97, pp. 3-26.BrazilCraton - Sao Francisco, Tectonics, collision
DS2001-0525
2001
Caby, R.Jahn, B-M., Caby, R., Monie, P.The oldest ultra high pressure (UHP) eclogites of the world: age of ultra high pressure (UHP) metamorphism, nature of protoliths and tectonic implic.Chemical Geology, Vol. 178, No. 1-4, pp. 143-58.GlobalEclogites, ultra high pressure (UHP), Geochronology
DS2002-0393
2002
Caby, R.Dostal, J., Caby, R., Keppie, J.D., Maza, M.Neoproterozoic magmatism in southwestern Algeria ( Sebkha el Melah Inlier): a northerly extension of the Trans Saharan orogen.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, 2, Aug. pp. 213-25.AlgeriaShoshonite, West African Craton
DS200912-0666
2009
Caby, R.Sarava dos Santos, T.J., Garcia, M.M., Amarai, W.S., Caby, R., Wernick, E., Arthaud, M.H., Dantas, E.L., Santosh, M.Relics of eclogite facies assemblages in the Ceara central domain, NW Borborema Province, NE Brazil: implications for the assembly of West Gondwana.Gondwana Research, Vol. 15, 3-4, pp. 454-470.South America, BrazilTectonics
DS201412-0088
2014
Caby, R.Caby, R., Bruguier, O., Fernandez, L., Hammor, D., Bosch, D., Mechati, M., Laouar, R., Ouabadi, A., Abdallah, N., Douchet, C.Metamorphic diamonds in a garnet megacryst from the Edough Massif (northeastern Algeria)… Recognition and geodynamic consequences.Tectonophysics, Vol. 637, pp. 341-353.Africa, AlgeriaEdough Massif
DS201709-1965
2017
Caby, R.Bruguier, O., Bosch, D., Caby, R., Vitale-Brovarone, A., Fernadez, L., Hammor, D., Laouar, R., Ouabadi, A., Abdallah, N., Mechanti, M.Age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean: insight from rutile and minute zircon inclusions in a diamond bearing garnet megacryst ( Edough Massif, NE Algeria).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 474, pp. 215-225.Africa, Algeriadiamond inclusions

Abstract: Diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks witness for subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle and their return to shallow levels. In this study we present U-Pb and trace elements analyses of zircon and rutile inclusions from a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst collected in a mélange unit exposed on the northern margin of Africa (Edough Massif, NE Algeria). Large rutile crystals (up to 300 µm in size) analyzed in situ provide a U-Pb age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde to peak subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Trace element analyses of minute zircons (=30 µm) indicate that they formed in equilibrium with the garnet megacryst at a temperature of 740-810 °C, most likely during HP retrograde metamorphism. U-Pb analyses provide a significantly younger age of 20.7 ± 2.3 Ma attributed to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean Orogen to the Oligocene/early Miocene, thus unambiguously relating UHP metamorphism to the Alpine history. Exhumation of these UHP units is coeval with the counterclockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block and most likely resulted from subduction rollback that was driven by slab pull.
DS201112-0133
2011
Caciagli, N.Caciagli, N., Brenan, J.M., McDonough, W.F., Phinney, D.Mineral fluid partitioning of lithium and implications for slab-mantle interaction.Chemical Geology, Vol. 280, 3-4, pp. 384-398.MantleGeochemistry
DS1992-0200
1992
CAD.CAD.Computer assisted design (CAD) from mapping to miningPda Seminar, Held March 28, 1992, 110p. $ 30.00GlobalComputers, Program -CAD.
DS2003-0983
2003
Cada, M.Muhlhaus, H.B., Cada, M., Moresi, L.Anisotropic convection model for the Earth's mantleLecture notes in Computer Science, No. 2659, pp. 788-797.MantleBlank
DS200412-1377
2003
Cada, M.Muhlhaus, H.B., Cada, M., Moresi, L.Anisotropic convection model for the Earth's mantle.Lecture notes in Computer Science, No. 2659, pp. 788-797.MantleLithosphere - model
DS1910-0163
1911
Caddell, W.W.Blackburn, D., Caddell, W.W.Secret Service in South AfricaLondon: Cassell, 380P. (CHAPTER 15, PP. 321-373.).South AfricaIdb, Kimberley
DS201312-0059
2013
Caddick, M.J.Baxter, E.F., Caddick, M.J.Garnet growth as a proxy for progressive subduction zone dehydration.Geology, Vol. 41, 6, pp. 643-646.MantleSubduction
DS201412-0043
2013
Caddick, M.J.Baxter, E.F., Caddick, M.J., Ague, J.I.Garnet: common mineral, uncommonly useful.Elements, Vol. 9, 6, Dec. pp. 415-420.MantleGarnet mineralogy
DS201412-0089
2013
Caddick, M.J.Caddick, M.J., Kohn, M.J.Garnet: witness to the evolution of destructive plate boundaries.Elements, Vol. 9, 6, Dec. pp. 427-432.MantleSubduction, metamorphism, geothermometry
DS201711-2497
2017
Caddick, M.J.Adam, C., Caddick, M.J., King, S.D.Pyroxenite causes fat plumes and stagnant slabs.Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1003/ 2017GL072943Mantleplumes

Abstract: Conventional wisdom holds that there is a change in the pattern of mantle convection between 410 and at 660 km, where structural transformations convert olivine into its high-pressure polymorphs. In this regard, recent tomographic studies have been a complete surprise, revealing (i) rapid broadening of slow seismic anomalies beneath hotspots from hundreds of kilometers wide at shallow depths to 2000-3000 km wide deeper than ~800 km, and (ii) fast seismic anomalies associated with subducted lithosphere that appear to flounder at 800-1000 km. It is difficult to reconcile these observations with the conventional view of a mantle that experiences limited mineralogical change below 660 km. Here we propose that plumes and slabs contain significant proportions of lithologies that experience an entirely different suite of mineral reactions, demonstrating that both subducted basalt and pyroxenite upwelling in plumes experience substantial changes in mineralogy and thus physical properties at ~800 km depth. We show the importance of this for mantle rheology and dynamics and how it can explain hitherto puzzling mantle tomographic results.
DS201803-0436
2017
Caddick, M.J.Baxter, E.F., Caddick, M.J., Dragovic, B.Garnet: a rock forming mineral petrochronometer.Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 83, Chap. 15, pp. 469-533.Technologygeochronology

Abstract: Garnet could be the ultimate petrochronometer. Not only can you date it directly (with an accuracy and precision that may surprise some), but it is also a common rock-forming and porphyroblast-forming mineral, with wide ranging—yet thermodynamically well understood—solid solution that provides direct and quantitative petrologic context. While accessory phase petrochronology is based largely upon establishing links to the growth or breakdown of key rock-forming pressure–temperature–composition (P–T–X) indicators (e.g., Rubatto 2002; Williams et al. 2007), garnet is one of those key indicator minerals.
DS201907-1546
2019
Caddick, M.J.Gorce, J.S., Caddick, M.J., Bodnar, R.J.Thermodynamic contraints on carbonate stability and carbon volatility during subduction.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 519, pp. 213-222.Mantlecarbon cycle

Abstract: The breakdown of carbonate minerals at high pressure is frequently cited as an important mechanism that leads to carbon release from subducted rocks. However, carbonate minerals in the subducting slab are predicted to be stable to depths that are greater than arc-generating magma depths of approximately 150 km, implying that breakdown of carbonate phases in dehydrated MORB may not be a major contributor to arc volcano carbon budgets. To account for this discrepancy, previous studies have suggested that addition of H2O-rich fluids promotes the breakdown of carbonate-rich lithologies, thus generating volatile C species that could be incorporated into arc magmas. Here, we explore the feasibility of H2O-mediated decarbonation with a simple thermodynamic model. We calculate equilibrium mineral assemblages and accompanying fluid H2O/CO2 ratios for typical subducted lithologies, assuming a range of subduction zone geotherms, and explore the implications of addition of external fluids that are generated from deserpentinization of ultramafic lithologies at various stages. Results suggest that the liberation of C along volcanic arcs is facilitated by either the breakdown of carbonate minerals due to thermodynamically favorable conditions in hotter subduction systems, or by the breakdown of carbonate minerals during periods of higher fluid productivity associated with deserpentinization at appropriate depths along colder subduction geotherms. A comparison of C fluxes measured at volcanic arcs shows that colder subduction zones generate higher C fluxes, implying that the depth at which deserpentinization reactions occur strongly controls the availability of aqueous fluids for slab decarbonation, and that fluid availability represents the dominant control on carbon volatility during subduction.
DS1995-0250
1995
Cadek, O.Cadek, O., Kyavlova, H., Yuen, D.A.Geodynamical implications from the correlation of surface geology and seismic tomographic structure.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 136, pp. 615-627.MantleTomography, Geophysics -seismics
DS1995-1043
1995
Cadek, O.Kyvalova, H., Cadek, O.Correlation analysis between subduction in the last 180 Myr and lateral seismic structure of the lower mantle.Geophysical Research. Letters, Vol. 22, No. 10, May 15, pp. 1281-1284.MantleGeophysics -seismics
DS1998-0197
1998
Cadek, O.Cadek, O., Van den Berg, A.P.Radial profiles of temperature and viscosity in the Earth's mantle inferred from the geoid and lateral seismic structure.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 164, No.4, Dec.30. pp. 607-616.MantleGeophysics - seismics, tomography
DS1998-0198
1998
Cadek, O.Cadek, O., Yuen, D.A., Machetel, P.New perspectives on mantle dynamics from high resolution seismic tomographic model P1200.Pure and Applied Geophys., Vol. 151, No. 2-4, Mar. 1, pp. 503-538.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Geodynamics
DS1998-0255
1998
Cadek, O.Cizkova, H., Cadek, O., Slancova, A.Regional correlation analysis between seismic heterogeneity in the Lower Mantle and subduction 180 MyPure and Applied Geophys., Vol. 151, No. 2-4, Mar. 1, pp. 527-539.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Subduction
DS1999-0132
1999
Cadek, O.Cizkova, H., Cadek, O., Vlaar, N.J.Can lower mantle slablike seismic anomalies be explained by thermal coupling between upper and lower.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, No. 10, May 15, pp. 1501-8.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-1889
2004
Cadek, O.Spicak, A., Cadek, O., Engdahl, E.R.Structure and tectonics of convergent plate margins.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 141, 4, pp. 241-MantleTectonics
DS200812-1303
2007
Cadek, O.Yuen, D.A., Matyska, C., Cadek, O., Kameyama, M.The dynamical influences from physical properties in the lower mantle and post perovskite phase transition.AGU American Geophysical Union Monograph, No. 174, pp. 249-270.MantleTectonics
DS201012-0084
2010
Cadek, O.Cadek, O., Yuen, D.A., Cizkova, H.Mantle viscosity inferred from geoid and seismic tomography by genetic algorithms: results for layered mantle flow.Physics and Chemistry of Minerals , Vol. 23, 9-10, pp. 865-872.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0794
2010
Cadek, O.Tosi, N., Yuen, D.A., Cadek, O.Dynamical consequences in the lower mantle with the post perovskite phase change and strongly depth dependent thermodynamic and transport properties.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 298, 1-2, Sept. 15, pp. 229-243.MantleGeothermometry
DS201212-0251
2012
Cadek, O.Golle, O., Dumoulin, C., Choblet, G., Cadek, O.Topography and geoid induced by a convecting mantle beneath an elastic lithosphere.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableMantleConvection
DS1994-1971
1994
Cadek, O.P.Yuen, D.A., Cadek, O.P., Boehler, R., et al.Large cold anomalies in the deep mantle and mantle instability in theCretaceous.Terra Nova, Vol. 6, pp. 238-245.MantleGeophysics -seismics, Tomography
DS2002-0236
2002
Cademartori, J.Cademartori, J.Impacts of foreign investment on sustainable development in a Chilean mining regionNatural Resources Forum, Vol.26,1,pp. 27-44.ChileEconomics - mining
DS2003-0489
2003
Caderon, S.Goulet, N., Caderon, S., Houle, P.Cr uvarovite garnet in Archean ophiolite Abitib greenstone belt: implications forGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Poster Abstract onlyQuebecMineralogy
DS200412-0701
2003
Caderon, S.Goulet, N., Caderon, S., Houle, P.Cr uvarovite garnet in Archean ophiolite Abitib greenstone belt: implications for diamond and Ni Co mineralisations in the CummiGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Poster Abstract onlyCanada, QuebecMineralogy
DS1990-0261
1990
Cadet, J.P.Cadet, J.P., Le Pichon, X.Fluids in subduction zonesInternational Conference held Nov. 5-6, 110p. abstracts onlyGlobalSubduction zones, Fluids
DS1992-0201
1992
Cadle, A.B.Cadle, A.B., Cairncross, B.Lateral accretion deposition in braided fluvial systems: a case study From the Karoo sequence, South AfricaEconomic Geology Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Information Circular No. 254, 29pSouth AfricaSedimentary structure, Geomorphology
DS1993-0194
1993
Cadman, A.C.Cadman, A.C., et al.uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology and geochemical variation within two Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms Labrador.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 30, pp. 1490-1504.Labrador, Quebec, UngavaGeochronology
DS1995-0251
1995
Cadman, A.C.Cadman, A.C., Tarney, J., Baragar, W.R.A.Nature of mantle source contributions, role of contamination, in situcrystallization in petrogenesisContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 122, No. 3, pp. 213-229LabradorProterozoic mafic dykes, Flood basalts
DS1999-0104
1999
Cadman, A.C.Cadman, A.C., Noble, J., Turner, Uyeno, Thorsteinssonuranium-lead (U-Pb) ages of syndeformational dikes associated with the Mesoproterozoic Nain plutonic suite, Labrador.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 3, Mar. pp. 339-348.Quebec, Labrador, UngavaGeochronology, Nain Plutonic Suite
DS1993-0195
1993
Cadow, R.Cadow, R.samarium-neodymium (Sm-Nd) and Rubidium-Strontium ages of hornblende clinopyroxenite and metagabbro from the Lillebukt alkaline complex, Seiland Igneous Province.Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 73, pp. 243-249.NorwayAlkaline rocks, Geochronology
DS1950-0058
1951
Cady, W.M.Chidester, A.H., Billings, M.P., Cady, W.M.Talc Investigations in VermontUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Circular, No. 95, 33P.United States, Appalachia, VermontGeology
DS1990-0917
1990
Caen-vachette, M.Lemoine, S., Tempier, P., Bassot, J.P., Caen-vachette, M., VialetteThe Burkinian orogenic cycle, precursor of the Eburnian orogeny in WestAfricaGeological Journal, Vol. 25, pp. 171-188Ghana, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, west AfricaTectonics, Orogeny
DS1996-0204
1996
Caers, J.Caers, J.A general family of counting distributions suitable for modeling clusterphenomena.Mathematical Geology, Vol. 28, No. 5, July pp. 601-624.GuineaGeostatistics, alluvials, statistics, marine, Deposit -Aredor
DS1996-0205
1996
Caers, J.Caers, J., Rombouts, L.Valuation of primary diamond deposits by extreme value statisticsEconomic Geology, Vol. 91, No. 5, August pp. 841-854.GlobalGeostatistics, Diamond - values
DS1996-0206
1996
Caers, J.Caers, J., Vynckier, P., Beirlant, J., Rombouts, L.Extreme value analysis of diamond size distributionsMathematical Geology, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 25-43.GuineaGeostatistics, Diamond distribution
DS200612-0975
2006
Caffee, M.Nichols, K.K., Bierman, P.R., Fonini, W.R., Gillespie, A., Caffee, M., Finkel, R.Dates and rates of arid region geomorphic process.GSA Today, August pp. 4- 11.United States, California, ArizonaGeomorphology, desert landscapes
DS2000-0619
2000
Caffee, M.W.Marsella, K.A., Bierman, P., Davis, P.T., Caffee, M.W.Cosmogenic Berylium and Aluminum ages for the last Glacial Maximum eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 112, No., Aug., pp. 1296-1312.Northwest Territories, Baffin IslandGeomorphology, Aluminum, Berylium, Geochronology
DS201601-0009
2015
Cafferky, S.Cafferky, S., Schmandt, B.Teleseismic P wave spectra from USArray and implications for upper mantle attentuation and scattering.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 16, 10, pp. 3343-3361.United StatesGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Teleseismic P wave amplitude spectra from deep earthquakes recorded by USArray are inverted for maps of upper mantle ?t* for multiple frequency bands within 0.08-2 Hz. All frequency bands show high ?t* regions in the southwestern U.S., southern Rocky Mountains, and Appalachian margin. Low ?t* is more common across the cratonic interior. Inversions with narrower frequency bands yield similar patterns, but greater ?t* magnitudes. Even the two standard deviation ?t* magnitude for the widest band is ~2-7 times greater than predicted by global QS tomography or an anelastic olivine thermal model, suggesting that much of the ?t* signal is nonthermal in origin. Nonthermal contributions are further indicated by only a moderate correlation between ?t* and P travel times. Some geographic variations, such as high ?t* in parts of the cratonic interior with high mantle velocities and low heat flow, demonstrate that the influence of temperature is regionally overwhelmed. Transverse spectra are used to investigate the importance of scattering because they would receive no P energy in the absence of 3-D heterogeneity or anisotropy. Transverse to vertical (T/Z) spectral ratios for stations with high ?t* are higher and exhibit steeper increases with frequency compared to T/Z spectra for low ?t* stations. The large magnitude of ?t* estimates and the T/Z spectra are consistent with major contributions to ?t* from scattering. A weak positive correlation between intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering may contribute to ?t* magnitude and the moderate correlation of ?t* with travel times.
DS201912-2766
2019
Caggiani, MC.Agrosi, G., Tempesta, G., Mele, D., Caggiani, MC., Mangone, A., Della Ventura, G., Cestelli-Guidi, M., Allegretta, I., Hutchison, M.T., Nimis, P., Nestola, F.Multiphase inclusions associate with residual carbonate in a transition zone diamond from Juina, Brazil.Lithos, in press available, 31p. pdfSouth America, Brazildeposit - Juina

Abstract: Super-deep diamonds and their mineral inclusions preserve very precious information about Earth’s deep mantle. In this study, we examined multiphase inclusions entrapped within a diamond from the Rio Vinte e um de Abril, São Luiz area (Juina, Brazil), using a combination of non-destructive methods. Micro-Computed X-ray Tomography (µ-CXRT) was used to investigate the size, shape, distribution and X-Ray absorption of inclusions and mapping by micro X-ray Fluorescence (µ-XRF), µ-Raman Spectroscopy and micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (µ-FTIR) were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the inclusions. Four large inclusions enclosed in the N-rich diamond core consist of dominant ferropericlase-magnesiowüstite and locally exsolved magnesioferrite. FTIR maps, obtained integrating the band at 1430 cm-1, show also the presence of carbonates. A fifth large inclusion (ca 100 µm) was remarkable because it showed a very unusual flask shape, resembling a fluid/melt inclusion. Based on µCXRT tomography and µ-Raman mapping, the flask-shaped inclusion is polyphase and consists of magnetite and hematite partly replacing a magnesiowüstite core and small-volume of gas/vacuum. µ-Raman spectra on the same inclusion revealed local features that are ascribed to post-spinel polymorphs, such as maohokite or xieite, which are stable at P = 18 GPa, and to huntite, a carbonate with formula CaMg3(CO3)4. This represents the first finding of maohokite and huntite in diamond. We interpret the composition of the inclusions as evidence of formation of ferropericlase-magnesiowüstite and diamond in a carbonate-rich environment at depths corresponding at least to the Transition Zone, followed by oxidation of ferropericlase-magnesiowüstite by reaction with relatively large-volume entrapped melt during diamond ascent.
DS200712-0279
2007
Caginalp, G.Duran, A., Caginalp, G.Overreaction diamonds: precursors and aftershocks for significant price changes.Quantitative Finance, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 321-342.GlobalDiamond prices
DS200712-0280
2007
Caginalp, G.Duran, A., Caginalp, G.Overreaction diamonds: precursors and aftershocks for significant price changes.Quantitative Finance, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 321-342.GlobalDiamond prices
DS200612-0204
2006
Cagnard, F.Cagnard, F., Durrieu, N., Gapais, D., Brun, J-P, Ehlers, C.Crustal thickening and lateral flow during compression of hot lithospheres, with particular reference to Precambrian times.Terra Nova, Vol. 18, Feb. pp. 72-78.MantleGeothermometry
DS200612-0205
2006
Cagnard, F.Cagnard, F., Durrieu, N., Gapais, D., Brun, J-P., Ehlers, C.Crustal thickening and lateral flow during compression of hot lithospheres, with particular reference to Precambrian times.Terra Nova, Vol. 18, 1, Feb. pp. 72-78.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0206
2006
Cagnard, F.Cagnard, F., Durrieu, N., Gapais, D., Brun, J-P., Ehlers, C.Crustal thickening and lateral flow during compression of hot lithospheres, with particular reference to Precambrian times.Terra Nova, Vol. 18, 1, pp. 72-78.MantleMelting
DS200912-0242
2009
Cagnard, F.Gapais, D., Cagnard, F., Guyedan, F., Barbey, P., Bellevre, M.Mountain building and exhumation process through time: inference from nature and models.Terra Nova, Vol. 21, 3, pp. 188-194.MantleTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS201602-0196
2016
Cagney, N.Cagney, N., Crameri, F., Newsome, W.H., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., Cotel, A., Hart, S.R., Whitehead, J.A.Constraining the source of mantle plumes.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 435, 1, pp. 55-63.MantlePlume

Abstract: In order to link the geochemical signature of hot spot basalts to Earth's deep interior, it is first necessary to understand how plumes sample different regions of the mantle. Here, we investigate the relative amounts of deep and shallow mantle material that are entrained by an ascending plume and constrain its source region. The plumes are generated in a viscous syrup using an isolated heater for a range of Rayleigh numbers. The velocity fields are measured using stereoscopic Particle-Image Velocimetry, and the concept of the ‘vortex ring bubble’ is used to provide an objective definition of the plume geometry. Using this plume geometry, the plume composition can be analysed in terms of the proportion of material that has been entrained from different depths. We show that the plume composition can be well described using a simple empirical relationship, which depends only on a single parameter, the sampling coefficient, scsc. High-scsc plumes are composed of material which originated from very deep in the fluid domain, while low-scsc plumes contain material entrained from a range of depths. The analysis is also used to show that the geometry of the plume can be described using a similarity solution, in agreement with previous studies. Finally, numerical simulations are used to vary both the Rayleigh number and viscosity contrast independently. The simulations allow us to predict the value of the sampling coefficient for mantle plumes; we find that as a plume reaches the lithosphere, 90% of its composition has been derived from the lowermost 260–750 km in the mantle, and negligible amounts are derived from the shallow half of the lower mantle. This result implies that isotope geochemistry cannot provide direct information about this unsampled region, and that the various known geochemical reservoirs must lie in the deepest few hundred kilometres of the mantle.
DS1950-0018
1950
Cahen, L.Cahen, L., Lepersonne, J.Exquisse de la Geologie du Congo BelgeInternational Geological Congress 18TH., PT. 14, PP. 61-83.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaGeology
DS1950-0056
1951
Cahen, L.Cahen, L.Donnes Nouvelles Concernant la Geologie et la Geomorphologie du Kasai Oriental et l'origine du Diamant.Geological Society BELGE Annual, Vol. 74, PT. B, No. 4-6, PP. 105-122.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaGeomorphology, Geology, Diamond
DS1984-0179
1984
Cahen, L.Cahen, L., Snelling, N.J., Delhal, J., Vail, J.R.The Geochronology and Evolution of AfricaOxford Clarendon Press, 512P.Africa, South Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East AfricaKimberley, Tectonics, Structure, Regional Geology
DS1975-0712
1978
Cahill, C.Cahill, C.Diamond Hunting: Herkimer That IsGems And Minerals, No. 488, P. 8.United States, New York, AppalachiaBlank
DS2002-0990
2002
Cahill, C.Mancini, F., Harlow, G.E., Cahill, C.The crystal structure and cation ordering of phase... ( K and H bearing silicate phase in the mantle)American Mineralogist, Vol. 87, pp. 302-6.MantlePetrology - exprimental
DS2002-0991
2002
Cahill, C.Mancini, F., Harlowm G.E., Cahill, C.The crystal structure and cation ordering of phase .... a potential K and H bearing phase in the mantle.American Mineralogist, Vol.87, 2-3,,pp. 302-6.MantleMineralogy
DS200512-0151
2005
Cahill, C.L.Chakhmouradian, A.R., McCammon, C.A., MacBride, L., Cahill, C.L.Titaniferous garnets in carbonatites: their significance and place in the evolutionary history of host rocks.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.Classification - mineralogy
DS201603-0379
2015
Cahill, D.G.Goncharov, A.F., Lobanov, S.S., Tan, X., Hohensee, G.T., Cahill, D.G., Lin, J-F., Thomas, S-M., Okuchi, T., Tomioka, N., Helffrich, G.Experimental study of thermal conductvity at high pressures: implication for the deep Earth's interior.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 247, pp. 11-16.MantleExperimental Petrology

Abstract: Lattice thermal conductivity of ferropericlase and radiative thermal conductivity of iron bearing magnesium silicate perovskite (bridgmanite) - the major mineral of Earth’s lower mantle- have been measured at room temperature up to 30 and 46 GPa, respectively, using time-domain thermoreflectance and optical spectroscopy techniques in diamond anvil cells. The results provide new constraints for the pressure dependencies of the thermal conductivities of Fe bearing minerals. The lattice thermal conductivity of ferropericlase Mg0.9Fe0.1O is 5.7(6) W/(m * K) at ambient conditions, which is almost 10 times smaller than that of pure MgO; however, it increases with pressure much faster (6.1(7)%/GPa vs 3.6(1)%/GPa). The radiative conductivity of a Mg0.94Fe0.06SiO3 bridgmanite single crystal agrees with previously determined values for powder samples at ambient pressure; it is almost pressure-independent in the investigated pressure range. Our results confirm the reduced radiative conductivity scenario for the Earth’s lower mantle, while the assessment of the heat flow through the core-mantle boundary still requires in situ measurements at the relevant pressure-temperature conditions.
DS1996-0207
1996
Cahn, R.W.Cahn, R.W.Harder than diamond?Nature, Vol. 380, March 14, pp. 104-105.GlobalMaterials technology, Carbon nitrides
DS202007-1159
2020
Caho, Yu.Li, W, Yang, Z., Chiaradia, M., Yong, L., Caho, Yu., Zhang, J.Redox state of southern Tibetan mantle and ultrapotassic magmas. Lhasa TerraneGeology, Vol. 48, 7, pp. 733-736. pdfAsia, Tibetalkaline rocks

Abstract: The redox state of Earth’s upper mantle in several tectonic settings, such as cratonic mantle, oceanic mantle, and mantle wedges beneath magmatic arcs, has been well documented. In contrast, oxygen fugacity (graphic) data of upper mantle under orogens worldwide are rare, and the mechanism responsible for the mantle graphic condition under orogens is not well constrained. In this study, we investigated the graphic of mantle xenoliths derived from the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle beneath the Himalayan orogen, and that of postcollisional ultrapotassic volcanic rocks hosting the xenoliths. The graphic of mantle xenoliths ranges from ?FMQ = +0.5 to +1.2 (where ?FMQ is the deviation of log graphic from the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer), indicating that the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle is more oxidized than cratonic and oceanic mantle, and it falls within the typical range of mantle wedge graphic values. Mineralogical evidence suggests that water-rich fluids and sediment melts liberated from both the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab and perhaps the Indian continental plate could have oxidized the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle. The graphic conditions of ultrapotassic magmas show a shift toward more oxidized conditions during ascent (from ?FMQ = +0.8 to +3.0). Crustal evolution processes (e.g., fractionation) could influence magmatic graphic, and thus the redox state of mantle-derived magma may not simply represent its mantle source.
DS200612-1592
2006
Cai, J-X.Zhang, K-J., Cai, J-X., Zhang, Yu-X., Zhao, T-P.Eclogites from central Qiangtang, northern Tibet, China: and tectonic implications.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 245, 3-4, May 30, pp. 722-729.Asia, ChinaUHP, subduction
DS201112-0593
2011
Cai, K.Li, L-M., Sun, M., Wang, Y., Xing, G., Zhao, G., Cai, K., Zhang, Y.Geochronological and geochemical study of Paleproterozoic gneissic granites and clinopyroxenite xenolths from NW Fujian: implications for crustal evol.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, 2, pp. 204-212.ChinaMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS200612-0207
2006
Cai, L.Cai, L., Qingguo, Z., Yonsheng, D., Xiaopeng, H.Discovery of eclogite and its geological significance in Qiantang central Tibet.Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 51, 9, May pp. 1095-1100.China, TibetEclogite, tectonics
DS202004-0541
2019
Cai, L.Wang, W., Cai, L.Inclusion extraction from diamond clarity images based on the analysis of diamond optical properties.Optics Express, Vol. 27, 19, pp. 27242-27255. doi.org/10.1034/ oe.27.027242Globaldiamond inclusion

Abstract: Diamond clarity refers to the absence of tiny, natural inclusions (imperfections) inside a diamond or on its surface. Almost all diamonds contain their own unique inclusions due to their natural formation process. In this paper, a new inclusion extraction approach is developed to accurately separate the regions of interest in a diamond clarity image and then identify the image features of each region. The inclusion regions can be successfully distinguished from other types of signals. The findings of the theoretical optical analysis facilitate the image processing development and also reduce its complexity and operation time. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed inclusion extraction approach. The diamond inclusions can be accurately extracted from the captured diamond clarity image. The extracted inclusions can also be converted to their actual size as seen by the naked human eye. The proposed approach is verified to be significantly less sensitive to noise than existing approaches and unaffected by the fluctuations in illumination.
DS201908-1788
2019
Cai, N.Liu, Z., Greaux, S., Cai, N., Siersch, N., Boffa Ballaran, T., Irifune, T., Frost, D.J.Influence of aluminum on the elasticity of majorite pyrope garnets.American Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 929-935.Mantlegarnets

Abstract: The effect of aluminum (Al) on the elasticity of majorite-pyrope garnets was investigated by means of ultrasonic interferometry measurements on well-fabricated polycrystalline specimens. Both velocities and elastic moduli increase almost linearly with increasing Al content within analytical uncertainty. No significant variation of the velocities and elastic moduli is observed across the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition at majorite with the pyrope content up to 26 mol% along the majorite-pyrope system. The elasticity variation of majorite-pyrope garnets is largely dominated by the Al content, while the phase transition as a result of cation ordering/disordering of Mg and Si via substitution of Al on octahedral sites cannot significantly affect elastic properties. Seismic velocity variations of a garnet-bearing mantle transition zone are therefore dominated by garnet composition (e.g., Al, Fe, Ca, and Na) rather than the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition because of cation ordering/disordering.
DS201907-1558
2019
Cai, R.Liu, J., Cai, R., Pearson, G., Scott, J.M.Thinning and destruction of the lithospheric mantle root beneath the North China craton: a review.Earth Science Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.05.017 19p. Chinacraton

Abstract: It is widely accepted that the lithosphere beneath the eastern portion of the North China Craton (NCC) has suffered extensive thinning and destruction since the Mesozoic. The driving force for this transformation remains debated, although most models make a first-order link with the evolution of the Paleo-Pacific subduction and the effects of the Pacific slab subduction. In this review, we discuss the temporal and spatial relationships between the Paleo-Pacific and the Pacific slab subduction and the lithospheric thinning/destruction processes experienced by the NCC. We recognize four key stages: 1) an initial stage of low angle flat subduction of the Paleo-Pacific slab between ~170-145?Ma, 2) the sinking or rollback of the Paleo-Pacific slab and associated asthenosphere upwelling (145-110?Ma), 3) the disappearance of the Paleo-Pacific slab into lower mantle (110-55?Ma), and 4) the initiation of subduction of the present-day Pacific slab and associated formation of a Big Mantle Wedge (BMW) beneath East Asia (<55?Ma). The initial flat subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate inhibited mantle-derived magmatism in the period between 170 and 145?Ma beneath the NCC. However, during this stage, intraplate deformation and crustal magmatism migrated westward from craton margin to interior. The cratonic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) was further hydrated and metasomatized in addition to that caused by prior circum-cratonic orogenies/subductions. At ca. 155?Ma, the Paleo-Pacific plate began to sink or roll back, causing asthenosphere upwelling and triggering melting of the metasomatized SCLM to form arc-like basalts and low degree melts such as lamprophyres. Vigorous mantle flow/convection transported the metasomatically refertilized and weakened cratonic SCLM into the deep mantle and resulted in the thinning of the lithosphere. At the craton margins, where the lithosphere, thickened by collision, had lost a lower portion of the cratonic SCLM by mantle erosion, delamination of the eclogitic lower crust and underlying pre-thinned SCLM occurred. Upwelling asthenosphere replaced the detached lithosphere and then cooled by conduction to form new lithospheric mantle. This process may have continued to ca. 125?Ma when mantle-derived melts transitioned from arc-like to OIB-like basalts. Replacement of the mantle lithosphere by asthenosphere elevated the lithospheric geotherm and led to extensive crustal melting and the generation of massive volumes of felsic-intermediate magmatism in the eastern NCC until ~110?Ma. After the termination of lithosphere replacement, the speed of subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate may have increased and by ca. 55?Ma, the whole slab vanished into the lower mantle. We suggest that the subsequent formation of present-day Pacific ocean lithosphere led to a new phase of low angle subduction of the Pacific plate margin. At ca. 35?Ma, the Pacific plate started to descend forming a BMW, accompanied by upwelling of asthenosphere and widespread eruption of alkali basalts across eastern China. The ongoing subduction of the Pacific plate may also lead to further lithospheric thinning.
DS202011-2032
2020
Cai, W-C.Cai, W-C., Zhang, Z-C., Zhu, J., Santosh, M., Pan, R-H.Genesis of high ni-olivine phenocrysts of the Dali picrites in the central Emeishan large igneous province.Geological Magazine, doi: 10.1017/ S0016756820001053 10p. Chinapicrites

Abstract: The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in SW China is considered to be a typical mantle-plume-derived LIP. The picrites formed at relatively high temperatures in the ELIP, providing one of the important lines of argument for the role of mantle plume. Here we report trace-element data on olivine phenocrysts in the Dali picrites from the ELIP. The olivines are Ni-rich, and characterized by high (>1.4) 100×Mn/Fe value and low (<13) 10 000×Zn/Fe value, indicating a peridotite-dominated source. Since the olivine-melt Ni partition coefficient (KDNiol/melt) will decrease at high temperatures and pressures, the picrites derived from peridotite melting at high pressure, and that crystallized olivines at lower pressure, can generate high concentrations of Ni in olivine phenocrysts, excluding the necessity of a metasomatic pyroxenite contribution. Based on the Al-in-olivine thermometer, olivine crystallization temperature and mantle potential temperature (T P) were calculated at c. 1491°C and c. 1559°C, respectively. Our results are c. 200°C higher than that of the normal asthenospheric mantle, and are consistent with the role of a mantle thermal plume for the ELIP.
DS200712-0180
2007
Cai, X.Cheng, X., Zhu, J., Cai, X.Vertical veolcity of mantle flow of East Asia and adjacent areas.Frontiers of Earth Science in China., 2007 - 1, no. 2, pp. 172-180.Asia, ChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS200712-0181
2007
Cai, X.Cheng, X., Zhu, J., Cai, X.Vertical veolcity of mantle flow of East Asia and adjacent areas.Frontiers of Earth Science in China., 2007 - 1, no. 2, pp. 172-180.Asia, ChinaGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-1310
2008
Cai, Y.Zhang, H-F., Goldstein, S.L., Zhou, X-H., Sun, M., Zheng, J-P., Cai, Y.Evolution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China: Re-Os isotopic evidence from mantle xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Mesozoic basaltsContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 155, pp. 271-293.ChinaGeochronology
DS200912-0852
2009
Cai, Y.Zhang, H.F., Goldstein, S.L., Zhou, X.H., Sun, M., Cai, Y.Comprehensive refertilization of lithospheric mantle beneath the North Chin a Craton: further Os Sr Nd isotopic constraints.Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 166, 2, pp. 249-260.ChinaGeochronology
DS201803-0485
2018
Cai, Y.Wang, D., Wang, X-L., Cai, Y., Goldstein, S.L., Yang, T.Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks?Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 154, pp. 202-212.Mantlezircons

Abstract: Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ~630?°C to ~900?°C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.
DS200812-0642
2008
Cai, Y.Q.Lee, S.K., Lin, J.F., Cai, Y.Q., Hiraoka, N., Eng, P.J., Okuchi, T., Mao, H., Meng, Y., Hu, M.Y.,Chow, P.X ray Raman scattering study of MgSi)3 glass at high pressure: implication for triclustered MgSiO3 melt in Earth's mantle.Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA, Vol. 105, 23, June 10, pp. 7925-7929.MantleMelting
DS201511-1827
2015
Cai, Y-C.Cai, Y-C., Fan, H-R., Santsh, M., Hu, F-F., Yang, K-F, Hu, Z.Subduction related metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern North Chin a Craton: evidence from mafic to intermediate dykes in the northern Sulu orogen.Tectonophysics, Vol. 659, pp. 137-151.ChinaSulu orogen - dykes

Abstract: The widespread mafic to intermediate dykes in the northern Sulu orogen provide important constrains on mantle source characteristics and geodynamic setting. Here we present LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb ages which indicate that the dykes were emplaced during Early Cretaceous (~ 113-108 Ma). The rocks show SiO2 in the range of 46.2 to 59.5 wt.% and alkalic and shoshonitic affinity with high concentrations of MgO (up to 7.6 wt.%), Cr (up to 422 ppm) and Ni (up to 307 ppm). They are enriched in light rare earth elements LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE, Rb, Sr, Ba, U and Th) and show strong depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE, Nb, Ta, Ti and P). The dykes possess uniformly high (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.70824-0.70983), low eNd(t) (- 14.0 to - 17.4) and (206Pb/204Pb)i (16.66-17.02) and negative eHf(t) (- 23.5 to - 13.7). Our results suggest that the source magma did not undergo any significant crustal contamination during ascent. The systematic variation trends between MgO and major and trace elements suggest fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene. The highly enriched mantle source for these rocks might have involved melts derived from the subducted lower crust of Yangtze Craton that metasomatized the ancient lithospheric mantle of the North China Craton.
DS201812-2840
2018
Cai, Z.Li, Y., Zhang, J., Mustofa, K.M.G., Wang, Y., Yu, S., Cai, Z., Li, P., Zhou, G., Fu, C., Mao, X.Petrogenesis of carbonatites in the Luliangshan region, North Qaidam, northern Tibet, China: evidence for recycling of sedimentary carbonate and mantle metasomatism within a subduction zone.Lithos, Vol. 322, pp. 148-165.China, Tibetcarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonatitic magmatism in subduction zones provides extremely valuable information on the cycling, behavior and storage of deep carbon within the Earth. It may also shed light on insights into crust-mantle interaction and mantle metasomatism within subduction zones. Origin of carbonatite has long been debated: all hypotheses need to reflect the different mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions of carbonatites and their diverse tectonic settings. Here we present a petrological, geochronological, geochemical and isotopic study of carbonatite bodies associated with orogenic peridotites, which occur as stocks or dykes with widths of tens to hundreds of meters in the Luliangshan region, North Qaidam, northern Tibet, China. On the basis of modal olivine (Ol) content, the studied samples were subdivided into two groups: Ol-poor carbonatite and Ol-rich carbonatite. Zircon grains from the Ol-poor carbonatite show detrital features, and yield a wide age spectrum between 400?Ma and 1000?Ma with a pronounced peak at ca. 410-430?Ma. By contrast, oscillatory zoned zircons and inherited cores show two relatively small Neoproterozoic age peaks at ca. 920 and 830?Ma. Zircon grains from the Ol-rich carbonatite sample are also distributed in a wide spectrum between 400 and 1000?Ma, with a pronounced peak at ca. 440?Ma and a slightly inferior peak at ca. 410?Ma. The oscillatory zoned zircons and inherited cores exhibit a smaller Neoproterozoic age peak at ca. 740?Ma. The pronounced peaks ranging from 430 to 410?Ma are consistent with the deep subduction and mantle metasomatic events recorded in associated ultramafic rocks. Both groups of carbonatites are characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) with high (La/Yb)N values and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. They show high 87Sr/86Sr values (0.708156-0.709004), low 143Nd/144Nd values (0.511932-0.512013) and high d18OV-SMOW values (+17.9 to +21.3‰). This geochemical and isotopic evidence suggests that these carbonatites were derived from remobilized sedimentary carbonate rocks. We propose that the primary carbonatite magma was formed by partial melting of sedimentary carbonates with mantle contributions. Sedimentary carbonates were subducted into the shallow upper mantle where they melted and formed diapirs that moved upwards through the hot mantle wedge. The case presented provides a rare example of carbonatite originating from sedimentary carbonates with mantle contributions and relevant information on the mantle metasomatism within a subduction zone.
DS1986-0119
1986
Cai XiuchengCai Xiucheng, Guo Jiugao, Chen Feng, Fu Yude, Tang Rongbing, TanDistribution of paramagnetic nitrogen in placer diamonds with specialAcad. Sin. Institute Geochem., Guiyang, *CHI, Vol. 6, No. 3, September pp. 195-202ChinaAlluvials, Geochemistry, diamond inclusions
DS1986-0120
1986
Cai XiuchengCai Xiucheng, Guo Jiugao, Chen, Feng, Fu, Yude, Tang Rongbing, TanDistribution of paramagnetic nitrogen in placer diamonds with Special reference to its significance in diamond classification. *CHIKuangwu Xuebao, *CHI, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 195-202ChinaAlluvials, Diamond inclusions-nitrog
DS1986-0317
1986
Cai XiuchengGuo, Jiugao, Cai Xiucheng, Deng Huaxing, Chen Feng, Tan Yi MeiNatural type 1B diamonds in diamond placer in Hunan province. *CHIKexue Tongbao, *CHI, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 257-261ChinaDiamond morphology
DS1988-0101
1988
Cai XiuchengCai Xiucheng, Guo, J.G., Chen, F., Tang, R.B.EPR study of atom pairs of impurity nitrogen in natural diamond. *CHIKexue Tong, *CHI, Vol. 33, No. 22, November pp. 1886-1889GlobalNatural diamond, Diamond inclusions-nitrog
DS1990-0613
1990
Cai XiuchengGuo Jiugao, Chen Feng, Cai Xiucheng, Deng HuaxingSpectroscopic study of natural diamonds in ChinaChinese Journal of Geochemistry, (in English), Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 161-168ChinaDiamond morphology spectroscopy, Natural diamonds
DS200612-0208
2006
Cailai, W.Cailai, W., Wooden, J.L., Jingsui, Y., Robinson, P.T., Lingsen, Z., Rendeng, S., Songyong, C.Granitic magmatism in the North Qaidam Early Paleozoic Ultra high pressure metamorphic belt, northwest China.International Geology Review, Vol. 48, 3, pp. 223-240.Asia, ChinaUHP
DS200712-0492
2006
Cailai, W.Jianxin, Z., Jingsui, Y., Fabcong, M.,Yusheng, W., Huimin, Li., Cailai, W.U Pb isotopic studies of eclogites and their host gneisses in the Xitishan area of the North Qaidam mountains, western China: new evidence HP-UHP belt.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, 2-3, Nov. 15, pp. 143-150.ChinaUHP, Eclogites
DS1988-0374
1988
Caine, N.Krantz, W.B., Gleason, K.J., Caine, N.Patterned ground. a commmon physical phenomena shapes these uncommon manifestations of natural geometryScientific American, Vol. 259, No. 6, December pp. 68-76. Database # 17356Montana, ColoradoGeomorphology
DS1859-0036
1826
Caire, A.Caire, A.La Science des Pierres PrecieusesParis: Appliques Aux Arts, Paris: Leroux-dufie (1833)., 423P. ( EDITION 1833 ).BrazilKimberlite
DS1992-0201
1992
Cairncross, B.Cadle, A.B., Cairncross, B.Lateral accretion deposition in braided fluvial systems: a case study From the Karoo sequence, South AfricaEconomic Geology Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Information Circular No. 254, 29pSouth AfricaSedimentary structure, Geomorphology
DS1995-0252
1995
Cairncross, B.Cairncross, B., Dixon, R.Minerals of South Africa #2Geological Society of South Africa, $ 115.00South AfricaBook -ad, Minerals of South Africa
DS1995-0253
1995
Cairncross, B.Cairncross, B., Groenwald, G.H., Rudbidge, B.S., Von BrunnKaroo sedimentology and paleontologyGeological Society of South Africa, Cent. Geocongress, Guide B3, 49p.South AfricaSedimentology, Karoo Supergroup
DS201412-0090
2014
Cairncross, B.Cairncross, B.South African diamonds: a photographic personal perspective. Rocks and Minerals, Jan.-Feb. pp. 76-88.Africa, South AfricaDiamond photographs
DS201805-0939
2018
Cairncross, B.Cairncross, B.The where of mineral names: Bultfontein, Bultfontein diamond mine.Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 92, 6, pp. 578-581.Africa, South Africadeposit - Bultfontein
DS1998-0199
1998
Cairns, R.D.Cairns, R.D.The microeconomics of mineral extraction under capacity constraintsNonrenewable Resources, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sept. pp. 233-44United StatesMineral economics, Risk analysis
DS201112-0708
2011
Cairns, S.Mumford, T.R., Cousens, B.L., Falck, H., Cairns, S.Blachford Lake intrusive suite; insight from carbonatites and other alkaline intrusive suites of the southern Slave Craton.Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts for 2011, Poster abstract p. 112.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesCarbonatite
DS201312-0516
2013
Cairns, S.Krebs, M.Y., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A., Nowicki, T., Cairns, S.Variability in diamond population characteristics across the size range 0.2- 2-4 mm - a case study based on diamonds from Misery ( Ekati mine).2013 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts, p. 34-35.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Misery
DS201412-0479
2014
Cairns, S.Krebs, M.Y., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A., Nowicki, T., Cairns, S.Variability in diamond population characteristics across the size range 0.2-3.4 MM - a case study based on diamonds from Misery ( Ekati mine).Geological Society of America Conference Vancouver Oct. 19-22, 1p. AbstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDiavik mine - Misery
DS201604-0616
2016
Cairns, S.Krebs, M.Y., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A., Nowicki, T., Cairns, S.Using microdiamonds in kimberlite diamond grade prediction: a case study of the variability in diamond population characteristics across the size range 0.2 to 3.4 mm in Misery kimberlite, Ekati mine, NWT, Canada.Economic Geology, Vol. 111, 2, pp. 503-525.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesMicrodiamonds - Misery

Abstract: First predictions of the macrodiamond grade of newly discovered kimberlites are commonly obtained using size frequency distributions of microdiamonds. The success of this approach suggests a common origin of microdiamonds and macrodiamonds, an implication not yet conclusively established or disproved. In contrast to previous comparative studies on microdiamonds and macrodiamonds from single deposits, here all diamonds analyzed originate from the same microdiamond samples (558 diamonds, ranging from 0.212 to 3.35 mm). The diamonds were analyzed for their carbon isotope compositions and nitrogen characteristics, and, based on this dataset, statistical comparisons were conducted across the size range to assess cogenesis. As a whole, the Misery diamond suite shows high nitrogen contents (median = 850 at. ppm), a bimodal distribution in time-averaged mantle residence temperatures (two distinct subpopulations in mantle residence temperatures: =1,125° and =1,175°C), a high degree of platelet degradation, and d13C compositions that are isotopically slightly heavier (median = -4.4‰) than the global median. Statistical comparisons of the various size classes indicate the presence of subtly different subpopulations at Misery; however, the nature and magnitude of these geochemical differences are very small in the context of the global diamond database and are viewed as petrogenetically insignificant. The general geochemical similarity of diamonds from different size fractions at Misery reinforces the use of size-frequency analysis to predict diamond grade in kimberlite diamond deposits.
DS201604-0622
2016
Cairns, S.Poitras, S., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Cairns, S., Day, S.A geochemical study of diamond indicator minerals from the NWT Interior Platform.GAC MAC Meeting Special Session SS11: Cratons, kimberlites and diamonds., abstract 1/4p.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDiamond indicators

Abstract: The Central Mackenzie Valley (CMV) area of the Northwest Territories (NWT) comprises a Phanerozoic sedimentary basin that lies between the western margin of the Slave craton and the Cordillera. Although the region is considerably outside the bounds of the exposed Slave craton, both LITHOPROBE and more recent regional-scale surface wave studies (e.g., Priestley and McKenzie, 2006) indicate the likely presence of lithospheric mantle extending into the diamond stability field. Recent work conducted by Olivut Resources Ltd. led to the discovery of 29 kimberlites in the CMV. However, the indicator mineral chemistry of discovered kimberlites does not appear to be a good match (www.olivut.ca) with those during regional till and stream sediment sampling by the Geologic Survey of Canada (GSC) and Northwest Territories Geologic Survey (NTGS) in August 2003 and July 2005. We present new geochemical data on the regional indicator minerals with the aim of obtaining geotherm and depth of mantle sampling constraints on those indicator minerals discovered to date. A statistical evaluation of the data will compare the similarities to indicator mineral chemistry with parts of the Slave craton to evaluate whether the CMV indicators may ultimately be derived from that region. In total 3600 kimberlite indicator mineral grains were picked from the 0.25-2.0 mm size fractions. Peridotitic garnet grains dominate (46%), followed by magnesium ilmenite (26%), with decreasing individual proportions >15% of chromite, low-chrome diopside, olivine, chrome-diopside and eclogitic garnet. A sub-sample of these grains (3143) were analysed by EPMA. Garnet grains classify (after Grütter et al., 2004) as 1015 (62.1%) G9, 270 (16.5%) G11, 113 (6.9%) G10, 103 (6.3%) G12, 57 (3.5%) G1, 46 (2.8%) G10D, and the remaining 31 (1.9%) as G0, G3, G3D, G4, and G5. A sub-set of garnet grains (~700) were selected for LA-ICP-MS trace element analysis. Of the grains selected 74% G9, 14% G10 (and G10D), and 8% G11, with only 4% G12 and G0 (Grütter et al., 2004). Nickel concentrations from these grains range from 2.6-168.2 ppm, with the majority (>80%) between 20-100 ppm, yielding TNi (Canil, 1999) values ranging from 643-1348°C, with the majority between ~1000-1200°C. Using a central Slave craton geothermal gradient (Hasterok and Chapman, 2011), equilibration pressures for these garnet grains range from 20-80 kbars with the majority between 40-60 kbars (120-185 km). Preliminary analysis has 581 (81%) of the erupted peridotitic mantle garnet grains plotting within the diamond stability field (Kennedy and Kennedy, 1976). Of the 128 clinopyroxene grains analysed, only a few represent garnet peridotite (lherzolite) facies KIM clinopyroxene grains following compositional screening. Thermobarometry of these grains (Nimis and Taylor, 2000), assuming they were all derived from the same lithospheric section, yields P-T arrays identical to the central Slave geotherm that was 220 km thick at the time of eruption. These results are encouraging for diamond exploration. We thank Overburden Drilling Management Ltd. for grain picking and recovery of the small diamond, SGS Lakefield Research for mounting grains, and the GSC for probing of the grains.
DS201708-1610
2017
Cairns, S.Cairns, S.Revitalizing exploration in a key diamond district: a case study in the Northwest Territories, Canada.11th. International Kimberlite Conference, PosterCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit -
DS201912-2778
2019
Cairns, S.Falck, H., Elliott, B., Cairns, S., Powell, L.NWT mineral exploration and mining overview 2019.Yellowknife Forum NWTgeoscience.ca, abstract volume p. 27.Canada, Northwest Territorieseconomics

Abstract: In spite of a poor year for sales of rough diamonds globally, diamond mining continues to provide a foundation for the NWT economy. Gahcho Kué mine, which has been operating slightly ahead of plan, announced the discovery of the diamondiferous Wilson kimberlite within the current mine plan area. Consistently high forecasts for zinc demand have encouraged both the rejuvenation of Pine Point by Osisko Metals Inc. and NorZinc Ltd.’s ongoing efforts to bring Prairie Creek into production. Gold prices have been buoyed by safe-haven sentiment after concerns over economic growth, tariffs and trade wars with China. Advanced projects have benefited with an improving investment climate encouraging on-going exploration by Nighthawk Gold Corp. and TerraX Minerals Inc. However, many smaller projects were suspended as the companies were not able to raise sufficient funds on in the investment market. This was particularly true for the commodities targeting green energy and battery technologies. Most of the projects focusing on lithium, cobalt and vanadium started the year strongly but were dormant by the summer. A notable exception was the reactivation of Avalon’s Nechalacho project with an infusion of resources from Cheetah Resources of Australia. One of the indicators of exploration activity – claims staked vs. lapsed – continued an upward trend that began in 2017. In 2018, a total of 268 claims covering 184,985 hectares were added and 70 claims covering 58, 876 hectares were released. In the first three quarters of 2019, 120 claims covering 45,000 Ha were added but a nearly equivalent area 55,000 Ha in 85 claims and leases were cancelled. There are also 37 active Prospecting Permits this year. New staking included large areas in the Mackenzie Mountains, the additional ground at Pine Point, re-staking of claims in the Lac de Gras region and expansion of claims in the Yellowknife area. In 2019-2020, the Government of Northwest Territories invested nearly $1 million in grassroots mineral exploration through the Mining Incentive Program. This funding was dispersed to 19 exploration projects comprising twelve prospectors and seven companies. The Mineral Resources Act has passed the legislature marking the NWT’s first-ever stand-alone Act governing mining in the territory.
DS200612-0503
2006
Cairo, S.Groppo, C., Rinaudo, C.,Cairo, S., Gastaldi, D., Compagnoni, R.Micro-raman spectroscopy for a quick and reliable identification of serpentine minerals from ultramafics.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 18, 3, May pp. 319-329.TechnologySpectroscopy - not specific to diamonds
DS1989-1609
1989
Cajka, M.G.Wetmiller, R.J., Cajka, M.G.Tectonic implications of seismic activity recorded by the northern Ontario seismograph networkCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 2, February pp. 376-386OntarioGeophysics, Seismics
DS1989-1610
1989
Cajka, M.G.Wetmiller, R.J., Cajka, M.G.Tectonic implications of seismic activity recorded by the northern Ontario seismograph networkCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 2, February pp. 376-386OntarioGeophysics, Seismics
DS200612-1150
2006
CakmakReilinger, R., McClusky, S., Vernant, P., Lawrence, S., Ergintav, Cakmak, Ozener, Kadirov, Guliev, StepanyanGPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa Arabia Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111,B5 B05411.AfricaGeodynamics
DS1975-0713
1978
Calabro, C.E.Calabro, C.E.Chemical and petrological investigations of spinel silicate intergrowths in xenoliths from African kimberlite pipesMsc. Thesis University of Of California Davis, pages unknownSouth AfricaPetrology, Xenoliths
DS200412-1966
2004
Calado, B.O.Tassinari, C.C.G., Munha, J.M.U., Teixeira, W., Palacios, T., Nutman, A.P., Santos, A.P., Calado, B.O.The Imataca Complex, NW Amazonian Craton, Venezuela: crustal evolution and integration of geochronological and petrological coolEpisodes, March pp. 3-12.South America, VenezuelaMetamorphism, Archean, tectonics, not specific to diamo
DS1980-0081
1980
Calaf, V.C.Calaf, V.C., Kesselring, E.F.Brazilian Mineral Balance 1980: DiamondsXxxi Congresso Braseiro De Geologia., BOL. No. 2, P. 340.BrazilDiamond Production, Sales
DS200812-0758
2008
Calagari, A.A.Moayyed, M., Moazzen, M., Calagari, A.A., Jahangiri, A., Modjarrad, M.Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lamprophyric dykes and the associated rocks from Eslamy Peninsula, NW Iran: implications for deep mantle metasomatism.Chemie der Erde, Vol. 68, 2, pp. 141-154.Europe, IranMetasomatism
DS200712-0927
2007
Calahorrano, A.Sallares, V., Calahorrano, A.Geophysical characterization of mantle melting anomalies: a crustal view.Plates, plumes and Planetary Processes, pp. 507-524.MantleMelting
DS2003-1421
2003
Calais, E.Vergnolle, M., Pollitz, F., Calais, E.Constraints on the viscosity of the continental crust and mantle from GPS measurementsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, B10, 2502 DOI. 1029/2002JB002374Mongolia, AsiaGeophysics - siesmics, GPS
DS201012-0751
2010
Calais, E.Stamps, D.S., Flesch, L.M., Calais, E.Lithospheric bouyancy forces in Africa from a thin sheet approach.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 99, 7, pp. 1525-1533.AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201506-0282
2015
Calais, E.Koptev, A., Calais, E., Burov, E., Leroy, S., Gerya, T.Dual continental rift systems generated by plume-lithosphere interaction. Central East African RiftNature Geoscience, Vol. 8, pp. 388-392.AfricaMagmatism
DS201804-0713
2017
Calais, E.Koptev, A., Cloetingh, S., Gerya, T., Calais, E., Leroy, S.Non-uniform splitting of a single mantle plume by double cratonic roots: insights into the origin of the central and southern East African Rift System.Terra Nova, pp. 125-134.Africa, Tanzaniacraton

Abstract: Using numerical thermo-mechanical experiments we analyse the role of an active mantle plume and pre-existing lithospheric thickness differences in the structural development of the central and southern East African Rift system. The plume-lithosphere interaction model setup captures the essential features of the studied area: two cratonic bodies embedded into surrounding lithosphere of normal thickness. The results of the numerical experiments suggest that localization of rift branches in the crust is mainly defined by the initial position of the mantle plume relative to the cratons. We demonstrate that development of the Eastern branch, the Western branch and the Malawi rift can be the result of non-uniform splitting of the Kenyan plume, which has been rising underneath the southern part of the Tanzanian craton. Major features associated with Cenozoic rifting can thus be reproduced in a relatively simple model of the interaction between a single mantle plume and pre-stressed continental lithosphere with double cratonic roots.
DS1986-0121
1986
Calandra, J.D.Calandra, J.D.A ground magnetic survey of kimberlite intrusives in Elliott County, KentuckyMsc. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, Wyoming, 161pKentuckyGeophysics, Elliott County, Kimberlites
DS2001-0077
2001
CalasBalan, E., Trocellier, Jupille, Fritsch, Muller, CalasSurface chemistry of weathered zirconsChemical Geology, Vol. 181,No. 1-4, pp. 13-22.Brazil, Amazon BasinSEM, spectroscopy, weathering - not specific to diamond
DS1981-0124
1981
Calas, G.Cottrant, J.F., Calas, G.Etude de la Coloration de Quelques Diamants du Museum National D'histoire Naturelle.Rev. Gemmol. A.f.g., No. 67, PP. 2-5.GlobalDiamonds, Colour
DS1995-0576
1995
Calas, G.Galoisy, L., Calas, G., Brown, G.E.Intracrystalline distribution of nickel in San Carlos olivine: an EXAFS studyAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 80, No. 9-10, Sept, Oct pp. 1089-1092.ArizonaPeridotite
DS200712-0428
2006
Calas, G.Henderson, G.S., Calas, G., Stebbins, J.F.The structure of silicate glasses and melts.Elements, Vol. 2, 5, October pp. 269-274.TechnologyGeochemistry
DS200712-0497
2007
Calas, G.Juhin, A., Cabaret, D., Galoisy, L., Hazemann, J-L., Calas, G.First principles investigation of trace element in corporation in minerals: the case of Cr3+ in spinel and pyrope garnet.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.166-167.TechnologyGarnet mineralogy
DS200712-0498
2007
Calas, G.Juhin, A., Cabaret, D., Galoisy, L., Hazemann, J-L., Calas, G.First principles investigation of trace element in corporation in minerals: the case of Cr3+ in spinel and pyrope garnet.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p.166-167.TechnologyGarnet mineralogy
DS201711-2502
2017
Calas, G.Brown, G.E., Hochella, M.F., Calas, G.Improving mitigation of the long term legacy of mining activities: nano and molecular level concepts and methods.Elements, Vol. 13, pp. 325-330.Globalresources

Abstract: Mining activities over several millennia have resulted in a legacy of environmental contamination that must be mitigated to minimize ecosystem damage and human health impacts. Designing effective remediation strategies for mining and processing wastes requires knowledge of nano- and molecular-scale speciation of contaminants. Here, we discuss how modern nano- and molecular-level concepts and methods can be used to improve risk assessment and future management of contaminants that result from mining activities, and we illustrate this approach using relevant case studies.
DS201711-2503
2017
Calas, G.Calas, G.Mineral Resources and Sustainable Development.Elements, Vol. 13, pp. 301-306.Globalresources, CSR

Abstract: Mineral resources have been used for millennia and are a key to society's development. With the growing importance of new technologies and the energy revolution, questions have arisen regarding the future availability of resources of metals and industrial minerals. As discovering large high-grade deposits has become increasingly rare, the concept of “sustainable development” will become viewed as essential to extract metals/minerals from new low-grade deposits. In addition to economic considerations, it is essential to reconcile mining activity with environmental protection and to allay the concerns of local populations. This issue of Elements highlights the progressive movement towards an active environmental and societal strategy for sustainably harnessing mineral resources.
DS201805-0940
2018
Calas, G.Chasse, M., Griffin, W.L., Alard, O., O'Reilly, S.Y., Calas, G.Insights into the mantle geochemistry of scandium from a meta-analysis of garnet data. GEOROC databaseLithos, in press available 47p.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: he meta-analysis of about 13,000 analyses of scandium content in garnet grains shows that, below the spinel-garnet transition, this phase carries about three-quarters of the Sc budget of the mantle, indicating its control on Sc mobility. The Sc content of garnets in mafic rocks is low, due to a dilution effect resulting from their high modal content in garnet. Garnets from ultramafic rocks exhibit a wider range of Sc concentrations. We assess the relative influence of thermobarometry, crystal chemistry and fluid-related events on the distribution of Sc in garnet from such rocks to improve the tracking of geochemical processes in the mantle. Pressure and temperature of equilibration in the mantle are second-order factors influencing the Sc content of garnet, while crystal-chemistry, in particular and , is the main parameter controlling the compatibility of Sc. Scandium is incorporated in both X and Y sites of Cr-Ca-rich garnets, resulting in a behaviour intermediate between rare-earth elements, incorporated in the X site, and trivalent transition elements, occupying the Y site. This affinity for both sites results in a mild compatibility of Sc in the garnet stability field of the mantle; hence Sc concentration in garnet increases with melt extraction and can be reduced by silicate-melt metasomatism. In contrast, metasomatism by volatile-rich fluids increases the Sc concentration in garnet. The control of garnet on the compatibility of Sc in deep lithospheric rocks demonstrates the potential of using Sc to track the conditions of formation of magmas and their residual rocks, as well as the origin and nature of metasomatic fluids.
DS201910-2249
2019
Calas, G.Chasse, M., Blanchard, M., Cabareta, D., Juhin, A., Vantelon, D., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Calas, G.Deciphering molecular-scale mechanisms covering scandium dynamics in the critical zone. Goldschmidt2019, in press available, 71 ppt.Australialaterites

Abstract: Scandium is often considered as immobile during chemical weathering, based on its low solubility. In contrast to other conservative (i.e. relatively immobile) elements incorporated into accessory minerals resistant to weathering (e.g. zirconium, thorium or niobium), the scarcity of scandium minerals indicates that the processes accounting for scandium's immobilisation are distinctive. However, the evolution of scandium speciation during weathering is unknown, limiting the understanding of the processes controlling its dynamics in the critical zone. Exceptional scandium concentrations in east Australian laterites provide the possibility of unravelling these mechanisms. We follow scandium speciation through thick lateritic profiles (> 30 m) using a multiscale mineralogical and spectroscopic approach involving electron microprobe, laser-ablation--inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selective leaching and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, complemented by mass-transfer calculations. We show that the initial reservoir of scandium contained in the parent rock is preserved under reducing conditions occurring in the lowest horizons of the profiles. The dissolution of scandium-bearing clinopyroxene generates smectitic clays that immobilise and concentrate scandium. It is subsequently trapped in the lateritic duricrust by goethite. Scandium mobilisation appears in this horizon and increases upward as a result of the dissolution of goethite, possibly assisted by dissolved organic matter, and the precipitation of hematite. Molecular-scale analyses demonstrate that changes in speciation govern scandium dynamics, with substitution in smectitic clays and adsorption on iron oxyhydroxides playing a crucial role in scandium immobility in the saprolite and lower lateritic duricrust. The higher affinity of scandium for goethite relative to hematite drives scandium mobilisation in the upper lateritic duricrust, leading to its concentration downward in the lower lateritic duricrust. These successive mechanisms illustrate how the unique complexity of the critical zone leads to scandium concentrations that may form new types of world-class scandium deposits. Comparison with conservative elements and with rare-earth elements, expected to have similar geochemical properties, emphasizes the unique behaviour of scandium in the critical zone. While scandium remains immobile during the early stages of weathering, intense and long-term alteration processes, observed in lateritic contexts, lead to scandium mobilisation. This study highlights the dependence of scandium mobility on weathering conditions.
DS202004-0503
2020
Calas, G.Chasse, M., Blanchard, M., Cabaret, D., Vantelon, D., Juan, A., Calas, G.First principles modeling of X-ray absorption spectra enlightens the process of scandium sequestration by iron oxides.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, 7, 10.2138/am-2020-730Globalscandium

Abstract: Scandium is often associated with iron oxides in the environment. Despite the use of scandium as a geochemical tracer and the existence of world-class supergene deposits, uncertainties on speciation obscure the processes governing its sequestration and concentration. Here, we use first-principles approaches to interpret experimental K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of scandium either incorporated in or adsorbed on goethite and hematite, at concentrations relevant for the environment. This modeling helps to interpret the characteristic spectral features, providing key information to determine scandium speciation when associated with iron oxides. We show that scandium is substituted into iron oxides at low concentration without modifying the crystal structure. When scandium is adsorbed onto iron oxide surfaces, the process occurs through outer-sphere complexation with a reduction in the coordination number of the hydration shell. Considering available X-ray absorption spectra from laterites, the present results confirm that scandium adsorption onto iron oxides is the dominant mechanism of sequestration in these geochemical conditions. This speciation explains efficient scandium recovery through mild metallurgical treatments of supergene lateritic ores. The specificities of scandium sorption mechanisms are related to the preservation of adsorbed scandium in million-years old laterites. These results demonstrate the emerging ability to precisely model fine X-ray absorption spectral features of trace metals associated with mineral phases relevant to the environment. It opens new perspectives to accurately determine trace metals speciation from high-resolution spatially-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy in order to constrain the molecular mechanisms controlling their dynamics.
DS2003-1422
2003
Calasi, E.Vergnolle, M., Pollitz, F., Calasi, E.Constraints on the viscosity of the continental crust and mantle from GPS measurementsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, 10, ETG 15 10.1029/2002JB002374MongoliaGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-2053
2003
Calasi, E.Vergnolle, M., Pollitz, F., Calasi, E.Constraints on the viscosity of the continental crust and mantle from GPS measurements and postseismic deformation models in wesJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, 10, ETG 15 10.1029/2002 JB002374Asia, MongoliaGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0209
2006
Calasi, E.Calasi, E., Han, J.Y., De Mets, C., Nocquet, J.M.Deformation of the North American plate interior from a decade of continuous GPS measurements.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, B6, B06301.Canada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS1989-0201
1989
Calcote, H.F.Calcote, H.F.The role of ions in soot and diamond formationAmerican Chem. Soc. Div. Preprint, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 464-469GlobalDiamond synthesis
DS200912-0094
2009
Calcutta NewsCalcutta NewsDiamond loot on in Chhattisgarh mines.calcuttanews.net, Oct. 17, 1p.IndiaNews item - Chhattisgarh
DS200912-0095
2009
Calcutta NewsCalcutta NewsDiamond loot on in Chhattisgarh mines.calcuttanews.net, Oct. 17, 2p.IndiaNews item - legal
DS202008-1378
2020
Caldas, J.P.de P.Chaves, M.L.de Sa.C., Caldas, J.P.de P., Andrade, K.W., Barbosa, M.S.C.Diamonds from the Santo Antonio River ( Delfinopolis Minas Gerais): probable relationship with the Canastra-3 kimberlite.REM, Int. Journal Ouro Preto, Vol. 73, 1, pp. 51-58. pdfSouth America, Brazil, Minas Geraisdeposit - Canastra-3

Abstract: The study identifies the Canastra-3 Kimberlite magnetic anomaly as the likely primary source of the alluvial diamonds recovered by "garimpeiros" in the Santo Antônio River basin (Delfinópolis, southwestern Minas Gerais). This conclusion is based on cumulative geophysical, hydrographic, metallogenical and mineral geochemistry evidences. The study area is located within fertile ground in the border of the São Francisco craton, close to other diamond primary sources and secondary deposits. This kimberlitic target is the only known in the Santo Antônio River basin. In addition, the known mineralized gravels of this river, worked in the past by "garimpeiros", have evidence of a short transport (angular pebbles and blocks), further evidence of a nearby source. The original data collected in the "Minas Gerais Aerogeophysical Survey Program" was processed and analyzed with the Euler Deconvolution method, implemented in software Oasis Montaj. With the exception of the Canastra-3 body anomaly, all others in the study were classified as non-kimberlitic. Recent sampling work on the weathered top of the Canastra-3 Kimberlite recovered indicator minerals, notably a high proportion of pyrope garnets of the G-10 type, which is unusual among the kimberlites of the region.
DS1859-0034
1825
Caldcleugh, A.Caldcleugh, A.Travels in South America During the Years 1819-20-21London: Murray, 2 VOLS., 370P.; 385P., ( DIAMONDS Vol. L, PP. 54-117 Brasil )BrazilTravelogue
DS1991-0204
1991
Caldeira, K.Caldeira, K., Rampino, M.R.The Mid-Cretaceous super flume, carbon dioxide, and global warmingGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 18, No. 6, June pp. 987-990GlobalCarbon cycle, Climates
DS1991-0205
1991
Caldeira, K.Caldeira, K., Rampino, M.R.The Mid Cretaceous super plume: carbon dioxide, and global warmingGeol. Res. Let., Vol. 18, No. 6, June pp. 987-90.MantlePlumes
DS1993-1280
1993
Caldeira, K.Rampino, M.R., Caldeira, K.Major episodes of geologic change: correlations, time structure and possible causesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 114, No. 2-3, January pp. 215-228GlobalTectonics, Mantle, continent, Rifting
DS1994-0895
1994
Caldeira, K.Kerrick, D.M., Caldeira, K.Metamorphic CO2 degassing and Early Cenozoic PaleoclimateGsa Today, Vol. 4, No. 3, March p. 57, pp. 62-65GlobalGlobal carbon cycle
DS1993-1027
1993
Calder, P.N.Michaud, L.H., Calder, P.N.The development of a computerized drag line mine planning package utilizing interactive computer graphicsThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 86, No. 973, September pp. 37-42GlobalMining, Computer graphics
DS2001-0154
2001
Calder. A.Calder. A., Bowden, P.X ray monitored mineralogical changes in surface exposures of natrocarbonatite lava.Journal of South African Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, p. A 12 (abs)TanzaniaCarbonatite, Oldoinyo Lengai
DS1998-0200
1998
Calderwood, A.R.Calderwood, A.R.Sm neodymium isotopic modeling of the evolution of the earth's depleted mantle andcrust: estimates of continental..Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A207.MantleGeochronology, Recycling, accretion
DS200712-1039
2006
Calderwood, A.R.Steinberger, B., Calderwood, A.R.Models of large scale viscous flow in the Earth's mantle with constraints from mineral physics and surface observations.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 167, 3, Dec. 1, pp. 1461-1481.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS1860-0885
1895
Caldon, J.D.Caldon, J.D.Discourses on Georgia's Precious StonesJewellers Circular Keystone, Vol. 31, No. 8, SEPT. 25TH. PP. 6-7.United States, Georgia, AppalachiaDiamond Occurrence
DS200812-0171
2008
Caldwell, D.Caldwell, D.Diamond blogs. Buying diamonds - Not very complete!Mining.com, September issue p. 68.GlobalNews item - blogs
DS1991-0206
1991
Caldwell, L.K.Caldwell, L.K.International environmental policy: emergence and dimensionsDuke University Press, Second edition, 465p. softcover approx. $ 20.00GlobalEnvironmental, Policy-legal
DS200612-0257
2006
Caldwell, W.A.Clar, S.M., Speciale, S., Jeanloz, R., Kunz, M., Caldwell, W.A., Walter, M., Walker, D.Using advanced accelerators to understand the lower mantle and beyond.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 104, abstract only.MantleGeochemistry
DS1993-0196
1993
Caldwell, W.G.E.Caldwell, W.G.E., Kauffman, E.G.Evolution of the Western Interior Basin #2Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Special Paper, No. 39, 670p. $ 130.00CordilleraTable of contents, Basin, sedimentation, paleoclimatology
DS1860-0006
1861
California MagazineCalifornia MagazineThe Great Knight's Ferry DiamondCalifornia Magazine., Vol. 5, P. 208.United States, California, West CoastDiamonds notable
DS1970-0450
1971
Calk, L.C.Wilshire, H.G., Calk, L.C., Schwarzman, E.C.Kaersutite _ a Product of Reaction between Pargasite and Basanite at Dish Hill, California.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 10, PP. 281-284.GlobalEclogite, Kimberlite
DS1970-0852
1973
Calk, L.C.Wilshire, H.G., Meyer, C.E., Calk, L.C., Schwarzman, E.C.Ultramafic Xenoliths from Western United States: Aluminium Augite And Chromium Diopside Groups.Eos, Vol. 54, No. 11, P. 1224. (abstract.).United States, Colorado PlateauBlank
DS1986-0188
1986
Calk, L.C.Dodge, F.C.W., Kistler, R.W., Calk, L.C.Deep crustal xenoliths, Chinese Peak. Sierra NevadaGeological Society of America, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 102. (abstract.)CaliforniaCrustal genesis
DS201212-0102
2012
Calkins, M.A.Calkins, M.A., Noir, J., Eldredge, J.D., Aurmou, J.M.The effects of boundary topography on convection in Earth's core.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableMantleConvection
DS201212-0103
2012
Calkins, M.A.Calkins, M.A., Noir, J., Eldredge, J.D., Aurnou, J.M.The effects of boundary topography on convection in Earth's core.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 189, 2, pp. 799-814.MantleConvection
DS1989-1295
1989
Callaghan, E.J.Rogers, J.J.W., Callaghan, E.J.Diapiric trandhjemites of the western Dharwar Craton, southern IndiaCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 244-256.IndiaDiapirs, Tectonics
DS200812-0172
2007
Callahan, C.N.Callahan, C.N., Roy, M., Condie, K.C.Using xenoliths to explore variations in upper mantle composition and the relation of composition to seismic velocity structure beneath the Colorado Plateau.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting 2007, Denver Oct. 28, 1p. AbstractUnited States, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics
DS1950-0461
1959
Callahan, J.T.Callahan, J.T., Kam, W., Akers, J.P.The Occurrence of Ground Water in Diatremes of the Hopi Buttes Area, Arizona.Plateau, Vol. 32, No. 1, PP. 1-12, JULY.United States, Arizona, Colorado PlateauDiatreme
DS201605-0818
2016
Callan, N.J.Callan, N.J.Geological mapping in exploration: a view from the trenches.SEG Newsletter, No. 105, Apr. pp. 13-15.TechnologyExploration

Abstract: Kevin Heather’s (SEG 1998 F) presentation at the September 2015 Chile- Explore Congress, entitled “The Lost Art of Geological Mapping: Should We Care?,” regrettably came as no surprise to me, although I have to admit to being more than a little disappointed. Most senior explorationists, I suspect, would probably share these sentiments. Geological mapping is, after all, the very embodiment of all the basic field skills we learn as geologists, and the simple fact is that the alarm bells have been sounding loudly for some time now in our industry: basic field geological skills have been lost in the emerging generation of exploration geologists. As a geologist with some 30 years of experience in the exploration and mining industry, almost entirely in a fieldbased technical capacity, I have always maintained that careful geological mapping, based on sound observation, is one of the cornerstones of successful exploration. Indeed, given that our industry is founded on combinations of fortuitous geological phenomena in a complex framework, why would geological mapping and field geology not be positioned at the very forefront the discovery process? A large part of the debate as to the underlying causes for the general demise of geological field skills has focused on issues at the university level (e.g., fieldwork reduction due to funding cuts and increased liability, changes in undergraduate curricula to more closely reflect the broadening range of geological disciplines to serve wider needs of society, an emphasis on rapidly publishable experimental and modeling research at the expense of more costly field-based studies, etc.). The mining industry has responded by promoting its specific technical and skill set requirements at university level via collaborative research, student training initiatives, and funding programs. The focus of this Views contribution is to examine several internal industry issues which I believe have contributed to falling standards of geological fieldwork, and which have become apparent to me during extensive time spent in the field in a consulting capacity for numerous major, mid-tier, and junior companies.
DS1985-0102
1985
Callandra, J.D.Callandra, J.D.Preliminary Results of a Ground Magnetic Survey of Kimberlite Intrusives in Elliott County, Kentucky.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 2, JANUARY P. 83. (abstract.).United States, Kentucky, AppalachiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS201112-0134
2011
Callegaro, S.Callegaro, S., Marzoli, A., Bertrand, H., Reisberg, L., Chiaradia, M., Beelieni, G.Geochemistry of eastern North American CAMP diabase dykes.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.614.United States, AppalachiaCentral Atlantic Province .... basaltic
DS2003-0197
2003
Callot, J.P.Callot, J.P., Guichet, X.Rock texture and magnetic lineation in dykes: a simple analytical modelTectonophysics, Vol. 366, 3-4, pp. 207-222.GlobalGeophysics - magnetics
DS200412-0254
2003
Callot, J.P.Callot, J.P., Guichet, X.Rock texture and magnetic lineation in dykes: a simple analytical model.Tectonophysics, Vol. 366, 3-4, pp. 207-222.TechnologyGeophysics - magnetics
DS1860-0931
1896
Callot, M.Callot, M.Le Diamant (1896)Conference Held Jan. 15th. Fait Sous Les Auspices Des Amis D, 13P.Africa, LesothoDiamond Genesis
DS1995-0254
1995
Calmano, W.Calmano, W., et al.Sediments and toxic substancesSpringer Verlag, 350pGermanyBook -ad, Sediments and toxic substances, experimental
DS1950-0057
1951
Calmettis, L.Calmettis, L.La Prospection Volentro Diamantifere En AefAssociation ANC. EL. EC. Mines QLES. Bulletin., No. 13, PP. 31-32.; No. 14, PP. 46-47.; No. 15, PP. 54-57.GlobalDiamonds
DS201607-1289
2016
Calo, M.Calo, M., Bodin, T., Romanowicz, B.Layered structure in the upper mantle across North America from joint inversion of long and short period seismic data.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 449, pp. 164-175.United States, CanadaGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: We estimate crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity structure beneath 30 stations in North America by jointly inverting the high frequency scattered wavefield observed in the P wave coda, together with long period surface wave phase and group dispersion data. Several features distinguish our approach from previous such joint inversions. 1) We apply a cross-convolution method, rather than more standard deconvolution approaches used in receiver function studies, and consider both Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion, allowing us to infer profiles of radial anisotropy. 2) We generate probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic depth profiles across the whole uppermost mantle, down to ~350 km depth. 3) The inverse problem is cast in a trans-dimensional Bayesian formalism, where the number of isotropic and anisotropic layers is treated as unknown, allowing us to obtain models described with the least number of parameters. Results show that the tectonically active region west of the Rocky Mountain Front is marked by a Lithospheric Asthenosphere Boundary and a Lehmann Discontinuity occurring at relatively shallow depths (60-150 km and 100-200 km, respectively), whereas further east, in the stable craton, these discontinuities are deeper (170-200 km and 200-250 km, respectively). In addition, in the stable part of the continent, at least two Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuities are present at intermediate depths, suggesting the existence of strong lithospheric layering, and a mechanism for lithospheric thickening by underplating of additional layers as cratonic age increases. The Moho across the continent as well as mid-crustal discontinuities in the craton are also imaged, in agreement with independent studies.
DS1900-0244
1904
Calogeras, J.P.Calogeras, J.P.As Minas Do Brasil E Sua LegislacaoRio De Janeiro: Imp. Nacional, South America, BrazilKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, History
DS1992-0174
1992
Calon, T.Brown, D., Rivers, T., Calon, T.A structural analysis of a metamorphic fold and thrust belt, northeast Gagnon terrane, Grenville Province.Can, Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 1915-27.Quebec, Labrador, UngavaKnob Lake area, Tectonics - structure
DS1993-0197
1993
Calow, R.Calow, R., Davison, G.Processing of exploration samples for diamond and indicator mineralsThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Annual Meeting Preprint, Paper No. 125, 42pCanadaMineral processing, Sample processing, technqiues, results
DS1995-0828
1995
Calsteren, P.van.Huang, Y.M., Hawkesworth, C.J., Calsteren, P.van.Geochemical characteristics and origin of the Jacupiranga carbonatitesChemical Geology, Vol. 119, No. 1-4, Jan. 5, pp. 79-100.BrazilGeochemistry, Carbonatite
DS201112-0135
2011
Calvao, F.Calvao, F.When boom goes bust: ruins, crisis and security in megaengineering diamond mining in Angola.Engineering Earth, Part 3, pp. 367-382.Africa, AngolaMining
DS2002-0627
2002
Calvert, A.Hacker, B.R., Calvert, A., Zhang, R.Y., Ernst, W.G., Liou, J.G.Ar Ar geochronology of diamond bearing metasedimentary rocks from the Kokchetav Massif.Frontiers Science Series, University Academy Press, Vol. 38, pp. 397-412.RussiaGeochronology
DS2003-0528
2003
Calvert, A.Hacker, B.R., Calvert, A., Zhang, R.Y., Ernst, W.G., Liou, J.G.Ultrarapid exhumation of ultrahigh pressure diamond bearing metasedimentary rocks ofLithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 61-75.Russia, KazakhstanUHP
DS200412-0759
2002
Calvert, A.Hacker, B.R., Calvert, A., Zhang, R.Y., Ernst, W.G., Liou, J.G.Ar Ar geochronology of diamond bearing metasedimentary rocks from the Kokchetav Massif.Frontiers Science Series, University Academy Press, Vol. 38, pp. 397-412.RussiaGeochronology
DS200412-0760
2003
Calvert, A.Hacker, B.R., Calvert, A., Zhang, R.Y., Ernst, W.G., Liou, J.G.Ultrarapid exhumation of ultrahigh pressure diamond bearing metasedimentary rocks of the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan?Lithos, Vol. 70, 3-4, pp. 61-75.Russia, KazakhstanUHP
DS1990-0262
1990
Calvert, A.J.Calvert, A.J., Hasselgren, E.A., Clwoes, R.M.Oceanic rift propagation- a cause of crustal underplating and seamountvolcanism.Geology, Vol. 18, No. 9, September pp. 886-889GlobalTectonics -seamount, Crust
DS1991-0207
1991
Calvert, A.J.Calvert, A.J., Clowes, R.M.Seismic evidence for the migration of fluids within the accretionary complex of western Canada.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, pp. 542-56.British ColumbiaCoast - subduction
DS1992-0681
1992
Calvert, A.J.Hasselgren, E., Clowes, R.M., Calvert, A.J.Propagating rift pseudofaults -zones of crustal underplating imaged by multichannel seismic reflection dataGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 19, No. 5, March 3, pp. 485-488MantleRift, Geophysics -seismics
DS1995-0255
1995
Calvert, A.J.Calvert, A.J., Sawyer, E.W., Davis, W.J., Ludden, J.N.Archean subduction inferred from seismic images of a mantle suture in the Superior Province.Nature, Vol. 375, June 22, pp. 670-674.Ontario, QuebecGeophysics -seismics, Subduction, slab, tectonics
DS1996-0894
1996
Calvert, A.J.Martignole, J., Calvert, A.J.Crustal scale shortening and extension across the Grenville Province Of western Quebec.Tectonics, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr. pp. 376-86.Quebec, LabradorGeophysics - seismics
DS1998-0105
1998
Calvert, A.J.Bellefleur, G., Calvert, A.J., Chouteau, M.C.Crustal geometry of the Abitibi Subprovince, in light of three dimensional seismic reflector orientation.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 5, May pp. 569-82.Quebec, OntarioGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS2000-0622
2000
Calvert, A.J.Martignole, J., Calvert, A.J., Friedman, R., ReynoldsCrustal evolution along a seismic section across the Grenville Province, western Quebec.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.37, No.2-3, Feb.Mar, pp.291-306.QuebecGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS201808-1729
2018
Calvert, A.J.Calvert, A.J., Boublier, M.P.Archean continental spreading inferred from seismic images of the Yilgarn Craton.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 11, 7, pp. 526-530.Australiageophysics - seismic

Abstract: On the early Earth, oceanic plateaux similar to present-day Iceland are thought to have evolved into less dense microcontinents as they thickened by continued melt intrusion and crustal fractionation. These earliest continents may have been so weak on a hotter Earth that they collapsed laterally in response to thickening by further magmatic growth or tectonic imbrication. This continental spreading is likely to have resulted in the development of pervasive ductile strain fabrics in the deeper crust, which, if preserved, could generate seismic reflections. Here we present seismic images from the ancient core of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton of Australia that reveal shallowly dipping to horizontal reflections that pervade the middle and lower crust. We interpret these reflective fabrics as the result of widespread lateral crustal flow during the late stage of craton evolution approximately 2.66 to 2.61?billion years ago, which coincided with the widespread intrusion of high-temperature crustal melts, as thickened early continental crust collapsed. The consequent subsidence of large regions of the upper crust, including volcanic and sedimentary greenstone rocks, in the hanging walls of listric mid-lower crustal ductile flow fabrics caused these rocks to drop beneath the granitic melts rising towards the surface, and did not involve Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities within a mostly mobile crust.
DS201809-2004
2018
Calvert, A.J.Calvert, A.J., Doublier, M.P.Archean continental spreading inferred from seismic images of the Yilgarn Craton.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 11, July, pp. 526-530.Australiageophysics - seismic

Abstract: On the early Earth, oceanic plateaux similar to present-day Iceland are thought to have evolved into less dense microcontinents as they thickened by continued melt intrusion and crustal fractionation. These earliest continents may have been so weak on a hotter Earth that they collapsed laterally in response to thickening by further magmatic growth or tectonic imbrication. This continental spreading is likely to have resulted in the development of pervasive ductile strain fabrics in the deeper crust, which, if preserved, could generate seismic reflections. Here we present seismic images from the ancient core of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton of Australia that reveal shallowly dipping to horizontal reflections that pervade the middle and lower crust. We interpret these reflective fabrics as the result of widespread lateral crustal flow during the late stage of craton evolution approximately 2.66 to 2.61?billion years ago, which coincided with the widespread intrusion of high-temperature crustal melts, as thickened early continental crust collapsed. The consequent subsidence of large regions of the upper crust, including volcanic and sedimentary greenstone rocks, in the hanging walls of listric mid-lower crustal ductile flow fabrics caused these rocks to drop beneath the granitic melts rising towards the surface, and did not involve Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities within a mostly mobile crust.
DS1996-1282
1996
Calvert, et al.Senechal, G., Mareschal, M., Hubert, C., Calvert, et al.Integrated geophysical interpretation of crustal structures in the northern Abitibi belt: seismics, ,Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sept. pp. 1343-1362QuebecGeophysics - seismics, structure, Abitibi belt
DS1991-0406
1991
Calvert, H.T.Duckworth, K., Calvert, H.T., Juigali, J.A method for obtaining depth estimates from the geometry of SlingramprofilesGeophysics, Vol. 56, No. 10, October, pp. 1543-1552GlobalGeophysics -electromagnetics, Overburden, host rock
DS200612-0210
2005
Calvert, M.Calvert, M., Chevrot, S.Traveltime sensitivity kernels for PKP phases in the mantle.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 153, 1-3, pp. 21-31.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201808-1770
2018
Calves, G.Mourot, Y., Roddaz, M., Dera, G., Calves, G., Kim, J-H., Charboureau, A-C., Mounic, S., Raisson, S.Geochemical evidence for large scale drainage reorganization in northwest Africa during the Cretaceous.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 19, 5, pp. 1690-1712.Africageomorphology

Abstract: West African drainage reorganization during Cretaceous opening of the Atlantic Ocean is deciphered here from geochemical provenance studies of Central Atlantic sediments. Changes in the geochemical signature of marine sediments are reflected in major and trace element concentrations and strontium-neodymium radiogenic isotopic compositions of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from eight Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites and one exploration well. Homogeneous major and trace element compositions over time indicate sources with average upper (continental) crust signatures. However, detailed information on the ages of these sources is revealed by neodymium isotopes (expressed as ?Nd). The ?Nd(0) values from the DSDP sites show a three-step decrease during the Late Cretaceous: (1) the Albian-Middle Cenomanian ?Nd(0) values are heterogeneous (-5.5 to -14.9) reflecting the existence of at least three subdrainage basins with distinct sedimentary sources (Hercynian/Paleozoic, Precambrian, and mixed Precambrian/Paleozoic); (2) during the Late Cenomanian-Turonian interval, ?Nd(0) values become homogeneous in the deepwater basin (-10.3 to -12.4), showing a negative shift of 2 epsilon units interpreted as an increasing contribution of Precambrian inputs; (3) this negative shift continues in the Campanian-Maastrichtian (?Nd(0)?=?-15), indicating that Precambrian sources became dominant. These provenance changes are hypothesized to be related to the opening of the South and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, coincident with tectonic uplift of the continental margin triggered by Africa-Europe convergence. Finally, the difference between ?Nd(0)values of Cretaceous sediments from the Senegal continental shelf and from the deepwater basins suggests that ocean currents prevented detrital material from the Mauritanides reaching deepwater areas.
DS1993-1242
1993
Calvez, J.Y.Pinna, P., Jourde, G., Calvez, J.Y., Mroz, J.P., Marques, J.M.The Mozambique Belt in northern Mozambique: Neoproterozoic 1100-850 Macrustal growth and tectogenesis and superimposed Pan-African 800-550 MatectonisM.Precambrian Research, Vol. 62, No. 1-2, April pp. 1-60GlobalTectonics, Mozambique
DS201112-0557
2011
Calvin, W.M.Kruse,F.A., Bedell, R.L., Taranik, J.V., Peppin, W.A., Weatherbee, O., Calvin, W.M.Mapping alteration minerals at prospect, outcrop and drill core scales using imagining spectroscopy.International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, 6, pp. 1780-1798.GlobalSpectroscopy - not specific to diamonds
DS1988-0632
1988
Calyton, R.N.Shervais, J.W., Taylor, L.A., Lugmair, G.W., Calyton, R.N., MayedaEarly Proterozoic oceanic crust and the evolution ofsubcontinentalmantle: eclogites and related rocks From southern AfricaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 100, No. 3, March pp. 411-423LesothoBlank
DS2002-1578
2002
Calzia, J.P.Tapani, O., Calzia, J.P., Kosunen, P.J.Geochemistry of Mesozoic plutons, southern Death Valley region: insights into origin of Cordilleran magmatismContribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, CaliforniaMagmatism
DS2002-0237
2002
Camacho, A.Camacho, A., Hensen, B.J., Armstrong, R.Isotopic test of a thermally driven intraplate orogenic model, AustraliaGeology, Vol. 30, 10, Oct. pp. 887-90.AustraliaOrogenesis, basins, geothermometry
DS200712-0953
2006
Camacho, A.Schmidt, P.W., Williams, G.E., Camacho, A., Lee, J.K.W.Assembly of Proterozoic Australia: implications of a revised pole for the 1070 Ma Alcurra dyke swarm, central Australia.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 167, 2, pp. 626-634.AustraliaPaleomagnetism
DS201012-0049
2010
Camacho, A.Berman, R.G., Sandeman, H.A., Camacho, A.Diachronous Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism in the Committee Bay belt, Rae Province, Nunavut: insights from 40Ar 39 Ar cooling agesJournal of Metamorphic Geology., Vol. 28, 5, pp. 439-457.Canada, NunavutGeothermometry - not specific to diamonds
DS201312-0674
2013
Camacho, A.Osovetskii, B.M., Reguir, E.P., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Veksler, I.V., Yang, P., Kamanetsky, V.S., Camacho, A.Trace element analysis and U-Pb geochronology of perovskite and its importance for tracking unexposed rare metal and diamond deposits.GAC-MAC 2013 SS4: Diamond: from birth to the mantle emplacement in kimberlite., abstract onlyMantleGeochronology
DS201802-0234
2018
Camacho, A.From, R.E., Camacho, A., Pearson, D.G., Luo, Y.U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of the Archean orthogneiss complex on eastern Hall Peninsula, southern Baffin Island, Nunavut: identification of exotic Paleo to Mesoarchean crust beneath eastern Hall Peninsula.Precambrian Research, Vol. 305, pp. 341-357.Canada, Nunavut, Hall Peninsulageochronology

Abstract: Eastern Hall Peninsula on southeastern Baffin Island, lies at the junction of a complex Paleoproterozoic collision between the Rae craton, Meta Incognita microcontinent and the North Atlantic craton from ca. 1.88 to 1.80?Ga. Several different interpretations of crustal correlations and the location of intervening sutures have been proposed based on reconnaissance-scale geologic investigation. Therefore, in this study, complex zircon grains from Archean orthogneiss units on eastern Hall Peninsula were analyzed in-situ to elucidate the detailed magmatic history of the region and assess crustal provenance. Magmatic zircons yielded U-Pb crystallization ages between ca. 2976 and 2720?Ma and metamorphic zircons record tectonothermal disturbances between ca. 2740 and 2700?Ma, a period coinciding with metamorphism documented in adjacent crustal blocks (e.g., west Greenland and northern Labrador). Magmatic rocks older than ca. 2740?Ma generally have positive eHf(t) signatures between 0 and 7 (±2) and depleted mantle model ages of ca. 3.1-3.0?Ga indicating the time that protolith melt was extracted from the mantle. The oldest, granodioritic crust crystallized at ca. 2976?Ma and was then reworked periodically at ca. 2.93, 2.84-2.81 and 2.77-2.69?Ma. Zircons from two orthogneiss samples, with U-Pb crystallization ages younger than ca. 2740?Ma, yielded negative eHf(t) values ranging from -4 to -12 and mean depleted mantle model ages of ca. 3.4 and 3.3?Ga respectively, indicating derivation from an older, potentially exotic, crustal source yet to be identified in outcrop on Hall Peninsula. Synthesizing regional U-Pb data we propose a new regional correlation model that retains the essentials of previous models and incorporates new data from eastern Hall Peninsula and other recent studies. This new tectonic correlation model groups eastern Hall Peninsula, southern Cumberland Peninsula and the Aasiaat domain into a “Core zone” that shared a geologic history prior to 1.90?Ga and potentially prior to 2.75?Ga.
DS202004-0522
2020
Camacho, A.Kellett, D.A., Pehrsson, S., Skipton, D., Regis, D., Camacho, A., Schneider, D., Berman, R.Thermochronological history of the Northern Canadian Shield. Nuna, Churchill Province, Trans-Hudson orogen, Thelon, RaePrecambrian Research, doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2020.105703 in press available 80p. PdfCanadageothermometry

Abstract: The northern Canadian Shield is comprised of multiple Archean cratons that were sutured by the late Paleoproterozoic to form the Canadian component of supercontinent Nuna. More than 2000 combined K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from across the region reveal a stark contrast in upper and lower plate thermal responses to Nuna-forming events, with the Churchill Province in particular revealing near complete thermal reworking during the late Paleoproterozoic. We review the detailed cooling history for five regions that span the Churchill Province and Trans-Hudson orogen (THO): Thelon Tectonic Zone, South Rae, Reindeer Zone, South Hall Peninsula, and the Cape Smith Belt. The cooling patterns across Churchill Province are revealed in two >1500 km transects. At the plate scale, Churchill’s cooling history is dominated by THO accretionary and collisional events, during which it formed the upper plate. Cooling ages generally young from west to east across both southern and central Churchill, and latest cooling in the THO is 50 myr older in southernmost Churchill (Reindeer Zone) compared to eastern Churchill (Hall Peninsula), indicating diachronous thermal equilibration across 2000 km strike length of the THO. Churchill exhibits relatively high post-terminal THO cooling rates of ~4 °C/myr, which support other geological evidence for widespread rapid exhumation of the THO upper plate following terminal collision, potentially in response to lithospheric delamination.
DS1993-0139
1993
Camapl, N.Bossi, J., Camapl, N., Civetta, L., Demarchi, G.Early Proterozoic dike swarms from western Uruguay- geochemistry, isotopes and petrogenesisChemical Geology, Vol. 106, No. 3-4, June 25, pp. 263-277UruguayDike swarms, geochemistry, Geochronology
DS200812-0173
2008
Camara, F.Camara, F., Sokolova, E.The structure of bornemanite, a Group III Ti silicate mineral from Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A131.Russia, Kola PeninsulaMineralogy
DS201012-0358
2010
Camara, F.Khomyakov, A.P., Camara, F., Sokolova, E., Abdu, Y., Hawthorne, F.C.Paraershovite, a new mineral species from the Khibin alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: description and crystal structure.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 48, 2, pp. 291-300.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkalic
DS201212-0002
2012
Camara, F.Adam, J., Oberti, R., Camara, F., Green, T.H., Rushmer, T.The effect of water on equilibrium relations between clinopyroxenes and basanitic magmas: tracing water and non- volatile incompatible elements in the Earth's mantle.emc2012 @ uni-frankfurt.de, 1p. AbstractMantleMelting
DS201212-0104
2012
Camara, F.Camara, F.,Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C.Kazanskyite, Ba Ti Nb Na3 Ti (Si207) 202 (OH) 2 (H20)4, a group III Ti disilicate mineral from the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: description and crystal structure.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 76, 3, pp. 473-492.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkalic
DS201412-0091
2014
Camara, F.Camara, F., Skolova, E., Abdu, Y.A., Hawthorne, F.C.Nafertisite Na3Fe2 10Ti2(Si6017)02(OH)6F(H2))2 from Mt. Kukisvumchorr Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: refinement of the crystal structure and revision of the chemical formula.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 26, pp. 689-700.Russia, Kola PeninsulaKhibiniy Massif
DS201602-0241
2015
Camara, F.Sokolova, E., Abdu, Y., Hawthorne, F.C., Genovese, A., Camara, F., Khomyakov, A.P.From structure topology to chemical composition. XVIII. Titanium silicates: revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of Betalomonosovite, a group IV TS-block mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula.The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 53, pp. 401-428.Russia, Kola PeninsulaLovozero Massif

Abstract: The crystal structure of betalomonosovite, ideally Na6?4Ti4(Si2O7)2[PO3(OH)][PO2(OH)2]O2(OF), a 5.3331(7), b 14.172(2), c 14.509(2) Å, a 103.174(2), ß 96.320(2), ? 90.278(2)°, V 1060.7(4) Å3, from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia, has been refined in the space group PFormula to R = 6.64% using 3379 observed (Fo > 4sF) reflections collected with a single-crystal APEX II ULTRA three-circle diffractometer with a rotating-anode generator (MoKa), multilayer optics, and an APEX-II 4K CCD detector. Electron-microprobe analysis gave the empirical formula (Na5.39Ca0.36Mn0.04Mg0.01)S5.80 (Ti2.77Nb0.48Mg0.29Fe3+0.23Mn0.20Zr0.02Ta0.01)S4(Si2.06O7)2[P1.98O5(OH)3]O2[O0.82F0.65(OH)0.53]S2, Dcalc. = 2.969 g cm-3, Z = 2, calculated on the basis of 26 (O + F) apfu, with H2O determined from structure refinement. The crystal structure of betalomonosovite is characterized by extensive cation and anion disorder: more than 50% of cation sites are partly occupied. The crystal structure of betalomonosovite is a combination of a titanium silicate (TS) block and an intermediate (I) block. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H-heteropolyhedral, O-octahedral) and exhibits linkage and stereochemistry typical for Group IV (Ti + Mg + Mn = 4 apfu) of the TS-block minerals. The I block is a framework of Na polyhedra and P tetrahedra which ideally gives {Na2?4[PO3(OH)][PO2(OH)2]} pfu. Betalomonosovite is an Na-poor OH-bearing analogue of lomonosovite, Na10Ti4(Si2O7)2(PO4)2O4. In the betalomonosovite structure, there is less Na in the I block and in the TS block when compared to the lomonosovite structure. The OH groups occur mainly in the I block where they coordinate P and Na atoms and in the O sheet of the TS block (minor). The presence of OH groups in the I block and in the TS block is supported by IR spectroscopy and bond-valence calculations on anions. High-resolution TEM of lomonosovite shows the presence of pervasive microstructural intergrowths, accounting for the presence of signals from H2O in the infrared spectrum of anhydrous lomonosovite. More extensive lamellae in betalomonosovite suggest a topotactic reaction from lomonosovite to betalomonosovite.
DS201809-2035
2018
Camara, F.Holtstam, D., Camara, F., Skogby, H., Karlsson, A., Langhof, J.Description and recognition of potassic richterite, an amphibole supergroup mineral from the Pajsberg ore field, Varmland, Sweden.Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org/101007/ s00710-018-0623-6 10p.Europe, Swedenalkaline

Abstract: Potassic-richterite, ideally AKB(NaCa)CMg5TSi8O22W(OH)2, is recognized as a valid member of the amphibole supergroup (IMA-CNMNC 2017-102). Type material is from the Pajsberg Mn-Fe ore field, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden, where the mineral occurs in a Mn-rich skarn, closely associated with mainly phlogopite, jacobsite and tephroite. The megascopic colour is straw yellow to grayish brown and the luster vitreous. The nearly anhedral crystals, up to 4 mm in length, are pale yellow (non-pleochroic) in thin section and optically biaxial (-), with a?=?1.615(5), ß?=?1.625(5), ??=?1.635(5). The calculated density is 3.07 g•cm-1. VHN100 is in the range 610-946. Cleavage is perfect along {110}. EPMA analysis in combination with Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy yields the empirical formula (K0.61Na0.30Pb0.02)?0.93(Na1.14Ca0.79Mn0.07)?2(Mg4.31Mn0.47Fe3+0.20)?5(Si7.95Al0.04Fe3+0.01)?8O22(OH1.82F0.18)?2 for a fragment used for collection of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The infra-red spectra show absorption bands at 3672 cm-1 and 3736 cm-1 for the a direction. The crystal structure was refined in space group C2/m to R1?=?3.6% [I >?2s(I)], with resulting cell parameters a?=?9.9977(3) Å, b?=?18.0409(4) Å, c?=?5.2794(2) Å, ??=?104.465(4)°, V?=?922.05(5) Å3 and Z?=?2. The A and M(4) sites split into A(m) (K+), A(2/m) (Na+), A(2) (Pb2+), and M(4') (Mn2+) subsites, respectively. The remaining Mn2+ is strongly ordered at the octahedrally coordinated M(2) site, possibly together with most of Fe3+. The skarn bearing potassic-richterite formed at peak metamorphism, under conditions of low SiO2 and Al2O3 activities and relatively high oxygen fugacities.
DS201902-0275
2018
Camara, F.Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Bindi, L., Toledo, V., Camara, F., Saunders, M., O'Reilly, S.Y.Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4011, a new mineral trapped in corundum from volcanic rocks of Mt Carmel, northern Israel.Minerals ( mdpi.com), Vol. 8, 12, 11p. PdfEurope, Israelmineralogy

Abstract: The new mineral species carmeltazite, ideally ZrAl2Ti4O11, was discovered in pockets of trapped melt interstitial to, or included in, corundum xenocrysts from the Cretaceous Mt Carmel volcanics of northern Israel, associated with corundum, tistarite, anorthite, osbornite, an unnamed REE (Rare Earth Element) phase, in a Ca-Mg-Al-Si-O glass. In reflected light, carmeltazite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark brown to dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Under crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (%) (? in nm)) are: 21.8, 22.9 (471.1); 21.0, 21.6 (548.3), 19.9, 20.7 (586.6); and 18.5, 19.8 (652.3). Electron microprobe analysis (average of eight spot analyses) gave, on the basis of 11 oxygen atoms per formula unit and assuming all Ti and Sc as trivalent, the chemical formula (Ti3+3.60Al1.89Zr1.04Mg0.24Si0.13Sc0.06Ca0.05Y0.02Hf0.01)S=7.04O11. The simplified formula is ZrAl2Ti4O11, which requires ZrO2 24.03, Al2O3 19.88, and Ti2O3 56.09, totaling 100.00 wt %. The main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are (d in Å (relative visual intensity)): 5.04 (65), 4.09 (60), 2.961 (100), 2.885 (40), and 2.047 (60). The crystal structure study revealed carmeltazite to be orthorhombic, space group Pnma, with unit-cell parameters a = 14.0951 (9), b = 5.8123 (4), c = 10.0848 (7) Å, V = 826.2 (1) Å3, and Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.0216 for 1165 observed reflections with Fo > 4s(Fo). Carmeltazite exhibits a structural arrangement similar to that observed in a defective spinel structure. The name carmeltazite derives from Mt Carmel (“CARMEL”) and from the dominant metals present in the mineral, i.e., Titanium, Aluminum and Zirconium (“TAZ”). The mineral and its name have been approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (2018-103).
DS201906-1276
2019
Camara, F.Bindi, L., Camara, F., Griffin, W.L., Huang, J-X., Gain, S.E.M., Toledo, V., O'Reilly, S.Y.Discovery of the first natural hydride. Mt. CarmelAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 611-614.Europe, Israelcrystallography

Abstract: Although hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system, the mechanisms of exchange of this element between the deep interior and surface of Earth are still uncertain. Hydrogen has profound effects on properties and processes on microscopic-to-global scales. Here we report the discovery of the first hydride (VH2) ever reported in nature. This phase has been found in the ejecta of Cretaceous pyroclastic volcanoes on Mt Carmel, N. Israel, which include abundant xenoliths containing highly reduced mineral assemblages. These xenoliths were sampled by their host magmas at different stages of their evolution but are not genetically related to them. The xenoliths are interpreted as the products of extended interaction between originally mafic magmas and CH4+H2 fluids, derived from a deeper, metal-saturated mantle. The last stages of melt evolution are recorded by coarse-grained aggregates of hibonite (CaAl12O19) + grossite (CaAl4O7) + V-rich spinels ± spheroidal to dendritic inclusions of metallic vanadium (V0), apparently trapped as immiscible metallic melts. The presence of V0 implies low oxygen fugacities and suggests crystallization of the aggregates in a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. The presence of such reducing conditions in the upper mantle has major implications for the transport of carbon, hydrogen and other volatile species from the deep mantle to the surface.
DS202101-0001
2020
Camara, F.Bindi, L., Camara, F., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L., Huang, J-X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V.Kishonite, VH2 and oreillyite, Cr2N, two new minerals from the conundrum xenocrysts of Mt. Carmel, northern Israel.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1118, doi:10.3390/ min10121118 10p. PdfEurope, Israeldeposit - Mt. Carmel

Abstract: Here, we describe two new minerals, kishonite (VH2) and oreillyite (Cr2N), found in xenoliths occurring in pyroclastic ejecta of small Cretaceous basaltic volcanoes exposed on Mount Carmel, Northern Israel. Kishonite was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and was found to be cubic, space group Fm3¯m, with a = 4.2680(10) Å, V = 77.75(3) Å3, and Z = 4. Oreillyite was studied by both single-crystal X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and was found to be trigonal, space group P3¯1m, with a = 4.7853(5) Å, c = 4.4630(6) Å, V = 88.51 Å3, and Z = 3. The presence of such a mineralization in these xenoliths supports the idea of the presence of reduced fluids in the sublithospheric mantle influencing the transport of volatile species (e.g., C, H) from the deep Earth to the surface. The minerals and their names have been approved by the Commission of New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (No. 2020-023 and 2020-030a).
DS201803-0447
2017
Camara Maurer, V.Fraga, L.M., Cordani, U., Reis, N., Nadeau, S., Camara Maurer, V.U Pb shrimp and La ICPMS new dat a for different A type granites of the Orocaima igneous belt, central Guyana shield, northern Amazonian craton. ( Project Geology of the Guiana Shield)Anais Do 15 Simposio Geologia da Amazonia, Belem , Dec. 5p. Abstract pdfSouth America, Guianacraton

Abstract: The Orocaima Igneous Belt (OIB) is a huge plutono-volcanic belt at the central part of Guiana Shield, consisting mainly of 1.99-1.96 Ga volcano-plutonic rocks with high-K calc-alkaline, A-type and shosho-nitic geochemical signatures. Three A-type granitic bodies from the central part of the OIB have been dated using U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS methods. A 1985±11 Ma age was calculated for the Macucal Mountain Granite of the Saracura Suite (Brazil) and ages of 1977±3.9 Ma and 1975±5 were calculated for the alkaline riebeckite granites respectively of the Lontra (Brazil) and Makarapan (Guyana) bodies. These ages are in the same range of those reported for the Aricamã A-type granitoids and the results indicate that different A-type magmatism took place in the 1.993-1.975 Ma interval along the OIB, coeval to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic magmatism. This scenario fits well to a post-collisional setting.
DS2002-1089
2002
Camargo, M.A.Moraes, R., Brown, M., Fuck, R.A., Camargo, M.A., Lima, T.M.Characterization and P T evolution of melt bearing ultrahigh temperature granulites: anJournal of Petrology, Vol. 43, 9, Sept.pp. 1673-1706.BrazilUHP - mineralogy - not specific to diamonds
DS1981-0404
1981
Camargo, W.G.R.Svisero, D.P., Camargo, W.G.R.Crystal Chemistry of Rutiles in Inclusion in Natural DiamondRevista Do Institute Geologico, Vol. 12, PP. 1-10.BrazilDiamond, Morphology
DS1994-1884
1994
Cambell, et al.Wardle, R.J., Bridgewaterm D., Menegl, Cambell, et al.Mapping in the Torngat Orogen, no. 3 the Nain Craton.. ultramafic dyke occurrences in northern most LabradorNewfld. Department of Mines, Report, No. 94-1, pp. 399-407.Quebec, Ungava, LabradorNain Craton
DS201603-0401
2016
Cambeses, A.Montero, P., Haissen, F., Mouttaqi, A., Molina, J.F., Errami, A., Sadki, O., Cambeses, A., Bea, F.Contrasting SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of two carbonatite complexes from the peri-cratonic terranes of the Reguibat shield: implications for the lateral extension of the West African Craton.Gondwana Research, in press available 13p.Africa, West AfricaCarbonatite

Abstract: The Oulad Dlim Massif of the Western Reguibat Shield contains several carbonatite complexes of previously unknown age. The largest and best studied are Gleibat Lafhouda, composed of magnesiocarbonatites, and Twihinate, composed of calciocarbonatites. Gleibat Lafhouda is hosted by Archean gneisses and schists. It has a SHRIMP U-Th-Pb zircon crystallization age of 1.85 ± 0.03 Ga, a Nd model age of TCR = 1.89 ± 0.03 Ga, and a Sm-Nd age of 1.85 ± 0.39 Ga. It forms part of the West Reguibat Alkaline province. Twihinate, on the other hand, is much younger. It is hosted by Late Silurian to Early Devonian deformed granites and has a zircon crystallization age of 104 ± 4 Ma, which is within error of the age of the carbonatites of the famous Richat Structure in the southwest Reguibat Shield. Like these, the Twihinate carbonatites are part of the Mid-Cretaceous Peri-Atlantic Alkaline Pulse. The Twihinate carbonatites contain abundant inherited zircons with ages that peak at ca. 420 Ma, 620 Ma, 2050 Ma, 2466 Ma, and 2830 Ma. This indicates that their substratum has West African rather than, as previously suggested, Avalonian affinities. It has, however, a Paleoproterozoic component that is not found in the neighboring western Reguibat Shield. The 421 Ma to 410 Ma gneissic granites hosting Twihinate are epidote + biotite + Ca-rich garnet deformed I-type to A-type granites derived from magmas of deep origin compatible, therefore, with being generated in a subduction environment. These granites form a body of unknown dimensions and petrogenesis, the study of which will be of key importance for understanding the geology and crustal architecture of this region.
DS201612-2283
2016
Cambeses, A.Cambeses, A., Garcia-Casco, A., Scarrow, J.H., Montero, P., Perez-Valera, L.A., Bea, F.Mineralogical evidence for lamproite magma mixing and storage at mantle depths: Socovos fault lamproites, SE Spain.Lithos, Vol. 266-267, pp. 182-201.Europe, SpainLamproite

Abstract: Detailed textural and mineral chemistry characterisation of lamproites from the Socovos fault zone, SE Spain Neogene Volcanic Province (NVP) combining X-ray element maps and LA-ICP-MS spot analyses has provided valuable information about mantle depth ultrapotassic magma mixing processes. Despite having similar whole-rock compositions, rocks emplaced in the Socovos fault are mineralogically varied: including type-A olivine-phlogopite lamproites; and type-B clinopyroxene-phlogopite lamproites. The Ol-lacking type-B predates Ol-bearing type-A by c. 2 million years. We propose that the mineralogical variations, which are representative of lamproites in the NVP as a whole, indicate mantle source heterogeneities. Major and trace element compositions of mineral phases suggest both metasomatised harzburgite and veined pyroxenite sources that were most likely closely spatially related. Thin section scale textural and compositional variations in mineral phases reveal heterogeneous mantle- and primitive magma-derived crystals. The variety of crystals points to interaction and mingling-mixing of ultrapotassic magma batches at mantle depths prior crustal emplacement. The mixing apparently occurred in a mantle melting zone with a channelised flow regime and localised magma chambers-reservoirs. Magma interaction was interrupted when the Socovos and other lithosphere-scale faults tore down to the mantle source region, triggering rapid ascent of the heterogeneous lamproite magma.
DS201703-0405
2017
Cambeses, A.Haissen, F., Cambeses, A., Montero, P., Bea, F., Dilek, Y., Mouttaqi, A.The Archean kaisilite nepheline syenites of the Awsard intrusive massif ( Reguibat Shield, West African craton, Morocco) and its relationship to alkaline magmatism of Africa.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 127, pp. 16-50.Africa, MoroccoCraton - magmatism
DS201112-0136
2011
Cambiott, G.Cambiott, G., Ricard, Y., Sabadini, R.R.New insights into mantle convection true polar wander and rotational bulge readjustment.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 310, 3-4, pp. 538-543.MantleConvection
DS1994-0242
1994
Cambon, J.Cambon, J., Shirley, J.Russian versus western diamond recovery plants - a technical and financialThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Section Meeting Oct. 12, Vancouver, 14p.Northwest Territories, RussiaDiamond recovery, costs, comparison, Mineral processing
DS1994-1593
1994
Cambon, J.K.Shirley, J.M., Cambon, J.K.Russian versus western diamond recovery plants - a technical and financialcomparison.The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) District 6, Oct. 11-15th. Vancouver, 11p.Northwest Territories, RussiaSampling, Recovery plants
DS1985-0719
1985
Cambray, F.W.Welland, M.J., Cambray, F.W., Voight, D.S.Structural and Stratigraphic Fabric of the Ouachita Thrustbelt, Oklahoma and Arkansaw: a Paleozoic Accretionary Complex.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 7, P. 746. (abstract.).United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, OklahomaGeotectonics
DS1988-0102
1988
Cambray, F.W.Cambray, F.W.A tectonic model for the mid continent rift systemGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 20, No. 5, March p. 338. abstractKansasBlank
DS1990-0121
1990
Cambray, F.W.Antonelli, M., Cambray, F.W.Detachment controlled sill emplacement in the midcontinent rift system Of the Lake Superior regionGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A369Michigan, Kansas, MidcontinentTectonics, Rift
DS1994-0243
1994
Cambray, F.W.Cambray, F.W., Fujita, K.The midcontinent rift and Grenville connectionGeological Society of America Abstracts, Vol. 26, No. 5, April p. 7. Abstract.GlobalGeophysics -gravity, Tectonics
DS200612-0845
2006
Camelo, J.F.Macambira, M.J.B., Armstrong, R.A., Silva, D.C.C., Camelo, J.F.The Archean Paleoproterozoic boundary in Amazonian Craton: new isotope evidence for crustal growth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 2, abstract only.South America, BrazilGeochronology, craton
DS1997-0559
1997
CameronJobin-Bevans, L.S., Halden, N.M., Peck, D.C., CameronGeology and oxide mineralization of the Pipe stone Lake anorthosite ManitobaExploration and Mining Geology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 35-61ManitobaTitanium, Vanadium, rare earths, Deposit - Pipestone Lake
DS201112-0871
2004
CameronRobinson, P.T., Bai, W-J., Malpas, J., Yang, J-S., Zhou, M-F., Fang, Q-S., Hu, X-F., Cameron, StaudigelUltra high pressure minerals in the Loubasa ophiolite, Tibet and their tectonic implications.Aspects of the Tectonic evolution of China, Editors Fletcher, Ali, Aitchison, Geological Society Of America, Spec. Pub.226, pp.247-71China, TibetUHP
DS2003-1442
2003
Cameron, B.I.Walker, J.A., Roggensack, K., Patino, L.C., Cameron, B.I., Matias, O.The water and trace element contents of melt inclusions across an active subductionContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 146, 1, pp. 62-77.MantleSubduction - water
DS2003-1443
2003
Cameron, B.I.Walker, J.A., Roggensack, K., Patino, L.C., Cameron, B.I., Matias, O.The water and trace element contents of melt inclusions across an active subductionContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 10.1007/s00410-003-0432-xMantleBlank
DS200412-2072
2003
Cameron, B.I.Walker, J.A., Roggensack, K., Patino, L.C., Cameron, B.I., Matias, O.The water and trace element contents of melt inclusions across an active subduction zone.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 146, 1, pp. 62-77.MantleSubduction - water
DS1991-0062
1991
Cameron, D.G.Ball, T.K., Cameron, D.G., Colman, T.B., Roberts, P.D.Behaviour of radon in the geological environment: a reviewUnknown, Vol. pp. 169-182GlobalRadon, Environment
DS1970-0618
1973
Cameron, E.M.Allan, J.F., Cameron, E.M., Durham, C.C.Reconnaissance geochemistry using lake sediments of a 36, 000 sq mile area of northwestern Shield.Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Paper, No. 72-50Quebec, OntarioGeochemistry
DS1993-1393
1993
Cameron, E.M.Schmitt, H.R., Cameron, E.M., Hall, G.E.M., Viave, J.Mobilization of gold into lake sediments from acid and alkaline mineralized environments in the southern Canadian shield: gold in lake sediments andnat.watersJournal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 48, No. 3, August pp. 329-358Ontario, Saskatchewan, ManitobaGold geochemistry, Alkaline rocks
DS1994-1327
1994
Cameron, E.M.Painter, S., Cameron, E.M., Allan, R., Rouse, J.Reconnaissance geochemistry and its environmental relevanceJournal of Geochem. Explor, Vol. 51, No. 3, Sept. pp. 213-246CanadaGeochemistry, Environmental aspects
DS2002-0022
2002
Cameron, E.M.Alirezaei, S., Cameron, E.M.Mass balance during gabbro amphibolite transition, Bamble sector,implications for petrogenesis, tectonicsLithos, Vol. 60, No. 1-2, pp. 21-45.NorwayTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS1860-0796
1893
Cameron, J.D.Cameron, J.D.Handbook of North Carolina With Illustrations and MapRaleigh: Edward And Boughton., 333P.United States, North Carolina, AppalachiaDiamond Occurrence
DS1988-0103
1988
Cameron, K.Cameron, K., Robinson, J., Nimz, G., Niemeyer, S.Complexities of interpreting model ages of mafic granulite xenoliths, MexicoTerra Cognita, Eclogite conference, Vol. 8, No. 3, Summer, p. 270. AbstractMexicoEclogite, Geochronology
DS1996-1511
1996
Cameron, K.Ward, R.L., Cameron, K.Petrology and geochemistry of granulite facies xenoliths - evidence concerning Prot. age deep crust.Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb. p. 68.GlobalXenoliths, Proterozoic
DS1994-0244
1994
Cameron, K..Cameron, K.., McMillan, N.J.Mafic Proterozoic basement beneath the Kilbourne Hole xenoliths locality, southwestern New Mexico.Geological Society of America Abstracts, Vol. 26, No. 6, April p. 7. Abstract.New MexicoXenoliths, Kilbourne Hole
DS1991-1469
1991
Cameron, K.L.Rudnick, R.L., Cameron, K.L.Age diversity of the deep crust in northern MexicoGeology, Vol. 19, No. 12, December pp. 1197-1200MexicoGeochronology, Crustal zenoliths
DS1991-1614
1991
Cameron, K.L.Smith, D.R., Cameron, K.L.Mid-Cenozoic volcanic rocks and related deep crustal xenoliths from LaOlivina, southeastern Chihuahua, MexicoGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract Volume, Vol. 23, No. 5, San Diego, p. A 332MexicoXenoliths, Geochronology
DS1992-0202
1992
Cameron, K.L.Cameron, K.L., Robinson, J.V., Niemeyer, S., Nimz, G.J., KuentzContrasting styles of Pre-Cenozoic and Mid-Tertiary crustal evolution inJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B 12, November 10, pp. 17, 353-17, 376MexicoXenoliths, Crust
DS1993-1135
1993
Cameron, K.L.Nimz, G.J., Cameron, K.L., Niemeyer, S.The la Olivin a pyroxenite suite and the isotopic compositions of mantle basalts parental to the mid-Cenozoic arc volcanism of northern Mexico.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. B4, April 10, pp. 6489-6509.MexicoMantle, Websterite
DS1995-1354
1995
Cameron, K.L.Nimz, G.J., Cameron, K.L., Niemeyer, S.Formation of mantle lithosphere beneath northern Mexico -chemical and Strontium neodymium PR isotopic - peridotite xenolithsJournal of Geology Res., Vol. 100, NB3, March 10, pp. 4181-4196.MexicoXenoliths, Peridotite - la Olivina
DS1996-1332
1996
Cameron, K.L.Smith, R.D., Cameron, K.L., Sampson, D.E.Generation of voluminous silicic magmas and formation of mid-Cenozoic crust beneath N-C Mexico: mantle..Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 123, No. 4, pp. 375-389MexicoMantle magmas, Ignimbrites, granulites
DS1997-1002
1997
Cameron, K.L.Scherer, E.E., Cameron, K.L., Johnson, C.M., Beard, B.Lutetium - Hafnium geochronology applied to dating Cenozoic events affecting lower crustal xenoliths Kilbourne Hole.Chemical Geol., Vol. 142, No. 1-2, Oct. 20, pp. 63-78.New MexicoGeochronology, Kilbourne Hole
DS2000-0865
2000
Cameron, K.L.Scherer, E.E., Cameron, K.L., Blichert-Toft, J.Lutetium - Hafnium garnet geochronology: closure temperature relative to the Sm neodymium system - effects trace inclusionsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 64, No. 19, Oct. 1, pp. 3413-32.GlobalGarnet - geochronology
DS1991-0751
1991
Cameron, M.Hughes, J.M., Cameron, M., Mariano, A.N.Rare earth element ordering and structural variations in natural rare earth bearing apatitesAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 76, pp. 1165-1173Quebec, New MexicoOka, Carbonatite
DS1990-0923
1990
Cameron, R.E.Lever, P.J.A., King, R.H., Cameron, R.E.Adapting the intelligent decision support system to variable miningconditionsAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, No. 90-69, 8pGlobalGeostatistics, Program -IDDS
DS2002-0641
2002
Cameron, S.C.M.Hamilton, S.M., Cameron, S.C.M., McClenaghan, M.B., Hall, G.E.M.Thick overburden geochemical methods: studies over volcanogenic massive sulphideOntario Geological Survey Open File, Summary of Field Work, No. 6100, pp. 27-1-17.Ontario, TimminsGeochemistry
DS1970-0044
1970
Camfield, P.A.Camfield, P.A., Gough, D.I., Porath, H.Magnetometer Array Studies in the Northwestern United States and Southwestern Canada.Geophys. Journal of Res. Astron. Soc., Vol. 22, No. 2, PP. 201-221.Montana, South Dakota, North DakotaGeophysics, Mid-continent
DS1975-0003
1975
Camfield, P.A.Alabi, A.O., Camfield, P.A., Gough, D.I.The North American Central Plains Conductive AnomalyGeophys. Journal of Res. Astron. Soc., Vol. 43, PP. 815-833.GlobalGeophysics, Mid-continent
DS1998-0571
1998
Camfield, P.A.Handa, S., Camfield, P.A.Crustal electrical conductivity in north central Saskatchewan: the North American Central Plains anomaly and its relation to a Proterozoic plate margin.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, pp. 533-43.SaskatchewanGeophysics - magnetics, Shield, Wollaston Domain
DS1997-0419
1997
Camilucci, D.Gladwin, D., Konda, B., Lauer, Camilucci, D.A comparative analysis of income based taxes on miningThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 90, No. 1009, April pp. 33-35CanadaEconomics, Tax - mining
DS1993-0198
1993
Camire, G.E.Camire, G.E., Burg, J-P.Late Archean thrusting in the Northwestern Pontiac Subprovince, CanadianShieldPrecambrian Research, Vol. 61, No. 1-2, February pp. 51-66OntarioStructure -thrust, Pontiac Subprovince
DS2002-0238
2002
Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.Mining company reporting standards - the South African experienceAustralian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. 3/2002, pp.53-6.South AfricaMineral reserves - definitions, category - SAMREC code
DS1991-0208
1991
Camm, T.W.Camm, T.W.Simplified cost models for prefeasibility mineral evaluations #1United States Bureau of Mines Information Circular, No. IC 9298, 17pUnited StatesEconomics, ore reserves, Cost models -mineral evaluation
DS1992-0203
1992
Camm, T.W.Camm, T.W.The development of cost models using regression analysisAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, Annual Meeting held Phoenix Arizona Feb. 24-27th. 1992, Preprint No. 92-48, 3pGlobalEconomics, ore reserves, Feasibility studies
DS1993-0199
1993
Camm, T.W.Camm, T.W.Simplified cost models for prefeasibility mineral evaluations #3Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) Meeting held, Reprint No. 93-85, 8pGlobalEconomics, Mineral processing, CIP
DS1994-0245
1994
Camm, T.W.Camm, T.W.Simplified cost models for prefeasibility mineral evaluations #2Mining Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 6, June pp. 559-562GlobalGeostatistics, Reserve estimation costs, models
DS1994-1640
1994
Camm, T.W.Smith, M.L., Camm, T.W.An expert system for mine design and cost engineering: new directions For the Bureau of Mines cost estimating systemAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, Meeting held Albuquerque Feb. 14-17th, No. 94-132, 7pUnited StatesEconomics, Cost estimating system
DS2003-0198
2003
Cammarano, F.Cammarano, F., Goes, S., Vacher, P., Giardini, D.Inferring upper mantle temperatures from seismic velocitiesPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 138, 3-4, pp. 197-222.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0255
2003
Cammarano, F.Cammarano, F., Goes, S., Vacher, P., Giardini, D.Inferring upper mantle temperatures from seismic velocities.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 138, 3-4, pp. 197-222.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0681
2004
Cammarano, F.Goes, S., Cammarano, F., Hanson, U.Synthetic seismic signature of thermal mantle plumes.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 218, 3, Feb. 15, pp. 403-419.MantleGeochronology
DS200512-0131
2005
Cammarano, F.Cammarano, F., Deuss, A., Goes, S., Giardini, D.One dimensional physical reference models for the upper mantle and transition zone: combining seismic and mineral physics constraints.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, B1, B01306MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-0132
2005
Cammarano, F.Cammarano, F., Goes, S., Deuss, A., Giardini, D.Is a pyrolitic adiabatic mantle compatible with seismic data?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 232, 3-4, April 15, pp. 227-243.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-0232
2008
Cammarano, F.Conden, L., Goes, S., Cammarano, F., Connolly, J.A.Thermochemical interpretation of one dimensional seismic reference models for upper mantle: evidence for bias due to heterogeneity.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 175, 2, pp. 627-648.MantleGeothermometry
DS200912-0096
2009
Cammarano, F.Cammarano, F., Romanowicz, B., Stixrude, L., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., Xu, W.Inferring the thermochemical structure of the upper mantle from seismic data.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 179, 2, Nov. pp. 1169-1185.MantleGeothermometry
DS200912-0118
2009
Cammarano, F.Cobden, L., Goes, S., Ravenna, M., Styles, E., Cammarano, F., Gallagher, K., Connolly, J.Thermochemical interpretation of 1-D seismic dat a for the lower mantle: the significance of nonadiabiatic thermal gradients and compositional heterogeneity.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, B 11, B11309MantleGeophysics - seismics. geothermometry
DS201112-0137
2011
Cammarano, F.Cammarano, F., Tackley, P., Boschi, L.Seismic, petrological and geodynamical constraints on thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle: global thermochemical models.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableMantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201312-0273
2013
Cammarano, F.Foulger, G.R., Panza, G.F., Artemieva, I.M., Bastow, I.D., Cammarano, F., Evans, J.R., Hamilton, W.B., Julian, B.R., Lustrino, M., Thybo, H., Yanovskaya, T.B.Caveat on tomographic images.Terra Nova, Vol. 25, 4, pp. 259-281.MantleSeismic tomography, geodynamics
DS1996-0001
1996
Camp, D.C.Abbott, D.G., Camp, D.C.The use of new microtunneling technology to escavate hard rock in a miningapplicationSociety for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME)-American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, 96-19United StatesMining, Underground
DS1994-0246
1994
Campagna, D.J.Campagna, D.J., Aydin, A.Basin genesis associated with strike slip faulting in the Basin and southeastern NevadaTectonics, Vol. 13, No. 2, April pp. 327-341NevadaBasin, Lake Mead fault system
DS2001-0437
2001
CampalHalls, H.C., Campal, Davis, BossiMagnetic studies and uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology of the Uruguyuan dyke swarm, Rio de la Plat a Craton: paleomagJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 4, Sept. pp. 349-61.UruguayGeophysics - magnetics, Dike swarms
DS1993-0140
1993
Campal, N.Bossi, J., Campal, N., Civetta, L., et al.Early Proterozoic dike swarms from western Uruguay: geochemistry, Strontium and neodymium isotopes and petrogenesisChemical Geology, Vol. 106, pp. 263-277UruguayDikes, Basalts, petrology
DS201904-0718
1991
Campal, N.Bossi, J., Campal, N., Civetta, L., Demarchi, G., Girardi, V.V., Mazzucchelli, M., Piccirillo, E.M., Rivalenti, G., Sinigol, S., Teixeira, W., Fragoso-Cesar, A.R.Petrological and geochronological aspects of the Precambrian mafic dyke swarm of Uruguay. IN: Eng. Note Date****BOL.IG-USP, Publ.Esp., Vol. 10, pp. 35-42.South America, Uruguaydykes

Abstract: The subparallel maflc dykes of the Aorida-Durazno-S.José region (SW Uruguay) trend N60-80W and vary in thickness from 0.6 to 50 m. They are part of the mafic dyke swarms intrudlng granitic-gnelssic basement that were mappecl by BOSSI et ai. (1989), In an ares approximately 200 km In length and 100 km in bresdth. Plagioclass, augite, subcalclc augite (plgeonite) and opaques are the maln components of the dykes. Orthopyroxene and oIlvine are very rare. Blotite and homblende are secondary minerais. Quartz-feldspar Intergrowths occur In the coarser gralnecl dykes. The characterlstlc textures are subophitic and intersertal.
DS202004-0507
2020
Campal, N.Demarco, P.N., Masquelin, H., Prezzi, C., Muzio, R., Loureiro, J., Peel, E., Campal, N., Sanchez Bettucci, L. Aeromagnetic patterns in southern Uruguay: Precambrian- Mesozoic dyke swarms and Mesozoic rifting structural and tectonic evolution.Tectonophysics, in press available 40p. PdfSouth America, Uruguaygeophysics

Abstract: New high-resolution airborne magnetic data of Uruguay allowed constructing new maps concerning the spatial distribution of dyke swarms, main faults and other magnetic bodies, which compose the Uruguayan Shield. We combined geophysical analyses (vertical derivatives, upward continuation, Euler deconvolution), structural analyses of the magnetic maps and previous geological data in order to discriminate the main structural features of the Uruguayan Shield and contribute to a better understanding of its tectonic evolution. The magnetic maps revealed several outstanding features in the Uruguayan Shield. The Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm is larger, denser, more widespread and complex than originally thought, suggesting a possible plume origin. In addition, a new Mesozoic dyke swarm, as complex as the previous one, was identified crosscutting the Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm and the Neoproterozoic orogenic structures. Moreover, this swarm is connected to volcanic calderas in the Merín basin, and shows displacements along Neoproterozoic shear zones, in the magnetic maps, revealing its brittle reactivation during Mesozoic times. The new observations clarify how Proterozoic basement structures controlled the development of the Mesozoic rift. Paleoproterozoic dyke swarms were reactivated as normal faults and Neoproterozoic structures hindered the rift growth, deflecting the deformation in transcurrent movements. Meanwhile, the Mesozoic dyke swarm was developed in a perpendicular direction to the Neoproterozoic structures. Moreover, these findings contradict the current rift model for Uruguay and rise a new model in which the Mesozoic rift developed as two rift basins connected by a central transfer zone, generated by the reactivation of Dom Feliciano Belt structures, between the Sierra Ballena and Sarandí del Yí Shear Zones.
DS1991-0278
1991
CampbellCollerson, K.D., Campbell, Weaver, PalaczEvidence for extreme mantle fractionation in early Archean ultramafic rocks from northern Labrador.Nature, Vol. 349, No. 6306, Jan. 17, pp. 209-214.Labrador, QuebecUltramafic rocks
DS1998-1330
1998
CampbellShee, S.R., Vercoe, S.C., Wyatt, B.A., Campbell, ColganDiscovery and geology of the Nabberu kimberlite province, WesternAustralia.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 800-2.AustraliaHistory, methodology, petrography, Deposit - Nabberu Province
DS1999-0660
1999
CampbellShee, S.R., Vercoe, Wyatt, Hwang, Campbell, ColganDiscovery and geology of the Nabberu kimberlite province, western Australia. Capicorn Orogeny7th International Kimberlite Conference Nixon, Vol. 2, pp. 764-72.Australia, Western AustraliaMineral chemistry, melnoites. SiroteM., Deposit - Nabberu - microdiamonds
DS2000-0191
2000
CampbellCotter-Howells, J., Campbell, Valsami-Jones, BatchelderEnvironmental mineralogy: microbial interactions, anthropegenic influences, contaimined land and waste management.Mineralogical Society of America, No. 9, 414p. $ 70.GlobalBook - ad, Mineralogy, environment
DS1990-0263
1990
Campbell, A.J.Campbell, A.J., Heinz, D.L., Davis, A.M.Melt partioning behaviour in high pressurehases of natural olivineEos, Vol. 71, No. 17, April 24, p. 527 Abstract onlyArizonaSan Carlos, Olivine
DS2002-0949
2002
Campbell, A.J.Linn, J.F., Heintz, D.C., Campbell, A.J., Devine, J.M., Mao, W.L., Shen, G.Iron nickel alloy in the Earth's coreGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29,10,May15,pp.108-MantleCore-mantle boundary
DS200812-0174
2008
Campbell, A.J.Campbell, A.J.Oxygen fugacity profile in the Earth's lower mantle.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A132.MantleReduced iron
DS201801-0013
2017
Campbell, A.J.Fischer, R.A., Campbell, A.J., Ciesla, F.J.Sensitivities of Earth's core and mantle compositions to accretion and differentiation processes.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 458, 1, pp. 252-262.Mantlegeochemistry

Abstract: The Earth and other terrestrial planets formed through the accretion of smaller bodies, with their core and mantle compositions primarily set by metal -silicate interactions during accretion. The conditions of these interactions are poorly understood, but could provide insight into the mechanisms of planetary core formation and the composition of Earth's core. Here we present modeling of Earth's core formation, combining results of 100 N-body accretion simulations with high pressure -temperature metal -silicate partitioning experiments. We explored how various aspects of accretion and core formation influence the resulting core and mantle chemistry: depth of equilibration, amounts of metal and silicate that equilibrate, initial distribution of oxidation states in the disk, temperature distribution in the planet, and target:impactor ratio of equilibrating silicate. Virtually all sets of model parameters that are able to reproduce the Earth's mantle composition result in at least several weight percent of both silicon and oxygen in the core, with more silicon than oxygen. This implies that the core's light element budget may be dominated by these elements, and is consistent with =1 -2 wt% of other light elements. Reproducing geochemical and geophysical constraints requires that Earth formed from reduced materials that equilibrated at temperatures near or slightly above the mantle liquidus during accretion. The results indicate a strong tradeoff between the compositional effects of the depth of equilibration and the amounts of metal and silicate that equilibrate, so these aspects should be targeted in future studies aiming to better understand core formation conditions. Over the range of allowed parameter space, core and mantle compositions are most sensitive to these factors as well as stochastic variations in what the planet accreted as a function of time, so tighter constraints on these parameters will lead to an improved understanding of Earth's core composition.
DS1998-0201
1998
Campbell, B.Campbell, B.Environment, policies, mining and structural adjustment in Guinea.not specific to diamonds - overview.Raw Materials Report, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 34- 44.GuineaEconomics, Mining - legal, environment
DS2003-0199
2003
Campbell, B.Campbell, B.Factoring in governance is not enough. Mining codes in Africa, policy reforms andMinerals and Energy, Raw Materials Report, Vol. 18, 3, Sept. pp. 2-13.AfricaLegal
DS200412-0256
2003
Campbell, B.Campbell, B.Factoring in governance is not enough. Mining codes in Africa, policy reforms and corporate responsibility.Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 18, 3, Sept. pp. 2-13.AfricaLegal
DS200612-0211
2006
Campbell, B.Campbell, B.Good governance, security and mining in Africa.Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 21, 1, March pp. 31-44.AfricaEconomics - governance issues, corporate responsibility
DS200712-0130
2007
Campbell, B.Campbell, B.Better resource governance in Africa: on what development agenda?Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 21, 3-4, pp. 3-18.AfricaGovernance - social responsibility
DS200712-0131
2007
Campbell, B.Campbell, B.Better resource governance in Africa: on what development agenda?Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 21, 3-4, pp. 3-18.AfricaGovernance - social responsibility
DS1999-0105
1999
Campbell, C.Campbell, C.Geophysical exploration for kimberlites - a review and updateAssocation of Exploration Geologists (AEG) 19th. Diamond Exploration Methods Case Histories, pp. 1-19.GlobalKimberlite, Geophysics - review
DS1987-0551
1987
Campbell, D.Oosterveld, M.M., Campbell, D., Hazell, K.R.Geology related to statistical evaluation parameters for a Diamondiferous beach depositin: APCOM 87 Geostatistics, editors I.C. Lemmer, H. Schaum, F.A.G.M., pp. 129-136GlobalBlank
DS201811-2564
2018
Campbell, D.Cundari, R., Smyk, M., Campbell, D., Puumala, M., Woodruff, L.G.Possible emplacement controls on diamond bearing rocks North of Lake Superior.Proceedings and Abstracts - Institite on Lake Superior Geology, Vol. 64, pt. 1, pp. 19-20.Canada, Ontariodiamond genesis
DS201906-1280
2019
Campbell, D.Campbell, D., Zurevinski, S., Elliott, B.Geochemistry and glacial dispersal patterns of kimberlite indicator minerals in the south Slave province, NT.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 68.Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeochemistry

Abstract: Drift prospecting has been utilized throughout the Slave Province in the Northwest Territories for decades, where glaciation and erosion within the past 10 000 years has produced the dispersion of minerals from their original host to till in their surrounding areas. This study is part of the greater Slave Province geophysical, surficial materials and permafrost study: a Northwest Territories Geological Survey (NTGS) led government-academic-industry research program. The purpose of this particular research is to assess kimberlite indicator minerals (KIMs) for any potential signature that may coincide with glacial dispersal trains through quantitative mineralogical and geochemical analysis. The NTGS has recently published data on Southern Slave Province surficial materials, which is useful as a comparative tool in the analysis of potential dispersal trains. Samples were collected from surficial sediment at various targets throughout the 75N and M NTS zones. Sample locations were chosen based on their down-ice position with respect to known kimberlites and gravity anomalies previously identified by the NTGS. Samples were preferentially collected from active and recently inactive frost boils. Overall, twenty-one 10 kg samples were collected and examined for KIMs. Several samples contain KIMs in moderate to high concentrations. Positive identifications of Cr-pyrope, chromite, Mg-ilmenite, and Cr-diopside have been confirmed in preliminary analysis. Of the identified KIMs garnet is the most abundant at 78 %, followed by chromite at 13 %, ilmenite at 8.9 %, and Cr-diopside at 0.5 %. Quantitative analyses are reported on confirmed KIMs: Cr-pyrope, Mg-ilmenite, Cr-diopside, chromite, and olivine for each sample site. The results of the analyses will be used to make further insights into till and kimberlite geochemistry of the Southern Slave Province.
DS202008-1374
2020
Campbell, D.Campbell, D., Zurevinski, S., Elliott, B.Geochemistry and glacial dispersal patterns of kimberlitic indicator minerals in the South Slave Province, NT.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesgarnets

Abstract: The geochemistry and distribution of garnets in the southern Slave Province could have considerable implications for drift prospecting and diamond potential. Presented here is a study interpretting geochemistry in dispersal trains of the Slave Province. Over one-hundred-thousand garnets have been sampled from the northern Slave Province with quantitative analyses conducted on each sample, and the data has been compiled for public release (NTGS Data Hub, 2018). A smaller subset of samples have been collected in the southern Slave Province by this study and the NTGS within recent years. Data from the NTGS is used in this study to construct regional maps showing dispersal trains of indicator minerals and chemistry of indicator garnets throughout the region. The variation in dispersal train pattern, size, mineralogy, and chemistry are being utilized to assess the southern Slave for it’s kimberlite potential. The geochemistry of garnets is used to make further observations into the diamond potential of the area using the garnet classifications G3D, G4D, G5D, and G10D (Grutter et al., 2004). It has been observed that there is an abundance of Na2O rich (>0.07 wt %) garnets in the northern Slave Province and a deficit of Na2O (<0.07 wt %) in garnets of the south. There is also a visible discrepency in olivine in the north and south, with the north Slave showing olivine in dispersal trains and the south lacking any olivine. These discrepancies in Na2O could be indicative of pressure/temperature conditions that coincide with diamond formation in the north (Grutter et al., 2004). The olivine dispersal may be the product of glacial dispersal in conjunction with the facies/mineralogy of kimberlites in the immediate area.
DS1994-0785
1994
Campbell, D.L.Hoover, D.B., Campbell, D.L.Geophysical model of diamond pipesUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open file, No. 94-0174, 36p. Diamond pipe 1p, p. 32.GlobalGeophysics, Diamond pipes
DS1984-0180
1984
Campbell, D.L.P.Carlson, J.A., Johnson, R.B., Mccallum, M.E., Campbell, D.L.P.Evaluation of Geophysical Techniques for Diatreme Delineation in the Colorado Wyoming Kimberlite Province. #2Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, PP. 21-32.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsGeophysics, Kimberlite, Electromagnetic, Ground, Magnetics, Vlf
DS1996-0208
1996
Campbell, E.A.Campbell, E.A., John, B.E.Constraints on extension related plutonism from modeling of the Colorado River gravity high.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 108, No. 10, Oct. pp. 1242-55.Basin and RangeGeophysics -gravity
DS2002-0239
2002
Campbell, G.Campbell, G.Blood diamonds: tracing the deadly path of the World's most precious stonesWilson, G. Book review, Feb. 12, 2p.Sierra Leone, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, GuineaBlank
DS200412-0257
2002
Campbell, G.Campbell, G.Blood diamonds: tracing the deadly path of the World's most precious stones.Wilson, G. Book review, Feb. 12, 2p.Africa, Sierra Leone, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, LiberiaNews item - book review
DS200812-0175
2007
Campbell, G.Campbell, G.Canadian companies and their global assets and activities.Diamonds in Canada Magazine, Northern Miner, November pp. 28-33.GlobalNews item - companies and locations
DS1996-0209
1996
Campbell, G.A.Campbell, G.A.International trends and market relationships of the rare earthsSociety for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME)-American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, 96-71GlobalEconomics, Rare earths
DS1996-0210
1996
Campbell, G.A.Campbell, G.A.Economic relationships and market trends of the rare earthsJournal of Mineral Policy, Raw Materials, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 2-11GlobalEconomics, Rare earths
DS1920-0061
1921
Campbell, G.M.Campbell, G.M.The Similkameen District of British ColumbiaEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 111, APRIL 23RD. PP. 702-705.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1997-0670
1997
Campbell, I.Leitch, A.M., Cordery, M.J., Davies, G.F., Campbell, I.Flood basalts from eclogite bearing mantle plumesSouth African Journal of Geology, Vol. 100, 4, Dec. pp. 311-318MantleConvection, melt, Plumes
DS1997-0671
1997
Campbell, I.Leitch, A.M., Cordery, M.J., Davies, G.F., Campbell, I.Flood basalts from eclogite bearing mantle plumesSouth African Journal of Geology, Vol. 100, 4, Dec. pp. 311-318.MantleConvection, melt, Plumes
DS200612-0212
2006
Campbell, I.Campbell, I.Testing the mantle plume theory.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 3, abstract only.MantlePlume, hot spots
DS200712-0136
2006
Campbell, I.Campbell,I., Davies, G.F.Do mantle plumes exist?Episodes, Vol. 29, 3, Sept. pp.162-168.MantleHypothesis
DS201212-0105
2012
Campbell, I.Campbell, I., Gill, J., Iizuka, T., Allen, C.What detrital zircons tell us about growth of the continental crust.Goldschmidt Conference 2012, abstract 1p.MantleGeochronology
DS201412-0092
2014
Campbell, I.Campbell, I., Stepanov, A., Liang, H-Y., Allen, C., Norman, M., Zhang, Y-Q, Xie, Y-W.The origin of shoshonites: new insights from the Tertiary high-potassium intrusions of eastern Tibet.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 167, 3, pp. 1-22.Asia, TibetShoshonite
DS201706-1088
2017
Campbell, I.Kupers, S.A., Schmidt, M., Campbell, I.A petrographic and geochemical analysis of the KRVY kimberlite, Lake Timiskaming kimberlite field, Ontario Canada.GSA Annual Meeting, 1p. AbstractCanada, Ontariodeposit - Krvy

Abstract: The Lake Tamiskaming Kimberlite Field, in Ontario, Canada is host to multiple kimberlite pipes, such as the KRVY Kimberlite Pipe, south of Latchford, Ontario. Drill core of this kimberlite pipe, collected by Temex Resources Corporation, confirmed the diamondiferous nature, with microdiamonds being retrieved. Thin sections of the drill core samples suggest the pipe is highly altered through serpentinization. Euhedral to subhedral grains of mica, such as phlogopite and biotite, compose the phenocryst and matrix components of the samples. Electron microprobe analysis will be used to determine the composition of the micas, in order to constrain the origin conditions of these grains, determining if the grains originate from crustal or magmatic components. Micro X-ray Diffraction will determine the mineralogy in the samples. Other likely xenocrystic minerals include quartz, etc. Textural and compositional attributes of the KRVY Kimberlite will be compared to data collected from the approximately twelve known kimberlite pipes within 25 kilometres (15.5 miles) of the specified kimberlite in order to find similarities or patterns. Geochemical analysis will better constrain the formation conditions of this pipe and allow comparison with other surrounding pipes in the Lake Tamiskaming Kimberlite Field.
DS1995-1374
1995
Campbell, I.B.O'Driscoll, E.S.T., Campbell, I.B.Ore deposits related to Australian continental rifts and ring structuresIagod Giant Ore Deposits Workshop, J. Kutina, 9p.AustraliaTectonics, Lineaments, ring structures -not specific to diamonds
DS1997-0863
1997
Campbell, I.B.O'Driscoll, E.S.T., Campbell, I.B.Mineral deposits related to Australian continental ring and rift structures with some terrestrial analogiesGlobal Tectonics and Metallogeny, Vol. 6, No. 2, March pp. 83-102AustraliaMetallogeny, model, Deposits - ring, rift complexes
DS1995-0491
1995
Campbell, I.C.Elliott, C.I., Wilson, C.J.L., Joyce, E.B., Campbell, I.C.Field verification of remotely sensed regional lineaments in the BonaparteBasin, northwest Australia.Iagod Giant Ore Deposits Workshop, J. Kutina, 7p.AustraliaRemote sensing, Lineaments - not specific to diamonds
DS1987-0438
1987
Campbell, I.H.Martin, D., Griffiths, R.W., Campbell, I.H.Compositional and thermal convection in magma chambersContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 96, No. 4, pp. 465-475GlobalXenoliths
DS1989-0202
1989
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W., Hill, R.I.Melting in an Archean mantle plume: heads it's basalts, tails it'skomatiitesNature, Vol. 339, No. 6227, June 29, pp. 697-698.Database#18086GlobalKomatiite, Mantle
DS1989-0203
1989
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Turner, J.S.Fountains in magma chambersJournal of Petrology, Vol. 30, pt. 4, pp. 885-923. Database # 18232NewfoundlandLayered intrusion, Ophiolite -Bay of Islands
DS1989-0640
1989
Campbell, I.H.Hill, R.I., Campbell, I.H., Compston, W.Age and origin of granitic rocks in the Kalgoorlie-Norseman region Of western Australia: implications for the origin of Archean crustGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 53, pp. 1259-1275. Database # 17955AustraliaGeochronology, Granitic -origin
DS1990-0264
1990
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.Implications of mantle plume structure for the evolution of flood basaltsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 99, pp. 79-83GlobalMantle, Geochemistry -plumes structure
DS1990-0265
1990
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffths, R.W.Implications of mantle plume structure for the evolution of flood basaltsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 99, pp. 79-93.MantleFlood basalts - not specific to diamond
DS1990-0605
1990
Campbell, I.H.Griffiths, R.W., Campbell, I.H.Stirring and structure in mantle starting plumesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 99, pp. 66-78GlobalMantle, Geochemistry -plumes
DS1991-0209
1991
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffith, R.W.Megaplumes and giant radiating dyke swarmsGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada/Society Economic, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A19AustraliaDykes, Geothermometry
DS1991-0614
1991
Campbell, I.H.Griffiths, R.W., Campbell, I.H.On the dynamics of long lived plume conduits in the convecting mantleEarth Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 103, No. 1-4, April pp. 214-227GlobalMantle, Plumes
DS1991-0714
1991
Campbell, I.H.Hill, R.I., Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.Plume tectonics and the development of stable continental crustAustralian Society of Exploration Geophysicists and Geological Society of, Vol. 22, No. 1, March pp. 185-188AustraliaMantle, Plumes
DS1991-0998
1991
Campbell, I.H.Lister, J.R., Campbell, I.H., Kerr, R.C.The eruption of komatiites and picrites in preference to primitivebasaltsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 105, pp. 343-352GlobalKomatiites, Basalts
DS1992-0204
1992
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.The changing nature of mantle hotspots through time: implications for the chemical evolution of the mantleJournal of Geology, Vol. 100, No. 5, September pp. 497-524GlobalMantle chemistry, geochemistry, Hotspots
DS1992-0205
1992
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.The changing nature of mantle hotspots through time - implications for the chemical evolution of the mantleJournal of Geology, Vol. 100, No. 5, September pp. 497-524MantleHotspots, Geochemistry
DS1992-0709
1992
Campbell, I.H.Hill, R.I., Campbell, I.H., Davies, G.F., Griffiths, R.W.Mantle plumes, continental magmatism and tectonicsEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p.326MantleTectonics, Plumes
DS1993-0200
1993
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.The evolution of the mantle's chemical structure #1Lithos, Vol. 30, No. 3-4, September pp. 389-400.MantleGeochemistry, Evolution
DS1993-0201
1993
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.The evolution of the mantle's chemical structureLithos, Vol. 30, No. 3-4, September pp. 389-400MantleGeochemistry, Tectonics
DS1994-0247
1994
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.The role of mantle plumes in crustal evolutionGeological Society of Australia Abstract Volume, No. 37, pp. 52-53.MantlePlumes, Tectonics
DS1996-0211
1996
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Mantle plumes - implications for lithosphere structure and generation ofkimberlites.Australia Nat. University of Diamond Workshop July 29, 30. abstract, 2p.MantleGeodynamics, Structure, tectonics
DS1996-0212
1996
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.The evolution of the mantle's chemical structure #2Geological Society of Australia 13th. Convention held Feb., No. 41, abstracts p.75.MantlePlumes
DS1997-0219
1997
Campbell, I.H.Cordery, M.J., Davies, G.F., Campbell, I.H.Genesis of flood basalts from eclogite bearing mantle plumesJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, No. 9, Sept. 10, pp. 20, 179-98MantlePlumes, Eclogite, basalts
DS1998-0202
1998
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Identification of old mantle plumes: what to look forGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A343.MantlePlumes, Kimberlites
DS2001-0155
2001
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Identification of ancient mantle plumesGeological Society of America Special Paper, Special Paper, 352, pp. 5-22.MantlePlumes, Geochronology
DS2002-0240
2002
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Implications of Nb/U Th/U and Sm/Nd in plume magmas for the relationship between continental and oceanic crustGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol.66,9,pp.1651-61., Vol.66,9,pp.1651-61.MantleDevelopment of depleted mantle, Geochronology
DS2002-0241
2002
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Implications of Nb/U Th/U and Sm/Nd in plume magmas for the relationship between continental and oceanic crustGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol.66,9,pp.1651-61., Vol.66,9,pp.1651-61.MantleDevelopment of depleted mantle, Geochronology
DS2003-0200
2003
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Constraints on continental growth models from Nb/U ratios in the 3.5 Ga BarbertonAmerica Journal of Science, Vol. 303, 4, pp. 319-51.South AfricaBlank
DS200412-0258
2003
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Constraints on continental growth models from Nb/U ratios in the 3.5 Ga Barberton and other Archean basalt komatiite suites.American Journal of Science, Vol. 303, 4, pp. 319-51.Africa, South AfricaGeochronology
DS200512-0269
2005
Campbell, I.H.Ernst, R.E., Buchan, K.L., Campbell, I.H.Frontiers in large igneous province research.Lithos, Vol. 79, 3-4, pp. 271-297.Igneous provinces ( not specific to diamonds)
DS200612-0213
2005
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.Large igneous provinces and the mantle plume hypothesis.Elements, Vol. 1, 5, December pp. 265-270.MantleHotspots
DS200612-0214
2006
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Davies, G.F.Do mantle plumes exist?Episodes, Vol. 29, 3, pp. 162-168.MantleHotspots
DS200712-0132
2007
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H.The case for mantle plumes.mantleplumes.org, 5p.MantleOverview - history
DS200712-1194
2006
Campbell, I.H.Xu, C., Campbell, I.H., Allen, C.M., Huang, Z., Qi, L., Zhang, H., Zhang, G.Flat rare earth element patterns as an indicator of cumulate processes in the Lesser Qinlin carbonatites, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In press availableChinaCarbonatite, REE geochemistry
DS201212-0106
2012
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., O'Neill, H.St.C.Evidence against a chondritic Earth.Nature, Vol. 483, pp. 553-558.MantleAccretion
DS201312-0118
2013
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., St.O'Neill, H.Evidence against a chondritic Earth.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleGeochemistry
DS201312-0432
2013
Campbell, I.H.Izuka, T., Campbell, I.H., Allen, C.M., Gill, J.B., Maruyama, S., Makota, F.Evolution of the African continental crust as recorded by U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons from modern rivers.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. Pp. 96-120.AfricaGeochronology, Comgo, Zambesi, Orange
DS201412-0093
2014
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Griffiths, R.W.Did the formation of D" cause the Archean-Proterozoic transition?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 388, pp. 1-8.MantlePlume, MgO
DS201412-0616
2014
Campbell, I.H.Nebel, O., Campbell, I.H., Sossi, P.A.Hafnium and iron isotopes in early Archean komatiites record a plume driven convection cycle in the Hadean Earth.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 397, pp. 111-120.MantleConvection
DS201512-1908
2015
Campbell, I.H.Davies, D.R., Rawlinson, N., Iaffaldano, G., Campbell, I.H.Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth's longest continental hotspot track.Nature, Vol. 525, 7570, pp. 511-514.AustraliaCosgrove track

Abstract: Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth’s surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth’s tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth’s deep mantle to its surface1. It has long been recognized that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes2, 3, 4 and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, so far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth’s longest continental hotspot track, a 2,000-kilometre-long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between 33 and 9 million years ago5, 6, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (1) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than 110 kilometres; (2) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds 150 kilometres; and (3) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas.
DS201602-0215
2016
Campbell, I.H.Jones, T.D., Davies, D.R., Campbell, I.H., Wilson, C.R., Kramer, S.C.Do mantle plumes preserve the heterogeneous structure of their deep mantle source?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 434, pp. 10-17.MantleTectonics

Abstract: It has been proposed that the spatial variations recorded in the geochemistry of hotspot lavas, such as the bilateral asymmetry recorded at Hawaii, can be directly mapped as the heterogeneous structure and composition of their deep-mantle source. This would imply that source-region heterogeneities are transported into, and preserved within, a plume conduit, as the plume rises from the deep-mantle to Earth's surface. Previous laboratory and numerical studies, which neglect density and rheological variations between different chemical components, support this view. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that this interpretation cannot be extended to distinct chemical domains that differ from surrounding mantle in their density and viscosity. By numerically simulating thermo-chemical mantle plumes across a broad parameter space, in 2-D and 3-D, we identify two conduit structures: (i) bilaterally asymmetric conduits, which occur exclusively for cases where the chemical effect on buoyancy is negligible, in which the spatial distribution of deep-mantle heterogeneities is preserved during plume ascent; and (ii) concentric conduits, which occur for all other cases, with dense material preferentially sampled within the conduit's centre. In the latter regime, the spatial distribution of geochemical domains in the lowermost mantle is not preserved during plume ascent. Our results imply that the heterogeneous structure and composition of Earth's lowermost mantle can only be mapped from geochemical observations at Earth's surface if chemical heterogeneity is a passive component of lowermost mantle dynamics (i.e. its effect on density is outweighed by, or is secondary to, the effect of temperature). The implications of our results for: (i) why oceanic crust should be the prevalent component of ocean island basalts; and (ii) how we interpret the geochemical evolution of Earth's deep-mantle are also discussed.
DS201702-0198
2017
Campbell, I.H.Campbell, I.H., Davies, D.R.Raising the continental crust.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 460, pp. 112-122.MantleArchean - Boundary

Abstract: The changes that occur at the boundary between the Archean and Proterozoic eons are arguably the most fundamental to affect the evolution of Earth's continental crust. The principal component of Archean continental crust is Granite-Greenstone Terranes (GGTs), with granites always dominant. The greenstones consist of a lower sequence of submarine komatiites and basalts, which erupted onto a pre-existing Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) crust. These basaltic rocks pass upwards initially into evolved volcanic rocks, such as andesites and dacites and, subsequently, into reworked felsic pyroclastic material and immature sediments. This transition coincides with widespread emplacement of granitoids, which stabilised (cratonised) the continental crust. Proterozoic supra-crustal rocks, on the other hand, are dominated by extensive flat-lying platform sequences of mature sediments, which were deposited on stable cratonic basements, with basaltic rocks appreciably less abundant. The siliceous TTGs cannot be produced by direct melting of the mantle, with most hypotheses for their origin requiring them to be underlain by a complimentary dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root, which we suggest acted as ballast to the early continents. Ubiquitous continental pillow basalts in Archean lower greenstone sequences require the early continental crust to have been sub-marine, whereas the appearance of abundant clastic sediments, at higher stratigraphic levels, shows that it had emerged above sea level by the time of sedimentation. We hypothesise that the production of komatiites and associated basalts, the rise of the continental crust, widespread melting of the continental crust, the onset of sedimentation and subsequent cratonisation form a continuum that is the direct result of removal of the continent's dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite roots, triggered at a regional scale by the arrival of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere. Our idealised calculations suggest that the removal of 40 km of the amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root would have raised the average level of the continental crust by ~3 km. The emergence of the continental crust was an essential precursor to the rise of oxygen, which started some 200 Myr later.
DS201811-2570
2018
Campbell, I.H.Ernst, R.E., Davies, D.R., Jowitt, S.M., Campbell, I.H.When do mantle plumes destroy diamonds? ( review )Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 502, pp. 244-252.Russia, Canada, Ontario, Attawapiskatkimberlite, core boundary

Abstract: Mantle plumes are hot buoyant upwellings that rise from Earth's core-mantle-boundary to its surface where they can produce large igneous provinces (LIPs) and volcanic tracks, such as the Siberian Traps and the Hawaiian Emperor chain, respectively. We show that flattened mantle plume heads, which can have radii of >1200 km in the uppermost mantle, can heat the overlying lithospheric mantle to temperatures above the diamond stability field. As a consequence, they can destroy diamonds within the roots of Archean cratons, the principal source of diamonds in kimberlites. We quantitatively demonstrate that there is a ‘sour spot’ for this effect that occurs when lithospheric thicknesses are 165-185 km and the plume has a temperature of >150?°C above background mantle. Our model explains why the kimberlites associated with the 370 Ma Yakutsk-Vilyui plume in the Siberian craton are diamondiferous whilst those associated with the younger 250 Ma Siberian Traps plume are barren. We also show that the time required to restore the pre-plume thermal structure of the lithosphere is ca. 75-120 Myr, and that destroyed diamonds may regrow once the plume's thermal effect dissipates. The 1100 Ma Kyle Lake and adjacent 180-150 Ma Attawapiskat kimberlites in the southern Superior craton exemplify this, where the older kimberlites are associated with a narrower diamond window (<30 km) in comparison with the ca. 85 km diamond window of the younger Attawapiskat field.
DS201212-0107
2012
Campbell, I.S.Campbell, I.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.The masquerade of alkaline carbonatitic tuffs by zeolites: a new global pathfinder hypothesis.Mineralium Deposita, in press available 12p.GlobalAlkaline rocks, magmatism
DS1999-0091
1999
Campbell, I.T.Brand, U., Campbell, I.T.FugacityEncyclopedia Geochemistry, Marshall and Fairbridge, p. 256.GlobalFugacity - definition
DS201412-0094
2014
Campbell, J.Campbell, J.Diamond value management underpinning the turnaround at Rockwell Diamonds Inc.GSSA Kimberley Diamond Symposium and Trade Show provisional programme, Sept. 11, title onlyAfrica, South AfricaEconomics
DS201609-1709
2010
Campbell, J.A.H.Campbell, J.A.H., Lamb, W., Clarke, J., Petersen, K.The development of AK6.The 4th Colloquium on Diamonds - source to use held Gabarone March 1-3, 2010, 20p.Africa, BotswanaDeposit - AK6
DS201807-1483
2018
Campbell, J.A.H.Campbell, J.A.H.Keynote address: Financing diamond projects. ( mentions Karowe)SAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., pp. 137-154.Globalrough production, economics
DS201807-1486
2018
Campbell, J.A.H.Cronwright, H., Campbell, J.A.H.Application of the microdiamond technique in assisting diamond mining juniors to make rapid technical and economic decisions. Zebedelia clusterSAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., pp. 233-246.Africa, South Africadeposit - Frischgewaacht, Klipspringer
DS201808-1730
2018
Campbell, J.A.H.Campbell, J.A.H.Financing diamond projects. PresentationSAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., 35 ppts.Globaleconomics
DS201808-1735
2018
Campbell, J.A.H.Cronwright, H., Campbell, J.A.H.Application of the microdiamond technique in assisting diamond mining juniors to make rapid technical and economic decisions. PresentationSAIMM Diamonds - source to use 2018 Conference 'thriving in changing times'. June 11-13., 32 ppts.Globalmicrodiamond
DS201809-2106
2018
Campbell, J.A.H.Ustinov, V.N., Mosigi, B., Kukui, I.M., Nikolaeva, E., Campbell, J.A.H., Stegnitskiy, Y.B., Antashchuk, M.G.Eolian indicator mineral dispersion haloes from the Orapa kimberlite cluster, Botswana.Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org/10.1007/s00710-018-0627-2 9p.Africa, Botswanadeposit - Orapa

Abstract: This paper presents the results of an investigation into the structure of eolian kimberlite indicator minerals (KIMs) haloes present within Quaternary Kalahari Group sediments (up to 20 m thick) overlying the Late Cretaceous kimberlites in the Orapa field in North-East Botswana. A database of more than 8000 samples shows that kimberlites create a general mineralogical blanket of KIMs of various distances of transportation from primary sources in the Orapa area. Models of the reflection and dispersion patterns of KIMs derived from kimberlite pipes including AK10/ AK22/AK23 have been revealed based on 200 selected heavy mineral samples collected during diamond prospecting activities in Botswana from 2014 to 2017. Short distance eolian haloes situated close to kimberlite bodies cover gentle slopes within plains up to 500 × 1000 m in size. They have regularly have oval or conical shapes and are characterized by the presence mainly of unabraded or only slightly abraded KIMs. A sharp reduction of their concentration from hundreds and thousands of grains / 20 l immediately above kimberlites toto 10 grains/20 l at a distance of only 100-200 m from the pipes is a standard feature of these haloes. The variation of concentration, morphology and abrasion of specific KIMs with increasing distance from the primary sources has been investigated and presented herein. Sample volumes recommended for pipes present within a similar setting as those studied, with different depth of sedimentary cover are as follows: up to 10-20 m cover at 20-50 l, 20-30 m cover at 50-100 l and 30-80 m cover at 250 l. It is important to appreciate that the discovery of even single grains of unabraded or slightly abraded KIMs in eolian haloes are of high prospecting significance in this area. The results of the research can be applied to in diamond prospecting programs in various regions with similar environments.
DS202008-1375
2019
Campbell, J.A.H.Campbell, J.A.H.Financing diamond projects.The Journal of the Southern African Insitute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 119, Feb. 6p. PdfGlobalfinancing

Abstract: Investment in diamond exploration has been declining over the past decade, in spite of positive long-term industry fundamentals and a growing interest in diamonds as an investment category. The lack of new significant discoveries in recent years has eroded investor confidence, yet no new discoveries are possible without investment in exploration. Junior ‘mine finders’ have been the hardest hit. Their agility, tenacity, and appetite for risk are not sufficient to attract the funding required, even at the greenfield stage. Developing new discoveries into mineral resources can be crippling without solid financial support. Junior incubators could play a crucial role, especially at the project evaluation stage - but where are they? Alternatives to traditional funding mechanisms have become available, many still untested in the junior diamond exploration space. Valuable lessons can be drawn from the past and used to inform emerging new strategies.
DS202008-1376
2018
Campbell, J.A.H.Campbell, J.A.H., Jooste, V.The AK6 kimberlite - discovery through to production: learning the lessons of history.Botswana Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 13-28. pdfAfrica, Botswanadeposit - AK6

Abstract: The AK6 kimberlite in north-eastern Botswana, better known as Karowe, is today one of the world?s top diamond producers by value. Its potential, however, was not recognised when AK6 was first discovered some fifty years ago. This paper traces the history of Karowe from the discovery of AK6 through to evaluation and production, reflecting on the interplay of economic, technical and corporate elements and highlighting some of the lessons learnt along this journey. Karowe Mine has been operating since 2012 and is fully owned by Lucara Diamond Corporation. In 2015, Karowe yielded the second largest diamond ever found, the 1,109ct Lesedi La Rona (Fig. 1).
DS1995-0256
1995
Campbell, J.B.Campbell, J.B., Browder, J.O.Field dat a collection for remote sensing analysis: SPOT dat a, Rondonia, Brasil.International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jan. 20, pp. 333-350.BrazilRemote sensing, Not specific to diamonds
DS1997-0154
1997
Campbell, J.B.Campbell, J.B.Introduction to remote sensing. second editionEarth Observation Magazine books, $ 60.00GlobalBook - ad, Remote sensing
DS201012-0486
2009
Campbell, J.E.McMartin, I., Campbell, J.E.Near surface till sampling protocols in shield terrain, with examples from Western and northern Canada.Geological Association of Canada Short Course, No. 18, pp. 75-96.Canada, Northwest Territories, British ColumbiaGeochemistry, technology
DS201312-0712
2013
Campbell, J.E.Plouffe, A., McClenaghan, M.B., Paulen, R.C., McMartin, I., Campbell, J.E., Spirito, W.A.Quality assurance and quality control measures applied to indicator mineral studies at the Geological Survey of Canada.GSC Open file 7374 Ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca, pp. 13-20.CanadaQuality controls
DS201412-0567
2013
Campbell, J.E.McClenaghan, M.B., Plouffe, A., McMartin, I., Campbell, J.E., Spirito, W.A., Paulen, R.C., Garrett, R.G., Hall, G.E.M.Till sampling and geochemical analytical protocols used by the Geological Survey of Canada.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 285-301.TechnologySampling
DS201412-0693
2013
Campbell, J.E.Plouffe, A., McClenaghan, M.B., Paulen, R.C., McMartin, I., Campbell, J.E., Spirito, W.A.Processing of glacial sediments for the recovery of indicator minerals: protocols used at the Geological Survey of Canada.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 303-316.TechnologySampling
DS1991-0210
1991
Campbell, J.L.Campbell, J.L.Computer software for micro-PIXE analysis of mineralogical specimensOntario Geological Survey Open File, Open File No. 5747, 24pOntarioComputer, Program -micro-PIXE.
DS1993-0202
1993
Campbell, J.L.Campbell, J.L., Teesdale, W.J., et al.Micro-PIXE analysis in mineralogy and geochemistryGeoscience Canada, Vol. 19, No. 4, December pp. 175-179GlobalProton induced X-ray emission analyses, Overview
DS1996-0213
1996
Campbell, J.L.Campbell, J.L., Teesdale, W.J., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Cabri, L.Micro-pixe analysis of silicate reference standards for trace nickel copper Zn GaGe As Sr Y Zr Nb Mo lead -Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 34, pp. 37-48.Northwest TerritoriesNickel garnet thermometry, proton induced electron emission analyses, General reference -not specific to diamonds only
DS200512-0133
2005
Campbell, L.H.Campbell, L.H.Testing the plume hypothesis.Chapman Conference held in Scotland August 28-Sept. 1 2005, 1p. abstractMantleMantle plume
DS1997-0155
1997
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Henderson, P.Apatite paragenesis in the Bayan Obo rare earth elements (REE) niobium iron ore deposit, Inner China.Lithos, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Dec. 1, pp. 89-104.China, MongoliaCarbonatite, Deposit - Bayan Obo
DS2001-0156
2001
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Compston, W., Sircombe, K.232Th/208Pb dates of zircons from Bayan Obo rare earth element (REE), niobium, iron deposits.Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM) Transactions. Durham Meeting, Vol. 110, p. B50. abstractChinaCarbonatite, thorium, lead, isotope, geochronology
DS200712-0133
2007
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Wall, F., Henderson, P., Zhang, P., Tao, K., Yang, Z.The character and context of zircons from the Bayan Obo Fe Nb REE deposit, Inner Mongolia.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p. 97-98.Asia, MongoliaCarbonatite
DS200712-0134
2007
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Wall, F., Henderson, P., Zhang, P., Tao, K., Yang, Z.The character and context of zircons from the Bayan Obo Fe Nb REE deposit, Inner Mongolia.Frontiers in Mineral Sciences 2007, Joint Meeting of Mineralogical societies Held June 26-28, Cambridge, Abstract Volume p. 97-98.Asia, MongoliaCarbonatite
DS201212-0108
2012
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.The masquerade of alkaline-carbonatite tuffs by zeolites: a new global pathfinder hypothesis.Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 47, 4, pp. 371-382.MantleMagmatism - carbonatite
DS201312-0119
2013
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.Exploring the preservation of alkaline carbonatitic extrusive rocks in relation to continent formation.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleMineral reaction paths
DS201312-0120
2013
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Dyer, A., Williams, C., Lythgoe, P.R.Alkaline-carbonatitic extrusive rocks in relation to continent formation.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleZeolite masquerade
DS201412-0095
2014
Campbell, L.S.Campbell, L.S., Compston, W., Sircombe, K.N., Wilkinson, C.C.Zircon from the East orebody of the Bayan Obo Fe Nb REE deposit, China, and SHRIMP ages for carbonatite related magmatism and REE mineralization events.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 168, pp. 1041-ChinaCarbonatite
DS201412-0853
2014
Campbell, L.S.Smith, M.P., Campbell, L.S., Kynicky, J.A review of the genesis of the world class Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposits, Inner Mongolia, China: multistage processes and outstanding questions.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 64, pp. 459-476.ChinaCarbonatite
DS1986-0725
1986
Campbell, M.J.Sexton, J.L., Braile, L.W., Hinze, W.J., Campbell, M.J.Seismic reflection profiling studies of a buried Precambrian rift beneath the Wabash Valley fault zoneGeophysics, Vol. 51, No. 3, March pp. 640-660GlobalMississippi embayment, Geophysics
DS200712-0135
2006
Campbell, S.Campbell, S.Snap Lake diamond project extraction planning.34th Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 7-8. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Snap Lake
DS200812-0176
2007
Campbell, S.Campbell, S.Snap Lake diamond project extraction planning. De Beers35th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Abstracts only p.8.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesMining - Snap Lake
DS1996-0329
1996
Campbell, S.D.G.Darbyshire, D.P.F., Pitfield, P.E.J., Campbell, S.D.G.Late Archean and Early Proterozoic gold tungsten mineralization in the Zimbabwe Archean craton: isotopesGeology, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan. pp. 19-22ZimbabweCraton, Geochronology
DS1990-1237
1990
Campbell, T.J.Roberts, W.L., Campbell, T.J., Rapp, G.R. Jr.Encyclopedia of minerals ( second edition)Van Nostrand, 979p. approx. $ 140.00GlobalMineralogy, Book review
DS1988-0104
1988
Campbell, W.H.Campbell, W.H., Schiffmacher, E.R.Upper mantle electrical conductivity for seven subcontinental regions Of the earthJournal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, Vol. 40, No. 11, pp. 1387-1406GlobalMantle, Geophysics
DS1990-0266
1990
Campbell, W.H.Campbell, W.H.Deep earth electrical conductivity- introductionPure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 134, No. 4, pp. 509-511GlobalGeophysics -seismics, Mantle
DS1995-0257
1995
Campbell, W.H.Campbell, W.H.Geomagnetism applicationsUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Circ, No. C1109, 31pGlobalBook -ad, GeomagnetisM.
DS1950-0262
1956
Campbell smith, W.Campbell smith, W.A Review of Some Problems of African CarbonatitesQuarterly Journal of Geological Society (London), Vol. 112, PT. 2, No. 446, PP. 189-219.South AfricaRelated Rocks
DS201708-1657
2017
Campebll, D.Campebll, D., Puumala, M., Eichenberg, D., Riemer, W., Wahl, R.Diamond field trip Marathon-White Ricer area. Guidebook, 15p. Pdf availableCanada, Ontarioguidebook
DS201012-0791
2010
Campeny, M.Torro, L., Villanova, C., Castillo, M., Campeny, M., Goncalves, O.A., Melgarejo, J.C.Nb and REE minerals from the Virulundo carbonatite Namibe, Angola.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 578.Africa, AngolaCarbonatite
DS201112-0138
2011
Campeny, M.Campeny, M.Mineralogical features of the CatAnd a extrusive carbonatite, Cuanza Sul, Angola.Peralk-Carb 2011, workshop held Tubingen Germany June 16-18, AbstractAfrica, AngolaCarbonatite
DS201112-0139
2011
Campeny, M.Campeny, M., Bambi, A.C.J.M., Costanzo, A., et al.Mineralogical features of the Catanga extrusive carbonatite, Cuanza Sul, Angola.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.12-14.Africa, AngolaCatanga
DS201112-0140
2011
Campeny, M.Campeny, M., Bambi, A.C.J.M., Costanzo, A., et al.Mineralogical features of the Catanga extrusive carbonatite, Cuanza Sul, Angola.Peralk-Carb 2011... workshop June 16-18, Tubingen, Germany, Abstract p.12-14.Africa, AngolaCatanga
DS201212-0732
2012
Campeny, M.Torro, L., Villanova, C., Castillo, M., Campeny, M., Goncalves, A.O., Melgarejo, J.C.Niobium and rare earth minerals from the Virulundo carbonatite, Namibe, Angola.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 76, 2, pp. 393-409.Africa, AngolaDeposit - Virulundo
DS201312-0121
2013
Campeny, M.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Bambi, A., Manuel, J.CatAnd a carbonatitic lavas ( Angola): melt inclusion evidence.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, AngolaCarbonatite
DS201312-0122
2013
Campeny, M.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Bambi, A., Manuel, J.Sodium rich magmas parental to CatAnd a carbonatitic lavas ( Angola): melt inclusion evidence.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfrica, AngolaCarbonatite
DS201412-0096
2014
Campeny, M.Campeny, M., Mangas, J., Melgarejo, J.C., Bambi, A., Alfonso, P., Gernon, T., Manuel, J.The Catanga extrusive carbonatites ( Kwanza Sul, Angola): an example of explosive carbonatitic volcanism.Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 76, pp. 818-Africa, AngolaCarbonatite
DS201509-0387
2015
Campeny, M.Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Melgarejo, J.C., Mangas, J., Manuel, J., Alfonso, P., Kamenetsky, M.B., Bambi, A.C.J.M., Goncalves, A.O.Carbonatitic lavas in CatAnd a ( Kwanza Sul, Angola): mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the parental melt.Lithos, Vol. 232, pp. 1-11.Africa, AngolaCarbonatite

Abstract: A set of small volcanic edifices with tuff ring and maar morphologies occur in the Catanda area, which is the only locality with extrusive carbonatites reported in Angola. Four outcrops of carbonatite lavas have been identified in this region and considering the mineralogical, textural and compositional features, we classify them as: silicocarbonatites (1), calciocarbonatites (2) and secondary calciocarbonatites produced by the alteration of primary natrocarbonatites (3). Even with their differences, we interpret these lava types as having been a single carbonatite suite related to the same parental magma. We have also estimated the composition of the parental magma from a study of melt inclusions hosted in magnetite microphenocrysts from all of these lavas. Melt inclusions revealed the presence of 13 different alkali-rich phases (e.g., nyerereite, shortite, halite and sylvite) that argues for an alkaline composition of the Catanda parental melts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional and isotopic features of some Catanda lavas are also similar to those described in altered natrocarbonatite localities worldwide such as Tinderet or Kerimasi, leading to our conclusion that the formation of some Catanda calciocarbonatite lavas was related to the occurrence of natrocarbonatite volcanism in this area. On the other hand, silicocarbonatite lavas, which are enriched in periclase, present very different mineralogical, compositional and isotopic features in comparison to the rest of Catanda lavas. We conclude that its formation was probably related to the decarbonation of primary dolomite bearing carbonatites.
DS201801-0017
2017
Campeny, M.Giuliani, A., Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Afonso, J.C., Maas, R., Melgarejo, J.C., Kohn, B.P., Matchen, E.L., Mangas, J., Goncalves, A.O., Manuel, J.Southwestern Africa on the burner: Pleistocene carbonatite volcanism linked to deep mantle upwelling in Angola.Geology, Vol. 45, 11, pp. 971=974.Africa, Angolacarbonatite - Catanda

Abstract: The origin of intraplate carbonatitic to alkaline volcanism in Africa is controversial. A tectonic control, i.e., decompression melting associated with far-field stress, is suggested by correlation with lithospheric sutures, repeated magmatic cycles in the same areas over several million years, synchronicity across the plate, and lack of clear age progression patterns. Conversely, a dominant role for mantle convection is supported by the coincidence of Cenozoic volcanism with regions of lithospheric uplift, positive free-air gravity anomalies, and slow seismic velocities. To improve constraints on the genesis of African volcanism, here we report the first radiometric and isotopic results for the Catanda complex, which hosts the only extrusive carbonatites in Angola. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages of Catanda aillikite lavas indicate eruption at ca. 500-800 ka, more than 100 m.y. after emplacement of abundant kimberlites and carbonatites in this region. The lavas share similar high-µ (HIMU)-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope compositions with other young mantle-derived volcanics from Africa (e.g., Northern Kenya Rift; Cameroon Line). The position of the Catanda complex in the Lucapa corridor, a long-lived extensional structure, suggests a possible tectonic control for the volcanism. The complex is also located on the Bié Dome, a broad region of fast Pleistocene uplift attributed to mantle upwelling. Seismic tomography models indicate convection of deep hot material beneath regions of active volcanism in Africa, including a large area encompassing Angola and northern Namibia. This is strong evidence that intraplate late Cenozoic volcanism, including the Catanda complex, resulted from the interplay between mantle convection and preexisting lithospheric heterogeneities.
DS201910-2284
2019
Campeny, M.Menendez, I., Campeny, M., Quevedo-Gonzalez, L., Mangas, J., Llovet, X., Tauler, E., Barron, V., Torrent, J., Mendez-Ramos, J.Distribution of REE-bearing minerals in felsic magmatic rocks and palesols from Gran Canaria, Spain: intraplate oceanic islands as a new example of potential, non-conventional sources of rare earth elements.Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 204, pp. 270-288.Europe, SpainREE

Abstract: Gran Canaria is a hotspot-derived, intraplate, oceanic island, comprising a variety of alkaline felsic magmatic rocks (i.e. phonolites, trachytes, rhyolites and syenites). These rocks are enriched in rare-earth elements (REE) in relation to the mean concentration in the Earth's crust and they are subsequently mobilised and redistributed in the soil profile. From a set of 57 samples of felsic rocks and 12 samples from three paleosol profiles, we assess the concentration and mobility of REE. In the saprolite that developed over the rhyolites, we identified REE-bearing minerals such as primary monazite-(Ce), as well as secondary phases associated with the edaphic weathering, such as rhabdophane-(Ce) and LREE oxides. The averaged concentration of REE in the alkaline bedrock varies from trachytes (449?mg?kg-1), to rhyolites (588?mg?kg-1) and to phonolites (1036?mg?kg-1). REE are slightly enriched in saprolites developed on trachyte (498?mg?kg-1), rhyolite (601?mg?kg-1) and phonolite (1171?mg?kg-1) bedrocks. However, B-horizons of paleosols from trachytes and phonolites showed REE depletion (436 and 994?mg?kg-1, respectively), whereas a marked enrichment was found in soils developed on rhyolites (1584?mg?kg-1). According to our results, REE resources on Gran Canaria are significant, especially in Miocene alkaline felsic magmatic rocks (declining stage) and their associated paleosols. We estimate a total material volume of approximately 1000?km3 with REE concentrations of 672?±?296?mg?kg-1, yttrium contents of 57?±?30?mg?kg-1, and light and heavy REE ratios (LREE/HREE) of 17?±?6. This mineralisation can be considered as bulk tonnage and low-grade ore REE deposits but it remains necessary to develop detailed mineral exploration on selected insular zones in the future, without undermining environmental and socioeconomic interests.
DS200712-0137
2007
Camphor Ventures Inc.Camphor Ventures Inc.Accepts offer from Mountain Province Diamonds to acquire securities of Camphor Ventures Inc.,Camphor Ventures Inc., Jan. 19, 1p.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesNews item - press release, Mountain Province
DS1986-0122
1986
Campiglio, C.Campiglio, C., Marion, C., Vanier, M.Study of an olivine boninite from New Caledonia- petrography and mineralchemistry.(in French)Bulletin. Mineralogie, (in French), Vol. 109, No. 4, pp. 423-440New CaledoniaBlank
DS201312-0088
2013
Campillo, M.Bou, P., Poli, P., Campillo, M., Pedersen, H., Briand, X., Roux, P.Teleseismic correlations of ambient seismic noise for deep global imaging of the Earth.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 194, 2, pp. 844-848.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201907-1527
2019
Campillo, S.Batanova, V.G., Thompson, J.M., Danyushevsky, L.V., Portnyagin, M.V., Garbe-Schonberg, D., Hauri, E., Kimura, J-I., Chang, Q., Senda, R., Goemann, K., Chauvel, C., Campillo, S., Ionov, D.A., Sobolev,A.V.New olivine reference material for in situ microanalysis.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press available, 21p.Asia, Mongoliaolivine

Abstract: A new olivine reference material - MongOL Sh11-2 - for in situ analysis has been prepared from the central portion of a large (20 × 20 × 10 cm) mantle peridotite xenolith from a ~ 0.5 My old basaltic breccia at Shavaryn-Tsaram, Tariat region, central Mongolia. The xenolith is a fertile mantle lherzolite with minimal signs of alteration. Approximately 10 g of 0.5-2 mm gem quality olivine fragments were separated under binocular microscope and analysed by EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS and bulk analytical methods (ID-ICP-MS for Mg and Fe, XRF, ICP-MS) for major, minor and trace elements at six institutions world-wide. The results show that the olivine fragments are sufficiently homogeneous with respect to major (Mg, Fe, Si), minor and trace elements. Significant inhomogeneity was revealed only for phosphorus (homogeneity index of 12.4), whereas Li, Na, Al, Sc, Ti and Cr show minor inhomogeneity (homogeneity index of 1-2). The presence of some mineral and fluid-melt micro-inclusions may be responsible for the inconsistency in mass fractions obtained by in situ and bulk analytical methods for Al, Cu, Sr, Zr, Ga, Dy and Ho. Here we report reference and information values for twenty-seven major, minor and trace elements.
DS201711-2504
2017
Campione, M.Campione, M., Tumiati, S., Malaspina, N.Primary spinel + chlorite inclusions in mantle garnet formed at ultrahigh pressure. Maowu ultramafic complex.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 4, pp. 19-23.ChinaUHP

Abstract: Multiphase inclusions represent microenvironments where the interaction between fluid and host mineral is preserved during the rock geological path. Under its peculiar chemical-physical constraints, the entrapped solute-rich fluid might follow a crystallisation mechanism which is not predictable through simple equilibrium arguments. In this letter, by the modelling of solid-solution equilibrium and the application of principles of mass conservation, we demonstrate that cavities in mantle garnet filled with slab-derived fluids can re-equilibrate to a pyrope + spinel + chlorite assemblage at the same high P-T of their formation. The basis of this occurrence is a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism, triggered by a dilute, non-equilibrated slab fluid.
DS201904-0714
2019
Campione, M.Anzolini, C., Nestola, F., Mazzucchelli, M.L., Alvaro, M., Nimis, P., Gianese, A., Morganti, S., Marone, F., Campione, M., Hutchison, M.T., Harris, J.W.Depth of diamond formation obtained from single periclase inclusions. SDD ( Super Deep Diamonds)Geology , Vol. 47, 3, pp. 219-222.South America, Brazil, Guyanadiamond genesis

Abstract: Super-deep diamonds (SDDs) are those that form at depths between ~300 and ~1000 km in Earth’s mantle. They compose only 1% of the entire diamond population but play a pivotal role in geology, as they represent the deepest direct samples from the interior of our planet. Ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O, is the most abundant mineral found as inclusions in SDDs and, when associated with low-Ni enstatite, which is interpreted as retrogressed bridgmanite, is considered proof of a lower-mantle origin. As this mineral association in diamond is very rare, the depth of formation of most ferropericlase inclusions remains uncertain. Here we report geobarometric estimates based on both elasticity and elastoplasticity theories for two ferropericlase inclusions, not associated with enstatite, from a single Brazilian diamond. We obtained a minimum depth of entrapment of 15.7 (±2.5) GPa at 1830 (±45) K (~450 [±70] km depth), placing the origin of the diamond-inclusion pairs at least near the upper mantle-transition zone boundary and confirming their super-deep origin. Our analytical approach can be applied to any type of mineral inclusion in diamond and is expected to allow better insights into the depth distribution and origin of SDDs.
DS201904-0755
2018
Campione, M.Langenhorst, F., Campione, M.Ideal and real structures of different forms of carbon, with some remarks on their geological significance.Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 176, pp. 337-347.Globalcarbon

Abstract: Carbon is found in nature in a huge variety of allotropic forms and recent research in materials science has encouraged the development of technological materials based on nanocarbon. Carbon atoms with sp2 or sp3 hybridization can be thought of as building blocks. Following a bottom-up approach, we show how graphene and diamond molecules are built up and how their properties vary with size, reaching an upper limit with bulk graphite and diamond. Carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization give rise to an impressive number of different materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons, porous carbon and fullerene. As in any crystalline phase, the crystal structures of natural carbon allotropes (i.e. graphite and diamond) contain various types of imperfections. These so-called lattice defects are classified by their dimensions into 0D (point), 1D (line), 2D (planar) and 3D (volume) defects. Lattice defects control the physical properties of crystals and are often a fingerprint of the geological environment in which they formed and were modified. Direct observations of lattice defects are commonly accomplished by transmission electron microscopy. We present and discuss the ideal and real structures of carbon allotropes, the energetics of lattice defects and their significance in understanding geological processes and conditions.
DS201909-2076
2019
Campione, M.Piazzi, M., Morana, M., Coisson, M., Marone, F., Campione, M., Bindi, L., Jones, A.P., Ferrara, E., Alvaro, M.Multi-analytical characterization of Fe-rich magnetic inclusions in diamonds.Diamonds and Related Materials, in press available 36p. PdfAfrica, Ghanadeposit - Akwatia

Abstract: Magnetic mineral inclusions, as iron oxides or sulfides, occur quite rarely in natural diamonds. Nonetheless, they represent a key tool not only to unveil the conditions of formation of host diamonds, but also to get hints about the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field present at times of the Earth's history otherwise not accessible. This possibility is related to their capability to carry a remanent magnetization dependent on their magnetic history. However, comprehensive experimental studies on magnetic inclusions in diamonds have been rarely reported so far. Here we exploit X-ray diffraction, Synchrotron-based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy and Alternating Field Magnetometry to determine the crystallographic, morphological and magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic Fe-oxides entrapped in diamonds coming from Akwatia (Ghana). We exploit the methodology to estimate the natural remanence of the inclusions, associated to the Earth's magnetic field they experienced, and to get insights on the relative time of formation between host and inclusion systems. Furthermore, from the hysteresis loops and First Order Reversal Curves we determine qualitatively the anisotropy, size and domain state configuration of the magnetic grains constituting the inclusions.
DS201910-2292
2019
Campione, M.Piazzi, M., Morana, M., Coisson, M., Marone, F., Campione, M., Bindi, L., Jones, A.P., Ferrara, E., Alvaro, M.Multi-analytical characterization of Fe-rich magnetic inclusions in diamonds. Akwatiaresearchgate.net, June 18, 333866141 12p. PdfAfrica, Ghanadeposit - Akwatia

Abstract: Magnetic mineral inclusions, as iron oxides or sulfides, occur quite rarely in natural diamonds. Nonetheless, they represent a key tool not only to unveil the conditions of formation of host diamonds, but also to get hints about the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field present at times of the Earth's history otherwise not accessible. This possibility is related to their capability to carry a remanent magnetization dependent on their magnetic history. However, comprehensive experimental studies on magnetic inclusions in diamonds have been rarely reported so far. Here we exploit X-ray diffraction, Synchrotron-based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy and Alternating Field Magnetometry to determine the crystallographic, morphological and magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic Fe-oxides entrapped in diamonds coming from Akwatia (Ghana). We exploit the methodology to estimate the natural remanence of the inclusions, associated to the Earth's magnetic field they experienced, and to get insights on the relative time of formation between host and inclusion systems. Furthermore, from the hysteresis loops and First Order Reversal Curves we determine qualitatively the anisotropy, size and domain state configuration of the magnetic grains constituting the inclusions.
DS201912-2768
2019
Campmenosi, N.Alvaro, M., Mazzucchelli, M.L., Angel, R.J., Murri, M., Campmenosi, N., Scambelluri, M., Nestola, F., Korsakov, A., Tomilenko, A.A., Marone, F., Morana, M.Fossil subduction recorded by quartz from the coesite stability field. GeobarometryGeology, in press, 5p. PdfRussia, Yakutiadeposit - Mir

Abstract: Metamorphic rocks are the records of plate tectonic processes whose reconstruction relies on correct estimates of the pressures and temperatures (P-T) experienced by these rocks through time. Unlike chemical geothermobarometry, elastic geobarometry does not rely on chemical equilibrium between minerals, so it has the potential to provide information on overstepping of reaction boundaries and to identify other examples of non-equilibrium behavior in rocks. Here we introduce a method that exploits the anisotropy in elastic properties of minerals to determine the unique P and T of entrapment from a single inclusion in a mineral host. We apply it to preserved quartz inclusions in garnet from eclogite xenoliths hosted in Yakutian kimberlites (Russia). Our results demonstrate that quartz trapped in garnet can be preserved when the rock reaches the stability field of coesite (the high-pressure and high-temperature polymorph of quartz) at 3 GPa and 850 °C. This supports a metamorphic origin for these xenoliths and sheds light on the mechanisms of craton accretion from a subducted crustal protolith. Furthermore, we show that interpreting P and T conditions reached by a rock from the simple phase identification of key inclusion minerals can be misleading.
DS201812-2853
2018
Campomenosi, N.Murri, M., Mazzucchelli, M.L., Campomenosi, N., Korsakov, A.V., Prencipe, M., Mihailova, B.D., Scambelluri, M., Angel, R.J., Alvaro, M.Raman elastic geobarometry for anisotropic mineral inclusions. MirAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 103, pp. 1869-1872.Russiamineral inclusions

Abstract: Elastic geobarometry for host-inclusion systems can provide new constraints to assess the pressure and temperature conditions attained during metamorphism. Current experimental approaches and theory are developed only for crystals immersed in a hydrostatic stress field, whereas inclusions experience deviatoric stress. We have developed a method to determine the strains in quartz inclusions from Raman spectroscopy using the concept of the phonon-mode Grüneisen tensor. We used ab initio Hartree-Fock/Density Functional Theory to calculate the wavenumbers of the Raman-active modes as a function of different strain conditions. Least-squares fits of the phonon-wavenumber shifts against strains have been used to obtain the components of the mode Grüneisen tensor of quartz (??m1 and ?m3?) that can be used to calculate the strains in inclusions directly from the measured Raman shifts. The concept is demonstrated with the example of a natural quartz inclusion in eclogitic garnet from Mir kimberlite and has been validated against direct X-ray diffraction measurement of the strains in the same inclusion.
DS200712-0138
2007
Camporeale, C.Camporeale, C., Perona, P., Porporato, A., Ridolfi, L.Hierarchy of models for meandering rivers and related morphodynamic processes.Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, 1, RG1001TechnologyGeomorphology
DS1996-0214
1996
Campos, C.Campos, C., Charvet, J., Lapierre, H.Evidence of a Middle Late Devonian tectonic event in the Eastern Klamathterrane, northern CaliforniaGsn Proceedings Geol. Ore Dep. American Cordillera, Vol. 2, pp. 823-838CaliforniaTectonics
DS2000-0184
2000
Campos, D.A.Cordani, U.G., Milani, E.J., Filho, A.T., Campos, D.A.Tectonic evolution of South AmericaGeological Society of America, 854p. $ 60.00South America, Brazil, Chile, Peru, ArgentinaBook - ad, Tectonostratigraphic terrains
DS2001-0356
2001
Campos, J.Garanin, V.K., Gonzaga, G., Campos, J., Kudryavtseva, G.A new theory of the glacial origin of diamond placers in the Ural regionMoscow University of Geol. Bulletin., Vol. 55, No. 5, pp. 54-8.Russia, UralsAlluvials - placers, Geomorphology
DS201212-0628
2012
Campos, J.Scholz, C.B., Campos, J.The seismic coupling of subduction zones revisited.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B5, B05310MantleSubduction
DS2003-0201
2003
Campos, J.C.S.Campos, J.C.S., Carneiro, M.A., Basei, M.A.S.U Pb evidence for late Neoarchean crustal reworking in the southern Sao FranciscoAnais Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Vol. 75, pp. 497-512.Brazil, Minas GeraisGeochronology
DS200412-0259
2003
Campos, J.C.S.Campos, J.C.S., Carneiro, M.A., Basei, M.A.S.U Pb evidence for late Neoarchean crustal reworking in the southern Sao Francisco Craton ( Minas Gerais) Brazil.Anais Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Vol. 75, pp. 497-512.South America, Brazil, Minas GeraisGeochronology
DS1960-0547
1965
Campos, J.E. DE S.Franco, R.R., Campos, J.E. DE S.As Pedras PreciosasSao Paulo:, BrazilKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Gemology
DS1991-0341
1991
Campos, J.E.G.Dardenne, M.A., Gonzaga, G.M., Campos, J.E.G.The diamond bearing Cretaceous conglomerates of the Canabrava area, MinasGerais, BrasilFifth International Kimberlite Conferences Field Excursion Guidebook, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 83-88BrazilConglomerates, Alluvial diamonds
DS201608-1419
2016
Campos, T.Maia, M., Sichel, S., Briais, A., Brunelli, D., Ligi, M., Ferreira, N., Campos, T., Mougel, B., Brehme, I., Hemond, C., Motoki, A., Moura, D., Scalabrin, C., Pessanha, I., Alves, E., Ayres, A., Oliveira, P.Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, 8, pp. 619-623.MantleRidges

Abstract: Mantle exhumation at slow-spreading ridges is favoured by extensional tectonics through low-angle detachment faults1, 2, 3, 4, and, along transforms, by transtension due to changes in ridge/transform geometry5, 6. Less common, exhumation by compressive stresses has been proposed for the large-offset transforms of the equatorial Atlantic7, 8. Here we show, using high-resolution bathymetry, seismic and gravity data, that the northern transform fault of the St Paul system has been controlled by compressive deformation since ~10?million years ago. The long-lived transpression resulted from ridge overlap due to the propagation of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment into the transform domain, which induced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault creating restraining stepovers. An anticlockwise change in plate motion at ~11?million years ago5 initially favoured extension in the left-stepping transform, triggering the formation of a transverse ridge, later uplifted through transpression, forming the St Peter and St Paul islets. Enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis due to the nearby Sierra Leone thermo chemical anomaly9 is responsible for the robust response of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment to the kinematic change. The long-lived process at the origin of the compressive stresses is directly linked to the nature of the underlying mantle and not to a change in the far-field stress regime.
DS1985-0103
1985
Campos-Marquetti, R.Campos-Marquetti, R.Discrimination of Hydrothermally Altered Mineralized Zones In New Mexico with the Use of Land sat Thematic Mapper Digital Data.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 17, No. 3, P. 153. (abstract.).United States, New MexicoOrtiz Mountains, Monzonite, Latite
DS201711-2514
2017
Camprubi, A.Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.M., Camprubi, A., Colas, V., Griffin, W.L., Proenza, J.A., O'Reilly, S.Y., Centeno-Garcia, El., Garcia-Casco, A., Belousova, E., Talavera, C., Farre-de-Pablo, J., Satsukawa, T.The recycling of chromitites in ophiolites from southwestern North America. ( Baja)Lithos, in press available, 52p.United States, Californiachromitites

Abstract: Podiform chromitites occur in mantle peridotites of the Late Triassic Puerto Nuevo Ophiolite, Baja California Sur State, Mexico. These are high-Cr chromitites [Cr# (Cr/Cr + Al atomic ratio = 0.61-0.69)] that contain a range of minor- and trace-elements and show whole-rock enrichment in IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru). That are similar to those of high-Cr ophiolitic chromitites crystallised from melts similar to high-Mg island-arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites in supra-subduction-zone mantle wedges. Crystallisation of these chromitites from S-undersaturated melts is consistent with the presence of abundant inclusions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) such as laurite (RuS2)-erlichmanite (OsS2), osmium and irarsite (IrAsS) in chromite, that yield TMA ˜ TRD model ages peaking at ~ 325 Ma. Thirty-three xenocrystic zircons recovered from mineral concentrates of these chromitites yield ages (2263 ± 44 Ma to 278 ± 4 Ma) and Hf-O compositions [?Hf(t) = - 18.7 to + 9.1 and 18O values < 12.4‰] that broadly match those of zircons reported in nearby exposed crustal blocks of southwestern North America. We interpret these chromitite zircons as remnants of partly digested continental crust or continent-derived sediments on oceanic crust delivered into the mantle via subduction. They were captured by the parental melts of the chromitites when the latter formed in a supra-subduction zone mantle wedge polluted with crustal material. In addition, the Puerto Nuevo chromites have clinopyroxene lamellae with preferred crystallographic orientation, which we interpret as evidence that chromitites have experienced high-temperature and ultra high-pressure conditions (< 12 GPa and ~ 1600 °C). We propose a tectonic scenario that involves the formation of chromitite in the supra-subduction zone mantle wedge underlying the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc ca. 250 Ma ago, deep-mantle recycling, and subsequent diapiric exhumation in the intra-oceanic basin (the San Hipólito marginal sea) generated during an extensional stage of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc ca. 221 Ma ago. The TRD ages at ~ 325 Ma record a partial melting event in the mantle prior to the construction of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc, which is probably related to the Permian continental subduction, dated at ~ 311 Ma.
DS201902-0270
2018
Camprubi, A.Farre-de-Pablo, J., Proenza, J.A., Gonzales-Jimenez, J.M., Garcia-Casco, A., Colas, V., Roque-Rossell, J., Camprubi, A., Sanchez-Navas, A.A shallow origin for diamonds in ophiolitic chromitites.Geology, Vol. 46, pp. 75-78.Mexico, Pueblaophiolite

Abstract: Recent findings of diamonds in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites challenge our traditional notion of Earth mantle dynamics. Models attempting to explain these findings involve incorporation of diamonds into chromite near the mantle transition zone. However, the occurrence of metastable diamonds in this context has not been considered. Here, we report for the first time in situ microdiamonds in chromite from ophiolitic chromitite pods hosted in the Tehuitzingo serpentinite (southern Mexico). Here, diamonds occur as fracture-filling inclusions along with quartz, clinochlore, serpentine, and amorphous carbon, thus indicating a secondary origin during the shallow hydration of chromitite. Chromite chemical variations across the diamond-bearing healed fractures indicate formation during the retrograde evolution of chromitite at temperatures between 670 °C and 515 °C. During this stage, diamond precipitated metastably at low pressure from reduced C-O-H fluids that infiltrated from the host peridotite at the onset of serpentinization processes. Diamond was preserved as a result of fracture healing at the same temperature interval in which the chromite alteration began. These mechanisms of diamond formation challenge the idea that the occurrence of diamond in ophiolitic rocks constitutes an unequivocal indicator of ultrahigh-pressure conditions.
DS201909-2038
2019
Camprubi, A.Farre-de-Pblo, J., Proenza, J.A., Gonzalez-Jiminez, J.M., Garcia-Casco, A., Colas, V., Roque-Rosell, J., Camprubi, A., Sanchez-Navas, A.A shallow origin for diamonds in ophiolitic chromitites. Geology, Vol. 47, pp. e477-478.North America, Mexicomicrodiamonds

Abstract: Recent findings of diamonds in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites challenge our traditional notion of Earth mantle dynamics. Models attempting to explain these findings involve incorporation of diamonds into chromite near the mantle transition zone. However, the occurrence of metastable diamonds in this context has not been considered. Here, we report for the first time in situ microdiamonds in chromite from ophiolitic chromitite pods hosted in the Tehuitzingo serpentinite (southern Mexico). Here, diamonds occur as fracture-filling inclusions along with quartz, clinochlore, serpentine, and amorphous carbon, thus indicating a secondary origin during the shallow hydration of chromitite. Chromite chemical variations across the diamond-bearing healed fractures indicate formation during the retrograde evolution of chromitite at temperatures between 670 °C and 515 °C. During this stage, diamond precipitated metastably at low pressure from reduced C-O-H fluids that infiltrated from the host peridotite at the onset of serpentinization processes. Diamond was preserved as a result of fracture healing at the same temperature interval in which the chromite alteration began. These mechanisms of diamond formation challenge the idea that the occurrence of diamond in ophiolitic rocks constitutes an unequivocal indicator of ultrahigh-pressure conditions.
DS1996-0215
1996
Camps, P.Camps, P., et al.Paleomagnetic and geochronological study of a geomagnetic field reversal or excursion recorded VolsPhysics of the Earth Plan. Interiors, Vol. 96, pp. 41-59Georgia, RussiaGeochronology, Volcanics
DS1910-0035
1910
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.Tulameen DistrictGeological Survey of Canada SUMMARY Report FOR 1909, PP. 105-117.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1910-0166
1911
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.A New Diamond Locality in the Tulameen District, British Columbia.Economic Geology, Vol. 6, PP. 604-611. ALSO: Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, BD. 2, PP. 172Canada, British ColumbiaProspecting, Petrology
DS1910-0167
1911
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.Parts of Southern British Columbia and TulameenGeological Survey of Canada SUMMARY Report FOR 1910, PP. 111-114.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1910-0168
1911
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.The Mineral Resources of Part of the Yale District British Columbia- a descriptive Summary.The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), Vol. 14, PP. 596-611.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1910-0265
1912
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.Note on the Occurrence of Diamonds at Tulameen and Scottie Creek Near ashcroft British Columbia.Geological Survey of Canada SUMMARY Report FOR 1911, PP. 123-124.Canada, British ColumbiaDiamond Occurrence
DS1910-0340
1913
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Tulameen District British Columbia.Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) MEMOIR., No. 26, P. 3, 16, 146-153.Canada, British ColumbiaDiamond Occurrence
DS1950-0173
1954
Camsell, C.Camsell, C.Son of the NorthRyerson Press, Toronto, 244P.Canada, British ColumbiaBiography
DS1910-0169
1911
Camsell, C.C.Camsell, C.C., Johnston, R.A.A.British Columbia Diamonds and PlatinumMining Engineering WORLD., Vol. 35, SEPT. 30TH. PP. 647-648.Canada, British ColumbiaBlank
DS1996-0216
1996
Camur, M.Z.Camur, M.Z.MINMELT: a Q basic program for the numerical simulation of low pressure high Tmelt mineral equilibration temperatures in alkalic -Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1109-22.GlobalComputer - Program MINMELT., Magma - basic alkalic and tholeiitic
DS1995-0258
1995
Camur, Z.Camur, Z., Kiling, A.I.Empirical solution modeling for alkalic to tholeiitic basic magmasJournal of Petrology, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 497-514MantleMagma, Alkaline rocks
DS1995-0259
1995
Camuti, K.S.Camuti, K.S.17th. International Geochemical Exploration symposium.. exploring thetropicsEconomic Geology Research Unit, James Cook Univ, No. 54, 380pAustraliaGeochemical exploration -tropics, Book -Table of contents
DS2001-0999
2001
Can AchterbergRyan, C.G., Can Achterberg, Griffin, Pearson, O'ReillyNuclear microprobe analysis of melt inclusions in minerals: windows on metasomatic processes in mantleNuclear Instruments and Methods, Phys. Res. B., Vo.l81, pp. 578-85.MantleMetasomatism
DS1997-0156
1997
Can. Intergov. Working Group on the Mineral IndustryCan. Intergov. Working Group on the Mineral IndustryEvolution of diamond exploration in CanadaCanadian Intergovernmental, Sept. pp. 29-36. 14 figs. 5 tablesCanadaNews item, Overview of diamond exploration
DS201012-0044
2010
Canabrava Brito, D.Beatriz de Menezes Leal, A., Canabrava Brito, D., Girardi, V.A.V., Correa-Gomes, L.C., Cerqueira Cruz, S., Bastos Leal, L.R.Petrology and geochemistry of the tholeiitic mafic dykes from the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil.International Dyke Conference Held Feb. 6, India, 1p. AbstractSouth America, BrazilGeochemistry
DS200612-0215
2006
Canada Forum ProgramCanada Forum ProgramTwo realities, one community. Aboriginal community development. Do agreements work? law, negotiations, safety, practical.Canada Forum info @canadaforum.com, November 5-7, Ottawa $ 585.00Canada, OttawaConference - covers diamond related issues
DS2002-0242
2002
Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationCanadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationSearch for tomorrow: Aboriginal community growth in Natural Resources Development. Conference Nov.17-19.Canadian Aboriginal Development, Fort McMurray AlbertaConference - aboriginal participation, strategies, Diav, Talks - training, environment, social impact
DS2002-0243
2002
Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationCanadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationSearch for tomorrow.. abororiginal community growth in natural resource developmentCanadian Minerals Association Conference proceedings, held Nov. 18-19, Fort, 12 parts, $ 116.63 Northwest Territories, AlbertaBook - land base, sustainability, challenges
DS200412-0260
2004
Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationCanadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationCertainty through partnership. Resource Sector conference to be held Oct 24-26. Yellowknife.Canada Forum info @canadaforum.com, Oct. 24-26th.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesNews item - conference, diamond
DS200412-1323
2004
Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationMining Association of Canada, Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationAboriginal - mining industry Round Table Report. The growth of diamond mining in Canada.61st Annual Mines Ministers Conference, Igaluit Nunavut, July 20, pp. 12-13.CanadaLegal, social, mining responsibilities
DS200412-1324
2004
Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationMining Association of Canada, Canadian Aboriginal Minerals AssociationHighlights of company actions: BHP Billiton Diamonds at Ekati, De Beers at Snap Lake, Diavik Diamond Mines. Brief one paragraEnvironmental Progress Report 2003, June pp. 20-22.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesNews item - environmental
DS200412-0261
2003
Canadian Insitite of Mining and Metallurgy CommitteeCanadian Insitite of Mining and Metallurgy CommitteeGuidelines for the reporting of diamond exploration results.Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Bulletin, Vol. 96, 1072, June/July pp. 121-124.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesLegal - guidelines
DS200412-0262
2003
Canadian Institute Mining and MetallurgyCanadian Institute Mining and MetallurgyC.I.M. adopts estimation best practice guidelines.CIM Guidelines, Canada, globalNews item - resource
DS1991-0211
1991
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Field Conference -diamond technical session. Geological Society of theConference registration The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Xerox Tower Suite 1210, 3400 de Maissoneuve, Fax 514 939-2714SaskatchewanConference, Technical session -diamonds
DS1992-0206
1992
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Managing the risks to reap the rewardsThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Special Symposium, Volume, $ 105.00BookEconomics, ore reserves, Financing, environmental, politics
DS1993-0203
1993
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Mining 2001: a Canadian odysseyThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Special Publication of Conference notes held January 21, Cost $ 125.00CanadaBook -table of contents, Economics
DS1993-0204
1993
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Annual meeting Diamond theme session held Calgary Alberta May 12, 1993The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 87, No. 977, February p. 102.GlobalVideotapes of The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Diamond session, Each tape $ 36.00 ( 4 in the total set of coverage)
DS1994-0248
1994
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Proceedings volume from the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) District 6 meeting held Oct. 11-15th.VancouverThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Volume, abstractsBritish Columbia, Northwest TerritoriesBook -table of contents, Mineral processing, mining, environmental, geology
DS1996-0217
1996
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Canadian exploration challenges.. theme overview... land accessThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 89, No. 997, Feb. p. 42CanadaEconomics, Legal, environmental
DS1996-0218
1996
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) position paper - towards development of an industry wide position onThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 89, No. 997, Feb. pp. 32-33Canada, GlobalEconomics, Geostatistics, ore reserves
DS1996-0219
1996
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)History of drilling and blastingThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Directory 30th. ed, pp. 67-87GlobalDrilling history, History - overview
DS1996-0220
1996
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)A systems approach to blast optimization... mining costsThe Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Directory 30th. ed, pp. 88-101GlobalMining - blasting, Cost controls
DS1996-0221
1996
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Mineral resource/reserve classification: categories, definitions andguidelinesThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 89, No. 1003, Sept. pp. 39-44GlobalReserves, ore reserves, Classification, geostatistics
DS1996-0222
1996
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Deep continental roots and upper mantle imbrications in Trans HudsonOrogen.The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Reporter, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mon. April. 29, p. 7, 10.Saskatchewan, AlbertaMantle roots, Orogeny -Trans Hudson
DS1998-0203
1998
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)International reserves definition initiative. Reserve defintionsThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 90, No. 1017, Feb. pp. 44-45GlobalEconomics, discoveries, Geostatistics, ore reserves
DS1998-0204
1998
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Joint mining standards task forceThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), Vol. 90, No. 1017, Feb. pp. 47-48GlobalEconomics, discoveries, Geostatistics, ore reserves
DS2000-0134
2000
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Resource and reserve definitions... the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) standards - definitions and guidelines. Diamonds p. 61.The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) ., Vol. 93, No. 1044, Oct. pp. 53-61.GlobalEconomics - reserves, discoveries, exploration
DS2002-0244
2002
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)Guidelines for the reporting of diamond exploration resultsCanada Newswire, Nov. 7, 1p.CanadaNews item, Legal - reporting standards
DS2003-0202
2003
Canadian Institute of MiningCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)C.I.M. adopts estimation best practice guidelinesCim.org/committees/estimation2003.pdf, Canada, GlobalNews item - resource
DS200512-0134
2005
Canadian Integrated Landscape Management CoalitionCanadian Integrated Landscape Management CoalitionIntegrated Lands cape management - applying sustainable development to land use.Canadian Integrated Landscape Management Coalition, May, 31p.Canada, globalLegal - ILM
DS2002-0245
2002
Canadian Intergovernmental Work Group Mineral IndustryCanadian Intergovernmental Work Group Mineral IndustryOverview of trends and spending... diamonds pp. 14-17. additional pages from various overviews - provinces.Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group, pp. 14-17.CanadaEconomics - exploration, expenditures, resources
DS200712-0140
2006
Canadian Intergovernmental Working GroupCanadian Intergovernmental Working Group2005 edition of Overview of trends in Canadian mineral exploration.nrcan.gc.ca, Free on demandCanadaEconomics, expenditures on exploration
DS1998-0205
1998
Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group, Mineral Ind.Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group, Mineral Ind.Exploration for diamonds in CanadaOverview trends Canadian Mineral Exploration, pp. 23-34.Northwest Territories, Alberta, SaskatchewanProjects, economics, grades, values
DS1997-0157
1997
Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group in the MineralCanadian Intergovernmental Working Group in the MineralOverview of trends in Canadian mineral explorationCiwp On Mineral Industry, Nov. 110pCanadaEconomics - discoveries, exploration, overview, Expenditures
DS1997-0158
1997
Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the MineralCanadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the MineralRecent mineral exploration success and discovery potential.. diamondsCanadian Intergovernment Working Group Mineral Industry, Fall, p. 7.CanadaEconomics, discoveries, expenditures
DS2000-0135
2000
Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the MineralCanadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the MineralDiamonds - brief overview of activity. datedCanadian Mineral Exploration, overview of trends, p. 90.Northwest Territories, NunavutNews item, Diamond - exploration, discoveries
DS200612-0216
2005
Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral IndustryCanadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral IndustryOverview of trends in Canadian mineral exploration. Yearly compendium... appraisal expenditures, drilling by commodity...Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral Industry, CanadaOverview - expenditures, exploration
DS200712-0139
2006
Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral IndustryCanadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral IndustryOverview of trends in mineral exploration... summarized by provinces and commodity overview within the area.Canadian Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral Industry, CanadaNews item - exploration spending summary
DS1992-0207
1992
Canadian Journal of Earth SciencesCanadian Journal of Earth SciencesThe tectonic evolution of the Superior and Slave provinces of the CanadianshieldCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 10, October pp. 2059-2327Northwest Territories, Manitoba, OntarioTectonics, Structure
DS1994-0249
1994
Canadian Journal of Earth SciencesCanadian Journal of Earth SciencesThe Kapuskasing Transect of Lithoprobe -special issueCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 7, July pp. 1013-1286OntarioBook -table of contents, Tectonics, lithoprobe, Kapuskasing
DS1994-0250
1994
Canadian Journal of Earth SciencesCanadian Journal of Earth SciencesPotential field studies of continental rifts: the Great Lakes regionCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 4, April pp. 617-720Ontario, Michigan, Texas, New MexicoGeophysics -seismics, tectonics, Midcontinent Rift
DS1994-0251
1994
Canadian Journal of Earth SciencesCanadian Journal of Earth SciencesThe Abitibi-Lithoprobe seismic relection results: part 1, Western Grenville Province and Pontiac SubprovinceCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 2, February pp. 227-307Ontario, QuebecLithoprobe, Grenville, Pontiac
DS1995-0260
1995
Canadian Journal of Earth SciencesCanadian Journal of Earth SciencesResults from the Abitibi-Grenville lithoprobe transect - Abitibi greenstonebeltCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 2, Feb. pp. 97-176QuebecBook -table of contents, Abitibi greenstone belt, lithoprobe
DS1995-0261
1995
Canadian MineralogistCanadian MineralogistMicrobeam techniques in the earth sciencesCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 33, pt. 2, April pp. 201-508GlobalBook -table of contents, Microbeam techniques
DS1996-0223
1996
Canadian MineralogistCanadian MineralogistAlkaline rocks: petrology and mineralogyCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 34, No. 2, April pp. 173-490GlobalAlkaline rocks, Carbonatite, Petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy
DS1998-0206
1998
Canadian MineralogistCanadian MineralogistThe nomenclature of minerals: a compilation of IMA reportCanadian Mineralogist special compilation, 160p. $ 15.00GlobalBook - table of contents, Mineralogy - nomenclature
DS201212-0109
2012
Canadian Mining JournalCanadian Mining JournalTailings management: new MEND (Mining Environment Neutral Drainage ) report for cold locations. available free.MEND-NEDEM website, 177p. Pdf fileCanadaMining - talings
DS201312-0123
2013
Canadian Mining JournalCanadian Mining JournalThe road to riches .. New road connects diamond mine with other "plan nord" jobs.Canadian Mining Journal, October pp. 22-23.Canada, QuebecDeposit - Renard
DS200712-0141
2007
Canadian PressCanadian PressIce Road Truckers series shows danger and drama of 28 wheeling over frozen lakes.Canadian Press, June 16, 1p.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesNews item - ice road, Diavik, Ekati, Jericho
DS1996-0224
1996
Canadian Remote Sensing SocietyCanadian Remote Sensing SocietyRadar remote sensing: a tool for real-time land cover monitoring and GISintegrationCanadian Remote Sensing Society Proceedings, $ 50.00GlobalBook - review, Radar remote sensing
DS1999-0117
1999
Canafoglia, M.E.Carrasquero, S.I., Canafoglia, M.E., Schalamuk, B.A hydrothermal event associated with the alkaline complex in Cerro Amambay, Paraguay.Stanley, SGA Fifth Biennial Symposium, pp. 627-30.GlobalAlkaline rocks
DS1999-0534
1999
Canale, De Freitas...Patchett, P.J., Roth, M.A., Canale, De Freitas...neodymium isotopes, geochemistry, and constraints on sources of sediments in the Franklinian belt, Arctic Canada.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 111, No. 4, Apr. pp. 578-89.Northwest Territories, ArcticGeochemistry, Franklinian belt - not specific to diamonds
DS200612-1314
2006
CanalesSingh, S.C., Crawford, W.C., Carton, Seher, Combier, Cannat, Canales, Dusunur, Escartin, MirandaDiscovery of a magma chamber and faults beneath a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal field.Nature, Vol. 442 Aug. 31, pp. 1029-1031.MantleTectonics
DS2002-0246
2002
Canales, D.Canales, D., Norman, D.I.The Akwatia diamond field, Ghana, West Africa: source rocksSociety of Economic Geologists, Abstracts, p.71.GhanaGeochemistry
DS202010-1869
2020
Canals, A.Pujol-Sola, N., Garcia-Casco, A., Proenza, J.A., Gonzalez-Jiminez, J.M., del Camp, A., Colas, V., Canals, A., Sanchez-Navas, A., Roque-Rosell, J.Diamond forms during low pressure serpentinisation of oceanic lithosphere.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 7p. PdfCentral America, Cubadiamond genesis

Abstract: Diamond is commonly regarded as an indicator of ultra-high pressure conditions in Earth System Science. This canonical view is challenged by recent data and interpretations that suggest metastable growth of diamond in low pressure environments. One such environment is serpentinisation of oceanic lithosphere, which produces highly reduced CH4-bearing fluids after olivine alteration by reaction with infiltrating fluids. Here we report the first ever observed in situ diamond within olivine-hosted, CH4-rich fluid inclusions from low pressure oceanic gabbro and chromitite samples from the Moa-Baracoa ophiolitic massif, eastern Cuba. Diamond is encapsulated in voids below the polished mineral surface forming a typical serpentinisation array, with methane, serpentine and magnetite, providing definitive evidence for its metastable growth upon low temperature and low pressure alteration of oceanic lithosphere and super-reduction of infiltrated fluids. Thermodynamic modelling of the observed solid and fluid assemblage at a reference P-T point appropriate for serpentinisation (350 °C and 100 MPa) is consistent with extreme reduction of the fluid to logfO2 (MPa) = -45.3 (?logfO2[Iron-Magnetite] = -6.5). These findings imply that the formation of metastable diamond at low pressure in serpentinised olivine is a widespread process in modern and ancient oceanic lithosphere, questioning a generalised ultra-high pressure origin for ophiolitic diamond.
DS1860-0838
1894
Canaval, R.Canaval, R.Das Vorkommen der Diamanten im Kimberley DistrictCorinthia Ii, Vol. 84, PP. 145-149; PP. 163-173.Africa, South Africa, Griqualand WestGeology
DS1982-0128
1982
Canberra:agpsCanberra:agpsAustralia's Mineral Resources: GemstonesCanberra:agps, 8P.AustraliaDiamonds, Sources, Statistics
DS1860-0975
1897
Canby, H.S.Canby, H.S.The Development of the South African Diamond FieldsYale Science Monthly, Vol. 4, Nov. PP. 62-68; Dec. PP. 116-123.Africa, South AfricaMining Engineering
DS201709-2043
2017
Cancad, L.G.Pimenta Martins, L.G., Matos, M.J.S., Paschoal, A.R., Freire, P.T.C., Andrade, N.F., Aguiar, A.L., Kong, J., Neves, B.R.A., de Oliveira, A.B., Mazzoni, M.S.C., Souza Filhio, A.G., Cancad, L.G.Raman evidence for pressure induced formation of diamondene.Nature Communications, Vol. 8, 9p.Technologydiamondene

Abstract: Despite the advanced stage of diamond thin-film technology, with applications ranging from superconductivity to biosensing, the realization of a stable and atomically thick two-dimensional diamond material, named here as diamondene, is still forthcoming. Adding to the outstanding properties of its bulk and thin-film counterparts, diamondene is predicted to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with spin polarized bands. Here, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the formation of diamondene by performing Raman spectroscopy of double-layer graphene under high pressure. The results are explained in terms of a breakdown in the Kohn anomaly associated with the finite size of the remaining graphene sites surrounded by the diamondene matrix. Ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are employed to clarify the mechanism of diamondene formation, which requires two or more layers of graphene subjected to high pressures in the presence of specific chemical groups such as hydroxyl groups or hydrogens.
DS201212-0618
2012
Cancellielere, R.Salvioli-Mariani, E., Toscani, L., Bersani, D., Oddone, M., Cancellielere, R.Late veins of C 3 carbonatite intrusion from Jacupiranga complex, southern Brazil: fluid and melt inclusions and mineralogy.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 104, 1-2, pp. 95-114.South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS201112-0903
2011
Cancelliere, R.Salvioli-Mariani, E., Toscani, L., Bersani, D., Oddone, M., Cancelliere, R.Late veins of C3 carbonatite intrusion from Jacupiranga complex ( southern Brazil): fluid and melt inclusions and mineralogy.Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available,South America, BrazilCarbonatite
DS1993-0205
1993
Canda Law BookCanda Law BookCanadian environmental legislationCanada Law Book, 600pCanadaLegal -environmental, Book -ad
DS1993-0206
1993
Canda Law BookCanda Law BookOntario environmental legislationCanada Law Book, CanadaLegal -environmental, Book -ad
DS1993-0207
1993
Canda Law BookCanda Law BookEnvironmental law alertCanada Law Book, CanadaLegal -environmental, Newsletter
DS1998-0207
1998
Cande, S.C.Cande, S.C., Stock, J., Raymond, C., Muller, R.D.New constraints on plate tectonic puzzle of the southwest PacificEos, Vol. 79, No. 7, Feb. 17, pp. 81-2.Australia, AntarcticaTectonics
DS201012-0085
2010
Cande, S.C.Cande, S.C., Patroat, P., Dyment, J.Motion between the Indian, Antarctic and African plates in the early Cenozoic.Geophysical Journal International, in press availableMantleGeotectonics
DS200812-0706
2008
Candrakala, K.Mali, B.M., Pendey, G.P., Candrakala, K., Reddy, P.R.Imprints of a Proterozoic tectonothermal anomaly below the 1.1 Ga kimberlitic province of southwest Cuddapah Basin, Dharwar craton, southern India.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 172, 1, pp. 422-438.IndiaGeothermometry
DS1950-0375
1958
Canellas, C.J.Canellas, C.J.Los Buscadores de Diamantes En la Guyana VenezolanaUnknown, VenezuelaKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib, Travelogue, Diamonds
DS2002-0970
2002
Canerot, J.Lowner, R., Souhel, A., Chafiki, D., Canerot, J., Klitzsch, E.Structural and sedimentologic relations between the high and middle Atlas of Morocco during the Jurassic time.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol.34, No.3-4,April-May pp. 287-90.MoroccoTectonics
DS201709-1969
2017
Cangeloshi, D.A.Cangeloshi, D.A., et al.Influence of hydrothermal activity on the final REE mineralization at the Okorusu carbonatite complex, NamibiaGoldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Africa, Namibiacarbonatite, Okorusu

Abstract: Carbonatites are the primary source of LREE worldwide. Here we describe evidence from the Okorusu mine in NorthCentral Namibia, based on results from a suite of techniques including SEM-EDS and SEM-CL imaging, EPMA, LA-ICPMS on minerals and fluid inclusions, bulk rock chemistry and microthermometry. This provides indications of hydrothermal reworking in a carbonatite-related REE deposit. The Okorusu deposit is part of a ring complex consisting of syenites, nepheline syenites, and carbonatite with hydrothermal fluorite ore mineralisation formed principally by replacing carbonatite bodies. The primary carbonatites show a typical LREE enriched pattern. Primary REE mineralisation is contained in the magmatic phases apatite, pyrochlore and calcite. These phases have been partially broken down by hydrothermal activity. Most of the REE in the carbonatite samples now occur in secondary hydrothermal phases, mainly synchysite-(Ce). The REE occur also as synchysite-(Ce) in the hydrothermal fluorite but additionally they are incorporated into the fluorite structure resulting in cathodoluminescence zoning. Fluid inclusions are observed in both magmatic phases (apatite, calcite and clinopyroxene) and in hydrothermal phases (fluorite, calcite and quartz). The fluid inclusions associated with secondary REE mineralisation in fluorite consist of liquid-vapour inclusion with a constant liquid/bubble ratio and often a small daughter mineral. This suggests that the REE were transported by a relatively concentrated aqueous fluid. Fluid and melt inclusions hosted in the magmatic phases show a wider range in composition. The Okorusu carbonatite deposit shows primary and secondary features common to carbonatite deposits worldwide, and so the results reported here may be of wider significance.
DS201805-0977
2018
Cangelosi, D.Smith, M., Kynicky, J., Xu, C., Song, W., Spratt, J., Jeffries, T., Brtnicky, M., Kopriva, A., Cangelosi, D.The origin of secondary heavy rare earth element enrichment in carbonatites: constraints from the evolution of the Huanglongpu district, China.Lithos, Vol. 308-309, pp. 65-82.Chinacarbonatite

Abstract: The silico-carbonatite dykes of the Huanglongpu area, Lesser Qinling, China, are unusual in that they are quartz-bearing, Mo-mineralised and enriched in the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to typical carbonatites. The textures of REE minerals indicate crystallisation of monazite-(Ce), bastnäsite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and aeschynite-(Ce) as magmatic phases. Burbankite was also potentially an early crystallising phase. Monazite-(Ce) was subsequently altered to produce a second generation of apatite, which was in turn replaced and overgrown by britholite-(Ce), accompanied by the formation of allanite-(Ce). Bastnäsite and parisite where replaced by synchysite-(Ce) and röntgenite-(Ce). Aeschynite-(Ce) was altered to uranopyrochlore and then pyrochlore with uraninite inclusions. The mineralogical evolution reflects the evolution from magmatic carbonatite, to more silica-rich conditions during early hydrothermal processes, to fully hydrothermal conditions accompanied by the formation of sulphate minerals. Each alteration stage resulted in the preferential leaching of the LREE and enrichment in the HREE. Mass balance considerations indicate hydrothermal fluids must have contributed HREE to the mineralisation. The evolution of the fluorcarbonate mineral assemblage requires an increase in aCa2+ and aCO32- in the metasomatic fluid (where a is activity), and breakdown of HREE-enriched calcite may have been the HREE source. Leaching in the presence of strong, LREE-selective ligands (Cl-) may account for the depletion in late stage minerals in the LREE, but cannot account for subsequent preferential HREE addition. Fluid inclusion data indicate the presence of sulphate-rich brines during alteration, and hence sulphate complexation may have been important for preferential HREE transport. Alongside HREE-enriched magmatic sources, and enrichment during magmatic processes, late stage alteration with non-LREE-selective ligands may be critical in forming HREE-enriched carbonatites.
DS201909-2028
2019
Cangelosi, D.Cangelosi, D., Broom-Fendley, S., Banks, D., Morgan, D., Yardley, B.LREE redistribution during hydrothermal alteration at the Okorusu carbonatite complex, Namibia.Mineralogical Magazine, in press available 54p. PdfAfrica, Namibiacarbonatite - Okorusu

Abstract: The Cretaceous Okorusu carbonatite, Namibia, includes diopside-bearing and pegmatitic calcite carbonatites, both exhibiting hydrothermally altered mineral assemblages. In unaltered carbonatite, REE, Sr and Ba are largely hosted by calcite and fluorapatite. However, in hydrothermally altered carbonatites, small (< 50 µm) parisite-(Ce) grains are the dominant REE host, while Ba and Sr are hosted in baryte, celestine, strontianite and witherite. Hydrothermal calcite has a much lower trace element content than the original, magmatic calcite. Despite the low REE contents of the hydrothermal calcite, the REE patterns are similar to those of parisite-(Ce), and magmatic minerals and mafic rocks associated with the carbonatites. These similarities suggest that hydrothermal alteration remobilised REE from magmatic minerals, predominantly calcite, without significant fractionation or addition from an external source. Ba and Sr released during alteration were mainly reprecipitated as sulfates. The breakdown of magmatic pyrite into Fe-hydroxide is inferred to be the main source of sulfate. The behaviour of sulfur suggests that the hydrothermal fluid was somewhat oxidising and it may have been part of a geothermal circulation system. Late hydrothermal massive fluorite replaced the calcite carbonatites at Okorusu and resulted in extensive chemical change, suggesting continued magmatic contributions to the fluid system.
DS1987-0084
1987
Canil, D.Canil, D., Brearley, M., Scarfe, C.M.Petrology of ultramafic xenoliths from Rayfield River southcentral British ColumbiaCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 8, August pp. 1679-1687British ColumbiaMantle, Heat flow
DS1988-0105
1988
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scarfe, C.M., Ozawa, K.Phlogopite in mantle xenoliths from the Kostal Lake volcanic center Wells Gray Park, British ColumbiaV.m. Goldschmidt Conference, Program And Abstract Volume, Held May, p. 35 AbstractBritish ColumbiaAlkaline
DS1988-0106
1988
Canil, D.Canil, D., Virgo, D., Scarfe, C.M.Oxidation state of spinel lherzolite xenoliths from British Columbia: a57Fe Mossbauer investigationCarnegie Institute Annual Report of the Director of the Geophysical, No. 2102, issued Dec. 1988, pp. 18-22British ColumbiaSummit Lake, Rayfield River, West Kettle River
DS1989-0204
1989
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scarfe, C.M.Origin of phlogopite in mantle xenoliths from KostalLake, Wells GrayPark, British ColumbiaJournal of Petrology, Vol. 30, No. 5, October pp. 1159-1180British ColumbiaMantle, Xenoliths -mineral chemis
DS1989-0205
1989
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scarfe, C.M.Solidus for peridotite + CO2 to 12 GPa and implications for The origin of melilitites and kimberlitesGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Program Abstracts, Vol. 14, p. A93. (abstract.)GlobalExperimental petrology
DS1989-0206
1989
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scarfe, C.M.Partial melting in peridotite-CO2 systems at 5 to 9 GPaEos, Vol. 70, No. 15, April 11, p. 483. (abstract.)GlobalExperimental Petrology, Peridotite
DS1990-0267
1990
Canil, D.Canil, D.Experimental study bearing on the absence of carbonate in mantle derivedxenolithsGeology, Vol. 18, No. 10, October pp. 1011-1013GlobalExperimental petrology, Xenoliths
DS1990-0268
1990
Canil, D.Canil, D.An experimental study bearing on the absence of carbonate in mantle derivedxenolithsTerra, Abstracts of Experimental mineralogy, petrology and, Vol. 2, December abstracts p. 68GlobalKimberlite, Experimental petrology
DS1990-0269
1990
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scarfe, C.M.Phase relations in peridotite and CO2 systems to 12 GPa: implications For the origin of kimberlite abd carbonate stability in the earth's upper mantleJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B 10, September 10, pp. 15, 805-15, 816GlobalExperimental petrology, Kimberlite
DS1990-0270
1990
Canil, D.Canil, D., Virgo, D., Scarfe, C.M.Oxidation state of mantle xenoliths from British Columbia, CanadaContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 104, pp. 453-462British ColumbiaMantle xenoliths Boss Mountain, Rayfield River, Kostal Lake, West Kettle
DS1991-0212
1991
Canil, D.Canil, D.The origin of cratonic peridotite deduced from phase equilibriumexperimentsGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada/Society Economic, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A19GlobalExperimental petrology, Peridotite
DS1991-0213
1991
Canil, D.Canil, D.Experimental evidence for the exsolution of cratonic peridotite from high temperature harzburgiteEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 106, No. 1-4, September pp. 64-72GlobalPeridotite, Harzburgite
DS1991-0214
1991
Canil, D.Canil, D.Experimental evidence for the exsolution of cratonic peridotite from high-temperature harzburgiteEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 106, No. 1-4, September pp. 64-72MantleCraton, Experimental petrology, Harzburgite
DS1991-0215
1991
Canil, D.Canil, D.Experimental evidence for the exsolution origin of cratonic peridotiteProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 32-34South AfricaExperimental petrology, Geochemistry -peridotite xenoliths
DS1991-0216
1991
Canil, D.Canil, D., Wei, K.Experimental constraints on the origin of low Calcium garnets in diamonds and xenolithsGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A19GlobalPetrology -experimental, Garnets -diamonds, xenoliths
DS1991-1750
1991
Canil, D.Tronnes, R.G., Canil, D., Wei, K.Major element partitioning between mantle minerals and coexisting melts at1-26 GPA pressure, and implications for differentiation of the upper mantleGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada/Society Economic, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A125GlobalGeochemistry, Mantle
DS1992-0208
1992
Canil, D.Canil, D.Orthopyroxene stability above the peridotite solidus and the origin of cratonic peridotitesEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p.335South Africa, southern AfricaPeridotites, Craton
DS1992-0209
1992
Canil, D.Canil, D.Orthopyroxene stability along the peridotite solidus and the origin of cratonic lithosphere beneath southern AfricaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 111, No. 1, June pp. 83-96Southern AfricaCraton, Petrology, peridotite
DS1992-0210
1992
Canil, D.Canil, D., Hei, K.J.Constraints on the origin of mantle-derived low Calcium garnetsContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 109, No. 4, February pp. 421-430MantleGarnets -low calcium.
DS1992-0966
1992
Canil, D.Luth, R.W., Canil, D.Ferric iron in mantle derived pyroxenes and new oxybarometers for themantleEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p. 297British ColumbiaMantle, Xenoliths
DS1992-1571
1992
Canil, D.Tronnes, R.D., Canil, D., Wei, K.Element partioning between silicate minerals and coexisting melts at pressures of 1-27 GPa, and implications for mantle evolutionEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 111, No. 2-4, July pp. 241-256MantleModel, Silicate mineralogy
DS1993-0208
1993
Canil, D.Canil, D.Nickel partitioning between olivine and garnet: experimental determination and implications for geothermometryGeological Association of Canada (GAC), Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Annual Meeting, Abstract, Abstract Vol. p. A16MantleExperimental petrology
DS1993-0209
1993
Canil, D.Canil, D.Phase equilibration temperatures at high pressures applied to the earth's mantleMineralogical Association of Canada, Experiments at high pressure and, Short Course Volume 21, May 1993 pp. 197-246MantleKimberlites pp. 225-228, Thermobarometry
DS1993-0943
1993
Canil, D.Luth, R.W., Canil, D.Ferric iron in mantle-derived pyroxenes and a new oxybarometer for themantle.Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 113, pp. 236-248.MantleXenoliths, Geobarometry
DS1994-0252
1994
Canil, D.Canil, D.An experimental calibration of the nickel in garnet geothermometer withapplications.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 117, pp. 410-420.Colorado, Northwest Territories, Somerset IslandGeothermometry -nickel, Petrology -experimental
DS1994-0253
1994
Canil, D.Canil, D.An experimental calibration of the nickel in garnet gethermometer withapplications.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 117, No. 4, Sept. pp. 410-420.GlobalNickel thermometry, Geothermometry
DS1994-0254
1994
Canil, D.Canil, D.Stability of clinopyroxene at pressure-temperature conditions of the transition region.Physics Earth Plan. International, Vol. 86, pp. 25-34.MantleClinopyroxene, Petrology -experimental
DS1994-0255
1994
Canil, D.Canil, D.Distribution of ferric iron in some upper mantle assemblages. #1Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 26, No. 7, ABSTRACT only p. A38.MantleIgneous petrology
DS1994-0256
1994
Canil, D.Canil, D., O'Neill, H.S., Pearson, D.G., Rudnick, R.L.Ferric ion in peridotites and mantle oxidation statesEarth Planet. Sci. Letters, Vol. 123, No. 1-2, May pp. 205-220.MantlePeridotites
DS1995-1883
1995
Canil, D.Taylor, W.R., Canil, D., Milledge, H.J.Experimental determination of the kinetics of 1b and 1aA nitrogen aggregation with application to 1b-1aA.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 611-613.GlobalPetrology -experimental, Nitrogen aggregations, diamonds
DS1996-0225
1996
Canil, D.Canil, D., O'Neill, H. St. C.Distribution of ferric iron in some upper mantle assemblages. #2Journal of Petrology, Vol. 37, No. 3, June 1, pp. 609-637.MantleGeochemistry
DS1996-1411
1996
Canil, D.Taylor, W.R., Canil, D., Milledge, H.J.Kinetics of Ib to Ia nitrogen aggregation in diamondGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 60, No. 23, Dec. 1, pp. 4724-34.GlobalDiamond morphology, Nitrogen
DS1997-0711
1997
Canil, D.Mackenzie, J.M., Canil, D.Petrological aspects of the Barra do Itapirapua carbonatite, southernBrasil.Lithoprobe Slave/SNORCLE., pp. 223-4.Northwest TerritoriesMantle, Petrology
DS1998-0914
1998
Canil, D.Mackenzie, J.M., Canil, D.Upper mantle xenoliths from the Archean Slave Craton: composition and thermal evolution of a kimberlite ProvinceGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Abstract Volume, p. A114. abstract.Northwest TerritoriesThermobarometry, Xenoliths
DS1999-0106
1999
Canil, D.Canil, D.The nickel in garnet geothermometer: calibration at natural abundancesContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 136, No. 3, pp. 240-46.GlobalGeothermometry
DS1999-0107
1999
Canil, D.Canil, D.Vanadium partitioning between orthopyroxene, spinel and silicate melt and redox state of mantle source regions.Geochem. Cosmcohim. Acta, Vol. 63, No. 3-4, Feb. 1, pp. 557-71.MantleRedox, Magmas - primary
DS1999-0108
1999
Canil, D.Canil, D.The nickel in garnet geothermometer: calibration at trace abundancesGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)., Vol. 24, p. 19. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesPetrology - experimental, Xenoliths
DS1999-0109
1999
Canil, D.Canil, D., Fedortchouk, Y.Garnet dissolution and the emplacement of kimberlitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 167, No. 3-4, Apr. 15, pp. 227-38.GlobalKimberlites, Petrology - genesis
DS1999-0110
1999
Canil, D.Canil, D., Fedortchouk, Y.Crystal liquid equilibration temperatures for vanadium and applications to mantle melts andresidues.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)., Vol. 24, p. 19. abstractMantleGarnet lherzolites, Petrology - experimental
DS1999-0112
1999
Canil, D.Carbno, G.B., Canil, D.Mantle garnets from the Drybones Bay kimberlite and the on/off craton transition of the Slave Province.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)., Vol. 24, p. 19. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesGarnet peridotite, Petrology
DS1999-0433
1999
Canil, D.Mackenzie, J.M., Canil, D.Composition and thermal evolution of cratonic mantle beneath the central Archean Slave Province, northwest Territories.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 134, No. 4, pp. 313-324.Northwest TerritoriesCraton, Geothermometry
DS2000-0136
2000
Canil, D.Canil, D., Fedortchouk, Y.Clinopyroxenite liquid partitioning for vanadium and the oxygen fugacity during formation of cratonic mantleJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol.105, No.11, Nov.10, pp.26003-16.MantleLithosphere - mineral chemistry
DS2000-0289
2000
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D.Experimental study of corona growth on garnet - olivine interfaces and application to kimberlite borne xenolithGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 1p. abstractGlobalPetrology - experimental, kelphite, Magma history
DS2001-0157
2001
Canil, D.Canil, D., Fedortchuk, Y.Olivine liquid partitioning of vanadium and other trace elements, apllications to modern and ancient picritesCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 39, No. 2, Apr. pp. 319-30.MantleMelting, basalts - not specific to diamonds
DS2002-0247
2002
Canil, D.Canil, D.Vanadium in peridotites, mantle redox and tectonic environments: Archean to presentEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 195, No. 1-2, pp. 75-90.MantleTectonics, Geochronology - oxygen fuacity, partitioning
DS2002-0248
2002
Canil, D.Carbno, G.B., Canil, D.Mantle structure beneath the southwest Slave Craton: constraints from garnet geochemistry in Drybones Bay.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 129-42.Northwest TerritoriesKimberlite - geochemistry, Deposit - Drybones Bay
DS2002-0807
2002
Canil, D.Kaminsky, F.V., Sablukov, S.M., Sablukova, L.I., Shchukin, V.S., Canil, D.Kimberlites from the Wawa area, OntarioCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 39, 12, pp. 1819-38.OntarioPetrology, mineralogy, Deposit - Wawa
DS2003-0203
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D.Peridotites, garnets and trace elements: a telling trilogy about mantle lithosphere8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 6, AbstractMantleMantle petrology, Review
DS2003-0204
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Johnston, S.T., Evers, K., Shellnutt, J.G., Creaser, R.A.Mantle exhumation in an early Paleozoic passive margin, northern Cordillera, YukonJournal of Geology, Vol. 1111, pp. 313-327.YukonPeridotite, Mantle lithosphere
DS2003-0205
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Johnston, S.T., Evers, K., Shellnutt, J.G., Creaser, R.A.Mantle exhumation in an Early Paleozoic passive margin, northern Cordillera, YukonJournal of Geology, Vol. 111, 3, pp. 313-28.YukonTectonics
DS2003-0206
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Schulze, D.J., Hall, D., Hearne, B.J.Jr., Milliken, S.M.Lithospheric roots beneath western Laurentia: the geochemical signal in mantle garnetsCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, 8, Aug. pp. 1027-51.Wyoming, British ColumbiaTectonics,geochemistry, geochronology, Ni thermometry
DS2003-0207
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scully, K., Schulze, D.LJ.Some Diamondiferous mantle roots in North America as imaged by garnetGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyNorthwest TerritoriesGeochemistry
DS2003-0319
2003
Canil, D.Davis, W.J., Canil, D., MacKenzie, J.M., Carbno, G.B.Petrology and U Pb geochronology of lower crust xenoliths and the development of aLithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 541-573.Northwest Territories, NunavutGeochronology
DS2003-0399
2003
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D., Carlson, J.A.Oxygen fugacity of kimberlite magmas and their relationship to the characteristics of8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractNorthwest TerritoriesDiamonds - inclusions, Geochronology, morphology
DS200412-0263
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D.Peridotites, garnets and trace elements: a telling trilogy about mantle lithosphere.8 IKC Program, Session 6, AbstractMantleMantle petrology
DS200412-0264
2004
Canil, D.Canil, D.Mildly incompatible elements in peridotites and the origins of mantle lithosphere.Lithos, Vol. 77, 1-4, Sept. pp. 375-393.MantleAl, Cr, V.,Sc, Yb, melting, geochemistry
DS200412-0265
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Johnston, S.T., Evers, K., Shellnutt, J.G., Creaser, R.A.Mantle exhumation in an Early Paleozoic passive margin, northern Cordillera, Yukon.Journal of Geology, Vol. 111, 3, pp. 313-28.Canada, YukonTectonics
DS200412-0266
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Schulze, D.J., Hall, D., Hearne, B.J.Jr., Milliken, S.M.Lithospheric roots beneath western Laurentia: the geochemical signal in mantle garnets.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, 8, Aug. pp. 1027-51.United States, WyomingTectonics,geochemistry, geochronology, Ni thermometry
DS200412-0267
2003
Canil, D.Canil, D., Scully, K., Schulze, D.LJ.Some Diamondiferous mantle roots in North America as imaged by garnet geochemistry.Geological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry
DS200412-0419
2003
Canil, D.Davis, W.J., Canil, D., MacKenzie, J.M., Carbno, G.B.Petrology and U Pb geochronology of lower crust xenoliths and the development of a craton, Slave Province, Canada.Lithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 541-573.Canada, NunavutGeochronology
DS200412-0542
2004
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D.Intensive variables in kimberlite magmas, Lac de Gras, Canada and implications for diamond survival. Leslie, Aaron, Grizzly andJournal of Petrology, Vol. 45, 9, pp. 1725-1745.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesChromite, crystallization temperature, olivine, oxygen
DS200412-1766
2004
Canil, D.Schulze, D.J., Canil, D., Channer, D., Kaminsky, F.Meta-stable peridotitic diamonds from Guaniamo, Venezuela.Geological Association of Canada Abstract Volume, May 12-14, SS14-12 p. 271.abstractSouth America, VenezuelaDiamond genesis, orogen
DS200412-1779
2004
Canil, D.Sculley, K.R., Canil, D., Schulze, D.J.The lithospheric mantle of the Archean Superior Province as imaged by garnet xenocryst geochemistry.Chemical Geology, Vol. 207, 3-4, July 16, pp. 189-221.Canada, Ontario, Lake TemiskamingTrace elements, geochronology
DS200512-0282
2005
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D., Carlson, J.A.Dissolution forms in Lac de Gras diamonds and their relationship to the temperature and redox state of kimberlite magma.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 150, 1, pp. 54-69.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDiamond morphology
DS200512-0668
2005
Canil, D.MacKenzie, J.M., Canil, D., Johnston, S.T., English, J., Mihalynuk, M.G., Grant, B.First evidence for ultrahigh pressure garnet peridotite in the North American Cordillera.Geology, Vol. 33, 2, pp. 105-108.Canada, Yukon, British ColumbiaUHP, Mantle lithosphere
DS200612-0003
2005
Canil, D.Aeoluslee, C.T., Leeman, W.P., Canil, D., Li, Z.X.Similar V/Sc systematics in MORB and Arc basalts: implications for the oxygen fugacities of their mantle source regions.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 46, 11, pp. 2313-2336.MantlePetrology
DS200612-0217
2006
Canil, D.Canil, D., Johnston, S.T., Mihalynuk, M.Mantle redox in Cordilleran ophiolites as a record of oxygen fugacity during partial melting and the life time of mantle lithosphere.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 248, 1-2, Aug. 15, pp. 91-102.MantleRedox
DS200612-0218
2005
Canil, D.Canil, D., Mihalynuk, M., MacKenzie, J.M., Johnston, S.T., Grant, B.Diamond in the Atlin-Nakin a region, British Columbia: insights from heavy minerals in stream sediments.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 12, Dec. pp. 2161-2171.Canada, British Columbia, Yukon, United States, AlaskaGeochemistry
DS200612-0219
2005
Canil, D.Canil, D., Mihalynuk, M.G., Charnell, C.Heavy mineral sampling and provenance studies for potentially diamond bearing source rocks in the Jurassic Laberge Group, Atlin-Nakin a area.British Columbia Geological Survey, Summary of Fieldwork, 2004, pp. 83-92.Canada, British ColumbiaGeochemistry - indicator minerals
DS200612-1249
2005
Canil, D.Schulze, D.J., Canil, D., Channer, D.M.DeR., Kaminsky, F.V.Layered mantle structure beneath the western Guyana Shield, Venezuela: evidence from diamonds and xenocrysts in Guaniamo kimberlites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In press 14p.South America, VenezuelaMineral chemistry, garnet
DS200712-0067
2007
Canil, D.Bellis, A., Canil, D.Ferric iron in Ca Ti Os perovskite as an oxygen barometer for kimberlitic magmas I. experimental calibration.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 48, 2, Feb., pp. 219-230.TechnologyKimberlite magmatism
DS200712-0142
2007
Canil, D.Canil, D., Bellis, A.J.Ferric iron in Ca Ti Os perovskite as an oxygen barometer for kimberlitic magmas II. applications.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 48, 2, Feb., pp. 231-252.TechnologyKimberlite magmatism
DS200712-0308
2006
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D.What determines the morphology of a resorbed diamond?Gems & Gemology, 4th International Symposium abstracts, Fall 2006, p.146. abstract onlyTechnologyDiamond morphology
DS200712-0309
2007
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D., Sements, E.Mechanisms of diamond oxidation and their bearing on the fluid composition in kimberlite magmas.American Mineralogist, Vol. 92, 7, pp. 1200-1212.MantleMagmatism - diamond genesis
DS200812-0099
2007
Canil, D.Bellis, A., Canil, D.Ferric iron in CaTiO perovskite as an oxygen barometer for kimberlite magmas. 1. experimental calibration.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 48, pp. 219-230.TechnologyBarometer
DS200812-0177
2008
Canil, D.Canil, D.Canada's craton: a bottoms-up view.GSA Today, June pp. 4-10.CanadaCraton, overview
DS200812-0178
2008
Canil, D.Canil, D.Cratons and continents: a view from below.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A134.CanadaCraton
DS200812-0179
2008
Canil, D.Canil, D., Bellis, A.J.Phase equilibration temperatures in a volatile free kimberlite at 0.1 MPa and the search for primary kimberlite magma.Lithos, Vol. 105, pp. 111-117.TechnologyKimberlite - phase equilibria, magma
DS200812-0342
2008
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, T., Canil, D.Resorbed diamond surfaces: a tool to investigate oxidizing fluids.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A260.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS200812-1233
2008
Canil, D.Wan, Z., Coogan, L.A., Canil, D.Experimental calibration of aluminum partitioning between olivine and spinel as a geothermometer.American Mineralogist, Vol. 93, pp. 1142-1147.TechnologyThermometry
DS200912-0097
2009
Canil, D.Canil, D.Were deep cratonic mantle roots hydrated in Archean oceans?GAC/MAC/AGU Meeting held May 23-27 Toronto, Abstract onlyMantlePeridotite and Si enrichment
DS200912-0098
2009
Canil, D.Canil, D., Lee, C-T.A.Were deep cratonic mantle roots hydrated in Archean oceans?Geology, Vol. 17, 7, July pp. 667-670.MantlePeridotite
DS200912-0215
2009
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D.Diamond oxidation at atmospheric pressure; development of surface features and the effect of oxygen fugacity.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 21, 3, June pp. 623-635.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS200912-0216
2009
Canil, D.Fedortchouk, Y., Canil, D.Diamond oxidation at atmospheric pressure: development of surface features and the effect of oxygen fugacity.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 21, 3, pp. 623-635.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS201212-0399
2012
Canil, D.Le Pioffle, A., Canil, D.Iron in monticellite as an oxygen barometer for kimberlite magmas.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 163, 6, pp. 1033-1046. 1047 erratumTechnologyGeobarometry
DS201905-1019
2019
Canil, D.Canil, D., Grundy, R., Johnston, S.T.Thermal history of the Donjek harzburgite massif in ophiolite from Yukon, Canada with implications for the cooling of oceanic mantle lithosphere.Lithos, Vol. 328-329, pp. 33-42.Canada, Yukongeothermometry

Abstract: We examine the partial melting and the cooling history of a ~5?km section of mantle lithosphere preserved in the Donjek massif, part of a Permian ophiolite in the northern Cordillera of Yukon, Canada. The mantle rocks are depleted spinel harzburgite containing <3% clinopyroxene displaying steep rare-earth element (REE) chondrite-normalized profiles and low (Gd/Yb)n (0.02 to 0.07) compared to most other ophiolites. The REE patterns of clinopyroxene can be modeled as 16-20% partial melts of typical depleted mid-ocean ridge (MOR) mantle. The REE exchange between coexisting ortho- and clinopyroxene preserves temperatures (TREE) of 1150-1360?°C, some of the highest values recorded in ophiolites and abyssal peridotites, and show a positive correlation with CaMg exchange (solvus) temperatures (TBKN) of 900-970?°C. The harzburgite represents lithosphere formed at an initial melting temperature of ~ 1350?°C that cooled at rate of 10-1 to 10-4?°C/year as deduced by TREE values with cation diffusion and grain size data. The TREE temperatures and cooling rates for the Donjek massif show a regular systematic variation with depth from the crust-mantle transition along a trend similar to the Samail ophiolite of Oman, consistent with conductive heat transfer beneath a cool lower crust. High near-solidus temperatures and the cooling rates in the massif were a consequence of rapid obduction against oceanic crust along either a transform or low angle detachment soon after melt extraction. Final emplacement of the ophiolite as klippen on underlying continental crust occurred ~ 40?m.y. later.
DS202002-0179
2020
Canil, D.D'Souza, R.J., Canil, D., Coogan, L.A.Geobarometry for spinel peridotites using Ca and Al in olivine.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 12 pdfMantleperidotites

Abstract: Experiments were performed from 950 to 1250 °C and 1.5-2.4 GPa to determine the effect of pressure (P) on the temperature (T)-dependent partitioning of Al between olivine and spinel, using mixtures of natural spinel, olivine, clino- and ortho-pyroxene. When compared to 100 kPa experiments, the results show that there is no discernible effect of pressure on the Al-in-olivine thermometer at PT conditions relevant to the spinel peridotite facies. In our experiments with high-Cr spinel, we see no change in Al in olivine from starting values, likely due to the refractory nature of high-Cr spinel. Phase boundary flourescence prevented accurate quantification of Ca in olivine in the run products by electron microprobe analysis but measurements by laser ablation are consistent with the Köhler and Brey (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2375-2388, 1990) Ca-in-olivine thermobarometer. The combination of Al (for T) and Ca (for P) in olivine thus has great potential for thermobarometry in spinel facies peridotites. As a test we apply this approach to published high precision Ca and Al data for olivine from the Ray Pic spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Massif Central (De Hoog et al. Chem Geol 270:196-215, 2010). Reassuringly, the calculated PT conditions (1.0-1.8 GPa; 900-1080 °C) for all samples lie beneath the Moho, within the spinel peridotite facies and fall along a geophysically constrained geotherm.
DS200812-0180
2008
Canmarano, F.Canmarano, F., Romanowicz, B.Radial profiles of seismic attenuation in the upper mantle based on physical models.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 175, 1, pp. 116-134.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0196
2010
Cann, B.J.Felton, S., Cann, B.J., Edmonds, A.M., Liggins, S., Cruddace, R.J., Newton, M.E., Fisher, D., Baker, J.M.Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of nitrogen interstital defects in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, 36, pp. 364212-219.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS201012-0355
2010
Cann, B.L.Khan, R.U.A., Martineau, P.M., Cann, B.L., Newton, M.E., Dhillon, H.K., Twitchen, D.J.Color alterations in CVD synthetic diamond with heat and UV exposure: implications for color grading and identification.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 46, 1, Spring pp. 18-27.TechnologyCVD synthetics
DS200812-0181
2008
Cann, C.Cann, C.The sparkling history of Botswana.Mining.com, September issue pp. 38-39.Africa, BotswanaHistory - brief
DS1994-0671
1994
Cann, J.Gubbins, D., Barnicoat, A., Cann, J.Seismological constraints on the gabbro-eclogite transition in subducted eclogite crust.Earth and Planet. Science Letters, Vol. 122, No. 1/2, March pp. 89-102.MantleEclogite, Subduction
DS2001-1055
2001
CannalSeyler, M., Toplis, M.J., Lorand, JP, Luquet, CannalClinopyroxene microtextures reveal incompletely extracted melts in abyssalperidotites.Geology, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb. pp. 155-8.MantlePeridotites
DS202007-1127
2020
Cannao, E.Cannao, E., Tiepolo, M., Bebout, G.E., Scambelluri, M.Into the deep and beyond: carbon and nitrogen subduction recycling in secondary peridotites. Gagnone metaperidotitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 543, 116328 14p. PdfEurope, Switzerland, Alpsboron diamonds

Abstract: Understanding the volatile cycles at convergent margins is fundamental to unravel the Earth's evolution from primordial time to present. The assessment of fluid-mobile and incompatible element uptake in serpentinites via interaction with seawater and subduction-zone fluids is central to evaluate the global cycling of the above elements in the Earth's mantle. Here, we focus on the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and C isotope compositions of chlorite harzburgites and garnet peridotites deriving from subduction-zone dehydration of former oceanic dehydration of serpentinite - i.e., metaperidotites (Cima di Gagnone, Swiss Central Alps) with the aim of evaluating the contribution of these rocks to the global C-N cycling. These ultramafic rocks, enclosed as lenses in a metasedimentary mélange, represent the destabilization of antigorite and chlorite at high-pressure/temperature (P/T) along a slab-mantle interface. Chlorite- and garnet-bearing rocks have similar ranges in C concentration ([C] = 210 - 2465 ppm and 304 - 659 ppm, respectively), with one magnesite-bearing chlorite harzburgite hosting 11000 ppm C. The average N concentrations ([N]) of the garnet peridotites (54 ± 15 ppm, one standard deviation indicated) are higher than those of the chlorite harzburgites (29 ± 6 ppm). The C of total C (TC) and total organic C (TOC) values of the Gagnone metaperidotites range from -12.2 to -17.8‰ and from -27.8 to -26.8‰, respectively, excluding the magnesite-bearing chlorite harzburgites with higher values of -7.2‰ (TC) and -21.2‰ (TOC). The [C] of these rocks are comparable to those of serpentinites form modern and ancient oceanic environments and with [C] of high-P serpentinites. However, the lack of preserved serpentinite precursors makes it difficult to determine whether release of H2O during high-P breakdown of antigorite and chlorite is coupled with significant C release to fluids. The C values appear to reflect mixing between seawater-derived carbonate and a reduced C source and a contribution from the host metasedimentary rocks ([C] = 301 ppm; [N] = 33 ppm; TC C = -24.4‰; TOC C = -27.0‰) cannot be completely excluded. The C-O isotope composition of the carbonate in magnesite-bearing chlorite harzburgites is compatible with progressive devolatilization at oxidized conditions, whereas the signatures of the majority of the other Gagnone samples appear to reflect different degree of interaction with sedimentary fluids. The [N] of the Gagnone metaperidotites are higher than those of oceanic and subducted serpentinites and show a range similar to that of high-P antigorite-serpentinites from mantle wedges. This enrichment is compatible with fluid-mediated chemical exchange with the surrounding metasedimentary rocks leading to strong modification of the Gagnone metaperidotites' geochemistry during prograde subduction along the slab-mantle interface. Comparing the C data reported in this study with published C values for diamonds, we suggest that the volatile recycling via Gagnone-like metaperidotites in subduction zones could contribute to deep-Earth diamond genesis and in particular to the formation of blue boron (B)-bearing diamonds. Our results highlight that the subduction of secondary peridotites evolved along the slab-mantle interface is a viable mechanism to inject volatiles into the deep mantle, particularly in hotter geothermal regimes such as the ones active during the early Earth's history.
DS202009-1615
2020
Cannao, E.Cannao, E., Scambelluri, M., Bebout, G.E., Agostini, S., Pettke, T., Godard, M., Crispini, L.Ophicarbonate evolution from seafloor to subduction and implications for deep-Earth C cycling.Chemical Geology, Vol. 546, 119626 29p. PdfMantlecarbon, subduction

Abstract: The chemical and physical processes operating during subduction-zone metamorphism can profoundly influence the cycling of elements on Earth. Deep-Earth carbon (C) cycling and mobility in subduction zones has been of particular recent interest to the scientific community. Here, we present textural and geochemical data (CO, Sr isotopes and bulk and in-situ trace element concentrations) for a suite of ophicarbonate rocks (carbonate-bearing serpentinites) metamorphosed over a range of peak pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions together representing a prograde subduction zone P-T path. These rocks, in order of increasing peak P-T conditions, are the Internal Liguride ophicarbonates (from the Bracco unit, N. Apennines), pumpellyite- and blueschist-facies ophicarbonates from the Sestri-Voltaggio zone (W. Ligurian Alps) and the Queyras (W. Alps), respectively, and eclogite-facies ophicarbonates from the Voltri Massif. The Bracco oceanic ophicarbonates retain breccia-like textures associated with their seafloor hydrothermal and sedimentary origins. Their trace element concentrations and d18OVSMOW (+15.6 to +18.2‰), d13CVPDB (+1.1 to +2.5‰) and their 87Sr/86Sr (0.7058 to 0.7068), appear to reflect equilibration during Jurassic seawater-rock interactions. Intense shear deformation characterizes the more deeply subducted ophicarbonates, in which prominent calcite recrystallization and carbonation of serpentinite clasts occurred. The isotopic compositions of the pumpellyite-facies ophicarbonates overlap those of their oceanic equivalents whereas the most deformed blueschist-facies sample shows enrichments in radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr?=?0.7075) and depletion in 13C (with d13C as low as -2.0‰). These differing textural and geochemical features for the two suites reflect interaction with fluids in closed and open systems, respectively. The higher-P-metamorphosed ophicarbonates show strong shear textures, with coexisting antigorite and dolomite, carbonate veins crosscutting prograde antigorite foliation and, in some cases, relics of magnesite-nodules enclosed in the foliation. These rocks are characterized by lower d18O (+10.3 to 13.0‰), enrichment in radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr up to 0.7096) and enrichment in incompatible and fluid-mobile element (FME; e.g., As, Sb, Pb). These data seemingly reflect interaction with externally-derived metamorphic fluids and the infiltrating fluids likely were derived from dehydrating serpentinites with hybrid serpentinite-sediment compositions. The interaction between these two lithologies could have occurred prior to or after dehydration of the serpentinites elsewhere. We suggest that decarbonation and dissolution/precipitation processes operating in ancient subduction zones, and resulting in the mobilization of C, are best traced by a combination of detailed field and petrographic observations, C, O and Sr isotope systematics (i.e., 3D isotopes), and FME inventories. Demonstration of such processes is key to advancing our understanding of the influence of subduction zone metamorphism on the mobilization of C in subducting reservoirs and the efficiency of delivery of this C to depths beneath volcanic arcs and into the deeper mantle.
DS200612-1314
2006
CannatSingh, S.C., Crawford, W.C., Carton, Seher, Combier, Cannat, Canales, Dusunur, Escartin, MirandaDiscovery of a magma chamber and faults beneath a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal field.Nature, Vol. 442 Aug. 31, pp. 1029-1031.MantleTectonics
DS2002-1196
2002
Cannat, M.Oufi, O., Cannat, M., Horen, H.Magnetic properties of variably serpentinized abyssal peridotitesJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol.107,5, May 21, 10.1029/2001JB000549MantlePeridotites, Geophysics - magnetics
DS200812-0121
2008
Cannatelli, C.Bodnar, R.J., Azbej, T., Becker, S., Cannatelli, C., Fall, A., Hole, J., Severs, M.The whole Earth geohydrologic cycle.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A91.MantleWater
DS1995-1370
1995
CannilloOberti, R., Hawthorne, F.C., Ungaretti, CannilloAluminum disorder in amphiboles from mantle peridotitesCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 33, No. 4, August pp. 867-878.MantlePeridotites
DS1996-0226
1996
Canning, J.C.Canning, J.C., Morrison, M.A., Gaskarth, J.W.Geochemistry of late Caledonian minettes from northern Britain:implications for sub-continental lith. mantleMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb. 1, pp. 221-?ScotlandMinettes, Mantle lithosphere
DS201906-1327
2019
Cannon, J.Muller, R.D., Zahirovic, S., Williams, S.E., Cannon, J., Seton, M., Bower, D.J., Tetley, M., Heine, C., Le Breton, E., Liu, S., Russell, S.H.J., Yang, T., Leonard, J., Gurnis, M.A global plate model including lithospheric deformation along major rifts and orogens since the Triassic.Tectonics, May 5, 36p. Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Global deep-time plate motion models have traditionally followed a classical rigid plate approach, even though plate deformation is known to be significant. Here we present a global Mesozoic-Cenozoic deforming plate motion model that captures the progressive extension of all continental margins since the initiation of rifting within Pangea at ~240 Ma. The model also includes major failed continental rifts and compressional deformation along collision zones. The outlines and timing of regional deformation episodes are reconstructed from a wealth of published regional tectonic models and associated geological and geophysical data. We reconstruct absolute plate motions in a mantle reference frame with a joint global inversion using hotspot tracks for the last 80 million years and minimizing global trench migration velocities and net lithospheric rotation. In our optimized model net rotation is consistently below 0.2°/Myr, and trench migration scatter is substantially reduced. Distributed plate deformation reaches a Mesozoic peak of 30 million km2 in the Late Jurassic (~160-155 Ma), driven by a vast network of rift systems. After a mid-Cretaceous drop in deformation it reaches a high of 48 million km2 in the Late Eocene (~35 Ma), driven by the progressive growth of plate collisions and the formation of new rift systems. About a third of the continental crustal area has been deformed since 240 Ma, partitioned roughly into 65% extension and 35% compression. This community plate model provides a framework for building detailed regional deforming plate networks and form a constraint for models of basin evolution and the plate-mantle system.
DS201907-1562
2019
Cannon, J.Muller, D., Zahirovic, S., Williams, S.E., Cannon, J., Seton, M., Bower, D.J., Tetley, M., Heine, C., Le Breton, E., Liu, S., Russell, S.H.J., Yang, T., Leonard, J., Gurnis, M.A global plate model including lithospheric deformation along major rifts and orogens since the Triassic.Tectonics, in press available, 37p.Africa, globalplate tectonics, rotation

Abstract: Global deep-time plate motion models have traditionally followed a classical rigid plate approach, even though plate deformation is known to be significant. Here we present a global Mesozoic-Cenozoic deforming plate motion model that captures the progressive extension of all continental margins since the initiation of rifting within Pangea at ~240 Ma. The model also includes major failed continental rifts and compressional deformation along collision zones. The outlines and timing of regional deformation episodes are reconstructed from a wealth of published regional tectonic models and associated geological and geophysical data. We reconstruct absolute plate motions in a mantle reference frame with a joint global inversion using hot spot tracks for the last 80 million years and minimizing global trench migration velocities and net lithospheric rotation. In our optimized model, net rotation is consistently below 0.2°/Myr, and trench migration scatter is substantially reduced. Distributed plate deformation reaches a Mesozoic peak of 30 × 106 km2 in the Late Jurassic (~160-155 Ma), driven by a vast network of rift systems. After a mid-Cretaceous drop in deformation, it reaches a high of 48 x 106 km2 in the Late Eocene (~35 Ma), driven by the progressive growth of plate collisions and the formation of new rift systems. About a third of the continental crustal area has been deformed since 240 Ma, partitioned roughly into 65% extension and 35% compression. This community plate model provides a framework for building detailed regional deforming plate networks and form a constraint for models of basin evolution and the plate-mantle system.
DS201412-0097
2014
Cannon, J.M.Cannon, J.M.Plume-plate interaction.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 51, 3, pp. 208-221.MantleHotspots
DS200912-0414
2009
Cannon, M.Kravchinsky, V.A., Eccles, D.R., Zhang, R., Cannon, M.Paleomagnetic dating of the northern Alberta kimberlites. K5, K6Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, pp. 231-245.Canada, AlbertaDeposit - Buffalo Head Hills - geochronology
DS1975-0475
1977
Cannon, M.C.Cannon, M.C.Diamonds Discovered Along the Colorado-Wyoming BorderLapidary Journal, Vol. 31, No. 5, PP. 1220-1224.United States, Colorado, Wyoming, State Line, Rocky MountainsBlank
DS1987-0085
1987
Cannon, W.Cannon, W., Behrendt, J., et al.Mega half graben of the mid-continent rift zoneEos, Vol. 68, No. 44, November 3, p. 1356. abstract onlyGlobalBlank
DS1975-1101
1979
Cannon, W.F.Klasner, J.S., Cannon, W.F., Van schmus, W.R.Lineaments in the Pre Keweenawan Crust and Formation of The keweenawan Rift.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 11, No. 5, P. 233. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1981-0109
1981
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Mudrey, M.G.JR.The Potential for Diamond Bearing Kimberlite in Northern Michigan and Wisconsin.United States Geological Survey (USGS) Circular, No. 842, 15P.United States, Michigan, Wisconsin, Great LakesHistory, Geology, Lake Ellen, Geomorphology, Tectonics, Geophysics
DS1981-0239
1981
Cannon, W.F.King, E.R., Klasner, J.S., Zietz, E., Cannon, W.F.Magnetic Dat a on the Precambrian Basement Rocks of Eastern North Dakota and Their Regional Implications.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 13, No. 7, P. 487. (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0129
1982
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Fenichel, A.E.Aeromagnetic map of the eastern part of the Northern Peninsula ofMichiganUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Map, No. GP 947, 1: 250, 000MichiganGeophysics, Usa
DS1982-0130
1982
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Klasner, J.S., King, E.R.Geology of Buried Precambrian Rocks in the Northern Midcontinent Inferred from Geophysical Data.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 14, No. 7, P. 458, (abstract.).GlobalMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1982-0336
1982
Cannon, W.F.Klasner, J.S., Cannon, W.F., Van schmus, W.R.The Pre Keweenawan Tectonic History of Southern Canadian Shield and its Influence on Formation of the Midcontinent Rift.Geological Society of America (GSA) MEMOIR., No. 156, PP. 27-46.GlobalMid-continent
DS1982-0447
1982
Cannon, W.F.Morey, G.B., Sims, P.K., Cannon, W.F., Mudrey, M.G. JR., Southwick, D.L.Geologic map of the Lake Superior region Minnesota, Wisconsin and NorthernMichiganMinnesota Geological Survey, map No. S-13.1: 1 millionMinnesotaMap
DS1987-0042
1987
Cannon, W.F.Behrendt, J.C., Green, A., Cannon, W.F.Crustal attentuation and associated basalt flow extrusion in the Keweenawanrift, Lake Superior from deep seismic reflectionprofilesGeological Society of America, Vol. 19, No. 7 annual meeting abstracts, p. 585. abstraGlobalTectonics
DS1988-0048
1988
Cannon, W.F.Behrendt, J.C., Green, A.G., Cannon, W.F., Hutchinson, D.R., LeeCrustal structure of the Midcontinent rift system: results from GLIMPCE deep seismic reflection profilesGeology, Vol. 16, No. 1, January pp. 81-85GlobalTectonics, GLIMPCE.
DS1989-0207
1989
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Green, A.G., Hutchinson, D.R., Myung Lee, MilkereitThe North American Midcontinent rift beneath Lake superior from GLIMPCE seismic reflection profilingTectonics, Vol. 8, No. 2, April pp. 305-332MidcontinentGeophysics, Glimpce
DS1989-0208
1989
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Nicholson, S.W., Green, A.Tectonic and magmatic development of the Midcontinentrift: a synthesis of new seismic ,chemical and isotopic dataUnited Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Circular 1035, Fifth Annual V.E. McKelvey Forum, held Reno, pp. 7-8. Abstract onlyMidcontinent, Kansas, Michigan, Lake Superior regionTectonics, rift model
DS1989-0209
1989
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J., Hinze, W.J., Green, A.G.Precambrian terranes beneath northern Lake Michigan defined by seismic and gravity analysis35th. Annual Institute On Lake Superior Geology, Proceedings And, pp. 14-15MichiganMidcontinent, Seismics, Geophysics, Tect
DS1989-0643
1989
Cannon, W.F.Hinze, W.J., McGinnis, L.D., Cannon, W.F., Milkereit, B., SextonStructure of the midcontinent rift system in E Lake Superior; preliminary35th. Annual Institute On Lake Superior Geology, Proceedings And, pp. 24MidcontinentGeophysics, Tectonics
DS1989-0672
1989
Cannon, W.F.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Schulz, K.J., Cannon, W.F.Keweenaw hot spot: a Proterozoic mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent rift System of North AmericaEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1357. AbstractMidcontinentTectonics
DS1990-0271
1990
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Phillips, J.D., Green, A.G., Morel-a l'Hussier, P.Great Lakes segment of the Canada -U.S. border transectGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A191GlobalGeochronology, Crust
DS1990-0731
1990
Cannon, W.F.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Keweenaw hot spot; geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift systemJournal of Geophysical Research, Pt. B., Vol. 95, No. 7, July 10, pp. 10, 869-10, 884MidcontinentGeophysics
DS1990-0732
1990
Cannon, W.F.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Keweenaw hot spot: geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift systemJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B7, July 10, pp. 10, 869-10, 885Ontario, MidcontinentGeophysics, Midcontinent
DS1991-0217
1991
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Lee, M.Y.W., Hinze, W.J., Schulz, K.J., Green, A.G.Deep crustal structure of the Precambrian basement beneath northern LakeMichigan, midcontinent North AmericaGeology, Vol. 19, No. 3, March pp. 207-210MichiganTectonics, Structure -crustal
DS1991-0757
1991
Cannon, W.F.Hutchinson, D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Keweenaw hot spot - an inferred middle Proterozoic mantle plume beneath North AmericaGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada/Society Economic, Vol. 16, Abstract program p. A58MidcontinentHot spot, Tectonics
DS1992-0211
1992
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F.Revisions of stratigraphic nomenclature within the Keweenawan Supergroup of northern MichiganUnited States Geological Survey (USGS), Bulletin. No. 1970-A, 8pMichiganStratigraphy
DS1992-0212
1992
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F.Process rates during Midcontinent rifting: clues to the origin of The midcontinent rift systemInstitute on Lake Superior Geology, 38th. annual meeting held Hurley, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 17-19MichiganStructure, Midcontinent rift
DS1992-0213
1992
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F.The Midcontinent rift in the Lake Superior region with emphasis on its geodynamic evolutionTectonophysics, Vol. 213, No. 1-2, special issue, pp. 41-48MidcontinentGeodynamics, Tectonics
DS1992-0214
1992
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Hinze, W.J.Speculations on the origin of the North American Midcontinent RiftTectonophysics, Vol. 213, No. 1-2, special issue, pp. 49-55MidcontinentGeodynamics, Tectonics
DS1992-0215
1992
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Nicholson, S.W.Contributions to the geology and mineral resources of the Midcontinent riftsystemUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin, No. 1970 A-B, 65p. $ 5.00MidcontinentGeology, Resources
DS1992-0744
1992
Cannon, W.F.Hutchinson, D.R., Lee, M.W., Behrendt, J., Cannon, W.F., GreenVariations in the reflectivity of the Moho transition zone beneath The midcontinent Rift System of North America. Results from true amplitude GlimpcedataJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B4, April 10, pp. 4721-4738MidcontinentGeophysics -seismics, Tectonics
DS1992-1124
1992
Cannon, W.F.Nicholson, S.W., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Metallogeny of the Midcontinent rift system of North AmericaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 58, pp. 355-386MidcontinentCopper, sulphides, Nickel, platinum group elements (PGE)
DS1992-1125
1992
Cannon, W.F.Nicholson, S.W., Cannon, W.F., Schulz, K.J.Metallogeny of the Midcontinent Rift system of North AmericaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 58, pp. 355-386.MidcontinentMetallogeny - mineral deposits, Overview -no mention of diamonds - general copper, nickel, platinum group elements (PGE)
DS1993-0210
1993
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Peterman, Z.E., Sims, P.K.Crustal scale thrusting and origin of the Montreal River monocline- a 35 KM thick cross section of the Midcontinent RiftTectonics, Vol. 12, No. 3, June pp. 728-744Wisconsin, MichiganTectonics, Structure
DS1994-0257
1994
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F.Closing of the Midcontinent rift - a far field effect of Grenvilliancompression.Geology, Vol. 22, No. 2, February pp. 155-158.Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, IndianaTectonics, Rift -Midcontinent
DS1994-0258
1994
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F.Closing of the Midcontinent rift - a far field effect of GrenviliancompressionGeology, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feberuary pp. 155-158Michigan, WisconsinTectonics, Midcontinent rift
DS1995-0262
1995
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F.Summary of GLIMPCE geophysical investigations of the Midcontinent Rift system in the Lake Superior Region.Basement Tectonics 10, held Minnesota Aug 92, pp. 7-11.MidcontinentTectonics, GLIMPCE.
DS1997-0159
1997
Cannon, W.F.Cannon, W.F., Daniels, D.L., Snyder, S.L.New aeromagnetic map of the Midcontinent rift in northwestern Wisconsin and adjacent Minnesota.Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 29, No. 4, Apr. p. 9.Wisconsin, MinnesotaGeophysics - aeromagnetics, Tectonics
DS1997-1291
1997
Cannon, W.F.Zartman, R.E., Nicholson, S.W., Cannon, W.F., Morey, G.B.Uranium-thorium-lead-zircon ages of some Keweenawan Supergroup rocks from the south shore of Lake SuperiorCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 4, April, pp. 549-561Michigan, WisconsinGeochronology
DS202010-1839
2020
Cannon, W.F.Drenth, N.J., Souders, A.K., Schulz, K.J., Feinberg, J.M., Anderson, R.R., Chandler, V.W., Cannon, W.F., Clark, R.J.Evidence for a concealed Midcontinent Rift related northeast Iowa intrusive complex.Precambrian Research, Vol. 347, 105845, 23p. PdfUnited States, Iowageochronology, geophysics - gravity

Abstract: Large amplitude aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies over a ~9500 km2 area of northeast Iowa and southeast Minnesota have been interpreted to reflect the northeast Iowa intrusive complex (NEIIC), a buried intrusive igneous complex composed of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the Yavapai Province (1.8-1.7 Ga). Hundreds of meters of Paleozoic sedimentary cover and a paucity of basement drilling have prevented detailed studies of the NEIIC. Long considered, but not proven, to be related to the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), the NEIIC is comparable in areal extent to the richly mineralized Duluth Complex and is similarly located near the margin of the MRS. New geochronological and geophysical data together support an MRS affinity for the NEIIC. A dike swarm imaged in aeromagnetic data is cut by intrusions of the NEIIC, and a new apatite U-Pb date of ~1170 Ma on one of the dikes thus represents a maximum age for the NEIIC. A minimum age constraint is suggested by (1) large-volume magmatism associated with the MRS that was the last such event to affect the region; and (2) the presence of reversely magnetized dikes, similar in character to MRS-related dikes elsewhere, that cut several intrusions of the NEIIC. The NEIIC is largely characterized by the presence of multiple zoned intrusions, many of which contain large volumes of mafic-ultramafic rocks and have strong geophysical similarities to alkaline intrusive complexes elsewhere, including the MRS-related Coldwell Complex of Ontario. The largest of the zoned intrusions are ~40 km in diameter and are interpreted to have thicknesses of many kilometers. Suspected faults, alignments of intrusions, and intrusive margins tend to be aligned along northwest and northeast trends that match the trends of the Belle Plaine fault zone and Fayette structural zone, both previously interpreted as pre-MRS, possibly lithospheric-scale discontinuities that may have controlled NEIIC emplacement. These interpretations collectively imply notable potential for the NEIIC to host several different types of undiscovered base metal and critical mineral deposits.
DS202008-1385
2020
Cannon, W.L.Drenth, B.J., Souders, A.K., Schulz, K.J., Feinberg, J.M., Anderson, R.R., Chandler, V.W., Cannon, W.L., Clark, R.J.Evidence for a concealed Midcontinent Rift related northeast Iowa intrusive complex.Precambrian Research, in press available, 43p. PdfUnited States, Iowageophysics - seismics

Abstract: Large amplitude aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies over a ~9500 km2 area of northeast Iowa and southeast Minnesota have been interpreted to reflect the northeast Iowa intrusive complex (NEIIC), a buried intrusive igneous complex composed of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the Yavapai Province (1.8-1.7 Ga). Hundreds of meters of Paleozoic sedimentary cover and a paucity of basement drilling have prevented detailed studies of the NEIIC. Long considered, but not proven, to be related to the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), the NEIIC is comparable in areal extent to the richly mineralized Duluth Complex and is similarly located near the margin of the MRS. New geochronological and geophysical data together support an MRS affinity for the NEIIC. A dike swarm imaged in aeromagnetic data is cut by intrusions of the NEIIC, and a new apatite U-Pb date of ~1170 Ma on one of the dikes thus represents a maximum age for the NEIIC. A minimum age constraint is suggested by (1) large-volume magmatism associated with the MRS that was the last such event to affect the region; and (2) the presence of reversely magnetized dikes, similar in character to MRS-related dikes elsewhere, that cut several intrusions of the NEIIC. The NEIIC is largely characterized by the presence of multiple zoned intrusions, many of which contain large volumes of mafic-ultramafic rocks and have strong geophysical similarities to alkaline intrusive complexes elsewhere, including the MRS-related Coldwell Complex of Ontario. The largest of the zoned intrusions are ~40 km in diameter and are interpreted to have thicknesses of many kilometers. Suspected faults, alignments of intrusions, and intrusive margins tend to be aligned along northwest and northeast trends that match the trends of the Belle Plaine fault zone and Fayette structural zone, both previously interpreted as pre-MRS, possibly lithospheric-scale discontinuities that may have controlled NEIIC emplacement. These interpretations collectively imply notable potential for the NEIIC to host several different types of undiscovered base metal and critical mineral deposits.
DS202003-0333
2020
Cano, E.Burness, S., Smart, K.A., Tappe, S., Stevens, G., Woodland, A.B., Cano, E.Sulphur rich mantle metasomatism of Kaapvaal craton eclogites and its role in redox controlled platinum group element mobility. Xenoliths from Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley ( Kamfersdam), PremierChemical Geology, in press available 57p.Africa, South Africametasomatism

Abstract: Eclogite mantle xenoliths from various kimberlite occurrences on the Kaapvaal craton show evidence for depth- and redox-dependent metasomatic events that led to variable base metal sulphide and incompatible element enrichments. Eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley (Kamfersdam) and Premier kimberlites were investigated for their silicate and base metal sulphide geochemistry, stable oxygen isotope compositions and oxybarometry. The variably metasomatised eclogites had basaltic, picritic and gabbroic protolith compositions and have garnet d18O values that range from +3.3 to +7.9‰, which, when coupled with the trace element characteristics, indicate oceanic lithosphere protoliths that had undergone variable degrees of seawater alteration. The deepest equilibrated eclogites (175220?km depth) from near the base of the Kaapvaal craton lithosphere are the most refractory and feature significant light rare earth element (LREE) depletions. They show the most oxidised redox compositions with ?logƒO2 values of FMQ-3.9 to FMQ-1.5. Subtle metasomatic overprinting of these eclogites resulted in base metal sulphide formation with relatively depleted and highly fractionated HSE compositions. These deepest eclogites and their included base metal sulphides suggest interaction with relatively oxidised melts or fluids, which, based on their HSE characteristics, could be related to precursor kimberlite metasomatism that was widespread within the Kaapvaal craton mantle lithosphere. In contrast, eclogites that reside at shallower, “mid-lithospheric” depths (140180?km) have been enriched in LREE and secondary diopside/phlogopite. Importantly, they host abundant metasomatic base metal sulphides, which have higher HSE contents than those in the deeper eclogites at the lithosphere base. The mid-lithospheric eclogites have more reducing redox compositions (?logfO2?=?FMQ-5.3 - FMQ-3.3) than the eclogites from the lowermost Kaapvaal lithosphere. The compositional overprint of the shallower mantle eclogites resembles basaltic rather than kimberlitic/carbonatitic metasomatism, which is also supported by their relatively reducing redox state. Base metal sulphides from the mid-lithospheric eclogites have HSE abundances and distributions that are similar to Karoo flood basalts from southern Africa, suggesting a link between the identified shallow mantle metasomatism of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere and the Karoo large igneous event during the Mesozoic. The sulphide-hosted platinum group element abundances of the mid-lithospheric eclogites are higher compared with their analogues from the deeper lithospheric eclogites, which in combination with their contrasting oxidation states, may imply redox-controlled HSE mobility during sulphur-rich metasomatism of continental mantle lithosphere.
DS202008-1372
2020
Cano, E.Burness, S., Smart, K.A., Tappe, S., Stevens, G., Woodland, A.B., Cano, E.Sulphur rich mantle metasomatism of Kaapvaal craton eclogites and its role in redox controlled platinum group element mobility.Chemical Geology, Voll. 542, 119476 23p. pdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley, Kamfersdam, Premier

Abstract: Eclogite mantle xenoliths from various kimberlite occurrences on the Kaapvaal craton show evidence for depth- and redox-dependent metasomatic events that led to variable base metal sulphide and incompatible element enrichments. Eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley (Kamfersdam) and Premier kimberlites were investigated for their silicate and base metal sulphide geochemistry, stable oxygen isotope compositions and oxybarometry. The variably metasomatised eclogites had basaltic, picritic and gabbroic protolith compositions and have garnet d18O values that range from +3.3 to +7.9‰, which, when coupled with the trace element characteristics, indicate oceanic lithosphere protoliths that had undergone variable degrees of seawater alteration. The deepest equilibrated eclogites (175-220 km depth) from near the base of the Kaapvaal craton lithosphere are the most refractory and feature significant light rare earth element (LREE) depletions. They show the most oxidised redox compositions with ?logƒO2 values of FMQ-3.9 to FMQ-1.5. Subtle metasomatic overprinting of these eclogites resulted in base metal sulphide formation with relatively depleted and highly fractionated HSE compositions. These deepest eclogites and their included base metal sulphides suggest interaction with relatively oxidised melts or fluids, which, based on their HSE characteristics, could be related to precursor kimberlite metasomatism that was widespread within the Kaapvaal craton mantle lithosphere. In contrast, eclogites that reside at shallower, “mid-lithospheric” depths (140-180 km) have been enriched in LREE and secondary diopside/phlogopite. Importantly, they host abundant metasomatic base metal sulphides, which have higher HSE contents than those in the deeper eclogites at the lithosphere base. The mid-lithospheric eclogites have more reducing redox compositions (?logfO2 = FMQ-5.3 - FMQ-3.3) than the eclogites from the lowermost Kaapvaal lithosphere. The compositional overprint of the shallower mantle eclogites resembles basaltic rather than kimberlitic/carbonatitic metasomatism, which is also supported by their relatively reducing redox state. Base metal sulphides from the mid-lithospheric eclogites have HSE abundances and distributions that are similar to Karoo flood basalts from southern Africa, suggesting a link between the identified shallow mantle metasomatism of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere and the Karoo large igneous event during the Mesozoic. The sulphide-hosted platinum group element abundances of the mid-lithospheric eclogites are higher compared with their analogues from the deeper lithospheric eclogites, which in combination with their contrasting oxidation states, may imply redox-controlled HSE mobility during sulphur-rich metasomatism of continental mantle lithosphere.
DS200412-0268
2004
Canon Tapia, BE.Canon Tapia, BE., Walker, G.P.Global aspects of volcanism: the perspectives of plate tectonics and volcanic systems.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 66, no. 1-2, pp. 163-182.GlobalReview - volcanism
DS1989-0210
1989
Cant, D.Cant, D., O'Connell, S.The Peace River Arch: its structure and originCan. Soc. Pet. Geol., Sequences, stratigraphy, sedimentology:surface and, Memoir No. 15, pp. 537-542AlbertaStructure
DS1991-0218
1991
Cant, D.J.Cant, D.J.Geometric modelling of facies migration: theoretical development of facies successions and local unconformitiesBasin Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, June pp. 51-62GlobalBasin model, Facies successions
DS200812-0580
2008
Cantigny, P.Klein-Ben David, O., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.M., Ottley, C., Cantigny, P.Origins of diamond forming fluids - constraints from a coupled Sr Nd Pb isotope and trace element approach.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A479.TechnologyMicro-inclusions
DS1995-0223
1995
Cantin, B.Bryant, T., Cantin, B., Stweart, R., Sraega, D.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report for the Pembin a field sampling project.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19950016AlbertaExploration - assessment
DS1995-0263
1995
Cantin, R.G.Cantin, R.G., Stewart, R.J., Bryant, T.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report for the Crowsnest volcanics study.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19950010AlbertaExploration - assessment
DS201701-0026
2016
Cantoni, M.Piet, H., Badro, J., Nabiel, F., Dennenwaldt, T., Shim, S-H., Cantoni, M., Hebert, C., Gillet, P.Spin and valence dependence on iron partitioning in Earth's deep mantle.Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA, Vol. 113, no. 40, pp. 11127-11130.MantleUHP

Abstract: We performed laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments combined with state-of-the-art electron microanalysis (focused ion beam and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy) to study the distribution and valence of iron in Earth's lower mantle as a function of depth and composition. Our data reconcile the apparently discrepant existing dataset, by clarifying the effects of spin (high/low) and valence (ferrous/ferric) states on iron partitioning in the deep mantle. In aluminum-bearing compositions relevant to Earth's mantle, iron concentration in silicates drops above 70 GPa before increasing up to 110 GPa with a minimum at 85 GPa; it then dramatically drops in the postperovskite stability field above 116 GPa. This compositional variation should strengthen the lowermost mantle between 1,800 km depth and 2,000 km depth, and weaken it between 2,000 km depth and the D" layer. The succession of layers could dynamically decouple the mantle above 2,000 km from the lowermost mantle, and provide a rheological basis for the stabilization and nonentrainment of large low-shear-velocity provinces below that depth.
DS201804-0686
2018
Cantoni, M.Dorfman, S.M., Badro, J., Nabiel, F., Prakapenka, V.B., Cantoni, M., Gillet, P.Carbonate stability in the reduced lower mantle.Earth and Planteray Science Letters, Vol. 489, pp. 84-91.Mantlecarbonate

Abstract: Carbonate minerals are important hosts of carbon in the crust and mantle with a key role in the transport and storage of carbon in Earth's deep interior over the history of the planet. Whether subducted carbonates efficiently melt and break down due to interactions with reduced phases or are preserved to great depths and ultimately reach the core-mantle boundary remains controversial. In this study, experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) on layered samples of dolomite (Mg,?Ca)CO3 and iron at pressure and temperature conditions reaching those of the deep lower mantle show that carbon-iron redox interactions destabilize the MgCO3 component, producing a mixture of diamond, Fe7C3, and (Mg,?Fe)O. However, CaCO3 is preserved, supporting its relative stability in carbonate-rich lithologies under reducing lower mantle conditions. These results constrain the thermodynamic stability of redox-driven breakdown of carbonates and demonstrate progress towards multiphase mantle petrology in the LHDAC at conditions of the lowermost mantle.
DS201805-0964
2018
Cantoni, M.Nabiel, F., Badro, J., Dennenwaldt, T., Oveisi, E., Cantoni, M., Hebert, C., El Goresy, A., Barrat, J-A., Gillet, P.A large planetary body inferred from diamond inclusions in a urelite metorite.Nature Communications, doe:10.1038/ s41467-018- 030808-6 6p. PdfTechnologyureilite

Abstract: Planetary formation models show that terrestrial planets are formed by the accretion of tens of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos through energetic giant impacts. However, relics of these large proto-planets are yet to be found. Ureilites are one of the main families of achondritic meteorites and their parent body is believed to have been catastrophically disrupted by an impact during the first 10 million years of the solar system. Here we studied a section of the Almahata Sitta ureilite using transmission electron microscopy, where large diamonds were formed at high pressure inside the parent body. We discovered chromite, phosphate, and (Fe,Ni)-sulfide inclusions embedded in diamond. The composition and morphology of the inclusions can only be explained if the formation pressure was higher than 20?GPa. Such pressures suggest that the ureilite parent body was a Mercury- to Mars-sized planetary embryo.
DS201903-0550
2019
Cao, H. LiWang, D., Vervoort, J.D., Fisher, C.M., Cao, H. Li, G.Integrated garnet and zircon - titanate geochronology constrains the evolution of ultra high pressure terranes: an example from the Sulu orogen.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, in press availableChinaUHP

Abstract: Dating ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks provides important timing constraints on deep subduction zone processes. Eclogites, deeply subducted rocks now exposed at the surface, undergo a wide range of metamorphic conditions (i.e., deep subduction and exhumation) and their mineralogy can preserve a detailed record of chronologic information of these dynamic processes. Here we present an approach that integrates multiple radiogenic isotope systems in the same sample to provide a more complete timeline for the subduction-collision-exhumation processes, based on eclogites from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in eastern China, one of the largest ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes on Earth. In this study, we integrate garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages with zircon and titanite U-Pb ages for three eclogite samples from the Sulu UHP terrane. We combine this age information with Zr-in-rutile temperature estimates, and relate these multiple chronometers to different P-T conditions. Two types of rutile, one present as inclusions in garnet and the other in the matrix, record the temperatures of UHP conditions and a hotter stage, subsequent to the peak pressure (“hot exhumation”), respectively. Garnet Lu-Hf ages (c. 238 to 235 Ma) record the initial prograde growth of garnet, while coupled Sm-Nd ages (c. 219 to 213 Ma) reflect cooling following hot exhumation. The maximum duration of UHP conditions is constrained by the age difference of these two systems in garnet (c. 235 to 220 Ma). Complementary zircon and titanite U-Pb ages of c. 235 - 230 Ma and c. 216 - 206 Ma provide further constraints on the timing of prograde metamorphism and the "cold exhumation", respectively. We demonstrate that timing of various metamorphic stages can thus be determined by employing complementary chronometers from the same samples. These age results, combined with published data from adjacent areas, show lateral diachroneity in the Dabie-Sulu orogeny. Three sub-blocks are thus defined by progressively younger garnet ages: western Dabie (243 - 238 Ma), eastern Dabie-northern Sulu (238 - 235 Ma,) and southern Sulu terranes (225 - 220 Ma), which possibly correlate to different crustal slices in the recently proposed subduction channel model. These observed lateral chronologic variations in a large UHP terrane can possibly be extended to other suture zones.
DS2003-0208
2003
Cao, J.Cao, J., He, Z., Zhu, J., Fullagar, P.K.Conductivity tomography at two frequenciesGeophysics, Vol. 68, 2, pp. 516-22.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0269
2003
Cao, J.Cao, J., He, Z., Zhu, J., Fullagar, P.K.Conductivity tomography at two frequencies.Geophysics, Vol. 68, 2, pp. 516-22.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS1995-0264
1995
Cao, S.Cao, S., Greenhalgh, S.High resolution seismic tomographic delineation of ore depositsExploration Geophysics ( Australia), Vol. 26, No. 2-3, June 1, pp. 315-318AustraliaGeophysics -seismics, Tomography
DS202007-1168
2020
Cao, W.Palin, R.M., Santosh, M., Cao, W., Li, S-S., Hernandez-Uribe, D.Secular change and the onset of plate tectonics on Earth.Earth Science Reviews, in press available 41p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The Earth as a planetary system has experienced significant change since its formation c. 4.54 Gyr ago. Some of these changes have been gradual, such as secular cooling of the mantle, and some have been abrupt, such as the rapid increase in free oxygen in the atmosphere at the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Many of these changes have directly affected tectonic processes on Earth and are manifest by temporal trends within the sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock record. Indeed, the timing of global onset of mobile-lid (subduction-driven) plate tectonics on our planet remains one of the fundamental points of debate within the geosciences today, and constraining the age and cause of this transition has profound implications for understanding our own planet's long-term evolution, and that for other rocky bodies in our solar system. Interpretations based on various sources of evidence have led different authors to propose a very wide range of ages for the onset of subduction-driven tectonics, which span almost all of Earth history from the Hadean to the Neoproterozoic, with this uncertainty stemming from the varying reliability of different proxies. Here, we review evidence for paleo-subduction preserved within the geological record, with a focus on metamorphic rocks and the geodynamic information that can be derived from them. First, we describe the different types of tectonic/geodynamic regimes that may occur on Earth or any other silicate body, and then review different models for the thermal evolution of the Earth and the geodynamic conditions necessary for plate tectonics to stabilize on a rocky planet. The community's current understanding of the petrology and structure of Archean and Proterozoic oceanic and continental crust is then discussed in comparison with modern-day equivalents, including how and why they differ. We then summarize evidence for the operation of subduction through time, including petrological (metamorphic), tectonic, and geochemical/isotopic data, and the results of petrological and geodynamical modeling. The styles of metamorphism in the Archean are then examined and we discuss how the secular distribution of metamorphic rock types can inform the type of geodynamic regime that operated at any point in time. In conclusion, we argue that most independent observations from the geological record and results of lithospheric-scale geodynamic modeling support a global-scale initiation of plate tectonics no later than c. 3 Ga, just preceding the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Evidence for subduction in Early Archean terranes is likely accounted for by localized occurrences of plume-induced subduction initiation, although these did not develop into a stable, globally connected network of plate boundaries until later in Earth history. Finally, we provide a discussion of major unresolved questions related to this review's theme and provide suggested directions for future research.
DS2000-0593
2000
Cao, Y.Luo, Z., Xiao, X., Cao, Y.The Cenozoic mantle magmatism and motion of lithosphere on the north margin of the Tibetan Plateau.Science in China Series d. Earth, *CHINESE, Vol.44,pp.10-17.ChinaMagmatism
DS201112-0141
2011
Cao, Y.Cao, Y., Song, S.G., Niu, Y.L., Jung, H., Jin, Z.M.Variation of mineral composition, fabric and oxygen fugacity from massive to foliated eclogites during exhumation of subducted ocean crust in North Qiilian sutureJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 29, 7, pp. 699-720.ChinaSubduction
DS202010-1831
2020
Cao, Y.Cao, Y., Jung, H., Ma, J.Seismic properties of a unique olivine-rich eclogite in the western Gneiss region, Norway.Minerals ( MDPI), 10.339/min10090774 22p. PdfEurope, Norwayeclogites

Abstract: Investigating the seismic properties of natural eclogite is crucial for identifying the composition, density, and mechanical structure of the Earth’s deep crust and mantle. For this purpose, numerous studies have addressed the seismic properties of various types of eclogite, except for a rare eclogite type that contains abundant olivine and orthopyroxene. In this contribution, we calculated the ambient-condition seismic velocities and seismic anisotropies of this eclogite type using an olivine-rich eclogite from northwestern Flemsøya in the Nordøyane ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) domain of the Western Gneiss Region in Norway. Detailed analyses of the seismic properties data suggest that patterns of seismic anisotropy of the Flem eclogite were largely controlled by the strength of the crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) and characterized by significant destructive effects of the CPO interactions, which together, resulted in very weak bulk rock seismic anisotropies (AVp = 1.0-2.5%, max. AVs = 0.6-2.0%). The magnitudes of the seismic anisotropies of the Flem eclogite were similar to those of dry eclogite but much lower than those of gabbro, peridotite, hydrous-phase-bearing eclogite, and blueschist. Furthermore, we found that amphibole CPOs were the main contributors to the higher seismic anisotropies in some amphibole-rich samples. The average seismic velocities of Flem eclogite were greatly affected by the relative volume proportions of omphacite and amphibole. The Vp (8.00-8.33 km/s) and Vs (4.55-4.72 km/s) were remarkably larger than the hydrous-phase-bearing eclogite, blueschist, and gabbro, but lower than dry eclogite and peridotite. The Vp/Vs ratio was almost constant (avg. ˜ 1.765) among Flem eclogite, slightly larger than olivine-free dry eclogite, but similar to peridotite, indicating that an abundance of olivine is the source of their high Vp/Vs ratios. The Vp/Vs ratios of Flem eclogite were also higher than other (non-)retrograded eclogite and significantly lower than those of gabbro. The seismic features derived from the Flem eclogite can thus be used to distinguish olivine-rich eclogite from other common rock types (especially gabbro) in the deep continental crust or subduction channel when high-resolution seismic wave data are available.
DS201612-2284
2016
Cao, Y.H.Cao, Y.H., Linnen, R.L., Good, D.J., Samson, I.M., Epstein, R.The application of portable XRF and benchtop SEM-EDS to Cu-Pd exploration in the Coldwell alkaline complex, Ontario, Canada.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 16, 3-4, pp. 193-212.Canada, OntarioAlkalic

Abstract: Mineral exploration is increasingly taking advantage of real time techniques that dramatically reduce the costs and time taken to obtain results compared to traditional analytical methods. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is now a well-established technique that is used to acquire lithogeochemical data. To date, however, benchtop scanning electron microscopes, equipped with energy dispersive systems (bSEM-EDS) have received little attention as a possible mineral exploration tool. This study examines the utility of combining pXRF and bSEM-EDS to characterize the igneous stratigraphy and its relationship to Cu-Pd mineralization in a drill hole at the Four Dams occurrence, located within the Eastern Gabbro assemblage of the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Canada. The first part of this study compares field portable and laboratory techniques. Seventy-two powdered samples analysed by pXRF are compared with traditional major elements analysed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the compositions of 128 olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains analysed by bSEM-EDS are compared with traditional electron microprobe data. Our results show that each portable technique yields results similar to their lab-based counterparts within the analytical capabilities and precisions of the respective instruments. The second part presents a case study for the application of pXRF and bSEM-EDS to resolve questions related to igneous stratigraphy as an aid to mineral exploration in a complicated geological setting. A major problem for Cu-Pd exploration in the Coldwell Complex of NW Ontario is that the oxide-rich units that host Cu-Pd mineralization in the Marathon Series are petrographically similar to the barren oxide-rich units in the Layered Series. However, the mineralized units are geochemically distinctive. Our results show that the mineralized Marathon Series can be distinguished from the barren Layered Series, including oxide-rich units of both, by combinations of P2O5, Ba, Zr and V/Ti values, determined by pXRF, combined with plagioclase, olivine or clinopyroxene compositions measured by bSEM-EDS. The combination of pXRF and bSEM-EDS thus shows considerable promise as an exploration technique.
DS1990-1595
1990
Cao RonglongXia Lingi, Cao RonglongDetermination of nature of fuids and melts in upper mantle of Xilong area from Zhejiang province, ChinaInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 1, extended abstract p. 577-578ChinaMantle, Geochemistry
DS200512-1090
2005
Cap de Villeb, Y.Toa, A., Romanaowicza, B., Cap de Villeb, Y., Takeuchic, N.3 D effects of sharp boundaries at the borders of the African and Pacific superplumes: observation and modeling.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 233, pp. 137-153.AfricaGeophysics - seismics, boundary
DS200912-0107
2009
Capais, D.Chardon, D., Capais, D., Agnard, F.Flow of ultra hot orogens: a review from the Precambrian, clues for the Phanerozoic.Tectonophysics, Vol. 477, pp. 105-118.MantleUHP, orogens
DS1984-0323
1984
Capdevila, R.Gruau, G., Martin, H., Leveque, B., Capdevila, R., Marot, A.Rubidium-strontium and Samarium-neodymium (sm-nd) Geochronology of Lower proterozoic Granite Greenstone Terrains in French Guiana, South America.B.r.g.m., IN PRESSSouth America, French GuianaBlank
DS1984-0482
1984
Capdevila, R.Marot, A., Capdevila, R., Leveque, B., Gruau, G., Martin, G., Cha.Le Synclinorium du Sud de Guyane Francaise: une Ceinture Deroches Vertes D'age Proterozoic Inferieur.Annual DES SCIENCES DE la TERRE, 10TH. SESSION HELD BORDEAU, South America, GuyanaBlank
DS1989-0556
1989
Capdevila, R.Guerrot, C., Peucat, J.J., Capdevila, R., Dosso, L.Archean protoliths within early Proterozoic granulitic crust of the west European Hercynian belt: possible relics of the west African cratonGeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, March pp. 241-244West AfricaCraton, Proterozoic
DS1999-0111
1999
Capdevila, R.Capdevila, R., Arndt, N., Sauvage, J.F.Diamonds in volcaniclastic komatiite from French GuianaNature., Vol. 399, No. 6735, June 3, pp. 456-8.French GuianaKomatiite
DS200912-0605
2009
Capdeville, Y.Qin, Y., Capdeville, Y., Montagner, J.P., Boschi, L., Becker, T.W.Reliability of mantle tomography models assessed by spectral element simulation.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 177, 1, pp. 125-144.MantleTomography
DS1860-0037
1867
Cape ArgusCape ArgusDiamonds Are TrumpsCape Argus, APRIL 18TH.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceHistory, Diamonds
DS1860-0058
1868
Cape ArgusCape ArgusNotice of a 9 Carat Diamond Found on the Orange RiverCape Argus, Oct. 31ST.Africa, South Africa, Cape Province, Orange RiverDiamonds notable
DS1860-0329
1880
Cape ArgusCape ArgusKimberley and DiamondsCape Argus, Oct. 5TH.Africa, South AfricaHistory
DS1860-0397
1883
Cape ArgusCape ArgusKimberley: 63 Pounds of Diamonds Leave by Weekly Post. the Largest Weight So Far.Cape Argus, MARCH 10TH.Africa, South AfricaHistory, Production
DS1900-0006
1900
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of Diamond Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West in the Year 1899.Cape Town Parliament Report, No. G 61-1900, 25P.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods, Production, Kimberlite Mines And Deposits
DS1900-0044
1901
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReport of the Inspector of the Diamond Mines in the Year 1900 for the Late Province of Griqualand West.Cape Town Parliament Report., No. G 47-1901, 30P.Africa, South AfricaMining And Methods, Kimberlite Mines And Deposits, Production
DS1900-0093
1902
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of Diamond Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West in the Year 1901.Cape Town Parl. Report., No. G 76-1902, 34P.Africa, South AfricaMining And Mining Methods, Production, Kimberlite Mines
DS1900-0163
1903
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of the Diamond Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West in the Year 1902.Cape Town Parl. Report., No. G15-03, 35P.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods, Production, Kimberlite Mines And Deposits
DS1900-0294
1905
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West for the Year 1903.Cape Town Parliamentary Report., No. G 75-1904, 26P.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods, Production, Kimberlite Mines And Deposits
DS1900-0376
1906
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West for the Year 1904.Cape Town Parliamentary Report, No. G 65-1905, 19P.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods, Production
DS1900-0498
1907
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West for the Year 1905.Cape Town Parliamentary Report., No. G 65-1906, 20P.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods, Production
DS1900-0730
1909
Cape Town Parliament ReportCape Town Parliament ReportReports of the Inspector of Mines in the Late Province of Griqualand West for the Year 1908.Cape Town Parl. Report., No. G 14-1908, PP. I-XIV.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods, Production
DS1993-0282
1993
Capedreini, S.Contini, S., Venturelli, G., Toscani, L., Capedreini, S.chromium-Zr-armalcolite-bearing lamproites from Cancarix, southeast SpainMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 57, No. 387, June pp. 203-216GlobalLamproites, Mineralogy
DS1990-1475
1990
Capedri, I.S.Toscani, L., Capedri, I.S., Oddone, M.New chemical and petrographic dat a of some undersaturated lavas from Nyiragongo and Mikeno (Virunga Western African rift- Zaire)Neues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie, Vol. 161, No. 3, May pp. 287-302Democratic Republic of CongoChemistry -lavas, Petrography
DS1988-0730
1988
Capedri, S.Venturelli, G., Mariani, E.S., Foley, S.F., Capedri, S., CrawfordPetrogeneis and conditions of crystallization of SpanishlamproiticrocksCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 26, No. 1, March pp. 67-80GlobalLamproite
DS1991-1792
1991
Capedri, S.Venturelli, G., Capedri, S., Barberi, M., Toscani, L.The Jumilla lamproite revisited - a petrological oddityEur. Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 123-145GlobalLamproite, Petrology -Jumilla
DS1991-1793
1991
Capedri, S.Venturelli, G., Toscani, L., Salviolini, E., Capedri, S.Mixing between lamproitic and dacitic components in miocene volcanic Rocks of southeast SpainMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 379, June pp. 282-285GlobalLamproite, Volcanics
DS1993-0163
1993
Capedri, S.Brigatti, M.F., Contini, S., Capedri, S., Poppi, L.Crystal chemistry and cation ordering in pseudobrookite and armalcolite from Spanish lamproitesEuropean Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 5, pp. 73-84GlobalLamproites, Geochemistry
DS200612-0451
2006
Capel, A.M.Gerya, T.V., Connolly, J.A.D., Yuen, D.A., Gorczyk, W., Capel, A.M.Seismic implications of mantle wedge plumes.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 156, 1-2, June 16, pp. 59-74.MantleGeophysics - seismic, subduction, tomography, melting
DS200612-0452
2006
Capel, A.M.Gerya, T.V., Connolly, J.A.D., Yuen, D.A., Gorczyk, W., Capel, A.M.Seismic implications of mantle wedge plumes.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 156, 1-2, pp. 59-74.MantleSubduction zones, tomography, melting
DS201707-1317
2017
Capitanio, F.Dal Zilio, L., Faccenda, M., Capitanio, F.The role of deep subduction in supercontinental breakup.Tectonophysics, in press availableMantlesubduction

Abstract: The breakup of continents and their subsequent drifting plays a crucial role in the Earth's periodic plate aggregation and dispersal cycles. While continental aggregation is considered the result of oceanic closure during subduction, what drives sustained divergence in the following stages remains poorly understood. In this study, thermo-mechanical numerical experiments illustrate the single contribution of subduction and coupled mantle flow to the rifting and drifting of continents. We quantify the drag exerted by subduction-induced mantle flow along the basal surface of continental plates, comparing models of lithospheric slab stagnation above the upper-lower mantle boundary with those where slabs penetrate into the lower mantle. When subduction is upper-mantle confined, divergent basal tractions localise at distances comparable to the effective upper mantle thickness (~ 500 km), causing the opening of a marginal basin. Instead, subduction of lithosphere in the lower mantle reorganises the flow into a much wider cell localising extensional stresses at greater distances from the trench (~ 3000 km). Sub-continental tractions are higher and more sustained over longer time periods in this case, and progressively increase as the slab sinks deeper. Although relatively low, basal-shear stresses when integrated over large plates, generate tension forces that may exceed the strength of the continental lithosphere, eventually leading to breakup and opening of a distal basin. The models illustrate the emergence of a similar mechanism, which results in the formation of back-arc basins above upper-mantle confined subduction, and scales to much larger distances for deeper subduction. Examples include the Atlantic Ocean formation and drifting of the South and North American plates during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Farallon plate subduction.
DS201901-0024
2018
Capitanio, F.Dal Zilio, L., Faccenda, M., Capitanio, F.The role of deep subduction in supercontinent breakup.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 312-324.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The breakup of continents and their subsequent drifting plays a crucial role in the Earth's periodic plate aggregation and dispersal cycles. While continental aggregation is considered the result of oceanic closure during subduction, what drives sustained divergence in the following stages remains poorly understood. In this study, thermo-mechanical numerical experiments illustrate the single contribution of subduction and coupled mantle flow to the rifting and drifting of continents. We quantify the drag exerted by subduction-induced mantle flow along the basal surface of continental plates, comparing models of lithospheric slab stagnation above the upper-lower mantle boundary with those where slabs penetrate into the lower mantle. When subduction is upper-mantle confined, divergent basal tractions localise at distances comparable to the effective upper mantle thickness (~ 500 km), causing the opening of a marginal basin. Instead, subduction of lithosphere in the lower mantle reorganises the flow into a much wider cell localising extensional stresses at greater distances from the trench (~ 3000 km). Sub-continental tractions are higher and more sustained over longer time periods in this case, and progressively increase as the slab sinks deeper. Although relatively low, basal-shear stresses when integrated over large plates, generate tension forces that may exceed the strength of the continental lithosphere, eventually leading to breakup and opening of a distal basin. The models illustrate the emergence of a similar mechanism, which results in the formation of back-arc basins above upper-mantle confined subduction, and scales to much larger distances for deeper subduction. Examples include the Atlantic Ocean formation and drifting of the South and North American plates during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Farallon plate subduction.
DS200712-0143
2007
Capitanio, F.A.Capitanio, F.A., Goes, S., Morra, G., Giardini, D.Signatures of downgoing plate buoyancy driven subduction in motions and seismic coupling at major subduction zones.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 262, 1-2, pp. 286-306.MantleSubduction
DS200812-0418
2008
Capitanio, F.A.Goes, S., Capitanio, F.A., Morra, G.Evidence of lower mantle slab penetration phases in plate motions.Nature, Vol. 451, 7181 Feb. 21, pp. 981-984.MantleSubduction
DS201012-0086
2010
Capitanio, F.A.Capitanio, F.A., Morra, G., Goes, S., Weinberg, R.F., Moresi, L.India Asia convergence driven by subduction of the Greater Indian continent.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Jan. pp. 1-4.IndiaSubduction
DS201412-0098
2014
Capitanio, F.A.Capitanio, F.A.The dynamics of extrusion tectonics: insights from numerical modeling.Tectonics, 10-1002 2014 TC003688MantleSubduction
DS201802-0279
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Wang, Z., Kusky, T.M., Capitanio, F.A.Water transportation ability of flat lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction.Tectonophysics, Vol. 723, pp. 95-106.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.
DS201804-0708
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Kiraly, A., Holt, A.F., Funiciello, F., Faccenna, C., Capitanio, F.A.Modeling slab-slab interactions: dynamics of outward dipping double sided subduction systems.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 22p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Slab-slab interaction is a characteristic feature of tectonically complex areas. Outward dipping double-sided subduction is one of these complex cases, which has several examples on Earth, most notably the Molucca Sea and Adriatic Sea. This study focuses on developing a framework for linking plate kinematics and slab interactions in an outward dipping subduction geometry. We used analog and numerical models to better understand the underlying subduction dynamics. Compared to a single subduction model, double-sided subduction exhibits more time-dependent and vigorous toroidal flow cells that are elongated (i.e., not circular). Because both the Molucca and Adriatic Sea exhibit an asymmetric subduction configuration, we also examine the role that asymmetry plays in the dynamics of outward dipping double-sided subduction. We introduce asymmetry in two ways; with variable initial depths for the two slabs (geometric asymmetry), and with variable buoyancy within the subducting plate (mechanical asymmetry). Relative to the symmetric case, we probe how asymmetry affects the overall slab kinematics, whether asymmetric behavior intensifies or equilibrates as subduction proceeds. While initial geometric asymmetry disappears once the slabs are anchored to the 660 km discontinuity, the mechanical asymmetry can cause more permanent differences between the two subduction zones. In the most extreme case, the partly continental slab stops subducting due to the unequal slab pull force. The results show that the slab-slab interaction is most effective when the two trenches are closer than 10-8 cm in the laboratory, which is 600-480 km when scaled to the Earth.
DS201810-2389
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Wang, Z., Kusky, T.M., Capitanio, F.A.On the role of the lower crust and midlithosphere discontinuity for cratonic lithosphere delamination and recycling.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, 15, pp. 7425-7433.Chinacraton

Abstract: We use numerical modeling mothed to study the lithosheric delamination in cratonic areas along the intralithosphere weak layers, including the lower crust and the midlithosphere dicontinuity. Our results show that delamination along the midlithosphere discontinuity can take place both near cratonic margins and within cratonic interiors without obvious intraplate deformation. However, delamination along lower crustal depths is mainly initiate at cratonic margins and can lead to intraplate orogeny.
DS201812-2789
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Cawood, P.A., Hawkesworth, C.J., Pisarevsky, S.A., Dhuime, B., Capitanio, F.A., Nebel, O.Geological archive of the onset of plate tectonics.Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society, rsta.royalsociety publishing.org 30p. AvailableMantletectonics, geochemistry

Abstract: Plate tectonics, involving a globally linked system of lateral motion of rigid surface plates, is a characteristic feature of our planet, but estimates of how long it has been the modus operandi of lithospheric formation and interactions range from the Hadean to the Neoproterozoic. In this paper, we review sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic proxies along with palaeomagnetic data to infer both the development of rigid lithospheric plates and their independent relative motion, and conclude that significant changes in Earth behaviour occurred in the mid- to late Archaean, between 3.2?Ga and 2.5?Ga. These data include: sedimentary rock associations inferred to have accumulated in passive continental margin settings, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading; the oldest foreland basin deposits associated with lithospheric convergence; a change from thin, new continental crust of mafic composition to thicker crust of intermediate composition, increased crustal reworking and the emplacement of potassic and peraluminous granites, indicating stabilization of the lithosphere; replacement of dome and keel structures in granite-greenstone terranes, which relate to vertical tectonics, by linear thrust imbricated belts; the commencement of temporally paired systems of intermediate and high dT/dP gradients, with the former interpreted to represent subduction to collisional settings and the latter representing possible hinterland back-arc settings or ocean plateau environments. Palaeomagnetic data from the Kaapvaal and Pilbara cratons for the interval 2780-2710?Ma and from the Superior, Kaapvaal and Kola-Karelia cratons for 2700-2440?Ma suggest significant relative movements. We consider these changes in the behaviour and character of the lithosphere to be consistent with a gestational transition from a non-plate tectonic mode, arguably with localized subduction, to the onset of sustained plate tectonics.
DS201812-2857
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Nebel, O., Capitanio, F.A., Moyen, J-F., Weinberg, R.F., Clos, F., Nebel-Jacobsen, Y.J., Cawood, P.A.When crust comes of age: on the chemical evolution of Archaean, felsic continental crust by crustal drip tectonics.Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society, doi.org/10.1098 / rsta.2018.0103 21p.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The secular evolution of the Earth's crust is marked by a profound change in average crustal chemistry between 3.2 and 2.5?Ga. A key marker for this change is the transition from Archaean sodic granitoid intrusions of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series to potassic (K) granitic suites, akin (but not identical) to I-type granites that today are associated with subduction zones. It remains poorly constrained as to how and why this change was initiated and if it holds clues about the geodynamic transition from a pre-plate tectonic mode, often referred to as stagnant lid, to mobile plate tectonics. Here, we combine a series of proposed mechanisms for Archaean crustal geodynamics in a single model to explain the observed change in granitoid chemistry. Numeric modelling indicates that upper mantle convection drives crustal flow and subsidence, leading to profound diversity in lithospheric thickness with thin versus thick proto-plates. When convecting asthenospheric mantle interacts with lower lithosphere, scattered crustal drips are created. Under increasing P-T conditions, partial melting of hydrated meta-basalt within these drips produces felsic melts that intrude the overlying crust to form TTG. Dome structures, in which these melts can be preserved, are a positive diapiric expression of these negative drips. Transitional TTG with elevated K mark a second evolutionary stage, and are blends of subsided and remelted older TTG forming K-rich melts and new TTG melts. Ascending TTG-derived melts from asymmetric drips interact with the asthenospheric mantle to form hot, high-Mg sanukitoid. These melts are small in volume, predominantly underplated, and their heat triggered melting of lower crustal successions to form higher-K granites. Importantly, this evolution operates as a disseminated process in space and time over hundreds of millions of years (greater than 200?Ma) in all cratons. This focused ageing of the crust implies that compiled geochemical data can only broadly reflect geodynamic changes on a global or even craton-wide scale. The observed change in crustal chemistry does mark the lead up to but not the initiation of modern-style subduction.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Earth dynamics and the development of plate tectonics'.
DS201901-0070
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Rolf, T., Capitanio, F.A., Tackley, P.J.Constraints on mantle viscosity structure from continental drift histories in spherical mantle convection models.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 339-351.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Earth's continents drift in response to the force balance between mantle flow and plate tectonics and actively change the plate-mantle coupling. Thus, the patterns of continental drift provide relevant information on the coupled evolution of surface tectonics, mantle structure and dynamics. Here, we investigate rheological controls on such evolutions and use surface tectonic patterns to derive inferences on mantle viscosity structure on Earth. We employ global spherical models of mantle convection featuring self-consistently generated plate tectonics, which are used to compute time-evolving continental configurations for different mantle and lithosphere structures. Our results highlight the importance of the wavelength of mantle flow for continental configuration evolution. Too strong short-wavelength components complicate the aggregation of large continental clusters, while too stable very long wavelength flow tends to enforce compact supercontinent clustering without reasonable dispersal frequencies. Earth-like continental drift with episodic collisions and dispersals thus requires a viscosity structure that supports long-wavelength flow, but also allows for shorter-wavelength contributions. Such a criterion alone is a rather permissive constraint on internal structure, but it can be improved by considering continental-oceanic plate speed ratios and the toroidal-poloidal partitioning of plate motions. The best approximation of Earth's recent tectonic evolution is then achieved with an intermediate lithospheric yield stress and a viscosity structure in which oceanic plates are ~ 103 × more viscous than the characteristic upper mantle, which itself is ~ 100-200 × less viscous than the lowermost mantle. Such a structure causes continents to move on average ~ (2.2 ± 1.0) × slower than oceanic plates, consistent with estimates from present-day and from plate reconstructions. This does not require a low viscosity asthenosphere globally extending below continental roots. However, this plate speed ratio may undergo strong fluctuations on timescales of several 100 Myr that may be linked to periods of enhanced continental collisions and are not yet captured by current tectonic reconstructions.
DS201902-0332
2018
Capitanio, F.A.Wang, Z, Kusky, T.M., Capitanio, F.A.Water transportation ability of flat lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction.Tectonophysics, Vol. 723, pp. 95-106.Mantlecraton

Abstract: Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.
DS201910-2248
2019
Capitanio, F.A.Capitanio, F.A., Nebel, O., Cawood, P.A., Weinberg, R.F., Clos, F.Lithosphere differentiation in the early Earth controls Archean tectonics.Earth and Planetary Science letters, Vol. 525, 115755, 12p.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The processes that operated on the early Earth and the tectonic regimes in which it was shaped are poorly constrained, reflecting the highly fragmentary rock record and uncertainty in geodynamic conditions. Most models of early Earth geodynamics invoke a poorly mobile lid regime, involving little or episodic movement of the lithosphere, above a convecting mantle. However, such a regime does not reconcile with the record of Archean tectonics, which displays contrasting environments associated with either non-plate tectonics or plate tectonics. Here, we propose a regime for the early Earth in which progressive melt extraction at sites of divergence led to the formation of large portions of stiffer lithospheric lid, called proto-plates. These proto-plates enabled stress propagation to be focussed at their margins, which were then the locus for extension as oppose to shortening, under-thrusting and thickening to form adjoining proto-cratons. We test this hypothesis embedding lithospheric stiffening during melt extraction in thermo-mechanical models of mantle convection, under conditions that prevailed in the Archean. We demonstrate the emergence of migrating, rigid proto-plates in which regions of prolonged focused compression coexist with remnants of the stagnant lid, thereby reproducing the widespread dichotomy proposed for the Archean tectonic record. These diverse tectonic modes coexist in a single regime that is viable since the Hadean and lasted until the transition to modern plate tectonics.
DS201911-2513
2019
Capitanio, F.A.Capitanio, F.A., Nebel, O. Cawood, P.A., Weinberg, R.F.. Chouddhury, P.Reconciling thermal regimes and tectonics of the early Earth.Geology, Vol. 47, pp. 923-927.Mantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Thermomechanical models of mantle convection and melting in an inferred hotter Archean Earth show the emergence of pressure-temperature (P-T) regimes that resemble present-day plate tectonic environments yet developed within a non-plate tectonics regime. The models’ P-T gradients are compatible with those inferred from evolving tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series rocks and the paired metamorphic belt record, supporting the feasibility of divergent and convergent tectonics within a mobilized, yet laterally continuous, lithospheric lid. “Hot” P-T gradients of 10-20 °C km-1 form along asymmetric lithospheric drips, then migrate to areas of deep lithospheric downwelling within ~300-500 m.y., where they are overprinted by high-pressure warm and, later, cold geothermal signatures, up to ~8 °C km-1. Comparisons with the crustal production and reworking record suggest that this regime emerged in the Hadean.
DS201312-0012
2013
Capitano, F.A.Aitken, A.R.A., Raimondo, T., Capitano, F.A.The intraplate character of supercontinent tectonics.Gondwana Research, Vol. 24, 3-4, pp. 807-814.AfricaGeodynamics
DS201801-0079
2017
Capitano, F.A.Wang, Z., Kusky, T.M., Capitano, F.A.Water transportation ability of flat lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction.Tectonophysics, in press available, 53p.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.
DS200412-0935
2004
Capiz, P.Jourdan, F., Feraud, G., Betrand, H., Kampunzu, A.B., Tshoso, G., Le Gall, B., Tiercelin, J.J., Capiz, P.The Karoo triple junction questioned: evidence from Jurassic and Proterzoic 40 Ar 39 Ar ages and geochemistry of the giant OkavaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 222, 3-4, June 15, pp. 989-1006.Africa, BotswanaGeochronology, mantle plume
DS201809-2005
2017
Caplan, C.Cassette, P., Notari, F., Lepy, M-C., Caplan, C., Pierre, S., Hainschwang, T., Fritsch, E.Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 126, 1, pp. 66-72.Globaldiamond - green

Abstract: Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed.
DS2000-0123
2000
Capmas, F.Burton, K.W., Capmas, F., Cohen, A.S.Resolving crystallization ages of Archean mafic-ultramafic rocks using theRe Os isotope systemsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol.179, No.3-4, Jul.15, pp.453-68.GlobalPetrology, Geochronology
DS1990-0272
1990
Capo, R.C.Capo, R.C., DePaolo, D.J.Seawater strontium isotopic variations from 2.5 million years ago to thepresentScience, Vol. 249, July 6, pp. 51-55GlobalContinental weathering rates, Seawater
DS1997-0160
1997
Capon, T.Capon, T.The role of De Beers: past, present and futurePreprint from De Beers, CSO, 8p. Oct. 23.GlobalEconomics, CSO
DS1981-0110
1981
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Smyth, J.R.Partially Melted Eclogites from the Bobbejaan Kimberlite, South Africa.Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Geoscience Division., South AfricaPetrography
DS1982-0131
1982
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Smyth, J.R.Petrology of a Suite of Eclogite Inclusions from the Bobbejaan Mine, South Africa. Pt. I. Major Phase Chemistry.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, P. 220, (abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Mineralogy
DS1982-0572
1982
Caporuscio, F.A.Smyth, J.R., Caporuscio, F.A.Petrology of a Suite of Eclogite Inclusions from the Bobbejaan Mine, South Africa. Pt. Iii. Partial Melting, Recrystallization and P-t Trajectories.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, P. 219, (abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Bellsbank, Microprobe, Chemistry
DS1982-0573
1982
Caporuscio, F.A.Smyth, J.R., Caporuscio, F.A.Petrology of a Suite of Eclogite Inclusions from the Bobbejaan Mine, South Africa. Pt. Ii. Two Unique Corundum Grospydites.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, TERRA COGNITA, ABSTRACT VOLUME., Vol. 2, No. 3, PP. 219-220, ( abstract.).South AfricaKimberlite, Chemistry
DS1984-0682
1984
Caporuscio, F.A.Smyth, J.R., Caporuscio, F.A.Petrology of a Suite of Eclogite Inclusions from the Bobbejaan Kimberlite: 11. Primary Phase Compositions and Origin.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, PP. 120-131.South Africa, BellsbankTextures, Petrography, Mineral Chemistry, Analyses, Garnet, Whole
DS1984-0683
1984
Caporuscio, F.A.Smyth, J.R., Mccormick, T.C., Caporuscio, F.A.Petrology of a Suite of Eclogitic Inclusions from the Bobbejaan Kimberlite 1. Two Unusual Corundum Bearing Kyanite Eclogites.Proceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, PP. 109-119.South AfricaMicroprobe Analyses, Bellsbank, Petrography, Mineral, Bulk Chemi
DS1985-0104
1985
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A.An Unusual Clinopyroxenite from Jagersfontein, South AfricaEos, Vol. 66, No. 18, APRIL 30TH. P. 393. (abstract.).South AfricaPetrography
DS1986-0123
1986
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Smyth, J.R.Rare earth signatures of garnet and clinopyroxenes and mantle ecologiteEos, Vol. 67, No. 44, Nov. 4, p. 1253. (abstract.)Globalrare earth elements (REE)., Eclogite
DS1987-0086
1987
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Kyser, T.K., Smyth, J.R.Oxygen isotopes in mantle eclogites from South AfricaEos, Vol. 68, No. 44, November 3, p. 1551, abstract onlySouth AfricaBlank
DS1987-0087
1987
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Smith, J.R.Variable light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment of mantle eclogites from South Africa by MARIDfluidsGeological Society of America, Vol. 19, No. 7 annual meeting abstracts, p.610. abstracSouth AfricaKimberlite, Petrography
DS1989-0211
1989
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A.Crystal chemistry of mantle eclogite pyroxenesEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1386. AbstractSouth AfricaBobbejan, Roberts Victor, Mineralogy
DS1990-0273
1990
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A.Oxygen isotope systematics of eclogite mineral phrases from South AfricaLithos, Vol. 25, No. 1-3, November pp. 203-210South AfricaEclogites, Geochronology -oxygen
DS1990-0274
1990
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A.Oxygen isotope fractionation in mantle eclogites:correlation with Ca-Eskola component in clinopyroxenesEos, Vol. 71, No. 17, April 24, p. 524 Poster Abstract onlySouth AfricaRoberts Victor, Eclogites
DS1990-0275
1990
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Smyth, J.R.Trace element crystal chemistry of mantle eclogitesContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 105, No. 5, pp. 550-561GlobalEclogites, Mineral chemistry
DS1991-1099
1991
Caporuscio, F.A.McCormick, T.C., Smyth, J.R., Caporuscio, F.A.Secondary phases in mantle eclogitesProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 267-269South AfricaBellsbank Roberts Victor, Geochemistry, major element, mineralogy, texture
DS1991-1620
1991
Caporuscio, F.A.Smythe, J.R., McCormick, T.C., Caporuscio, F.A.Pyroxene crystal chemistry and the evolution of eclogites in the mantleProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 385-387South AfricaCoesite, grospydite, Mineral chemistry
DS1993-0211
1993
Caporuscio, F.A.Caporuscio, F.A., Smyth, J.R.Comment on trace element crystal chemistry of mantle eclogitesContribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 113, pp. 280-284South AfricaEclogites, Bellsbank, Roberts Victor
DS1994-1142
1994
Caporuscio, F.A.McCormick, T.C., Smyth, J.R., Caporuscio, F.A.Chemical systematics of secondary phases in mantle eclogitesProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 405-423.MantleEclogites
DS1989-1414
1989
Caporusco, F.A.Smyth, J.R., Caporusco, F.A., McCormick, T.C.Mantle eclogites- evidence of igneous fractionation in the mantleEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 93, No. 1, May pp. 123-132GlobalMantle, Eclogite
DS1989-1415
1989
Caporusco, F.A.Smyth, J.R., Caporusco, F.A., McCormick, T.C.Mantle ecologites- evidence of igneous fractionation in the mantleEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 93, No. 1, May pp. 133-141GlobalMantle, Eclogite
DS1991-1246
1991
Capotusco, F.A.Oberti, R., Capotusco, F.A.Crystal chemistry of clinopyroxenes from mantle eclogites: a study of the key role of the M2 site population by means of crystal structure refinementAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 76, pp. 1141-1152South AfricaMineral chemistry, Eclogites, Roberts Victor, Bobbejaan
DS1998-0208
1998
Cappa, J.A.Cappa, J.A.Alkalic igneous rocks of Colorado and their associated ore deposits -Chapter 4, State Line District.Colorado Resources series, No. 35, pp. 35-46.ColoradoAlkaline rocks, State Line kimberlites - overview
DS1987-0619
1987
Cappanni, O.M.Rodriquez, C.O., Casali, R.A., Blanca, ELPY, Cappanni, O.M.1st principle prediction of structural properties and pressure dependence of the charge density and energy gaps in diamondsPhys. St.-S-B., Vol. 143, No. 1, October pp. 539-548GlobalBlank
DS1991-0219
1991
Capricorn Resources Australia N.L.Capricorn Resources Australia N.L.Brief one page excerpt from Annual Report. Phillips Range, LeopoldDowns, Nullagine, Lake GladstoneCapricorn Resources Australia N.L., 1pAustraliaNews item, Capricorn
DS1993-0212
1993
Capricorn Resources Australia N.L.Capricorn Resources Australia N.L.Corporate profile; Capricorn Resources Australia N.LCapricorn Resources Australia N.L., 15p.AustraliaNews item -corporate profile, Projects -Nullagine, Casuarina, Seppelts Range, Bulletinoo
DS1991-0220
1991
Caprona, G.C.Caprona, G.C., Mascle, J.The western Ivory coast margin: result of intra-continental shearingC.r. Acad. Paris, Vol. 312, II, pp; 1565-71.GlobalStructure, Margin - coast
DS200812-0254
2008
Caputo, M.Cuffaro, M., Caputo, M., Doglioni, C.Plate subrotations.Tectonics, Vol. 27, TC4007MantleTectonis
DS1985-0105
1985
Caputo, M.V.Caputo, M.V., Crowell, J.C.Migration of Glacial Centers Across Gondwana During Paleozoic Era.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 96, No. 8, AUGUST PP. 1020-1036.South Africa, South AmericaGeomorphology, Geotectonics
DS200512-0135
2005
Caputo, R.Caputo, R.Stress variability and brittle tectonic structures.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 70, 1-2, pp. 103-127.MantleTectonics
DS1990-0510
1990
Car, R.Galli, G., Martin, R.M., Car, R., Parrinello, M.Melting of diamond at high pressureScience, Vol. 250, December 14, pp. 1547-1549GlobalDiamond synthesis, Thermal conductivity
DS2001-0240
2001
Cara, M.DeBayle, E., Leveque, J.J., Cara, M.Seismic evidence for deeply rooted low velocity anomaly in upper mantle beneath NE Afro Arabian continent.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 193, No. 3-4, pp. 423-36.Mantle, ArabiaGeophysics - seismics, Plume - tomography, Afar Depression
DS200712-0719
2007
Cara, M.Merrer, S., Cara, M., Rivera, L., Ritsema, J.Upper mantle structure beneath continents: new constraints from multi-mode Rayleigh wave dat a in western North America and southern Africa.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, 6, L06309.United States, Africa, South AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-0761
2007
Cara, M.Montagner, J.P., Marty, B., Stutzmann, E., Sicilia, D., Cara, M., Pik, R., Leveque, Roult, Beucier, DeBayleMantle upwellings and convective instabilities revealed by seismic tomography and helium isotope geochemistry beneath eastern Africa.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, 21, Nov. 16, ppp. L21303.AfricaConvection
DS200612-0220
2005
Caracas, R.Caracas, R., Cohen, R.E.Effect of chemistry on the stability and elasticity of the perovskite and post-perovskite phase in the MgSiO3 FeSi03 Al203 system and implications for the lowermost mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, 16, Aug. 28, L16310MantlePerovskite
DS201012-0087
2010
Caracas, R.Caracas, R.Carbonate melts in the Earth's mantle.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, AbstractMantleMelting
DS201112-0142
2011
Caracas, R.Caracas, R.Spin transition in Fe bearing perovskite: implications for the lower mantle.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.621.MantleSeismic anistrophy
DS201212-0078
2012
Caracas, R.Boffa Ballaran, T., Kurosov, A., Glazyrin, K., Frost, D.J., Merlini, M., Hanfland, M., Caracas, R.Effect of chemistry on the compressibility of silicate perovskite in the lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 333-334, pp. 181-190.MantlePerovskite
DS201312-0247
2013
Caracas, R.Ernok, A., Boffa Ballaran, T., Caracas, R., Miyajima, N., Bykova, E., Prakapenka, V., Liermann, H-P., Dubrovinsky, L.Pressure induced phase transitions in coesite.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractTechnologyCarbonatite
DS202005-0744
2020
Caracusi, A.Labidi, J., Barry, P.H., Bekaert, D.V., Broadley, M.W., Marty, B., Giunta, T., Warr, O., Sherwood Lollar, B., Fischer, T.P., Avice, G., Caracusi, A., Ballentine, C.J., Halldorsson, S.A., Stefansson, A., Kurz, M.D., Kohl, I.E., Young, E.D.Hydrothermal 15N15N abundances constrain the origins of mantle nitrogen.Nature, Vol. 580, 7803 pp. 367-371. Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen is the main constituent of the Earth’s atmosphere, but its provenance in the Earth’s mantle remains uncertain. The relative contribution of primordial nitrogen inherited during the Earth’s accretion versus that subducted from the Earth’s surface is unclear1,2,3,4,5,6. Here we show that the mantle may have retained remnants of such primordial nitrogen. We use the rare 15N15N isotopologue of N2 as a new tracer of air contamination in volcanic gas effusions. By constraining air contamination in gases from Iceland, Eifel (Germany) and Yellowstone (USA), we derive estimates of mantle d15N (the fractional difference in 15N/14N from air), N2/36Ar and N2/3He. Our results show that negative d15N values observed in gases, previously regarded as indicating a mantle origin for nitrogen7,8,9,10, in fact represent dominantly air-derived N2 that experienced 15N/14N fractionation in hydrothermal systems. Using two-component mixing models to correct for this effect, the 15N15N data allow extrapolations that characterize mantle endmember d15N, N2/36Ar and N2/3He values. We show that the Eifel region has slightly increased d15N and N2/36Ar values relative to estimates for the convective mantle provided by mid-ocean-ridge basalts11, consistent with subducted nitrogen being added to the mantle source. In contrast, we find that whereas the Yellowstone plume has d15N values substantially greater than that of the convective mantle, resembling surface components12,13,14,15, its N2/36Ar and N2/3He ratios are indistinguishable from those of the convective mantle. This observation raises the possibility that the plume hosts a primordial component. We provide a test of the subduction hypothesis with a two-box model, describing the evolution of mantle and surface nitrogen through geological time. We show that the effect of subduction on the deep nitrogen cycle may be less important than has been suggested by previous investigations. We propose instead that high mid-ocean-ridge basalt and plume d15N values may both be dominantly primordial features.
DS200812-0105
2008
Caragheorgheopol, A.Berderman, E., Caragheorgheopol, A., Clobanu, M., Pomorski, M., Pullia, A., Riboldi, S.,Traeger, M., Weick, H.Ion spectroscopy - a diamond characterization tool.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 17, 7-10, pp. 1159-1163.TechnologySpectroscopy
DS201606-1079
2016
Caran, S.Caran, S.Mineralogy and petrology of leucite ankaratrites with affinities to kamafugites and carbonatites from the Kayikoy area, Isparta, SW Anatolia, Turkey: implications for the influences of carbonatite metasomatism into the parental mantle sources of silica-unLithos, Vol. 256-257, pp. 13-25.Europe, TurkeyCarbonatite

Abstract: In the Kayiköy area of Isparta-Gölcük district, Inner Isparta Angle, SW Anatolia, Turkey, a small volume of newly discovered K-rich mafic potassic magma was emplaced in the form of dome in the vicinity of graben structures under Pliocene (3.68 ± 0.5 Ma) extensional tectonics. Kayiköy leucite ankaratrites are made up of abundant diopside, barian phlogopite and leucite, and lesser olivine, that rarely contains Cr-spinel, nepheline and haüyne, with abundant magnetite. They have low SiO2 (44.00-46.04 wt.%) and Al2O3 (12.10-12.64 wt.%) with high K2O (4.00-4.42 wt.%), CaO (13.50-14.40 wt.%) and MgO (8.52-9.36 wt.%), with high Cr (397-547 ppm) and moderate Ni (57-74 ppm) contents. They represent the less evolved silica-undersaturated mafic potassic magmas within the Isparta-Gölcük volcanic province, and may be considered another parental source to the wide spectrum of the K-rich rocks. They are highly enriched in most of the incompatible elements (e.g., Ba, 2761 to > 10,000 ppm; Sr, 3700-4074 ppm; Th, 33.60-36.99 ppm; Zr, 274-321 ppm) with high LREEs, low HREEs and elevated LREEs/HREEs ratios [(La/Yb)N, 73-80] and are comparable with kamafugite and carbonatites. Trace element patterns have negative P, Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies in common with the Italian kamafugite province and lack of a Eu anomaly, in contrast to the negative Eu anomaly of the Italian province. Their Sr87/86-Nd143/144 (0.703877-0.512765) isotopic compositions, together with those of other potassic volcanics from the Inner Isparta Angle, coincide with the West Quinling (China) kamafugites with highly depleted mantle signatures, and young East African carbonatites. Olivine-Cr-spinel pairs, high Mg# (0.69-0.73) numbers and Cr values, and high incompatible and LREE contents in Kayiköy leucite ankaratritic magma are consistent with near-primary magmas equilibrated with enriched and heterogeneous (peridotitic/pyroxenitic) mantle sources. On the basis of (i) their geochemical signatures [low Ti/Eu, elevated CaO/Al2O3 and (La/Yb)N ratios], (ii) consistency of parental magma compositions with experimental melt compositions for carbonated peridotites, and (iii) geochemical and isotopic affinities to kamafugites and carbonatites, it is inferred that the carbonatitic melts infiltrated the mantle sources of Kayiköy leucite ankaratritic magma, and induced the depletion of its SiO2 contents. Carbonate-bearing phonolitic parental melts formed by mixing of both silicate and carbonate-asthenospheric melts from convecting mantle, react with wall-rock peridotite to form diopside + phlogopite + olivine + apatite metasomatic veins as wehrlitic metasomes. Partial melting of such newly generated wehrlitic metasomes in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle resulted in the parental melts of Kayiköy leucite ankaratrites. Results also imply that the nature and composition of asthenosphere-derived silicate melts (basanitic, phonolitic or tephriphonolitic in composition) and percentage of mixed carbonatitic melts lead to the formation of discrete mantle metasomes within the Inner Isparta Angle lithospheric mantle. These metasomes are conducive to the generation of coeval potassic magmas with contrasting geochemical signatures (e.g., lamproitic, lamprophyric, kamafugitic) in a single tectonic setting.
DS201212-0110
2012
Carazzo, G.Carazzo, G., Jellinek, A.M.A new view of the dynamics, stability and longevity of volcanic clouds.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 325-326, pp. 39-51.MantleVolcanism
DS201212-0303
2012
Carazzo, G.Hodge, K.F., Carazzo, G., Jellinek, A.M.Experimental constraints on the deformation and breakup of injected magma.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 325-326, pp. 52-62.MantleMagmatism
DS1999-0112
1999
Carbno, G.B.Carbno, G.B., Canil, D.Mantle garnets from the Drybones Bay kimberlite and the on/off craton transition of the Slave Province.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)., Vol. 24, p. 19. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesGarnet peridotite, Petrology
DS2002-0248
2002
Carbno, G.B.Carbno, G.B., Canil, D.Mantle structure beneath the southwest Slave Craton: constraints from garnet geochemistry in Drybones Bay.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 129-42.Northwest TerritoriesKimberlite - geochemistry, Deposit - Drybones Bay
DS2003-0319
2003
Carbno, G.B.Davis, W.J., Canil, D., MacKenzie, J.M., Carbno, G.B.Petrology and U Pb geochronology of lower crust xenoliths and the development of aLithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 541-573.Northwest Territories, NunavutGeochronology
DS200412-0419
2003
Carbno, G.B.Davis, W.J., Canil, D., MacKenzie, J.M., Carbno, G.B.Petrology and U Pb geochronology of lower crust xenoliths and the development of a craton, Slave Province, Canada.Lithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 541-573.Canada, NunavutGeochronology
DS1991-0221
1991
Carbognin, L.Carbognin, L., Taroni, G.Correlation between percentage matrices - a new approachComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 477-488GlobalComputers, Correlation matrices
DS1994-0259
1994
Carbon, J.Carbon, J., Schubert, C.Late Cenozoic history of the eastern Llan Os of Venezuela: geomorphology and stratigraphy of Mesa Form.Quat. International, Vol. 21, pp. 91-100.VenezuelaGeomorphology, Mapire River Basin
DS1991-0222
1991
Carbonell, R.Carbonell, R., Smithson, S.B.Large scale anisotropy within the crust in the Basin and Range provinceGeology, Vol. 19, No. 7, July pp. 698-701NevadaGeophysics -seismics, Crustal model
DS1996-0227
1996
Carbonell, R.Carbonell, R., et al.Crustal root beneath the Urals: wide angle seismic evidenceScience, Vol. 274, No. 5285, Oct. 11, pp. 222-223.Russia, UralsGeodynamics, Geophysics - seismics
DS2000-0113
2000
Carbonell, R.Brown, D., Carbonell, R., Alvarez-Marron, TryggvasonCrustal and upper mantle structure reveal arc continent collision processes in the southern Uralides.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Europe, UralsCraton - East European, Magnitogorsk arc
DS2000-0137
2000
Carbonell, R.Carbonell, R., Gallart, J., Knapp, J.Seismic wide angle constraints on the crust of the southern UralsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 105, No. 6, June 10, pp. 13755-78.Russia, Urals, KolaGeophysics - seismics
DS2003-0171
2003
Carbonell, R.Brown, D., Carbonell, R., Kukkonen, I., Ayala, C., Golovanova, I.Composition of the Uralide crust from seismic velocity ( Vp Vs) heat flow , gravity andEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 210, 1-2, pp. 333-49.Russia, UralsGeophysics
DS200412-0222
2003
Carbonell, R.Brown, D., Carbonell, R., Kukkonen, I., Ayala, C., Golovanova, I.Composition of the Uralide crust from seismic velocity ( Vp Vs) heat flow , gravity and magnetic data.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 210, 1-2, pp. 333-49.Russia, UralsGeophysics
DS200412-0270
2004
Carbonell, R.Carbonell, R.On the nature of mantle heterogeneities and discontinuities: evidence from a very dense wide angle shot record.Tectonophysics, Vol. 388, 1-4, Sept. 13, pp. 103-117.Russia, UralsGeophysics - seismics, boundary, ultramafics, peridotit
DS201212-0261
2012
Carbonell, R.Griffin, W., Carbonell, R., Lenardic, A.The crust-mantle lithosphere system.34igc.org, Session abstractMantleGeodyanmics
DS201412-0054
2014
Carbonell, R.Bezada, M.J., Humphreys, E.D., Davila, J.M., Carbonell, R., Harnafi, M., Palomeras, I., Levander, A.Piecewise delamination of Moroccan lithosphere from beneath the Atlas Mountains.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 15, 4, pp. 975-985.Africa, MoroccoGeophysics
DS1984-0228
1984
Carbonin, S.Del negro, A., Carbonin, S., Domeneghetti, C., Molin, G.M.Crystal Chemistry and Evolution of the Clinopyroxene in a SuContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 86, No. 3, PP. 221-229.AustraliaRelated Rocks
DS2002-1355
2002
CarbonneRolandone, F., Jaupart, C., Mareschal, J.C., Gariepy, C., Bienfait, G., CarbonneSurface heat flow, crustal temperatures and mantle heat flow in the Proterozoic TransJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. 12, Dec. 12, 10.1029/2001JB000698Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, OntarioGeothermometry, Heat flow - tectonics
DS2003-1177
2003
CarbonneRolandone, F., Mareschal, J.C., Jaupart, C., Gariepy, C., Bienfait, G., CarbonneSurface heat flow, crustal temperatures and mantle heat flow in the Proterozoic TransJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 12, Dec. 6, pp. DO1 10.1029/2001JB000698OntarioGeothermometry
DS2003-0311
2003
Carbonne, C.Davaille, A., Le Bars, M., Carbonne, C.Thermal convection in a heterogeneous mantleComptes Rendus Geoscience, Vol. 335, 1, pp. 141-156.MantleGeothermometry
DS200412-1682
2003
Carbonne, C.Rolandone, F., Mareschal, J.C., Jaupart, C., Gariepy, C., Bienfait, G., Carbonne, C., Lapointe, R.Surface heat flow, crustal temperatures and mantle heat flow in the Proterozoic Trans Hudson Orogen, Canadian Shield.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, 12, Dec. 6, pp. DO1 10.1029/2001 JB000698Canada, OntarioGeothermometry
DS200512-0686
2005
Carbonne, C.Mareschal, J.C., Jaupart, C., Rolandone, F., Gariepy, C., Fowler, C.M., Bienfait, G., Carbonne, C., Lapointe, R.Heat flow, thermal regime, and elastic thickness of the lithosphere in the Trans-Hudson Orogen.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 4, April pp. 517-532.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeothermometry
DS1991-1028
1991
Carbote, S.M.Macdonald, K.C., Scheirer, D.S., Carbote, S.M.Mid-ocean ridges: discontinuities, segments and giant cracksScience, Vol. 253, August 30, pp. 986-994GlobalTectonics, Mid-ocean ridges
DS1993-0945
1993
Carbotte, S.Macdonald, K.C., Scheirer, D.S., Carbotte, S.It's only topography: part 1Gsa Today, Vol. 3, No. 1, January p. 1, 24, 25GlobalSonar mapping systems, Ridges, offsets, tectonics, structure
DS2003-0209
2003
Carcione, J.M.Carcione, J.M., Finetti, I.R., Gei, D.Seismic modeling of the the Earth's deep crustGeophysics, Vol. 68, 2, pp. 656-64.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200412-0271
2003
Carcione, J.M.Carcione, J.M., Finetti, I.R., Gei, D.Seismic modeling of the the Earth's deep crust.Geophysics, Vol. 68, 2, pp. 656-64.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-0676
2005
Card, C.Mahan, K.H., Williams, M.L., Dumond, G., Card, C.Reconstruction of a large deep crustal terrane: implications for the Snowbird tectonic zone and early growth of Laurentia.GAC Annual Meeting Halifax May 15-19, Abstract 1p.Canada, Alberta, SaskatchewanTrans Hudson Orogen, tectonics
DS200612-0681
2005
Card, C.Kelley, L., Card, C., et al.Diamonds - overview Fort a la Corne and projects.Saskatchewan Exploration and Development Highlights 2005, pp. 20-25.Canada, SaskatchewanOverview - brief
DS2000-0039
2000
Card, C.D.Ashton, K.E., Hartlaub, R.P., Card, C.D.The northeastern Rae Province in SaskatchewanGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 4p. abstractSaskatchewanTectonics, lithostratigraphy, Craton
DS2000-0138
2000
Card, C.D.Card, C.D., Bethune, K.M., Ashton, K.E., Heaman, L.M.The Oldman Bulyea shear zone: the Nevins Lake Block - Train Lake domain boundary, eastern Rae Province.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 4p. abstractSaskatchewan, Western CanadaDeformation - stratigraphy, Tectonics
DS2002-0072
2002
Card, C.D.Ashton, K.E., Hartlaub, R.P., Heaman, L.M.,Card, C.D.Neoarchean history of the Rae province in northern Saskatchewan: insights into Archean tectonism.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.4., p.4.SaskatchewanTectonics
DS2002-0073
2002
Card, C.D.Ashton, K.E., Hartlaub, R.P., Heaman, L.M.,Card, C.D.Neoarchean history of the Rae province in northern Saskatchewan: insights into Archean tectonism.Gac/mac Annual Meeting, Saskatoon, Abstract Volume, P.4., p.4.SaskatchewanTectonics