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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - B-Bd


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - B-Bd
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS1990-0144
1990
B.C. and Yukon Chamber of MinesB.C. and Yukon Chamber of MinesCordilleran geology and exploration roundupB.c. And Yukon Chamber Of Mines, Program February 6-9 1990GlobalCordillern Roundup, Exploration
DS1991-0047
1991
B.M.R.B.M.R.Rockchem: whole rock geochemical databases. check pricesAustralian Bureau of Mineral Resources, DatabasesAustraliaGeochemistry, Rockchem databases
DS1992-0058
1992
B.M.R.B.M.R.Rock chem dat a sets. Alkaline rocks of Australia. 111 analyses ( 557lamproites and related rock types from Fitzroy and Argyle areas and 277 from alkaline rocksBmr Australia Rockchem Data Sets, Please note cost $ 1200.00AustraliaData sets -rock chemistry, Geochemistry lamproites
DS201012-0872
2010
Ba, D.Yang, J., Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Li, Y., Li, J., Jia, Y., Liu, Z., Ba, D.Diamond in the Purang peridotite Massif, west of the Yarlung Zangbu Suture, Tibet: a new discovery.Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, abstractAsia, TibetPurang Massif
DS201112-1131
2011
Ba, D.Yang, J., Xu, X., Li, Y., Liu, Z., Li, J., Ba, D., Robinson, P.T.Diamond discovered from six different ultramafic massifs along the Yarlung Zangbu suture between the Indian and Eurasian plates.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Oct. 9-12, abstractAsia, IndiaMantle harzburgites
DS201605-0922
2016
Ba, D.Xiong, F., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Xu, X., Ba, D., Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Rong, H.Diamonds ad other exotic minerals recovered from peridotites of the Dangqiong ophiolite, western Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, 2, pp. 425-439.Asia, TibetPeridotite

Abstract: Various combinations of diamond, moissanite, zircon, quartz, corundum, rutile, titanite, almandine garnet, kyanite, and andalusite have been recovered from the Dangqiong peridotites. More than 80 grains of diamond have been recovered, most of which are pale yellow to reddish-orange to colorless. The grains are all 100-200 µm in size and mostly anhedral, but with a range of morphologies including elongated, octahedral and subhedral varieties. Their identification was confirmed by a characteristic shift in the Raman spectra between 1325 cm-1 and 1333 cm-1, mostly at 1331.51 cm-1 or 1326.96 cm-1. Integration of the mineralogical, petrological and geochemical data for the Dongqiong peridotites suggests a multi-stage formation for this body and similar ophiolites in the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone. Chromian spinel grains and perhaps small bodies of chromitite crystallized at various depths in the upper mantle, and encapsulated the UHP, highly reduced and crustal minerals. Some oceanic crustal slabs containing the chromian spinel and their inclusion were later trapped in suprasubduction zones (SSZ), where they were modified by island arc tholeiitic and boninitic magmas, thus changing the chromian spinel compositions and depositing chromitite ores in melt channels.
DS202004-0500
2020
Ba, M.H.Ba, M.H., Ibough, H., Lo, K., Youbi, N., Jaffal, M., Ernst, R.E., Niang, A.J., Dia, I., Abdeina, E.H., Bensalah, M.K., Boumehdi, M.A., Soderlund, U.Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Precambrian mafic dyke swarms in northern Mauritania ( West African Craton): analysis and results fro remote sensing interpretation, geographical information systems ( GIS), Google Earth TM images, and regionaArabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 13, , 209 orchid.org/ 0000-002-3287-9537Africa, Mauritaniacraton

Abstract: We used remote sensing, geographical information systems, Google Earth™ images, and regional geology in order to (i) improve the mapping of linear structures and understand the chronology of different mafic dyke swarms in the Ahmeyim area that belongs to the Archean Tasiast-Tijirit Terrane of the Reguibat Shield, West African craton, NW Mauritania. The spatial and temporal distributions with the trends of the dyke swarms provide important information about geodynamics. The analysis of the mafic dyke swarms map and statistical data allow us to distinguish four mafic dyke swarm sets: a major swarm trending NE-SW to NNE-SSW (80%) and three minor swarms trending EW to ENE-WSW (9.33%), NW-SE to WNW-ESE (9.06%), and NS (1.3%). The major swarms extend over 35 km while the minor swarms do not exceed 13 km. The Google Earth™ images reveal relative ages through crossover relationships. The major NE-SW to NNE-SSW and the minor NS swarms are the oldest generations emplaced in the Ahemyim area. The NW-SE-oriented swarm dykes which are cutting the two former swarms are emplaced later. The minor E-W to WSW-ENE swarms are probably the youngest. A precise U-Pb baddeleyite age of 2733?±?2 Ma has been obtained for the NNE-SSW Ahmeyim Great Dyke. This dyke is approximately 1500 m wide in some zone and extends for more than 150 km. The distinct mafic dyke swarms being identified in this study can potentially be linked with coeval magmatic events on other cratons around the globe to identify reconstructed LIPs and constrain continental reconstructions.
DS1986-0130
1986
Baadsgaard, H.Cavell, P.A., Baadsgaard, H., Lambert, R.St.J.Samarium-Neodymium, Rubidium-Strontium, and Uranium-Lead systematics of the Big Spruce Lake alkaline carbonatiteGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting, Vol. 11, p. 53-54. (abstract.)OntarioFoyalite, ijolite, geochronology, Carbonatite
DS1989-0232
1989
Baadsgaard, H.Cavell, P.A., Baadsgaard, H.The Kaminak Lake alkaline intrusion parts of NTS 55 Lnorthwest Territories Geology Division, DIAND., EGS 1989-05, 22p. 1 map 1:15, 000Northwest TerritoriesAlkaline rocks
DS1989-1141
1989
Baadsgaard, H.Nutman, A.P., Friend, C.R.L., Baadsgaard, H., McGregor, V.R.Evolution and assembly of Archean gneiss terranes in the Godthabsfjordregion, southern West Greenland: structural, metamorphic and isotopic evidenceTectonics, Vol. 8, No. 3, June pp. 573-589GreenlandOrogeny, Tectonics
DS1990-1596
1990
Baadsgaard, H.Xianyu Xue, Baadsgaard, H., Irving, A.J., Scarfe, C.M.Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lithospheric mantle beneath West Kettle River, British Columbia: evidence from ultramafic xenoliths #2Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. B 10, September 10, pp. 15, 879-15, 891British ColumbiaGeochemistry, Mantle xenoliths
DS1996-0471
1996
Baadsgaard, H.Friend, C.R.L., Nutman, A.P., Baadsgaard, H., KinnyTiming of late Archaean terrane assembly, crustal thickening, and granite emplacement in the Nuuk regionEarth and Plan. Sci. Letters, Vol. 142, pp. 353-365GreenlandArchean, Terranes
DS1990-1597
1990
Baadsgard, H.Xianyu Xue, Baadsgard, H., Irvingm A.J., Scarfe, C.S.Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lithospheric mantle beneath West Kettle River British Columbia: evidence from ultramafic xenoliths #1Eos, Vol. 71, No. 28, July 10, p. 824. AbstractBritish ColumbiaMantle, Xenolith
DS1990-0145
1990
Baafi, E.Y.Baafi, E.Y., Ichwan, Z.A fortran based microcomputer screen handling system for miningapplicationsAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, No. 90-93, 6pGlobalGeostatistics, Mining applications
DS1989-0050
1989
Baag, C.Baag, C., Lee, D.K.Absence of magnetic anomalies due to seepage -induced 'magnetotelluriceffects' and implications for sulfide self potentialsGeophysics, Vol. 54, No. 9, September pp. 1174-1179GlobalGeophysics, S-P.
DS1975-0234
1976
Baars, D.L.Baars, D.L.The Colorado Plateau Aulacogen-key to Continental Scale Basement Rifting.Proceedings SECOND International CONFERENCE ON BASEMENT TECTONICS, No. 2, PP. 157-164.GlobalMid-continent
DS1983-0115
1983
Baars, D.L.Baars, D.L.The Colorado Plateau: a Geologic HistoryAlbuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, United States, Colorado PlateauGeology
DS1990-0146
1990
Baars, D.L.Baars, D.L.Conjugate basement rift zones in Kansas, Midcontinent USA #1Geological Society of Australia, Abstracts No. 26, 9th. Inter. Conference on, p. 24, AbstractKansasTectonics, Midcontinent
DS1992-0059
1992
Baars, D.L.Baars, D.L.Conjugate basement rift zones in Kansas, Midcontinent USA #2Basement Tectonics, 9th. Proceedings, editor, Rickard, H.J., pp. 197-206.KansasTectonics, Midcontinent Rift
DS1986-0131
1986
Baarsgaards, H.Cavell, P.A., Baarsgaards, H.Geochronology of the Big Spruce Lake alkaline intrusionCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan. pp.1-10Northwest TerritoriesGeochronology
DS201609-1730
2010
Baartjes, N.L.Morris, N., Baartjes, N.L.The social impact of diamond mining - is it time to revisit the scorecard?The 4th Colloquium on Diamonds - source to use held Gabarone March 1-3, 2010, 10p.GlobalCSR

Abstract: In South Africa, diamond~ are mined predominantly in rural areas. Kimberlitic diamonds dominate in Limpopo and the Northern Cape Provinces whereas alluvial diamonds are mainly soureed from the North West and Northern Cape Provinces. There are a few large and medium sized diamond companies (De Beers, Petra Diamonds, Trans Hex, Rockwell and Alexkor). There are many smaller companies involved in diamond mining, mostly alluvial diamond mines. The nature of alluvial diamond deposits is that they are aerially more extensive and thus their surface impacts are more pervasive: The recent downturn in diamond prices has resulted in the sudden cessation of mining at many small and medium diamond operations. The South African Mining Charter requires all mines, including diamond mines, to subscribe to .the following empowerment objectives: • Human Resource Development • Employment Equity • Non-Discrimination of Migrant Labourers • Increased Procurement from HDSA Communities • Mine Community and Rural Development • Improvement of Housing and Living Conditions • Change in Ownership/Management and Joint Ventures • Increase in Benificiation. Companies are required to report annually on progress in achieving their commitments qnd these interventions are subject to audit. The recent focus on the West Coast of South Africa (Van Wyk et al., 2009) emphasized the ongoing social problems that persist ill mining communities in spite of mines being there for more than half a century. This paper focuses on the delayed implementation of sustainable development strategies by diamond producers and delayed monitoring by government departments. This delay will continue to result in ongoing negative effects. This is seen across all diamond mining regions in South Africa. Towns like Douglas, Barkley West, Swartruggens and Zebedelia will all show similar levels of post closure decay and dereliction. There is evidence that many companies do report on their compliance to the Mining Scorecard requirements. This is particularly easier to see with listed companies where Scorecard compliance is made public. However, the dilemma facing state departments lies with verifying the accuracy of the information and more critically the impact of the strategies and interventions. Ongoing criticism of diamond producers are that they fail to implement local economic development strategies and thereby leave the communities in which they operate severely destitute. What is often overlooked is that the period to 2009 (from the gazetting of the MPRDA until the conversion of old to new order rights)was a period in which many companies were required to establish their baselines, develop plans and submit these for approval. The current Scorecard indicators emphasise planning, implementation and integration of strategies. This. paper will thus examine the measurement of strategy impact (social, economic and environment) on mining communities and recommend some measures of impact that couid be incorporated into an expanded Scorecard.
DS201606-1077
2016
Baasner, A.Baasner, A., Medard, E., Laporte, D., Hoffer, G.Partial melting of garnet lherzolite with water and carbon dioxide at 3 Gpa using a new melt extraction technique: implications for intraplate magmatism.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 171, 45p.MantleMagmatism

Abstract: The origin and source rocks of alkali-rich and SiO2-undersatured magmas in the Earth’s upper mantle are still under debate. The garnet signature in rare earth element patterns of such magmas suggests a garnet-bearing source rock, which could be garnet lherzolite or garnet pyroxenite. Partial melting experiments were performed at 2.8 GPa and 1345-1445 °C in a piston-cylinder using mixtures of natural lherzolite with either 0.4 wt% H2O and 0.4 wt% CO2 or 0.7 wt% H2O and 0.7 wt% CO2. Different designs of AuPd capsules were used for melt extraction. The most successful design included a pentagonally shaped disc placed in the top part of the capsule for sufficient melt extraction. The degrees of partial melting range from 0.2 to 0.04 and decrease with decreasing temperature and volatile content. All samples contain olivine and orthopyroxene. The amounts of garnet and clinopyroxene decrease with increasing degree of partial melting until both minerals disappear from the residue. Depending on the capsule design, the melts quenched to a mixture of quench crystals and residual glass or to glass, allowing measurement of the volatile concentrations by Raman spectroscopy. The compositions of the partial melts range from basalts through picrobasalts to foidites. Compared to literature data for melting of dry lherzolites, the presence of H2O and CO2 reduces the SiO2 concentration and increases the MgO concentration of partial melts, but it has no observable effect on the enrichment of Na2O in the partial melts. The partial melts have compositions similar to natural melilitites from intraplate settings, which shows that SiO2-undersaturated intraplate magmas can be generated by melting of garnet lherzolite in the Earth’s upper mantle in the presence of H2O and CO2.
DS200612-0617
2006
Baba, K.Ichiki, M., Baba, K., Obayashi, M., Utada, H.Water content and geotherm in the upper mantle above the stagnant slab: interpreation of electrical conductivity and seismic P wave velocity models.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 155, 1-2, April 14, pp. 1-15.MantleGeothermometry, harzburgite, back arc volcanism
DS1985-0031
1985
Babadzha, R.D.Babadzha, R.D., Borobev, S.A., Kalinin, B.N., Mun, V.V.Effect of Supressing the Outcome of the Ultrarelativistic Electron X-ray Diffraction Radiation in Diamonds.Zhurn. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 55, No. 8, PP. 1645-1646.RussiaDiamond Refraction
DS1989-0051
1989
Babaei, A.Babaei, A.Deformation in the western and eastern plunge of the Benton Uplift, ArkansawGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 21, No. 4, p. 2. (abstract.)ArkansasOuachita Mountains, Tectonics
DS1990-0147
1990
Babaei, A.Babaei, A.Evolution of antivergent folds on a Paleozoic accretionary prism, Arkansaw:an alternative viewGeology, Vol. 18, No. 10, October pp. 987-990ArkansasTectonics, Folding
DS1992-0060
1992
Babaei, A.Babaei, A., Viele, G.W.Two decked nature of the Ouachita Mountains, ArkansawGeology, Vol. 20, No. 11, November pp. 995-998ArkansasStructure, Ouachita Mountains - general
DS1985-0340
1985
Babaev, V.G.Khvostov, V.V., Guseva, M.B., Babaev, V.G., Rylova, O. YU.Transformation of Diamond and Graphite Surfaces by Ion Irradiation.Solid State Communications, Vol. 55, No. 5, PP. 443-445.GlobalExperimental Petrology
DS2002-0434
2002
Babanskii, A.D.Ermakov, V.A., Babanskii, A.D., Ermakov, A.V.The first find of ultramafic nodules on the Greater Kuril Island ArcDoklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 384, 4, May-June pp. 353-6.RussiaNodules
DS1990-1526
1990
Babanskiy, A.D.Vrublevskiy, V.V., Babanskiy, A.D., Troneva, N.V., Yelisafenko, V.N.Minerogenesis conditions of carbonatites of Kuznetsk Alatau.(Russian)Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geol., (Russian), No. 12, pp. 65-81RussiaCarbonatite, Mineralogy
DS200912-0021
2009
Babansky, A.Babansky, A., Solovova, I.Mineralogy and geochemistry of K rich basalts of the central part of the Sredinnyi Range, Kamchatka.alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractRussiaMineralogy
DS1980-0043
1980
Babar, G.R.Babar, G.R.Classification of Rough DiamondsTranscript of Paper From Diamond Seminar, Bombay, 5P.IndiaDiamond Industry
DS201601-0025
2015
Babarina, I.I.Kargin, A.V., Babarina, I.I., Bogatikov, O.A., Yutkina, E.V., Kondrashov, I.A.Paleproterozoic Kimozero kimberlite ( Karelian Craton): geological setting and geochemical typing.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 465, 1, pp. 1135-1138.RussiaDeposit - Kimozero

Abstract: Geological and structural mapping of Paleoproterozoic Kimozero kimberlite with account for lithological facies and geochemical specialization provides evidence for the multiphase structure of the kimberlite pipe, which underwent fragmentation as a result of shear–faulting deformations. Two geochemical types of kimberlite (magnesium and carbonate) are distinguished.
DS202010-1848
2020
Babarina, I.I.Kargin, A.V., Nosova, A.A., Babarina, I.I., Dokuchaev, A.Ya., Kondrashov, I.A.Paleproterozoic kimberlites of Kimozero: petrographic facies recstruction of kimberlite pipe overcoming tectonic and metamorphic modification.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 493, 1, pp. 522-525.Russiadeposit - Kimozero

Abstract: Based on a detailed petrographic investigation and geological observations of the Paleoproterozoic Kimozero kimberlite (Karelia, Russia), we present a new model of kimberlite pipe with multiphase and mono-crater structure. We recognised volcanoclastic and coherent kimberlite series that filled the inner and outer zones of the kimberlite crater. The multiphase structure, emplacement style, petrography and reconstructed size of the Kimozero kimberlite correspond to Phanerozoic kimberlite pipes.
DS1975-0235
1976
Babayan, G.D.Babayan, G.D., et al.Physicogeological Basis for Formulating Geophysical Studies for Kimberlite Pipe Prospecting in the Yakutsk Province.In: Application of Geophysical Methods In Prospecting For Ki, Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1975-0236
1976
Babayan, G.D.Babayan, G.D., et al.Reflection of Fault Tectonics of the Malo- Botuobinskii Region in the Gravity Field.In: Application of Geophysical Methods In Prospecting For Ki, Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS201905-1069
2019
Babazadeh, S.Raeisi, D., Gholoizade, K., Nayebi, N., Babazadeh, S., Nejadhadad, M.Geochemistry and mineral composition of lamprophyre dikes, central Iran: implications for petrogenesis and mantle evolution.Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 128:74Europe, Iranlamprophyre

Abstract: Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian magmatic rocks that range in composition from mafic to felsic have intruded into the Hour region of the central Iranian micro-continent. The Hour lamprophyres are alkaline, being characterized by low contents of SiO2 and high TiO2, Mg# values, high contents of compatible elements, and are enriched in LREE and LILE but depleted in HFSE. Mineral chemistry studies reveal that the lamprophyres formed within a temperature range of ~1200° to 1300°C and relatively moderate pressure in subvolcanic levels. The Hour lamprophyres have experienced weak fractional crystallization and insignificant crustal contamination with more primitive mantle signatures. They were derived from low degree partial melting (1-5%) of the enriched mantle characterized by phlogopite/amphibole bearing lherzolite in the spinel-garnet transition zone at 75-85 km depth, and with an addition of the asthenospheric mantle materials. We infer the Hour lamprophyres to be part of the alkaline rock spectrum of the Tabas block and their emplacement, together with that of other alkaline complexes in the central Iran, was strongly controlled by pre-existing crustal weakness followed by the asthenosphere-lithospheric mantle interaction during the Early Cambrian.
DS1984-0124
1984
Babcock, J.W.Babcock, J.W.Introduction to Geologic Ore Deposit ModelingMining Engineering, Vol. 36, No. 12, DECEMBER PP. 1631-1636.South AfricaGenesis, Model, Kimberlite
DS1992-0061
1992
Babcock, R.Babcock, R., Wilton, T.Status of revisions to the Mining Law (USA)Seg Newsletter, No. 11, October pp. 8, 9United StatesLaw, Mining -revisions
DS1860-0175
1872
Babe, J.L.Babe, J.L.The South African Diamond Fields (1872) Vaal RiverNew York: D. Wesley And Co., 105P.Africa, South Africa, Griqualand WestProspecting, Alluvial placers
DS201612-2340
2016
Babechuk, M.G.Stead, C.V., Tomlinson, E.L., Kamber, B.S., Babechuk, M.G., McKenna, C.A.REE determination in olivine by LA-Q-ICP-MS: an analytical strategy and applications.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press availableTechnologyREE mass fractions

Abstract: Olivine offers huge, largely untapped, potential for improving our understanding of magmatic and metasomatic processes. In particular, a wealth of information is contained in rare earth element (REE) mass fractions, which are well studied in other minerals. However, REE data for olivine are scarce, reflecting the difficulty associated with determining mass fractions in the low ng g-1 range and with controlling the effects of LREE contamination. We report an analytical procedure for measuring REEs in olivine using laser ablation quadrupole-ICP-MS that achieved limits of determination (LOD) at sub-ng g-1 levels and biases of ~ 5-10%. Empirical partition coefficients (D values) calculated using the new olivine compositions agree with experimental values, indicating that the measured REEs are structurally bound in the olivine crystal lattice, rather than residing in micro-inclusions. We conducted an initial survey of REE contents of olivine from mantle, metamorphic, magmatic and meteorite samples. REE mass fractions vary from 0.1 to double-digit ng g-1 levels. Heavy REEs vary from low mass fractions in meteoritic samples, through variably enriched peridotitic olivine to high mass fractions in magmatic olivines, with fayalitic olivines showing the highest levels. The variable enrichment in HREEs demonstrates that olivine REE patterns have petrological utility.
DS1990-0148
1990
BabelBabelEvidence for early Proterozoic plate tectonics from seismic reflection profiles in the Baltic Shield.Nature, Vol. 348, Nov. 1, pp. 34-38.Finland, Norway, Sweden, Baltic StatesGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics, model, MOHO, subduction
DS1986-0003
1986
Babenko, V.V.Afanasyev, V.P., Gerasimov, A.Yu., Babenko, V.V.Self-limitation of picroilmenite during reduction processes as a resultof anistropy of the mechanicalproperties.(Russian)In: Mineralogical crystallography and its application to mineral, pp. 159-163RussiaMineralogy, Picroilmenite
DS1988-0002
1988
Babenko, V.V.Afanasyev, V.P., Babenko, V.V.Migration properties of kimberlite mineralsDokl. Acad. Sciences USSR Earth Science Section, Vol. 303, No. 6, pp. 141-144RussiaAlluvials, Modeling, kimberlite miner
DS1988-0003
1988
Babenko, V.V.Afanasyev, V.P., Babenko, V.V.Migration properties of kimberlite minerals.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 303, No. 3, pp. 714-718RussiaMineralogy, Migration
DS1995-1795
1995
Babeyko, A.Yu.Sobolev, S.V., Widmer, R., Babeyko, A.Yu.3-D temperature and composition in the upper mantle constraint by global seismic tomography/mineral physicsProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 561-563.MantleTomography, Geophysics -seismics
DS201012-0030
2010
Babich, I.yu.Babich, Yu.V., Feigelson, B.N., Babich, I.yu., Chepurov, A.I.Specifics of the distribution of nitrogen defects in synthetic diamonds of cubic habit: IR mapping data.Geochemistry International, Vol. 48, 10, pp. 1028-1034.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS1999-0695
1999
Babich, Y.Sonin, V.M., Bagriantsev, D.G., Turkin, A.I., Babich, Y.Formation of pseudohemimorphic diamond crystals during dissolution in a thermal gradient.in RUSSIAN.Proceedings Russ. Min. Soc., (Russian), Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 122125.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS200912-0022
2009
Babich, Y.V.Babich, Y.V., Feigelson, B.N.Spatial distribution of the nitrogen defects in syntheic diamond monocrystals: dat a of IR mapping.Geochemistry International, Vol. 47, 1, pp. 94-98.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS1989-0052
1989
Babich, Yu.V.Babich, Yu.V., Doroshev, A.M., Malinovskii, I.Yu.Heat-activated transformation of coesite at standard pressureSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 140-146RussiaCoesite, Mineralogy
DS1998-0064
1998
Babich, Yu.V.Babich, Yu.V., Turkin, A.I., Gusak, S.N.Pecularities of high pressure coesite quartz transformation in presence of water and carbon dioxideRussian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 694-8.GlobalCoesite, Mineralogy
DS201012-0030
2010
Babich, Yu.V.Babich, Yu.V., Feigelson, B.N., Babich, I.yu., Chepurov, A.I.Specifics of the distribution of nitrogen defects in synthetic diamonds of cubic habit: IR mapping data.Geochemistry International, Vol. 48, 10, pp. 1028-1034.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS201611-2098
2016
Babich, Yu.V.Babich, Yu.V., Feigelson, B.N., Chepurov, A.I.Manifestation of nitrogen interstitials in synthetic diamonds obtained usign a temperature gradient technqiue ( Fe-Ni-C system).Geochemistry International, Vol. 54, 10, pp. 992-927.TechnologySynthetics

Abstract: The IR-peak 1450 cm-1 (H1a-center) associated with nitrogen interstitials have been studied in nitrogen-bearing diamonds synthesized at high P-T parameters in the Fe-Ni-C system. FTIR study shows that manifestation of this nitrogen form is restricted to the regions of active transformation of C-defects into A-defects, which confirms the connection of its formation with C => A aggregation process. An examination of the dependence of the 1450 cm-1 peak on the degree of nitrogen aggregation indicates that H1a-centers are not only formed during C/A aggregation but also disappear simultaneously with the end of C => A transformation. Established facts suggest direct involving of nitrogen as interstitials in the C => A aggregation and serve as strong experimental argument in support of the "interstitial" mechanism of nitrogen migration during aggregation in diamonds containing transition metals.
DS202011-2071
2020
Babich, Yu.V.Zhimulev, E.I., Babich, Yu.V., Karpovich, Z.A., Chepurov, A.I., Pokhilenko, N.P.Low nitrogen diamond growth in Fe-C-S system.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 494, 1, pp. 696-698.Russiadiamond genesis

Abstract: The first results on diamond growth in the Fe-?-S system with 1 wt % S (relative to Fe) at 6 GPa and 1450°C have been reported. The diamonds obtained contain about 30 ppm N, on average, and belong to the low-N transition diamond group Ib-IIa. It has been suggested that the reduction conditions formed by certain active elements such as S can play an important role in the formation of natural low-N diamonds.
DS200812-0594
2008
Babichev, A.V.Korobeyniko, S.N., Polyansky, V.G., Babichev, A.V., Reverdatto, V.V.Computer modeling of underthrusting and subduction under conditions of gabbro eclogite transition in the mantle.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 421, 1, pp. 724-728.MantleSubduction
DS201212-0563
2012
Babichev, A.V.Polansky, O.P., Korobeynikov, S.N., Babichev, A.V., Reverdatto, V.V.Formation and upwelling of mantle diapirs through the cratonic lithosphere: numerical thermomechanical modeling.Petrology, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 120-137.Russia, SiberiaMagmatism
DS202002-0204
2019
Babiel, F.Lobanov, S.S., Holtgrewe, N., Ito, G., Badro, J., Piet, H., Babiel, F., Lin, J-F., Bayarjargal, L., Wirth, R., Schrieber, A., Goncharov, A.F.Blocked radiative heat transport in the hot pyrolitic lower mantle.Researchgate.com, 32p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: The heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (QCMB) is the key parameter to understand the Earth/s thermal history and evolution. Mineralogical constraints of the QCMB require deciphering contributions of the lattice and radiative components to the thermal conductivity at high pressure and temperature in lower mantle phases with depth-dependent composition. Here we determine the radiative conductivity (krad) of a realistic lower mantle (pyrolite) in situ using an ultra-bright light probe and fast time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. We find that the mantle opacity increases critically upon heating to ~3000 K at 40-135 GPa, resulting in an unexpectedly low radiative conductivity decreasing with depth from ~0.8 W/m/K at 1000 km to ~0.35 W/m/K at the CMB, the latter being ~30 times smaller than the estimated lattice thermal conductivity at such conditions. Thus, radiative heat transport is blocked due to an increased optical absorption in the hot lower mantle resulting in a moderate CMB heat flow of ~8.5 TW, at odds with present estimates based on the mantle and core dynamics. This moderate rate of core cooling implies an inner core age of about 1 Gy and is compatible with both thermally- and compositionally-driven ancient geodynamo.
DS1859-0116
1855
Babinet, J.Babinet, J.Du Diamant et des Pierres PrecieusesParis: Revue De Deux Mondes, Vol. 9, PP. 799-823.GlobalDiamond
DS1860-0059
1868
Babinet, J.Babinet, J.Du Diamant et des Pierres Precieuses. Etudes et Lectures Sur Les Sciences D'observation et Leurs Applications.Paris:, Vol. 3, PP. 8-89.GlobalGemology
DS1996-0064
1996
Babinski, M.Babinski, M., Chemale, F. Jr., et al.Juvenile accretion at 750 -700 Ma in southern BrasilGeology, Vol. 24, No. 5, May, pp. 439-442BrazilTectonics, Orogenic belts, Vila Nova belt
DS1997-0057
1997
Babinski, M.Babinski, M., Chemale, Jr. F., Da Silva, L.C.uranium-lead (U-Pb) and Sm neodymium geochronology of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneissic DomFeliciano BeltJournal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 263-274BrazilGeochronology
DS1999-0035
1999
Babinski, M.Babinski, M., Van Schmus, W.R., Chemale, F.lead lead dating and lead isotope geochemistry of Neoproterozoic carbonate rocks-Sao Francisco CratonChemical Geology, Vol. 160, No. 3, Aug. 10, pp. 175-201.BrazilTectonics, metamorphism
DS200512-1137
2004
Babinski, M.Ventura Santos, R., Souza de Alvarenga, C.J., Babinski, M., Ramos, M.L.S., Cukrov, N., Fonsec, M.A., Da NorbregaCarbon isotopes of Mesoproterozoic Neoproterozoic sequences from southern Sao Francisco craton and Aracuai Belt, Brazil: paleogeorgraphic implications.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, 1, Dec. 30, pp. 27-39.South America, BrazilGeomorphology, glaciation, geochronology,carbonatites
DS201809-1992
2018
Babinski, M.Babinski, M., McGee, B., do Couto Tokashiki, C., Tassinari, C.C.G., Souza Saes, G., Cavalante Pinho, F.E.Comparing two arms of an orogenic belt during Gondwana amalgamation: age and provenance of Cuiaba Group, northern Paraguay, Brazil.South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 85, pp. 6-42.South America, Brazilgeochronology

Abstract: The Cuiabá Group is the basal part of the sequence of passive margin sediments that unconformably overly the Amazonian Craton in central Brazil. Despite these rock's importance in understanding Brazil's path in the supercontinent cycle from Rodinia to Gondwana and their potential record of catastrophic glaciation their internal stratigraphy and relationship to other units is still poorly understood. The timing of deposition and source areas for the subunits of the Cuiabá Group sedimentary rocks are investigated here using integrated U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope data. We sampled in the northern Paraguay Belt, a range that developed in response to the collision between the Amazonian Craton, the Rio Apa Block, the São Francisco Craton and the Paranapanema Block. 1125 detrital zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages were calculated and 22 whole rock samples were used for Sm-Nd isotope analysis. The U-Pb ages range between Archean and Neoproterozoic and the main source is the Sunsás Province. Moving up stratigraphy there is a subtle increase in slightly younger detritus with the youngest grain showing an age of 652?±?5 Ma, found at the top of the sequence. The age spectra are similar across each of the sampled units and when combined with the Sm-Nd data, indicate that the source of the detritus was mostly similar throughout deposition. This is consistent with the analysis here that indicates sedimentation occurred in a passive margin environment on the southern margin of the Amazonian Craton. The maximum depositional age of 652?±?5 Ma along with the age of the overlying cap carbonate of the Mirassol d’Oeste Formation suggests that part of this section of sediments were deposited in the purportedly global ~636 Ma Marinoan glaciation, although we give no sedimentological evidence for glaciation in the study area. Compared to the southern Paraguay Belt where no direct age constraints exist, the glacial epoch could be either Cryogenian or Ediacaran. In addition, available data in the literature indicates a diachronous evolution between the northern and southern arms of the Paraguay Belt in the final stages of deposition and deformation.
DS1950-0313
1957
Bablyuk, B.Bablyuk, B.Yakutskii AlmazyYakutsk: Yakutskie Knizhnoe Izdat., 118P.RussiaKimberlite, Diamond, History, Kimberley
DS1950-0454
1959
Bablyuk, B.T.Bablyuk, B.T.Klady Amakinskoi TaigiMoskova: Izdatelstvo, Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Kimberley, Mining, Open Cut
DS202008-1381
2020
BabuChoudhary, B.R., Santosh, M., Ravi, S., Babu, EVSSKIndicator mineral ( spinel) from the Wajrakarur kimberlites, southern India: implications for diamond potential and prospectivity.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractIndiadeposit - Wajraarur, Kalandurg

Abstract: P-5 and Kl-4 Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1110 Ma) kimberlites from the Wajrakarur and Kalyandurg clusters, Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), southern India are intruded into the diamondiferous cratonic roots. The spinel compositions is straddling between magnesian ulvöspinel (Group-1 kimberlite) and titanomagnetite (Group-2 kimberlite), comparable with orangeite and lamproites. These Ti-rich minerals have orangeitic affinity, as in the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, and reflect the high Ti-, high Ca- and the low Al-bearing nature of the parent magma (Group II kimberlites). Larger chrome spinel macrocrysts/xenocrysts show >500 µm of size with distinctly high chromium (Cr2O3 up to 59.62 wt%), and TiO2-poor (<1.19 wt%). The high chromium spinel macrocrysts represent fragments of mantle xenocrysts and their composition falls within the diamond stability field. The groundmass spinel has been replaced by Ti- schorlomite. The schorlomite garnet represents solid solution of schorlomite -pyrope -almandine-grossular and Crrich schorlomite -pyrope -almandine- uvarovite solid solution. These associations recommend that the schorlomite formed through the replacement of spinel through interaction of late residual fluids/melts in the final stages of crystallization of the kimberlite magma and enrichment in Fe and Ti in schorlomite suggests the involvement of metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Present study may have useful application in diamond prospectivity.
DS201602-0191
2015
Babu, A.K.Azeez, A., Veraswarmy, K.K., Gupta, K., Babu, A.K.The electrical resistivity structure of lithosphere across the Dharwar craton nucleus and Coorg block of South Indian Shield: evidence of collision and modified and preserved lithosphere.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 120, 10, pp. 6698-6721.IndiaGeophysics - craton

Abstract: Magnetotelluric-derived two-dimensional lithospheric resistivity structure of the western Dharwar craton (WDC) and adjoining Coorg block indicates isolated low-resistivity zones in the crust and three striking upper mantle conductive features within the highly resistive Archean lithosphere. The crustal conductors in the WDC show good spatial correlation with the exposed supracrustal rocks conformable with the relic schist belt channels having conductive mineral grains. Conductive zones within the Coorg crust might be related to the relatively young (933?Ma) metamorphic processes in the area and/or possible fluids derived from the Cretaceous passage of Reunion plume in the proximity of Coorg area. A near-vertical conductive structure extending from the lower crust into the upper mantle coincides with the transition zone between Coorg and WDC. This is interpreted as the suture zone between the two tectonic blocks and provides evidence for the individuality of the two Archean terrains. An anomalous upper mantle conductive zone found beneath the craton nucleus may indicate a modified cratonic lithosphere. This could have been derived due to the collision between Coorg and WDC and possibly survived by the subsequent multiple episodes of melt and fluid infiltration processes experienced in the region. Thick (~190?km) and preserved lithosphere is mapped at the eastern segment of WDC. Resistive lithosphere of ~125?km thickness is imaged for the Coorg block.
DS201112-0841
2011
Babu, B.B.Rama Rao, Ch., Kishore, R.K., Kumar, R.P., Babu, B.B.Delineation of intra crustal horizon in Eastern Dharwar Craton - an aeromagntic evidence.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, 2, Jan. pp. 534-541.IndiaGeophysics - magnetics
DS200912-0023
2009
Babu, E.V.S.S.KBabu, E.V.S.S.K, Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Mainkar, D., Pashine, J.K., Sirikant Rao, R.Mantle xenoliths from the Kodamali kimberlite pipe, Bastar Craton, central India: evidence for decompression melting and crustal contamination mantleGoldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A66 Abstract.IndiaMelting
DS1998-1054
1998
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Mukherjee, A., Rao, K.S., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Cluster analysis and nickel thermometry of garnet xenocrysts from Majhgawan diamondiferous pipe, Panna.Journal of Geological Society India, Vol. 52, No. 3, Sept. pp. 273-278.India, Madhya PradeshGeothermometry, Deposit - Majhgawan
DS1998-1207
1998
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Rao, K.S., Babu, E.V.S.S.K., Roy, G.Compositional study of spinels from Wajrakarur Pipe 10 (Anumpalle)Ananthapur District diamond prospectivityJournal of Geological Society India, Vol. 52, No. 6, Dec. pp. 677-82.IndiaPetrology - spinels, Deposit - Pipe 10
DS2000-0691
2000
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Mukherjee, A., Tripathi, A., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Chemistry of eclogitic garnets from Bahradih kimberlite, Raipur District, Madhya Pradesh.Journal of Geological Society India, Vol. 56, No. 4, Oct. 1, pp. 425-30.India, Madhya PradeshGeochemistry, Deposit - Bahradih
DS2000-0692
2000
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Mukherjee, A., Tripathi, A., Singh, P., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Chemistry of eclogitic garnets from Bahradih kimberlite Raipur District, Madhya Pradesh.Journal of Geolo. Soc. India, Vol. 56, pp. 425-30.India, Madhya PradeshGarnet - chemistry, Deposit - Bahradih
DS200612-0064
2005
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Babu, E.V.S.S.K., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Pearson, N.J.Sub-continental lithospheric mantle structure of the eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India at 1.1Ga: study of garnet xenocrysts from kimberlites.Geological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 73-74.India, Andhra Pradesh, Dharwar CratonTectonics
DS200612-0953
2005
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Mukherje, A., Gupta, A.K., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Majhgawan Diamondiferous pipe, Madhya Pradesh, India: is it a Group 1 kimberlite or Orangeite ( Group II kimberlite) or a lamproite?Geological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 113.India, Madhya Pradesh, Aravalli Bundelkhand CratonClassification
DS200812-0071
2008
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Babu, E.V.S.S.K., Griffin, W.L., Mukherjee, A., O'Reilly, S.Y., Belousova, E.A.Combined U Pb and Lu Hf analysis of megacrystic zircons from the Kalyandurg 4 kimberlite pipe, S. India: implications for the emplacement age and HF isotopic..9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractIndiaGeochronology - cratonic mantle
DS200912-0267
2009
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Griffin, W.L., Kobussen, A.F., Babu, E.V.S.S.K., O'Reilly, S.Y., Norris, R., Sengupta, P.A translithospheric suture in the vanished 1 Ga lithospheric root of South India: evidence from contrasting lithospheric sections in the Dharwar Craton.Lithos, In press available, 31p.IndiaKimberlites - xenoliths
DS201012-0251
2009
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Griffin, W.L., Kobussen, A.F., Babu, E.V.S.S.K., O'Reilly, S.Y., Norris, R., Sengupta, P.A translithospheric suture in the vanished 1 Ga lithospheric root of South India: evidence from contrasting lithosphere sections in the Dharwar craton.Lithos, Vol. 112 S pp. 1109-1119.IndiaKimberlites and garnet geotherms
DS201502-0083
2014
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Mukherjee, A., Jha, S., Babu, E.V.S.S.K., Verma, C.B.Discovery of a kimberlite pipe near Budikonda, Dharwar craton, south India: field approaches, preliminary petrography and mineral chemistry. KL-7Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 84, 6, pp. 633-644.India, South IndiaKalyandurg cluster
DS201808-1786
2018
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Satyanarayanan, M., Subba Rao, D.V., Renjith, M.L., Singh, S.P., Babu, E.V.S.S.K., Korakoppa, M.M.Petrogenesis of carbonatitic lamproitic dykes from Sidhi gneissic complex, central India.Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 9, 2, pp. 531-547.Indialamproite

Abstract: Petrographic, mineral chemical and whole-rock geochemical characteristics of two newly discovered lamproitic dykes (Dyke 1 and Dyke 2) from the Sidhi Gneissic Complex (SGC), Central India are presented here. Both these dykes have almost similar sequence of mineral-textural patterns indicative of: (1) an early cumulate forming event in a deeper magma chamber where megacrystic/large size phenocrysts of phlogopites have crystallized along with subordinate amount of olivine and clinopyroxene; (2) crystallization at shallow crustal levels promoted fine-grained phlogopite, K-feldspar, calcite and Fe-Ti oxides in the groundmass; (3) dyke emplacement related quench texture (plumose K-feldspar, acicular phlogopites) and finally (4) post emplacement autometasomatism by hydrothermal fluids which percolated as micro-veins and altered the mafic phases. Phlogopite phenocrysts often display resorption textures together with growth zoning indicating that during their crystallization equilibrium at the crystal-melt interface fluctuated multiple times probably due to incremental addition or chaotic dynamic self mixing of the lamproitic magma. Carbonate aggregates as late stage melt segregation are common in both these dykes, however their micro-xenolithic forms suggest that assimilation with a plutonic carbonatite body also played a key role in enhancing the carbonatitic nature of these dykes. Geochemically both dykes are ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O: 3.0 -9.4) with low CaO, Al2O3 and Na2O content and high SiO2 (53.3 -55.6 wt.%) and K2O/Al2O3 ratio (0.51 -0.89) characterizing them as high-silica lamproites. Inspite of these similarities, many other features indicate that both these dykes have evolved independently from two distinct magmas. In dyke 1, phlogopite composition has evolved towards the minette trend (Al-enrichment) from a differentiated parental magma having low MgO, Ni and Cr content; whereas in dyke 2, phlogopite composition shows an evolutionary affinity towards the lamproite trend (Al-depletion) and crystallized from a more primitive magma having high MgO, Ni and Cr content. Whole-rock trace-elements signatures like enriched LREE, LILE, negative Nb-Ta and positive Pb anomalies; high Rb/Sr, Th/La, Ba/Nb, and low Ba/Rb, Sm/La, Nb/U ratios in both dykes indicate that their parental magmas were sourced from a subduction modified garnet facies mantle containing phlogopite. From various evidences it is proposed that the petrogenesis of studied lamproitic dykes stand out to be an example for the lamproite magma which attained a carbonatitic character and undergone diverse chemical evolution in response to parental melt composition, storage at deep crustal level and autometasomatism.
DS202005-0722
2020
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Kumar, T.V., Screeenivas, B., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.A review of Paleo- to Neoarchean crust evolution in the Dharwar craton, southern India and the transition towards a plate tectonic regime.Episodes ( IUGS), Vol. 43, 1, pp. 51-68.Indiacraton

Abstract: An emerging view is that Earth’s geodynamic regime witnessed a fundamental transition towards plate tectonics around 3.0 Ga (billion years). However, the manifestations of this change may have been diachronous and craton-specific. Here, we review geological, geophysical and geochronological data (mainly zircon U-Pb age-Hf isotope compositions) from the Dharwar craton representing over a billion year-long geologic history between ~3.5 and 2.5 Ga. The Archean crust comprises an oblique section of ~12 km from middle to deep crust across low- to mediumgrade granitegreenstone terranes, the Western and Eastern Dharwar Cratons (WDC and EDC), and the highgrade Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT). A segment of the WDC preserving Paleo- to Mesoarchean gneisses and greenstones is characterised by ‘dome and keel’ structural pattern related to vertical (sagduction) tectonics. The geology of the regions with dominantly Neoarchean ages bears evidence for convergent (plate) tectonics. The zircon U-Pb age-Hf isotope data constrain two major episodes of juvenile crust accretion involving depleted mantle sources at 3.45 to 3.17 Ga and 2.7 to 2.5 Ga with crustal recycling dominating the intervening period. The Dharwar craton records clear evidence for the operation of modern style plate tectonics since ~2.7 Ga.
DS202009-1611
2020
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Kumar, T.V., Sreenivas, B., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.A review of Paleo to Neoarchean crustal evolution in the Dharwar craton, southern Indian and the transition towards a plate tectonic regime.Episodes, Vol. 43, 1, pp. 51-68.Indiacraton

Abstract: An emerging view is that Earth’s geodynamic regime witnessed a fundamental transition towards plate tectonics around 3.0 Ga (billion years). However, the manifestations of this change may have been diachronous and craton-specific. Here, we review geological, geophysical and geochronological data (mainly zircon U-Pb age-Hf isotope compositions) from the Dharwar craton representing over a billion year-long geologic history between ~3.5 and 2.5 Ga. The Archean crust comprises an oblique section of ~12 km from middle to deep crust across low- to mediumgrade granitegreenstone terranes, the Western and Eastern Dharwar Cratons (WDC and EDC), and the highgrade Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT). A segment of the WDC preserving Paleo- to Mesoarchean gneisses and greenstones is characterised by ‘dome and keel’ structural pattern related to vertical (sagduction) tectonics. The geology of the regions with dominantly Neoarchean ages bears evidence for convergent (plate) tectonics. The zircon U-Pb age-Hf isotope data constrain two major episodes of juvenile crust accretion involving depleted mantle sources at 3.45 to 3.17 Ga and 2.7 to 2.5 Ga with crustal recycling dominating the intervening period. The Dharwar craton records clear evidence for the operation of modern style plate tectonics since ~2.7 Ga.
DS202011-2035
2020
Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Choudhary, B.R., Santosh, M., Ravi, S., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.Spinel and Ti-rich schorlomite from the Wajrakarur kimberlites, southern India: implications for metasomatism, diamond potential and orangeite lineage.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 126, 103727, 19p. PdfIndiadeposit - Wajrakarur

Abstract: Kl-4 and P-5 mesoproterozoic kimberlite pipes along with several other well-known diamondiferous (ca. 1110 Ma) kimberlites in the Wajrakarur kimberlite field (WKF) intruded into the cratonic roots of Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC) in southern India. The groundmass minerals of the kimberlites exhibit inequigranular texture contain spinel, Ti-rich schorlomite garnet, two generations of olivine (macrocrysts and groundmass microphenocrysts), phlogopite, perovskite, clinopyroxene (diopside), ilmenite (low Mn) and rare apatite. We identified three distinct spinel associations in Kl-4 and P-5: (i) fine-grained (<50 µm) microcrysts in the groundmass; (ii) resorbed euhedral atoll spinel, consisting of titanomagnetite (magnesian-ulvospinel-magnetite to titanian-chrome-magnetite) which is isolated from the rim of magnetite by spongy lagoon phase of schorlomite, and (iii) larger chrome spinel macrocrysts/xenocrysts (>500 µm). The schorlomite garnet in both P-5 and Kl-4 represents solid solution of schorlomite-pyrope-almandine-grossular. Additionally, Kl-4 contains another Cr-rich schorlomite-pyrope-almandine-uvarovite solid solution. Macrocrystic spinel exhibits distinct composition of chromium (Cr2O3 up to 59.62 wt%), and poor in TiO2 (<1.19 wt%). The high chromium spinel macrocrysts from Kl-4 are confirmed to be fragments of mantle xenocrysts and their composition falls within the diamond stability field. Atoll-textured epitaxial mantled resorbed spinel associated with schorlomite suggests that they formed through the replacement of spinel possibly through interaction of late residual fluids/melts in the final stages of crystallization of the kimberlite magma. The significant enrichment of Fe and Ti in schorlomite suggests the involvement of metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. It is also inferred that spinel immiscibility played an important role in the metasomatic replacement. The Ti-rich minerals have orangeitic affinity, similar to those in the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, and suggest the high Ti-, high Ca- and the low Al-bearing nature of the parent magma (Group II kimberlites). The groundmass tetraferriphlogopite is Al- and Ba-poor and spinel show compositions straddling between magnesian ulvöspinel (Group I kimberlite) and titanomagnetite (Group II kimberlite) comparable with orangeite and lamproites. The results presented in this study suggest that the P-5 and Kl-4 has orengeitic or lamproitic affinity. Our findings can be useful as an indicator mineral in diamond prospecting.
DS200512-0051
2005
Babu, H.V.R.Babu, H.V.R., Lakshmi, M.P.Aeromagnetic image of a part of peninsular India and its relation to geology and geophysics.Exploration Geophysics, Vol. 36, 2, pp. 250-258.India, AsiaGeophysics - magnetics (not specific to diamonds)
DS1991-1398
1991
Babu, N.R.Rao, D.B, Babu, N.R.A FORTRAN 77 Computer program for a 3-dimensional analysis of gravity anomalies with variable density contrastJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 655-668GlobalGravity anomalies
DS1993-0057
1993
Babu, S.K.Babu, S.K., et al.A new venture for prospecting for diamonds in Diamondiferous kimberlitesRecent researches in Geology (India), Vol. 14, pp. 132-135.IndiaProspecting, Diamonds
DS1998-0065
1998
Babu, T.M.Babu, T.M.Diamonds in India; 1998Geological Society of India, 331p.India, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya PradeshBook - overview for layman, History, diamond cutting, prospects
DS200612-0065
2005
Babu, T.M.Babu, T.M.Integrated geological geochemical geophysical criteria to distinguish between diamond bearing and barren kimberlite bodies in India.Geological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 71.India, Andhra Pradesh, Dharwar CratonGeophysics
DS200612-0066
2006
Babu, T.M.Babu, T.M.Glory of diamonds in India.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 67, 6, pp. 818-819.IndiaHistory
DS1991-1395
1991
Babu Rao, V.Ramarao, Ch., Chetty, T.R.K., Lingaiah, A., Babu Rao, V.Delineation of a greenstone belt using aeromagnetics, Land sat and photogeology - a case study from the South Indian ShieldGeoexploration, Vol. 28, pp. 121-137IndiaRemote sensing, Geophysics -magnetics, linements
DS1991-1283
1991
Babuin, D.Pala, S., Barnett, P.J., Babuin, D.Quaternary geology of Ontario, northern sheetOntario Geological Survey Map, No. 2553OntarioQuaternary, Geomorphology
DS201412-0022
2014
BabusAshchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, N.N., Ntaflos, T., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Prokopiev, S.A., Downes, H., Smelov, A.P., Agashev, A.M., Logvinova, A.M., Kuligin, S.S., Tychkov, N.S., Salikhov, R.F., Stegnitsky, Yu.B., Alymova, N.V., Vavilov, M.A., Minin, V.A., BabusLayering of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Siberian Craton: modeling using thermobarometry of mantle xenolith and xenocrysts. Tectonophysics, Vol. 634, 5, pp. 55-75.Russia, YakutiaDaldyn, Alakit, Malo-Botuobinsky fields
DS201012-0721
2010
BabushkinSmelov, A.P., Andreev, Altukhova, Babushkin, Bekrenev, Zaitsev.Izbekov, Koroleva, Mishmin, Okrugin, OleinkovKimberlites of the Manchary pipe: a new kimberlite field in central Yakutia.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 51, pp. 121-126.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Manchary
DS200712-0364
2007
BabushkinaGlebovitskii, V.A., Nikitina, L.P., Saltykova, A.K., Pushkarev, Y.D., Ovchinnikov, Babushkina, AshchepkovThermal and chemical heterogeneity of the upper mantle beneath the Baikal Mongolia territory.Petrology, Vol. 15, 1, pp. 58-89.RussiaGeothermometry
DS1996-0065
1996
Babushkina, M.S.Babushkina, M.S., et al.Mineralogy and isotopic geochemistry of the Baltic Shield lamproitesInternational Geological Congress 30th Session Beijing, Abstracts, Vol. 2, p. 386.Russia, Baltic Shield, KareliaGeochemistry, Lamproites
DS1997-0058
1997
Babushkina, M.S.Babushkina, M.S., et al.Compositions and real structures of phlogopites from the Kostomukshalamproites. *in RUSSIAN eng. abstractProceedings Russian Mineralogical Society *IN RUSSIAN ONLY, No. 2, pp. 71-84.RussiaLamproites
DS2000-0048
2000
Babushkina, M.S.Babushkina, M.S., Lepekhina, Nikitina, et al.Structural distortion of micas from lamproites: evidence from Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy.Doklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 371a, No. 3, Mar-Apr. pp. 575-8.RussiaLamproites, Mineralogy - micas
DS200812-0416
2007
Babushkina, M.S.Glebovitsky, V.A., Nikitin, L.P., Salitykova, A.K., Ovchinnikov, N.O., Babushkina, M.S., Egorov, AshchepkovCompositional heterogeneity of the continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Early Precambrian and Phanerozoic structures: evidence from mantle xenoliths.Geochemistry International, Vol. 45, 11, pp. 1077-1102.MantleKimberlites and basalts
DS200912-0253
2009
Babushkina, M.S.Glebovitsky, V.A., Nikitina, L.P., Vrevskii, A.B., Pushkarev, M.S., Babushkina, M.S.,Goncharov, A.G.Nature of chemical heterogeneity of the continental lithospheric mantle.Geochemistry International, Vol. 47, 9., Sept. pp. 857-881.MantleGeochemistry
DS201012-0540
2010
Babushkina, M.S.Nikitina, L.P., Goncharov, A.K., Babushkina, M.S.The redox state of the continental mantle of the Baikal Mongolia region.Geochemistry International, Vol. 48, 1, pp. 15-40.Russia, AsiaRedox
DS201806-1210
2018
Babushkina, M.S.Babushkina, M.S., Ugolkov, V.L., Marin, Yu.B., Nikitina, L.P., Goncharov, A.G.Hydrogen and carbon groups in the structures of rock forming minerals of rocks of the lithospheric mantle: FTIR and STA + QMS data. Lherzolites, peridotitesDoklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 479, 2, pp. 456-459.Russia, Siberiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: Using IR-Fourier spectrometry (FTIR) and simultaneous thermal analysis combined with quadrupole mass spectrometry of thermal decomposition products (STA + QMS), olivines and clinopyroxene from xenolites of spinel and garnet lherzolites contained in kimberlites and alkaline basalts were studied to confirm the occurrence of hydrogen and carbon within the structure of the minerals, as well as to specify the forms of H and C. The presence of hydroxyl ions (OH-) and molecules of crystal hydrate water (H2Ocryst) along with CO2, CH, CH2, and CH3 groups was detected, which remained within the structures of mantle minerals up to 1300°C (by the data of both techniques). The total water (OH-and H2Ocryst) was the prevailing component of the C-O-H system.
DS202006-0942
2020
Babushkina, M.S.Nikitina, L.P., Goncharov, A.G., Bogomolov, E.S., Beliatsky, B.V., Krimsky, R.Sh., Prichodko, V.S., Babushkina, M.S., Karaman, A.A.HFSE and REE geochemistry and Nd-Sr-Os systematics of peridotites in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the Siberian craton and central Asian fold belt junction area: data on mantle xenoliths.Petrology, Vol. 28, 2, pp. 207-219.RussiaREE

Abstract: Mantle xenoliths were found in alkaline basalts of Tokinsky Stanovik (TSt) in the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy superterrane (DS) and Vitim plateau (VP) in the Barguzin-Vitim superterrane (BV) (Stanovoy suture area) at junction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and the Siberian craton (SC). Xenoliths from TSt basalts are represented by spinel lherzolites, harzburgites, wehrlites; while VP basalts frequently contain spinel-garnet and garnet peridotites lherzolites, and pyroxenites. Xenoliths in kimberlites of the Siberian craton are mainly represented by garnet-bearing lherzolites with abundant eclogite xenoliths (age of 2.7-3.1 Ga), which were not found in mantle of superterranes. The Re-Os determinations point to the Early Archean age of peridotites and eclogites from mantle beneath the Siberian craton. The major and trace (rare-earth and high-filed strength) elements and Nd-Sr-Os composition were analyzed in the peridotites (predominant rocks) of lithospheric mantle at junction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and Siberian Craton. The degree of rock depletion in CaO and Al2O3 and enrichment in MgO relative to the primitive mantle in the peridotites of the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy superterrane is close to that of the Siberian craton. The peridotites of the Barguzin-Vitim superterrane are characterized by much lower degree of depletion and have mainly a primitive composition. Mantle melting degree reaches up to 45-50% in the Siberian Craton and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy superterrane, and is less than 25% in the Barguzin-Vitim terrane. The mantle peridotites of the craton as compared to those of adjacent superterranes are enriched in Ba, Rb, Th, Nb, and Ta and depleted in Y and REE from Sm to Lu. However, all studied peridotites are characterized by mainly superchondritic values of Nb/Ta (>17.4), Zr/Hf (>36.1), Nb/Y (>0.158), and Zr/Y (>2.474). The Nb/Y ratio is predominantly >1.0 in SC peridotites and < 1.0 in the superterrane peridotites. The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions in the latter correspond to those of oceanic basalts. The 187Os/188Os ratio is low (0.108-0.115) in the peridotites of the Siberian Craton and > 0.115 but usually lower than 0.1296 (primitive upper mantle value) in the peridotites of the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy and Barguzin-Vitim superterranes. Thus, the geochemical and isotopic composition of peridotites indicates different compositions and types of mantle beneath the Siberian craton and adjacent superterranes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the Early Archean, prior to the formation of 2.7-3.1 Ga eclogites in the cratonic mantle.
DS1995-0086
1995
Babushkina, S.A.Babushkina, S.A.Some phlogopite formation stages (on the example of study of phlogopite from the pipe Mir).Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 25-27.Russia, YakutiaMineralogy -phlogopite, Deposit -Mir
DS1997-0059
1997
Babushkina, S.A.Babushkina, S.A., Marshintsev, V.K.Composition of spinel, ilmenite, garnet and diopside inclusions in phlogopite macrocrysts Mir kimberlite.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 467-480.Russia, YakutiaPetrography, Deposit - Mir
DS2003-1255
2003
Babushkina, S.A.Shamshina, E.A., Altukhova, Z.A., Babushkina, S.A.Facial characteristics of kimberlite rocks from the northern and southern parts of the8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractRussia, YakutiaBlank
DS200412-1792
2003
Babushkina, S.A.Shamshina, E.A., Altukhova, Z.A., Babushkina, S.A.Facial characteristics of kimberlite rocks from the northern and southern parts of the Yakutian kimberlite province ( in the lig8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractRussia, YakutiaKimberlite petrogenesis
DS201804-0673
2018
Babushkina, S.A.Biller, A.Ya., Logvinova, A.M., Babushkina, S.A., Oleynikov, O.B., Sobolev, N.V.Shrilankite inclusions in garnets from kimberlite bodies and Diamondiferous volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Yakutian kimberlite province, Russia.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 478, 1, pp. 15-19.Russia, Yakutiadeposit - Yubileinaya

Abstract: Pyrope-almandine garnets (Mg# = 28.3-44.9, Ca# = 15.5-21.3) from a heavy mineral concentrate of diamondiferous kimberlites of the largest diamond deposit, the Yubileinaya pipe, along with kimberlite- like rocks and diamondiferous volcano-sediments of the Laptev Sea coast, have been found to contain polymineral, predominantly acicular inclusions, composed of aggregates of shrilankite (Ti2ZrO6), rutile, ilmenite, clinopyroxene, and apatite. The presence of shrilankite as an inclusion in garnets from assumed garnet-pyroxene rocks of the lower crust, lifted up by diamond-bearing kimberlite, allows it to be considered as an indicator mineral of kimberlite, which expands the possibilities when searching for kimberlite in the Arctic.
DS201809-2064
2018
Babushkina, S.A.Logvinova, A.M., Babushkina, S.A., Oleynikov, O.B., Sobolev, N.V.Shrilankite inclusions in garnets from kimberlite bodies and Diamondiferous volcanic sedimentary rocks of the Yakutian kimberlite province.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 478, 1, pp. 15-19.Russiadiamond inclusions

Abstract: Pyrope-almandine garnets (Mg# = 28.3-44.9, Ca# = 15.5-21.3) from a heavy mineral concentrate of diamondiferous kimberlites of the largest diamond deposit, the Yubileinaya pipe, along with kimberlite- like rocks and diamondiferous volcano-sediments of the Laptev Sea coast, have been found to contain polymineral, predominantly acicular inclusions, composed of aggregates of shrilankite (Ti2ZrO6), rutile, ilmenite, clinopyroxene, and apatite. The presence of shrilankite as an inclusion in garnets from assumed garnet-pyroxene rocks of the lower crust, lifted up by diamond-bearing kimberlite, allows it to be considered as an indicator mineral of kimberlite, which expands the possibilities when searching for kimberlite in the Arctic.
DS201909-2016
2019
Babushkina, S.A.Ashchepkov, I., Ivanov, A.S., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Vavilov, M.A., Vladykin, N., Babushkina, S.A., Tychkov, N.S., Medvedev, N.S.Mantle terranes of the Siberian craton: their interaction with plume melts based on thermobarometry and geochemistry of mantle xenocrysts.Solid Earth, Vol. 10, 2, pp. 197-245.Russia, Siberiamelting

Abstract: Variations of the structure and composition of mantle terranes in the terminology of the Siberian craton were studied using database (>60000) EPMA of kimberlite xenocrysts from the pipes of Yakutian kimberlite province (YKP) by a team of investigators from IGM, IGH, IEC and IGBM SB RAS and ALROSA company. The monomineral thermobarometry (Ashchepkov et al., 2010, 2014, 2017) Geochemistry of minerals obtained LA ICP MS was used to determine the protolith, melting degree, Type of the metasomatism . The mantle stratification commonly was formed by 6-7 paleosubduction slabs, separated by pyroxenite, eclogite, and metasomatic horizons and dunite lenses beneath kemberltes . We built mantle sections across the kimberlite field and transects of craton. Within the established tectonic terrains strengthening to thousands km (Gladkochub et al, 2006), the collage of microplates was determined at the mantle level. Under the shields of Anabar and Aldan lower SCLM consist of 3 -4 dunites dunites with Gar-Px-Ilm- Phl nests. Terranes framing protocratons like suture Khapchanskyare are saturated in eclogites and pyroxenites, sometimes dominated probably represent the ascending bodies of igneous eclogites intruding mantle lithosphere (ML). The ubiquitous pyroxenite layer at the level of 3.5-4.5 GPa originated in the early Archaean when melted eclogites stoped stoped subdction. Beneath the Early Archaean granite-greenstone terranes - Tunguskaya, Markhinskaya, Birektinskaya, Shary-Zhalgaiskaya (age to~3.8-3.0 GA) (Gladkochub et al., 2018) the SCLM is less depleted and often metasomatized having flat structures in some subterrains. Daldyn and Magan granulite-orthogneisic terranes have a layered and folded ML seen in N-S sections from Udachnaya to Krasnopresnenskaya less pronounced in latitudinal direction. From Daldyn to Alakit field increases the degree of Phl metasomatism and Cpx alkalinity. The most productive Aykhal and Yubleynaya pipes confined to the dunite core. Within the Magan terrane, the thin-layered SCLM have depleted base horizon. Granite-greenstone Markha terrane contains pelitic eclogites. Central and Northern craton parts show slight inclination of paleoslabs to West. The formation of SCLM in Hadean accompanied by submelting (Perchuk et al., 2018, Gerya, 2014.) had no deep roots. Ultrafine craton nuclei like Anabar shield was framed by steeper slab. During 3.8-3.0 GA craton keel growth in superplume periods (Condie, 2004) when melted eclogites and peridotites acquiring buoyancy of the sinking plate melted. For peridotites, the melting lines calculated from the experimental data (Herzberg, 2004) mainly lie near 5-6 GPA (Ionov et al., 2010; 2015). In classical works all geotherms are conductive (Boyd, 1973), but this is quite rare. The garnet pyroxene geotherms for (Ashchepkov et al., 2017) calculated with most reliable methods (Nimis, Taylor, 2000; McGregor , 1974; Brey Kohler, Nickel Green, 1985; Ashchepkov et al., 2010; 2017) give are sub-adiabatic and are formed during the melt percolation superplume vent often in presence of volatiles (Wyllie, Ryabchikov, 2000) and therefore, after superplumes trends P-Fe# of garnet are smoothed and change the tilts.
DS1993-0058
1993
Babuska, V.Babuska, V., Plomerova, J., Sileny, J.Models of seismic anisotropy in the deep continental lithospherePhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 78, pp. 167-191MantleGeophysics -seismics, Tectonics, Structure
DS1998-0066
1998
Babuska, V.Babuska, V., Montagner, J.P., Girardin, N.Age dependent large scale fabric of the mantle lithosphere as derived from surface wave velocity...Pure and Applied Geophys., Vol. 151, No. 2-4, Mar. 1, pp. 257-280.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Tectonics
DS1998-1171
1998
Babuska, V.Plomerova, J., Liebermann, R.C., Babuska, V.Geodynamics of lithosphere and earth's mantle: seismic anisotropy as arecord of the past and present dynamicsPure and Applied Geophys., Vol. 151, No. 2-4, Mar. 1, pp. 213-222.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Geodynamics
DS1999-0036
1999
Babuska, V.Babuska, V., Plomerova, J.Seismic anistropy - a method for studying the fabric of deep continentallithosphere.Global Tectonics and Met., Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. pp. 3-4.MantleLithosphere, Geophysics - seismics
DS2002-1270
2002
Babuska, V.Plomerova, J., Kouba, D., Babuska, V.Mapping the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary through changes in surface wave anisotropy.Tectonophysics, Vol. 358,1-4,pp. 175-185.MantleGeophysics -nseismics
DS200512-0052
2004
Babuska, V.Babuska, V., Plomerova, J.The Sorgenfrei Tornquist Zone as the mantle edge of Baltica lithosphere: new evidence from three dimensional seismic anisotropy.Terra Nova, Vol. 16, 5, pp. 243-249.Europe, Baltic ShieldGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-0067
2006
Babuska, V.Babuska, V., Plomerva, J.European mantle lithosphere assembled from rigid microplates with inherited seismic anisotropy.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 158, 2-4, pp. 264-280.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS200612-1094
2006
Babuska, V.Plomerova, J., Babuska, V., Vecsey, L., Kozlovskaya, E., Raita, T.SSTWG.Proterozoic Archean boundary in the mantle lithosphere of eastern Fennoscandia as seen by seismic anisotropy.Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 41, 4, May pp. 400-410.Europe, FennoscandiaGeophysics - seismics
DS201412-0068
2014
BabyBraun, J., Guillocheau, F., Robin, C., Baby, Guillaume, JelsmaRapid erosion of the southern African plateau as it climbs over a mantle superswell.Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 119, 7, pp. 6093-6112.Africa, southern AfricaGeomorphology
DS201801-0020
2018
Baby, G.Guillocheau, F., Simon, B., Baby, G., Bessin, P., Robin, C., Dauteuil, O.Planation surfaces as a record of mantle dynamics: the case of Africa.Gondwana Research, Vol. 53, 1, pp. 82-98.Africageodynamics

Abstract: There are two types of emerged relief on the Earth: high elevation areas (mountain belts and rift shoulders) in active tectonic settings and low elevation domains (anorogenic plateaus and plains) characteristic of the interior of the continents i.e. 70% of the Earth emerged relief. Both plateaus and plains are characterized by large erosional surfaces, called planation surfaces that display undulations with middle (several tens of kilometres) to very long (several thousands of kilometres) wavelengths, i.e. characteristic of lithospheric and mantle deformations respectively. Our objective is here (1) to present a new method of characterization of the very long and long wavelength deformations using planation surfaces with an application to Central Africa and (2) to reconstruct the growth of the very long wavelength relief since 40 Ma, as a record of past mantle dynamics below Central Africa. (i) The African relief results from two major types of planation surfaces, etchplains (weathering surfaces by laterites) and pediplains/pediments. These planation surfaces are stepped along plateaus with different elevations. This stepping of landforms records a local base level fall due to a local tectonic uplift. (ii) Central Africa is an extensive etchplain-type weathering surface - called the African Surface - from the uppermost Cretaceous (70 Ma) to the Middle Eocene (45 Ma) with a paroxysm around the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. Restoration of this surface in Central Africa suggests very low-elevation planation surfaces adjusted to the Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean with a divide located around the present-day eastern branch of the East African Rift. (iii) The present-day topography of Central Africa is younger than 40 -30 Ma and records very long wavelength deformations (1000 -2000 km) with (1) the growth of the Cameroon Dome and East African Dome since 34 Ma, (2) the Angola Mountains since 15 -12 Ma increasing up to Pleistocene times and (3) the uplift of the low-elevation (300 m) Congo Basin since 10 -3 Ma. Some long wavelength deformations (several 100 km) also occurred with (1) the low-elevation Central African Rise since 34 Ma and (2) the Atlantic Bulge since 20 -16 Ma. These very long wavelength deformations record mantle dynamics, with a sharp increase of mantle upwelling around 34 Ma and an increase of the wavelength of the deformation and then of mantle convection around 10 -3 Ma.
DS1993-1837
1993
Baby, P.Zubieta-Rosseti, D., Huyghe, P., Mascle, G., Mugnier, J-L, Baby, P.Influence de l'heritage ante-devonien au front de la chaine andine (Partiecentrale de la Bolivie).(in French)Comptes Rendus Academy Science Paris, (in French), Tomb. 316, Series II, pp. 951-957BoliviaGeophysics -seismics, Structure
DS1997-0060
1997
Baby, P.Baby, P., Rochat, P., Mascle, G., Herail, G.Neogene shortening contribution to crustal thickening in the back arc Of the Central AndesGeology, Vol. 25, No. 10, Oct., pp. 883-886Bolivia, AndesThrust systems, Tectonics, geophysics
DS200512-0066
2005
Baby, P.Barragn, R., Baby, P., Duncan, R.Cretaceous alkaline intra-plate magmatism in the Ecuadorian Oriente Basin: geochemical, geochronological and tectonic evidence.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 236, 3-4, pp. 670-690.South America, EcuadorMagmatism
DS200412-0406
2004
Bach, T.Darbyshire, F.A., Larsen, T.B., Mosegaard, K., Dahl Jensen, T., Gudmundsson, O., Bach, T., Gregersen, S., PedeA first detailed look at the Greenland lithosphere and upper mantle; using Rayleigh wave tomography.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 158, 1, pp. 267-286.Europe, GreenlandGeophysics - seismic
DS201112-1047
2011
Bach, W.Timm, J., Scambelluri, M., Frische, M., Barnes, J.D., Bach, W.Dehydration of subducting serpentinite: implications for halogen mobility in subduction zones and the deep halogen cycle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 308, 1-2, pp. 65-76.MantleSubduction
DS201911-2526
2019
Bach, W.Giampouras, M., Garrido, C.J., Zwicker, J., Vadillo, I., Smrzka, D., Bach, W., Peckmann, J., Jemenez, P., Benavente, J., Garcia-Ruiz, J.M.Geochemistry and mineralogy of serpentinization driven hyperalkaline springs in the Ronda peridotite.Lithos, doi 10.1016/j.lithos.2019.105215, 75p. PdfEurope, Spaindeposit - Ronda

Abstract: We present a detailed study of the water geochemistry, mineralogy and textures in serpentinization-related hyperalkaline springs in the Ronda peridotites. Ronda waters can be classified into hyperalkaline fluids and river waters that are broadly similar to Ca2+-OH- and Mg2+-HCO3- water types described in serpentinite-hosted alkaline springs elsewhere. At the discharge sites of the fluids (fractures or human made outlets) and ponds along the fluid flow paths, the fluids are hyperalkaline (10.9 < pH < 12) and characterized by low Mg and high Na, K, Ca, and Cl concentrations. River waters, occurring near the spring sites, are mildly alkaline (8.5 < pH < 8.9) and enriched in Mg and DIC compared to Na, K, Ca and Cl. The chemistry of Ronda Mg-HCO3 river waters is likely due to the hydrolysis of ferromagnesian peridotite minerals in equilibrium with the atmosphere by infiltrated meteoric water and shallow groundwater in the serpentinized peridotite. The Ronda Ca-OH hyperalkaline fluids are generated by the combination of low temperature serpentinization reactions from infiltrated surface Mg-HCO3 river waters —or Ca-HCO3 waters from near karst aquifers— and deep carbonate precipitation isolated from atmospheric CO2. Mass balance calculations indicate that the weathering of Ca-bearing peridotite silicates such as diopside is a feasible source of Ca in Ronda Ca-OH hyperalkaline fluids; however, it requires steady-state dissolution rates substantially greater than those determined experimentally. Travertine, crystalline crusts and sediment deposits are the main types of solid precipitates observed in Ronda hyperalkaline spring sites. Calcite and aragonite, minor dolomite and Mg-Al-rich clays are the main minerals in the spring sites. As illustrated in the Baños del Puerto spring site, (i) calcite-dominated precipitation is due to hyperalkaline fluid uptake of atmospheric CO2 during discharge, and (ii) aragonite-dominated precipitation is due to mixing of Ca-OH hyperalkaline fluids with Mg- HCO3 river waters. Aragonite and dolomite contents increase away from the springs and toward the river waters that uniquely reflects the effect of Mg ions on the precipitation of aragonite versus calcite. Other potential factors controlling the precipitation of these CaCO3 polymorphs are the Mg/Ca ratio, the CO2 content, and the temperature of the fluids. Dolomite forms during lithification of travertine due to periodic flooding of river water combined with subsequent evaporation.
DS201711-2516
2017
Bachan, A.Havig, J.R., Hamilton, T.L., Bachan, A., Kump, L.R.Sulfur and carbon isotopic evidence for metabolic pathway evolution and a four stepped Earth system progression across the Archean and Paleoproterozoic.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 174, pp. 1-21.Mantlegeochronology

Abstract: The Earth's mantle has provided a ready redox gradient of sulfur compounds (SO2, H2S) since the stabilization of the crust and formation of the ocean over 4 billion years ago, and life has evolved a multitude of metabolic pathways to take advantage of this gradient. These transitions are recorded in the sulfur and carbon isotope signals preserved in the rock record, in the genomic records of extant microorganisms, and in the changing mantle and crust structure, composition and cycling. Here, we have assembled approximately 20,000 sulfur (d34S, ?33S, ?36S) and carbon (d13C) isotope data points from scientific publications spanning over five decades of geochemical analyses on rocks deposited from 4.0 to 1.5 Ga. We place these data in the context of molecular clock and tectonic and surface redox indicators to identify overarching trends and integrate them into a holistic narrative on the transition of the Earth's surface towards more oxidizing conditions. The greatest extreme in d34S values of sulfide minerals (- 45.5 to 54.9‰) and sulfate minerals (- 13.6 to 46.6‰) as well as d13C values in carbonate minerals (- 16.8 to 29.6‰) occurred in the period following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), while the greatest extremes in organic carbon d13C values (- 60.9 to 2.4‰) and sulfide and sulfate mineral ?33S and ?36S values (- 4.0 to 14.3‰ and - 12.3 to 3.2‰, respectively) occurred prior to the GOE. From our observations, we divide transitions in Earth's history into four periods: Period 1 (4.00 to 2.80 Ga) during which geochemical cycles were initialized, Period 2 (2.80 to 2.45 Ga) during which S and C isotope systems exhibit changes as conditions build up to the GOE, Period 3 (2.45 to 2.00 Ga) encompassing the GOE, and Period 4 (after 2.00 Ga) after which S and C isotopic systems remained relatively constant marking a time of Earth system geochemical quiescence. Using these periods, we link changes in S and C isotopes to molecular clock work to aid in interpreting emerging metabolic functions throughout Earth's history while underscoring the need for better proxies for robust evolutionary analyses. Specifically, results indicate: 1) an early development of sulfide oxidation and dissimilatory sulfite reduction followed by disproportionation and then sulfate reduction to sulfite resulting in a fully biologically mediated sulfur cycle by ~ 3.25 Ga; 2) support for the acetyl coenzyme-A pathway as the most likely earliest form of biologically mediated carbon fixation following methanogenesis; 3) an increasingly redox-stratified ocean in the Neoarchean with largely oxic surface water and euxinic bottom water during the first half of the Paleoproterozoic; and 4) that secular changes in Earth system crustal cycling dynamics and continent formation likely played a key role in driving the timing of the GOE. Finally, based on geochemical data, we suggest that the Paleoproterozoic be divided into a new Era of the Eoproterozoic (from 2.45 to 2.00 Ga) and the Paleoproterozoic (from 2.00 to 1.60 Ga).
DS1975-0932
1979
Bache, J.J.Bache, J.J.Rhodesia: a Paradise for the Mining GeologistChron. Recherche Miniere., Vol. 47, No. 449, MAY-JUNE, PP. 25-31.ZimbabweDiamonds
DS201412-0671
2014
Bachelery, P.Pelleter, A-A., Caroff, M., Cordier, C., Bachelery, P., Nehlig, P., Debeuf, D., Arnaud, N.Melilite bearing lavas as Mayotte ( France): an insight into the mantle source below the Comores.Lithos, in press available 57p.Europe, FranceMelilite
DS1984-0125
1984
Bachinski, S.W.Bachinski, S.W., Simpson, E.L.Ti Phlogopites of the Shaw's Cove Minette: a Comparison With Micas of Other Lamprophyres, Potassic Rocks, Kimberlites And Mantle Xenoliths.American MINERALOGIST., Vol. 69, No. 1-2, PP. 41-56.Canada, New BrunswickMineral Chemistry, Related Rocks, Analyses
DS1984-0126
1984
Bachinski, S.W.Bachinski, S.W., Simpson, E.L.Chemistry and Crystal Morphology of Feldspars of Minettes, Other Lamprophyres and Potassic Lamproites.Geological Association of Canada (GAC), Vol. 9, P. 43. (abstract.).Canada, New Brunswick, Norway, ScandinaviaPetrography, Mineral Chemistry
DS1986-0034
1986
Bachinski, S.W.Bachinski, S.W.Reconsideration of soda minettesMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 356, pt. 2, June pp. 199-204New BrunswickMinette, Review
DS200712-0044
2007
Bachmann, O.Bachmann, O., Miller, C.F., De Silva, S.L.The volcanic plutonic connection as a stage for understanding crustal magmatism.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 167, 1-4, pp. 1-23.MantleMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS200812-0072
2008
Bachmann, O.Bachmann, O., Bergantz, G.The magma reservoirs that feed supereruptions.Elements, Vol. 4, 1, Feb. pp. 17-22.MantleMagmatism
DS201708-1573
2017
Bachmann, O.Karakas, O., Degruyter, W., Bachmann, O., Dufek, J.life time and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 10, 6, p. 446.Mantlemagmatism

Abstract: Magmatic processes on Earth govern the mass, energy and chemical transfer between the mantle, crust and atmosphere. To understand magma storage conditions in the crust that ultimately control volcanic activity and growth of continents, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column during magmatic episodes is essential. Here we use a numerical model to constrain the physical conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that over long durations of intrusions (greater than 105 to 106?yr), extensive lower crustal mush zones develop, which modify the thermal budget of the upper crust and reduce the flux of magma required to sustain upper crustal magma reservoirs. Our results reconcile physical models of magma reservoir construction and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous volcanic and plutonic localities. Young igneous provinces (less than a few hundred thousand years old) are unlikely to support large upper crustal reservoirs, whereas longer-lived systems (active for longer than 1 million years) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of producing super-eruptions, even with intrusion rates smaller than 10-3 to 10-2?km3?yr-1. Hence, total duration of magmatism should be combined with the magma intrusion rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest explosive eruptions on Earth.
DS201910-2266
2019
Bachmann, O.Huber, C., Townsend, M., Degruyter, W., Bachmann, O.Optimal depth of subvolcanic magma chamber growth controlled by volatiles and crust rheology.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 12, pp. 762-768.Mantlemagmatism

Abstract: Storage pressures of magma chambers influence the style, frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions. Neutral buoyancy or rheological transitions are commonly assumed to control where magmas accumulate and form such chambers. However, the density of volatile-rich silicic magmas is typically lower than that of the surrounding crust, and the rheology of the crust alone does not define the depth of the brittle-ductile transition around a magma chamber. Yet, typical storage pressures inferred from geophysical inversions or petrological methods seem to cluster around 2?±?0.5?kbar in all tectonic settings and crustal compositions. Here, we use thermomechanical modelling to show that storage pressure is controlled by volatile exsolution and crustal rheology. At pressures ?1.5?kbar, and for geologically realistic water contents, chamber volumes and recharge rates, the presence of an exsolved magmatic volatile phase hinders chamber growth because eruptive volumes are typically larger than recharges feeding the system during periods of dormancy. At pressures >rsim2.5?kbar, the viscosity of the crust in long-lived magmatic provinces is sufficiently low to inhibit most eruptions. Sustainable eruptible magma reservoirs are able to develop only within a relatively narrow range of pressures around 2?±?0.5?kbar, where the amount of exsolved volatiles fosters growth while the high viscosity of the crust promotes the necessary overpressurization for eruption.
DS1989-0053
1989
Bachmann, P.K.Bachmann, P.K., Messier, R.Emerging technology of diamond thin filmsChemical and Engineering News, Vol. 67, No. 20, pp. 24-27, 30-39GlobalSynthetic diamond, Review
DS1991-0048
1991
Bachmann, P.K.Bachmann, P.K., Leers, D., Lydtin, H.Towards a general concept of diamond chemical vapour depositionDiamond and Related Materials, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-12GlobalCVD., Overview to date of methods
DS2002-1415
2002
Bachtadse, V.Schaltz, M., Resichmann, T., Tait, J., Bachtadse, V., Bahlburg, H., Martin, U.The Early Paleozoic break up of northern Gondwana, new paleomagnetic andInternational Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 91, No. 5, Oct. pp. 838-49.GermanyTectonics, Gondwana
DS1992-0062
1992
Bachu, S.Bachu, S., Song CaoPresent and past geothermal regimes and source rock maturation, Peace River Arch area, CanadaAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 76, No. 10, October pp. 1535-1549AlbertaStructure, Peace River Arch
DS1993-0059
1993
Bachu, S.Bachu, S.Basement heat flow in the western Canada sedimentary basinTectonophysics, Vol. 222, No. 1, pp. 119-133Saskatchewan, AlbertaHeat flow, Basin
DS1993-0060
1993
Bachu, S.Bachu, S.Basement heat flow in the Western Canada sedimentary basinTectonophysics, Vol. 222, No. 1, pp. 119-33.Western Canada, AlbertaGeothermometry
DS1999-0037
1999
Bachu, S.Bachu, S.Regional scale geothermal and hydrodynamic regimes in the Alberta Basin; asynthesis.Geothermics in Basin Analysis, Merriam Ed., pp. 81-98.Alberta, Western CanadaGeothermometry, Basin
DS201912-2770
2019
Bachynski, R.Bachynski, R., Suchan, J., Suchan, D.Curiousity project - an update on a newly acquired diamondiferous kimberlite. LI-201 ( Ekati arena)Yellowknife Forum NWTgeoscience.ca, abstract Volume p. 5.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Curiousity

Abstract: The Curiosity Property, located in the Slave Province to the southwest of Contwoyto Lake, is situated ~25 kilometers north of the Ekati Diamond Mine’s mineral rights. This newly acquired property hosts a known diamondiferous kimberlite, called “LI-201”, which was originally discovered in a 1997 diamond drill campaign. Multiple attempts have been made over the past twenty years to delineate the extent of the body using an assortment of traditional exploration methods, yet LI-201 continues to remain poorly understood in terms of its overall dimensions and diamond-bearing potential. As part of a ten-day exploration program in August 2019, 275 geochemical till samples and 170 biogeological samples were collected. Geochemical sampling along 100-meter spaced fences that are down-ice and approximately perpendicular to the main ice-flow direction were collected in an attempt to further prioritize key geophysical targets in the project area surrounding LI-201. In the vicinity of LI-201, geochemical and biogeological samples were collected as a pilot study in an attempt to investigate the potential microbial community’s response to the presence of kimberlite and to determine if a discernable relationship exists between soil geochemistry and microbial populations. Despite the inconclusive understanding of the kimberlitic body, historical samples of LI-201 show apparent geochemical endowment and bode well for the prospectivity of the project area as a whole. Currently, efforts are being made to compile, verify, and interpret historical data, in addition to integrating newly collected data and interpretations. At the time of presenting, only preliminary geochemical results will be available; microbiological results are pending. In the future, findings from this study will be used to assess the effectiveness of the microbiological method as a means of detecting the known footprint of LI-201, which may also offer insights to the true footprint of the kimberlitic body.
DS1990-0307
1990
Back, J.M.Chao, E.C., Tatsumoto, M., Erickson, R.L., Minkin, J.A., Back, J.M.Origin and ages of mineralization of Bayan Obo, the world's largest rareearth deposit, Inner Mongolia, ChinaUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 90-0538, 11p. 1 map 1: 100, 000 $ 2.00ChinaCarbonatite, Rare earths -Bayan Obo
DS1990-0308
1990
Back, J.M.Chao, E.C.T., Minkin, J.A., Back, J.M.Field and petrographic textural evidence for the epigenetic hydrothermalmetasomatic origin of the Bayan Obo rare earth ore deposit of inner Mongolia, ChinaInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 2, extended abstract p. 930-931ChinaCarbonatite, Baiyan Obo -petrography
DS1991-0257
1991
Back, J.M.Chao, E.C., Tatsumoto, M., Erickson, R.L., Minkin, J.A., Back, J.M., et al.Origin and age of mineralization of Bayan Obo, the world's largest rareearth ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, ChinaUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 90-0538, 11p. 1: 100, 000 $ 2.00ChinaRare earths, Carbonatite
DS1992-0234
1992
Back, J.M.Chao, E.C.T., Back, J.M., Minkin, J.A., en YinchenHost rock controlled epigenetic, hydrothermal metasomatic origin of the Bayan Obo rare earth elements (REE)-iron-Nb ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, P.R.C.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 7, pp. 443-458ChinaCarbonatite, Rare earths, Bayan Obo deposit
DS1990-0149
1990
Bacon, C.R.Bacon, C.R.Calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and primitive tholeiiticlavas from Monogenetic volcanoes near Crater Lake,OregonJournal of Petrology, Vol. 31, pt. 1, pp. 135-166OregonAlkaline rocks, Shoshonite
DS1994-0089
1994
Bacon, J.R.Bain, D.C., Bacon, J.R.Strontium isotopes as indicators of mineral weathering in catchmentsCatena, Vol. 22, pp. 201-214ScotlandBasins, Weathering - not specific to diamonds
DS1994-0090
1994
Bacon, J.R.Bain, D.C., Bacon, J.R.Strontium isotopes as indicators of mineral weathering in catchmentsCatena, Vol. 22, pp. 201-214.ScotlandBasins, Weathering - not specific to diamonds
DS1960-0783
1967
Bacon, L.O.Bacon, L.O.Relationship of Gravity to Geological Structure in Michigan's Upper Peninsula.Institute LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY, PP. 54-58.MichiganMid-continent
DS1975-1059
1979
Bacon, M.Hastings, D.A., Bacon, M.Geologic Structure and Evolution of Keta Basin, West AfricaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 90, PP. 889-892.West Africa, GuineaStructure, Tectonics
DS1996-0107
1996
Bada, J.L.Becker, L., Poreda, R.J., Bada, J.L.Extraterrestrial helium trapped in fullerenes in the Sudbury ImpactStructureScience, Vol. 272, April 12, pp. 249-252OntarioSIC, Impact crater
DS200412-0083
2004
Bada, J.L.Bada, J.L.How life began on Earth: a status report. Nothing to do with diamond exploration .. just interesting reading.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 226, 1-2, Sept. 30, pp.1-15.GlobalPrebiotic soup, metabolist theory, pre-RNA world
DS200812-1316
2008
Badal, J.Zhang, Z., Zhang, X., Badal, J.Composition of the crust beneath southeastern Chin a derived from an integrated geophysical set.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, B4, B04417ChinaGeophysics
DS201512-1938
2015
Badanina, I.Yu.Malich, K.N., Khiller, V.V., Badanina, I.Yu., Belousova, E.A.Results of dating of thorianite and badeleyite from carbonatites of the Guli massif, Russia.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 464, 2, pp. 1029-1032.RussiaCarbonatite

Abstract: The isotopic -geochronological features of thorianite and baddeleyite from carbonatites of the Guli massif, located within Maimecha -Kotui province in the north of the Siberian Platform, are characterized for the first time. The economic complex platinum-group element (PGE) and gold placer deposits are closely related to the Guli massif. Similar geochronological data for thorianite (250.1 ± 2.9 Ma, MSWD = 0.09, n = 36) and baddeleyite (250.8 ± 1.2 Ma, MSWD = 0.2, n = 6) obtained by two different methods indicate that carbonatites were formed close to the Permian -Triassic boundary and are synchronous with tholeiitic flood basalts of the Siberian Platform.
DS1989-0054
1989
Badash, L.Badash, L.The age of the earth debateScientific American, Vol. 261, No. 2, August pp. 90-97. Database #18037GlobalGeochronology, Radioactivity -overview
DS1996-1069
1996
Badding, J.V.Parker, L.J., Atou, T., Badding, J.V.Transition element like chemistry for potassium under pressureScience, Vol. 273, July 5, pp. 95-97.MantleChemistry, geochemistry, Alkaline rocks
DS201212-0316
2012
Baddock, M.C.Hugenholtiz, C.H., Levin, N., Barchyn, T.E., Baddock, M.C.Remote sensing and spatial analysis of aeolian sand dunes: a review and outlook.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 111, 3-4, pp. 319-334.AfricaGeomorphology
DS201312-0047
2013
Bader, T.Bader, T., Ratschbacher, L., Franz, L., Yang, Z., Hofmann, M., Linneman, U., Yuan, H.The heart of Chin a revisited. 1. Proterozoic tectonics of the Qin Mountains in the core of supercontinent Rodinia.Tectonics, Vol. 32, 3, pp. 661-687.ChinaMagmatism - Dabie orogen
DS201906-1362
2019
Bader, T.Wang, Y., Zhang, L-F., Li, Z-H., Li, Q-Y., Bader, T.The exhumation of subducted oceanic derived eclogites: insights from phase equilibrium and thermomechanical modeling.Tectonics, in press available, 34p.Mantleeclogites

Abstract: The dynamical evolution and exhumation mechanisms of oceanic-derived eclogites are controversial conundrums of oceanic subduction zones. The previous studies indicated that density is the primary factor controlling the exhumation of oceanic rocks. To explore their density evolution, we systematically investigate the phase relations and densities of different rock types in oceanic crust, including mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB), serpentinite, and global subducting sediments (GLOSS). According to the density of eclogites, these currently exposed natural eclogites can be classified into two categories: the self-exhumation of eclogites (?MORB < ?Mantle) and the carried exhumation of eclogites (?MORB > ?Mantle). The depth limit for an exhumation of oceanic-derived eclogites solely driven by their own buoyancies is 100-110 km, and it increases with the lithospheric thickness of the overriding plate. The parameters of carried-exhumation, that is, KGLOSS and KSerp, are defined in order to quantitatively evaluate the assistance ability of GLOSS and serpentinites for carrying the denser eclogites. KGLOSS is mainly controlled by pressure, whereas KSerp is dominantly affected by temperature. Using 2-D thermomechanical models, we demonstrate that the presences of low-density, low-viscosity GLOSS and seafloor serpentinites are the prerequisites for the exhumation of oceanic-derived eclogites. Our results show that oceanic-derived eclogites should be stalled and exhumed slowly at the Moho and Conrad discontinuities (named Moho/Conrad stagnation). We propose that oceanic-derived eclogites should undergo a two-stage exhumation generally, that is, early fast exhumation driven by buoyancy at mantle levels, and final exposure to surface actuated by tectonic exhumation facilitated by divergence between upper plate and accretionary wedge or by rollback of lower plate.
DS2002-0088
2002
Badham, J.P.N.Badham, J.P.N., Rohtert, W.Unconventional diamond discoveries - Clifford's Rule is no longerTransactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 111, Sect. B., pp. B134,5. abstractOntario, Wawa, CaliforniaDiamond genesis, Model - craton
DS201801-0026
2017
Badhe, K.Jadhav, G.N., Viladkar, S.G., Goswami, R., Badhe, K.Fluid melt inclusions petrography of primary calcites from carbonatites of Amba Dongar, Gujarat India.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 15.Indiadeposit - Amba Dongar

Abstract: The Amba Dongar Carbonatite complex consists of sovites which are dominantly composed of calcite along with pyrochlore, phlogopite, apatite, barite, ankerite and haematite and minor opaques such as magnetite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. Two distinct types of texture are present in these carbonatites- a mosaic of equigranular calcite crystals and porphyritic texture. Silicate melt inclusions are observed in primary minerals viz. apatite and calcites. These are small droplets of silicate melt entrapped during the growth of the minerals. In this case carbonatite-alkaline silicate melt inclusions are entrapped predominantly in calcite crystals. Dominantly these calcite host minerals are predominantly containing fluid inclusions along with halite, sylvite and minor nahcolite as daughter crystals. The presence of calcite with nahcolite indicates the coexistence of a Ca-rich, alkali-bearing carbonatite melt phase. The melt inclusions are heated upto 1100 °C and the carbonate melt inclusions appear to be homogenized around 950 °C. This fall within the range of melting temperature of a carbonatite melt. In addition to these, three types of fluid inclusions were also observed in host calcite they are i) monophase, ii) biphase and iii) polyphase types of fluid inclusions. The fluid inclusions contain CO2 gas, Li-K carbonate phases and fergusonite based on Micro-Laser- Raman. Carbon dioxide is the dominant gas phase in most of the fluid inclusions, indicating high temperature and deep mantle source(?). The fluid inclusions have formed from a primary mother liquor that has separated out from the early formed carbonatitic melt. This fluid was either formed just after the formation of melt inclusions or during simultaneous crystallization from a carbonatitic or to be more precise carbonatiticpegmatite melt(?).The presence of both melt and fluid inclusions in these primary calcite host minerals indicates the presence of a carbonatitic-pegmatitic fluid, which must have got separated out from the early formed carbonatite-alkaline silicate magma.
DS200612-0771
2006
Badmatsirenov, M.V.Lastochkin, E.I., Ripp, G.S., Doroshkevich, A.G., Badmatsirenov, M.V.Metamorphism of the Vesloe carbonatites, north Transbaikalia, Russia.Vladykin: VI International Workshop, held Mirny, Deep seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, pp. 207-RussiaCarbonatite
DS2002-1344
2002
Badmatsyrenov, M.V.Ripp, G.S., Badmatsyrenov, M.V., Skulyberdin, A.A.A new carbonatite occurrence in northern TransbaikaliaPetrology, Vol.Russia, TransbaikalCarbonatite, Geochemistry - REE
DS200512-0904
2004
Badmatsyrenov, M.V.Ripp, G.S., Badmatsyrenov, M.V., Doroshkevich, A.G., Isbrodin, L.A.Mineral composition and geochemical characteristic of the Veseloe carbonatites ( Northern Transbaikalia, Russia).Deep seated magmatism, its sources and their relation to plume processes., pp. 257-272.RussiaCarbonatite, mineralogy
DS200612-1162
2005
Badmatsyrenov, M.V.Ripp, G.S., Badmatsyrenov, M.V., Doroshkevich, A.G., Izbrodin, I.A.New carbonatite bearing area in northern Transbaikalia. Muya and Pogranichnoe.Petrology, Vol. 13, 5, pp. 489-498.RussiaCarbonatite, metasomatism
DS200612-1163
2006
Badmatsyrenov, M.V.Ripp, G.S., Karmanov, N.S., Doroshkevich, A.G., Badmatsyrenov, M.V., Izbrodin, I.A.Chrome bearing mineral phases in the carbonatites of northern Transbaikalia.Geochemistry International, Vol. 44, 4, pp. 395-402.RussiaCarbonatite
DS201705-0809
2017
Badra, L.Benaouda, R., Holzheid, A., Schenk, V., Badra, L., Ennaciri, A.Magmatic evolution of the Jbel Boho alkaline complex in the Bou Azzer In lier ( Anti-Atlas/Morocco) and its relation to REE Mineralization.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 129, pp. 202-223.Africa, MoroccoAlkaline rocks

Abstract: The Jbel Boho complex (Anti-Atlas/Morocco) is an alkaline magmatic complex that was formed during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition, contemporaneous with the lower early Cambrian dolomite sequence. The complex consists of a volcanic sequence comprising basanites, trachyandesites, trachytes and rhyolites that is intruded by a syenitic pluton. Both the volcanic suite and the pluton are cut by later microsyenitic and rhyolitic dykes. Although all Jbel Boho magmas were probably ultimately derived from the same, intraplate or plume-like source, new geochemical evidence supports the concept of a minimum three principal magma generations having formed the complex. Whereas all volcanic rocks (first generation) are LREE enriched and appear to be formed by fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma, resulting in strong negative Eu anomalies in the more evolved rocks associated with low Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values, the younger syenitic pluton displays almost no negative Eu anomaly and very high Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta. The syenite is considered to be formed by a second generation of melt and likely formed through partial melting of underplated mafic rocks. The syenitic pluton consists of two types of syenitic rocks; olivine syenite and quartz syenite. The presence of quartz and a strong positive Pb anomaly in the quartz syenite contrasts strongly with the negative Pb anomaly in the olivine syenite and suggests the latter results from crustal contamination of the former. The late dyke swarm (third generation of melt) comprises microsyenitic and subalkaline rhyolitic compositions. The strong decrease of the alkali elements, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta and the high SiO2 contents in the rhyolitic dykes might be the result of mineral fractionation and addition of mineralizing fluids, allowing inter-element fractionation of even highly incompatible HFSE due to the presence of fluorine. The occurrence of fluorite in some volcanic rocks and the Ca-REE-F carbonate mineral synchysite in the dykes with very high LREE contents (Ce ~720 ppm found in one rhyolitic dyke) suggest the fluorine-rich nature of this system and the role played by addition of mineralizing fluids. The REE mineralization expressed as synchysite-(Ce) is detected in a subalkaline rhyolitic dyke (with SLREE = 1750 ppm) associated with quartz, chlorite and occasionally with Fe-oxides. The synchysite mineralization is probably the result of REE transport by acidic hydrothermal fluids as chloride complex and their neutralization during fluid-rock interaction. The major tectonic change from compressive to extensional regime in the late Neoproterozoic induced the emplacement of voluminous volcaniclastic series of the Ediacran Ouarzazate Group. The alkaline, within-plate nature of the Jbel Boho igneous complex implies that this extensional setting continued during the early Cambrian.
DS1991-0595
1991
Badredinov, Z.G.Govorov, I.N., Badredinov, Z.G., Dardykins, L.N., et al.Ultramafic volcanic rocks of the shoshonite-latite seriesDoklady Academy of Sciences USSR Earth Science Scetion, Vol. 310, No. 1-6, September pp. 125-128RussiaShoshonite, Ultramafic
DS201811-2553
2018
Badredinov, Z.G.Badredinov, Z.G., Markovsky, B.A., Tararin, I.A., Ekimova, N.I., Chubarov, V.M.Fluid silicate seperation of an ultrabasic melt into high potassium and low potassium fractions: evidence from picrites of the Late Cretaceous ultrabasic volcanic complex, eastern Kamchatka.Russian Journal of Pacific Geology, Vol. 12, 5, pp. 408-418.Russia, Kamchatkapicrites

Abstract: The mineral and chemical compositions of the layered subvolcanic ultrabasic rocks formed through fluid-silicate (liquid) separation of the ultrabasic magma into high-potassium and low-potassium fractions are characterized by the example of the layered picritic sill from the Late Cretaceous ultrabasic volcanic complex of Eastern Kamchatka. It is determined that the main potassium concentrator in the picrites from the high-potassium layers is a residual volcanic glass containing up to 8-9 wt % K2O, which is unique for ultrabasic melts.
DS1990-1510
1990
Badri, A.Velde, B., Dubois, J., Touchard, G., Badri, A.Fractal analysis of fractures in rocks: the Cantor's dust methodTectonophysics, Vol. 179, pp. 345-352GlobalFractal analysis, Methodology
DS2003-0062
2003
Badro, J.Badro, J., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F., Rueff, J.P., Stuzhkin, V.V., Vanko, G., Monaco, G.Iron partitioning in Earth's mantle: toward a deep mantle discontinuityScience, Vol. 300, 5620, May 2, p. 789.MantleMineralogy
DS200412-0084
2003
Badro, J.Badro, J., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F., Rueff, J.P., Stuzhkin, V.V., Vanko, G., Monaco, G.Iron partitioning in Earth's mantle: toward a deep mantle discontinuity.Science, Vol. 300, 5620, May 2, p. 789.MantleMineralogy
DS200412-0085
2004
Badro, J.Badro, J., Rueff, J.P., Vanko, G., Monaco, G., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F.Electronic transitions in perovskite: possible nonconvecting layers in the lower mantle.Science, Vol. 305, No. 5682, July 16, pp. 383-385.MantleMineral chemistry
DS200612-0061
2006
Badro, J.Auzende, A.L., Badro, J., Weber, P., Fallon, S.J., Ryerson, F.J.Element partitioning at ultra high pressure: new insights on bulk lower mantle geochemistry.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 25, abstract only.MantleUHP
DS200612-0062
2006
Badro, J.Auzende, A.L., Badro, J., Weber, P., Fallon, S.J., Ryerson, F.J.Element partitioning at ultra high pressure: new insights on bulk lower mantle geochemistry.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, 1, p. 25, abstract only.MantleUHP
DS200612-0068
2005
Badro, J.Badro, J., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F.Thermochemical state of the lower mantle: new insights from mineral physics.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, Ed. Van der Hilst, Earth's Deep Mantle, structure ...., No. 160, pp. 241-260.MantleGeothermometry
DS200612-0069
2006
Badro, J.Badro, J., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F.Thermochemical state of the lower mantle: new insights from mineral physics.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1. abstract only.MantleGeothermometry
DS200612-0070
2006
Badro, J.Badro, J., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F.Effect of light elements on the sound velocities in solid iron: implications to composition of earth's core.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1, abstract only.MantleREE
DS200712-0045
2007
Badro, J.Badro, J., Ryerson, F.J., Webe, P.K., Ricolleau, A., Fallon, S.J., Hutcheon, I.D.Chemical imaging with NanSIMS: a window into deep Earth geochemistry.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 262, 3-4, Oct. 30, pp. 543-551.MantleGeochemistry
DS200812-0069
2008
Badro, J.Auzende, A-L., Badro, J., Ryerson, F.J., Weber, P.K., Fallon, S.J., Addad, A., Siebert, J., Fiquet, G.Element partitioning between magnesium silicate perovskite and ferropericlase: new insights into bulk lower mantle geochemistry.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 269, 1-2, May 15, pp. 164-174.MantleGeochemistry
DS200812-0352
2008
Badro, J.Fiquet, G., Guyot, F., Badro, J.The Earth's lower mantle and core.Elements, Vol. 4, 3, June pp. 177-182.MantleCore, differentiation
DS200912-0127
2009
Badro, J.Corgne, A., Siebert, J., Badro, J.Oxygen as a light element: a solution to single stage core formation.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 288, 1-2, pp. 108-114.MantlePetrology
DS201112-0215
2011
Badro, J.Cote, A.S., Brodholt, J.P., Badro, J.The composition of the Earth's outer core from first principles.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.697.MantleLight elements, O-rich outer core
DS201312-0825
2013
Badro, J.Siebert, J., Badro, J., Antonangeli, D., Ryerson, F.J.Terrestrial accretion under oxidizing conditions.Science, Vol. 339, 6124, March 8, pp. 1194-1197.MantleMetal-silicate - core formation
DS201412-0029
2014
Badro, J.Badro, J.Spin transitions in mantle minerals.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol 42, pp. 231-248.MantleIron in mantle minerals
DS201609-1703
2016
Badro, J.Badro, J., Siebert, J., Ninmo, F.An early geodynamo driven by exsolution of mantle components from Earth's core.Nature, Vol. 536, Aug. 18, pp. 326-328.MantleCore, mantle boundary

Abstract: Recent palaeomagnetic observations1 report the existence of a magnetic field on Earth that is at least 3.45 billion years old. Compositional buoyancy caused by inner-core growth2 is the primary driver of Earth’s present-day geodynamo3, 4, 5, but the inner core is too young6 to explain the existence of a magnetic field before about one billion years ago. Theoretical models7 propose that the exsolution of magnesium oxide—the major constituent of Earth’s mantle—from the core provided a major source of the energy required to drive an early dynamo, but experimental evidence for the incorporation of mantle components into the core has been lacking. Indeed, terrestrial core formation occurred in the early molten Earth by gravitational segregation of immiscible metal and silicate melts, transporting iron-loving (siderophile) elements from the silicate mantle to the metallic core8, 9, 10 and leaving rock-loving (lithophile) mantle components behind. Here we present experiments showing that magnesium oxide dissolves in core-forming iron melt at very high temperatures. Using core-formation models11, we show that extreme events during Earth’s accretion (such as the Moon-forming giant impact12) could have contributed large amounts of magnesium to the early core. As the core subsequently cooled, exsolution7 of buoyant magnesium oxide would have taken place at the core-mantle boundary, generating a substantial amount of gravitational energy as a result of compositional buoyancy. This amount of energy is comparable to, if not more than, that produced by inner-core growth, resolving the conundrum posed by the existence of an ancient magnetic field prior to the formation of the inner core.
DS201610-1843
2016
Badro, J.Badro, J., Siebert, J., Nimmo, F.An early geodynamo driven by exsolution of mantle components from Earth's core.Nature, Vol. 536, 7616, 4p.MantleMagnesium oxide

Abstract: Recent palaeomagnetic observations report the existence of a magnetic field on Earth that is at least 3.45 billion years old. Compositional buoyancy caused by inner-core growth is the primary driver of Earth's present-day geodynamo, but the inner core is too young to explain the existence of a magnetic field before about one billion years ago. Theoretical models propose that the exsolution of magnesium oxide--the major constituent of Earth's mantle--from the core provided a major source of the energy required to drive an early dynamo, but experimental evidence for the incorporation of mantle components into the core has been lacking. Indeed, terrestrial core formation occurred in the early molten Earth by gravitational segregation of immiscible metal and silicate melts, transporting iron-loving (siderophile) elements from the silicate mantle to the metallic core and leaving rock-loving (lithophile) mantle components behind. Here we present experiments showing that magnesium oxide dissolves in core-forming iron melt at very high temperatures. Using core-formation models, we show that extreme events during Earth's accretion (such as the Moon-forming giant impact) could have contributed large amounts of magnesium to the early core. As the core subsequently cooled, exsolution of buoyant magnesium oxide would have taken place at the core-mantle boundary, generating a substantial amount of gravitational energy as a result of compositional buoyancy. This amount of energy is comparable to, if not more than, that produced by inner-core growth, resolving the conundrum posed by the existence of an ancient magnetic field prior to the formation of the inner core.
DS201611-2131
2016
Badro, J.Piet, H., Badro, J., Nabiei, F., Gillet, P.Spin and valence dependence of iron partitioning in Earth's deep mantle.Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA, Vol. 113, 40, pp. 11127-11130.MantleIron

Abstract: We performed laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments combined with state-of-the-art electron microanalysis (focused ion beam and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy) to study the distribution and valence of iron in Earth’s lower mantle as a function of depth and composition. Our data reconcile the apparently discrepant existing dataset, by clarifying the effects of spin (high/low) and valence (ferrous/ferric) states on iron partitioning in the deep mantle. In aluminum-bearing compositions relevant to Earth’s mantle, iron concentration in silicates drops above 70 GPa before increasing up to 110 GPa with a minimum at 85 GPa; it then dramatically drops in the postperovskite stability field above 116 GPa. This compositional variation should strengthen the lowermost mantle between 1,800 km depth and 2,000 km depth, and weaken it between 2,000 km depth and the D” layer. The succession of layers could dynamically decouple the mantle above 2,000 km from the lowermost mantle, and provide a rheological basis for the stabilization and nonentrainment of large low-shear-velocity provinces below that depth.
DS201701-0026
2016
Badro, J.Piet, H., Badro, J., Nabiel, F., Dennenwaldt, T., Shim, S-H., Cantoni, M., Hebert, C., Gillet, P.Spin and valence dependence on iron partitioning in Earth's deep mantle.Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA, Vol. 113, no. 40, pp. 11127-11130.MantleUHP

Abstract: We performed laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments combined with state-of-the-art electron microanalysis (focused ion beam and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy) to study the distribution and valence of iron in Earth's lower mantle as a function of depth and composition. Our data reconcile the apparently discrepant existing dataset, by clarifying the effects of spin (high/low) and valence (ferrous/ferric) states on iron partitioning in the deep mantle. In aluminum-bearing compositions relevant to Earth's mantle, iron concentration in silicates drops above 70 GPa before increasing up to 110 GPa with a minimum at 85 GPa; it then dramatically drops in the postperovskite stability field above 116 GPa. This compositional variation should strengthen the lowermost mantle between 1,800 km depth and 2,000 km depth, and weaken it between 2,000 km depth and the D" layer. The succession of layers could dynamically decouple the mantle above 2,000 km from the lowermost mantle, and provide a rheological basis for the stabilization and nonentrainment of large low-shear-velocity provinces below that depth.
DS201804-0686
2018
Badro, J.Dorfman, S.M., Badro, J., Nabiel, F., Prakapenka, V.B., Cantoni, M., Gillet, P.Carbonate stability in the reduced lower mantle.Earth and Planteray Science Letters, Vol. 489, pp. 84-91.Mantlecarbonate

Abstract: Carbonate minerals are important hosts of carbon in the crust and mantle with a key role in the transport and storage of carbon in Earth's deep interior over the history of the planet. Whether subducted carbonates efficiently melt and break down due to interactions with reduced phases or are preserved to great depths and ultimately reach the core-mantle boundary remains controversial. In this study, experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) on layered samples of dolomite (Mg,?Ca)CO3 and iron at pressure and temperature conditions reaching those of the deep lower mantle show that carbon-iron redox interactions destabilize the MgCO3 component, producing a mixture of diamond, Fe7C3, and (Mg,?Fe)O. However, CaCO3 is preserved, supporting its relative stability in carbonate-rich lithologies under reducing lower mantle conditions. These results constrain the thermodynamic stability of redox-driven breakdown of carbonates and demonstrate progress towards multiphase mantle petrology in the LHDAC at conditions of the lowermost mantle.
DS201805-0964
2018
Badro, J.Nabiel, F., Badro, J., Dennenwaldt, T., Oveisi, E., Cantoni, M., Hebert, C., El Goresy, A., Barrat, J-A., Gillet, P.A large planetary body inferred from diamond inclusions in a urelite metorite.Nature Communications, doe:10.1038/ s41467-018- 030808-6 6p. PdfTechnologyureilite

Abstract: Planetary formation models show that terrestrial planets are formed by the accretion of tens of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos through energetic giant impacts. However, relics of these large proto-planets are yet to be found. Ureilites are one of the main families of achondritic meteorites and their parent body is believed to have been catastrophically disrupted by an impact during the first 10 million years of the solar system. Here we studied a section of the Almahata Sitta ureilite using transmission electron microscopy, where large diamonds were formed at high pressure inside the parent body. We discovered chromite, phosphate, and (Fe,Ni)-sulfide inclusions embedded in diamond. The composition and morphology of the inclusions can only be explained if the formation pressure was higher than 20?GPa. Such pressures suggest that the ureilite parent body was a Mercury- to Mars-sized planetary embryo.
DS201902-0258
2018
Badro, J.Badro, J., Aubert, J., Hirose, K., Nomura, R., Blanchard, I., Borensztajn, S., Siebert, J.Magnesium partitioning between Earth's mantle and core and its potential to drive an early exsolution geodynamo.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, 24, pp. 13,240-13,248.Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: We measure the incorporation of magnesium oxide (one of the main components of Earth's mantle) into iron (the main constituent Earth's core), using extremely high pressure and temperature experiments that mimic the conditions of Earth's mantle and core. We find that magnesium oxide dissolution depends on temperature but not on pressure, and on metal (i.e., core) composition but not silicate (i.e., mantle) composition. Our findings support the idea that magnesium oxide dissolved in the core during its formation will precipitate out during subsequent core cooling. The precipitation should stir the entire core to produce a magnetic field in Earth's distant past, at least as intense as the present-day field.
DS202002-0204
2019
Badro, J.Lobanov, S.S., Holtgrewe, N., Ito, G., Badro, J., Piet, H., Babiel, F., Lin, J-F., Bayarjargal, L., Wirth, R., Schrieber, A., Goncharov, A.F.Blocked radiative heat transport in the hot pyrolitic lower mantle.Researchgate.com, 32p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: The heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (QCMB) is the key parameter to understand the Earth/s thermal history and evolution. Mineralogical constraints of the QCMB require deciphering contributions of the lattice and radiative components to the thermal conductivity at high pressure and temperature in lower mantle phases with depth-dependent composition. Here we determine the radiative conductivity (krad) of a realistic lower mantle (pyrolite) in situ using an ultra-bright light probe and fast time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. We find that the mantle opacity increases critically upon heating to ~3000 K at 40-135 GPa, resulting in an unexpectedly low radiative conductivity decreasing with depth from ~0.8 W/m/K at 1000 km to ~0.35 W/m/K at the CMB, the latter being ~30 times smaller than the estimated lattice thermal conductivity at such conditions. Thus, radiative heat transport is blocked due to an increased optical absorption in the hot lower mantle resulting in a moderate CMB heat flow of ~8.5 TW, at odds with present estimates based on the mantle and core dynamics. This moderate rate of core cooling implies an inner core age of about 1 Gy and is compatible with both thermally- and compositionally-driven ancient geodynamo.
DS202004-0514
2020
Badro, J.Gebralle, Z.M., Sime, N., Badro, J., van Kekn, P.E.Thermal conductivity near the bottom of the Earth's lower mantle: mesurements of pyrolite up to 120 GPa and 2500 K. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 536, 116161 7p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Knowledge of thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is crucial for understanding heat transport from the Earth's core to mantle. At the pressure-temperature conditions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary, calculations of lattice thermal conductivity based on atomistic models have determined values ranging from 1 to 14 W/m/K for bridgmanite and bridgmanite-rich mineral assemblages. Previous studies have been performed at room temperature up to the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, but correcting these to geotherm temperatures may introduce large errors. Here we present the first measurements of lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals up to pressures and temperatures near the base of the mantle, 120 GPa and 2500 K. We use a combination of continuous and pulsed laser heating in a diamond anvil cell to measure the lattice thermal conductivity of pyrolite, the assemblage of minerals expected to make up the lower mantle. We find a value of W/m/K at 80 GPa and 2000 to 2500 K and 5.9 W/m/K at 124 GPa and 2000 to 3000 K. These values rule out the highest calculations of thermal conductivity of the Earth's mid-lower mantle (i.e. W/m/K at 80 GPa), and are consistent with both the high and low calculations of thermal conductivity near the base of the lower mantle.
DS202005-0733
2020
Badro, J.Geballe, Z.M., Sime, N., Badro, J., van Keken, P.E., Goncharov, A.F.Thermal conductivity near the bottom of the Earth's lower mantle: measurements of pyrolite up to 120 Gpa and 2500 K.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 536, 116161, 11p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Knowledge of thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is crucial for understanding heat transport from the Earth's core to mantle. At the pressure-temperature conditions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary, calculations of lattice thermal conductivity based on atomistic models have determined values ranging from 1 to 14 W/m/K for bridgmanite and bridgmanite-rich mineral assemblages. Previous studies have been performed at room temperature up to the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, but correcting these to geotherm temperatures may introduce large errors. Here we present the first measurements of lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals up to pressures and temperatures near the base of the mantle, 120 GPa and 2500 K. We use a combination of continuous and pulsed laser heating in a diamond anvil cell to measure the lattice thermal conductivity of pyrolite, the assemblage of minerals expected to make up the lower mantle. We find a value of W/m/K at 80 GPa and 2000 to 2500 K and 5.9 W/m/K at 124 GPa and 2000 to 3000 K. These values rule out the highest calculations of thermal conductivity of the Earth's mid-lower mantle (i.e. W/m/K at 80 GPa), and are consistent with both the high and low calculations of thermal conductivity near the base of the lower mantle.
DS202003-0330
2019
Badukhinov, L.D.Badukhinov, L.D., Spetius, Z.V.. Kislov, E.V., Ivanov, A.S., Monkhorov, R.V.Parageneses of garnet inclusions in diamonds from Yakutia kimberlites based on Raman and IR spectroscopy data. Udachnaya, Zapolyarnaya, Komolskaya, Yuibeyana, Aikhal, Mir, Mayskaya.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 61, 7, pp. 606-612. pdfRussia, Yakutiadiamond inclusions
DS1990-0150
1990
Badziag, P.Badziag, P., Verwoerd, W.S., Ellis, W.P., Greiner, R.Nanometre-sized diamonds are more stable than graphiteNature, Vol. 343, No. 6255, Jan. 18, pp. 244-245GlobalDiamond crystallography
DS1988-0659
1988
Badzian, A.Speak, K.E., Frenklach, M., Badzian, A., Badzian, T.Vapor deposition of crystalline diamondCeram. Eng. Sci.Proc, Vol. 9, No. 9-10, pp. 1095-1102GlobalDiamond coating, CVD.
DS1996-0359
1996
Badzian, A.Devries, R.C., Badzian, A., Roy, R.Diamond synthesis -The Russian connectionMrs Bulletin., Vol. 21, No. 2, Feb. pp. 65-75.RussiaDiamonds -synthetic
DS1988-0025
1988
Badzian, A.R.Badzian, A.R.Defect structure of synthetic diamond and related phasesAdv. X-ray Anal, Vol. 31, pp. 113-128GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1988-0659
1988
Badzian, T.Speak, K.E., Frenklach, M., Badzian, A., Badzian, T.Vapor deposition of crystalline diamondCeram. Eng. Sci.Proc, Vol. 9, No. 9-10, pp. 1095-1102GlobalDiamond coating, CVD.
DS200712-0800
2007
BaePar, G-S., Bae, S.C., Granick, S., Lee, J-H., Bae, S-D, Kim, T., Zuo, J.M.Naturally formed epitaxial diamond crystals in rubies.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 16, 2, Feb., pp. 397-400.TechnologyDiamond crystallography, rubies
DS200712-0800
2007
Bae, S.C.Par, G-S., Bae, S.C., Granick, S., Lee, J-H., Bae, S-D, Kim, T., Zuo, J.M.Naturally formed epitaxial diamond crystals in rubies.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 16, 2, Feb., pp. 397-400.TechnologyDiamond crystallography, rubies
DS200712-0801
2007
Bae, S.C.Park, G.S., Bae, S.C., Granick, S., Lee, J.H., Bae, S.D., Kim, T., Zuo, J.M.Naturally formed epitaxial diamond crystals in rubies.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 16, 2, pp. 397-400 Ingenta 1070685098TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS200712-0801
2007
Bae, S.D.Park, G.S., Bae, S.C., Granick, S., Lee, J.H., Bae, S.D., Kim, T., Zuo, J.M.Naturally formed epitaxial diamond crystals in rubies.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 16, 2, pp. 397-400 Ingenta 1070685098TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS1986-0288
1986
Baecker, M.L.Gierth, E., Goldman, D., Leonardos, O.H., Baecker, M.L.Main features of the paragenetic evolution of the Carbonatite complex of Catalao 1, GoiasBrasilIn: Symposium on Latin American Sciences, Vol. 1985 No. 9-10, pp. 1469-1475BrazilBlank
DS1991-0337
1991
Baecker, M.L.Danni, J.C.M., Baecker, M.L., Ribeiro, C.C.The geology of the Catalao I carbonatite complexFifth International Kimberlite Conferences Field Excursion Guidebook, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 25-30BrazilGeology, Carbonatite
DS201511-1830
2015
Baele, J-M.Decree, S., Boulvais, P., Tack, L., Andre, L., Baele, J-M.Fluorapatite in carbonatite-related phosphate deposits: the case of the Matongo carbonatite. ( Burundi)Mineralium Deposita, in press available 14p.Africa, BurundiCarbonatite

Abstract: The Matongo carbonatite intrusive body in the Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu alkaline plutonic complex (URAPC) in Burundi is overlain by an economic phosphate ore deposit that is present as breccia lenses. The ore exhibits evidence of supergene enrichment but also preserves textures related to the concentration of fluorapatite in the carbonatitic system. Magmatic fluorapatite is abundant in the ore and commonly occurs as millimeter-sized aggregates. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is especially apparent in the final generation of magmatic fluorapatite (up to 1.32 wt% LREE2O3). After an episode of metasomatism (fenitization), which led to the formation of K-feldspar and albite, the fluorapatite-rich rocks were partly brecciated. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions obtained on the calcite forming the breccia matrix (d18O?=?22.1?- and d13C?=?-1.5?‰) are consistent with the involvement of a fluid resulting from the mixing of magmatic-derived fluids with a metamorphic fluid originating from the country rocks. In a subsequent postmagmatic event, the carbonates hosting fluorapatite were dissolved, leading to intense brecciation of the fluorapatite-rich rocks. Secondary carbonate-fluorapatite (less enriched in LREE with 0.07-0.24 wt% LREE2O3 but locally associated with monazite) and coeval siderite constitute the matrix of these breccias. Siderite has d18O values between 25.4 and 27.7?- and very low d13C values (from -12.4 to -9.2?, which are consistent with the contribution of organic-derived low d13C carbon from groundwater. These signatures emphasize supergene alteration. Finally, the remaining voids were filled with a LREE-poor fibrous fluorapatite (0.01 wt% LREE2O3), forming hardened phosphorite, still under supergene conditions. Pyrochlore and vanadiferous magnetite are other minerals accumulated in the eluvial horizons. As a consequence of the supergene processes and fluorapatite accumulation, the phosphate ore, which contains 0.72 to 38.01 wt% P2O5, is also enriched in LREE (LaN/YbN from 47.1 to 83.5; SREE between 165 and 5486 ppm), Nb (up to 656 ppm), and V (up to 1232 ppm). In the case of phosphate exploitation at Matongo, REE could prove to have a subeconomic potential to be exploited as by-products of phosphates.
DS201601-0013
2015
Baele, J-M.Decree, S., Boulvais, P., Tack, L., Andre, L., Baele, J-M.Fluorapatite in carbonatite related phosphate deposits: the case for the Matongo carbonatite ( Burundi).Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 17p.Africa, BurundiCarbonatite

Abstract: The Matongo carbonatite intrusive body in the Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu alkaline plutonic complex (URAPC) in Burundi is overlain by an economic phosphate ore deposit that is present as breccia lenses. The ore exhibits evidence of supergene enrichment but also preserves textures related to the concentration of fluorapatite in the carbonatitic system. Magmatic fluorapatite is abundant in the ore and commonly occurs as millimeter-sized aggregates. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is especially apparent in the final generation of magmatic fluorapatite (up to 1.32 wt% LREE2O3). After an episode of metasomatism (fenitization), which led to the formation of K-feldspar and albite, the fluorapatite-rich rocks were partly brecciated. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions obtained on the calcite forming the breccia matrix (d18O?=?22.1?‰ and d13C?=?-1.5?‰) are consistent with the involvement of a fluid resulting from the mixing of magmatic-derived fluids with a metamorphic fluid originating from the country rocks. In a subsequent postmagmatic event, the carbonates hosting fluorapatite were dissolved, leading to intense brecciation of the fluorapatite-rich rocks. Secondary carbonate-fluorapatite (less enriched in LREE with 0.07-0.24 wt% LREE2O3 but locally associated with monazite) and coeval siderite constitute the matrix of these breccias. Siderite has d18O values between 25.4 and 27.7?‰ and very low d13C values (from -12.4 to -9.2?‰), which are consistent with the contribution of organic-derived low d13C carbon from groundwater. These signatures emphasize supergene alteration. Finally, the remaining voids were filled with a LREE-poor fibrous fluorapatite (0.01 wt% LREE2O3), forming hardened phosphorite, still under supergene conditions. Pyrochlore and vanadiferous magnetite are other minerals accumulated in the eluvial horizons. As a consequence of the supergene processes and fluorapatite accumulation, the phosphate ore, which contains 0.72 to 38.01 wt% P2O5, is also enriched in LREE (LaN/YbN from 47.1 to 83.5; SREE between 165 and 5486 ppm), Nb (up to 656 ppm), and V (up to 1232 ppm). In the case of phosphate exploitation at Matongo, REE could prove to have a subeconomic potential to be exploited as by-products of phosphates.
DS202005-0729
2020
Baele, J-M.Decree, S., Cawthorn, G., Deloule, E., Mercadier, J., Frimmel, H., Baele, J-M.Unravelling the processes controlling apatite formation in the Phalaborwa Complex ( South Africa) based on combined cathodluminescence, LA-ICPMS and in-situ O and Sr isotope analyses.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 34 31p. PdfAfrica, South Africacarbonatite

Abstract: The Phalaborwa world-class phosphate deposit (South Africa) is hosted by a Paleoproterozoic alkaline complex mainly composed of phoscorite, carbonatite, pyroxenitic rocks, and subordinate fenite. In addition, syenite and trachyte occur in numerous satellite bodies. New petrological and in-situ geochemical data along with O and Sr isotope data obtained on apatite demonstrate that apatite is in the principal host rocks (pyroxenitic rocks, phoscorite and carbonatite) formed primarily by igneous processes from mantle-derived carbonatitic magmas. Early-formed magmatic apatite is particularly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), with a decrease in the REE content ascribed to magma differentiation and early apatite fractionation in isolated interstitial melt pockets. Rayleigh fractionation favored a slight increase in d18O (below 1%) at a constant Sr isotopic composition. Intrusion of fresh carbonatitic magma into earlier-formed carbonatite bodies locally induced re-equilibration of early apatite with REE enrichment but at constant O and Sr isotopic compositions. In fenite, syenite and trachyte, apatite displays alteration textures and LREE depletion, reflecting interaction with fluids. A marked decrease in d18O in apatite from syenite and trachyte indicates a contribution from d18O-depleted meteoric fluids. This is consistent with the epizonal emplacement of the satellite bodies. The general increase of the Sr isotope ratios in apatite in these rocks reflects progressive interaction with the country rocks over time. This study made it possible to decipher, with unmatched precision, the succession of geological processes that led to one of the most important phosphate deposits worldwide.
DS202101-0007
2020
Baele, J-M.Decree, S., Savolainen, M., Mercadier, J., Debaille, V., Hohn, S., Frimmel, H., Baele, J-M.Geochemical and spectroscopic investigation of apatite in the Siilinjarvi carbonatite complex: keys to understanding apatite forming processes and assessing potential for rare earth elements.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 123, 104778 17p. PdfEurope, Finlanddeposit - Siilinjarvi

Abstract: The Siilinjärvi phosphate deposit (Finland) is hosted by an Archean carbonatite complex. The main body is composed of glimmerite, carbonatite and combinations thereof. It is surrounded by a well-developed fenitization zone. Almost all the rocks pertaining to the glimmerite-carbonatite series are considered for exploitation of phosphate. New petrological and in-situ geochemical as well as spectroscopic data obtained by cathodoluminescence, Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy make it possible to constrain the genesis and evolution of apatite through time. Apatite in the glimmerite-carbonatite series formed by igneous processes. An increase in rare earth elements (REE) content during apatite deposition can be explained by re-equilibration of early apatite (via sub-solidus diffusion at the magmatic stage) with a fresh carbonatitic magma enriched in these elements. This late carbonatite emplacement has been known as a major contributor to the overall P and REE endowment of the system and is likely connected to fenitization and alkali-rich fluids. These fluids - enriched in REE - would have interacted with apatite in the fenite, resulting in an increase in REE content through coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Finally, a marked decrease in LREE is observed in apatite hosted by fenite. It highlights the alteration of apatite by a REE-poor fluid during a late-magmatic/hydrothermal stage. Regarding the potential for REE exploitation, geochemical data combined with an estimation of the reserves indicate a sub-economic potential of REE to be exploited as by-products of phosphate mining. Spectroscopic analyses further provide helpful data for exploration, by determining the P and REE distribution and the enrichment in carbonatite and within apatite.
DS201412-0245
2014
Baensch, A.Fisher, L., Gazley, M.F., Baensch, A., Barnes, S.J., Cleverely, J., Duclaux, G.Resolution of geochemical and lithostratigraphic complexity: a workflow for application of portable X-ray fluorescence to mineral exploration.Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 14, 2, pp. 139-148.TechnologyGeochemistry
DS1986-0630
1986
Baer, A.J.Paktunc, A.D., Baer, A.J.Geothermobarometry of the northwestern margin of the Superiorprovince:implications for its tectonic evolutionJournal of Petrology, Vol. 27, No. 3, May pp. 381-394OntarioTectonics, Geothermometry
DS1995-0087
1995
Baer, G.Baer, G., Heimann, A.Physics and chemistry of dykesBalkema, 350pGlobalDykes, geochemistry, Table of contents
DS2000-0034
2000
Baer, M.A.Artyushkov, E.V., Baer, M.A., Chekhovich, P.A.Mechanisms of an Early Paleozoic subsidence of continental crust inUrals: metamorphism lower crustDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 373, No. 5, June-July, pp.777-81.Russia, UralsTectonics - subsidence, metamorphism
DS201112-0047
2011
Baes, M.Baes, M., Govers, R., Wortel, R.Subduction initiation along the inherited weakness zone at the edge of a slab: insights from numerical models.Geophysical Journal International, Jan. 25, in press availableMantleSubduction
DS201112-0048
2011
Baes, M.Baes, M., Govers, R., Wortel, R.Subduction initiation along the inherited weakness zone at the edge of a slab: insights from numerical models.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 184, 3, pp. 991-1008.MantleSubduction
DS201112-0049
2011
Baes, M.Baes, M., Govers, R., Wortel, R.Switching between alternative responses of the lithosphere to continental collision.Geophysical Journal International, In press availableMantleSubduction
DS201607-1329
2016
Baes, M.Baes, M.Can mantle suction flow trigger subduction initiation at passive margins?IGC 35th., Session The Deep Earth 1 p. abstractMantleSubduction
DS201802-0220
2017
Baes, M.Baes, M., Sobolev, S.V.Mantle flow as a trigger for subduction initiation: a missing element of the Wilson Cycle concept.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 18, 12, pp. 4469-4486.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The classical Wilson Cycle concept, describing repeated opening and closing of ocean basins, hypothesizes spontaneous conversion of passive continental margins into subduction zones. This process, however, is impeded by the high strength of passive margins, and it has never occurred in Cenozoic times. Here using thermomechanical models, we show that additional forcing, provided by mantle flow, which is induced by neighboring subduction zones and midmantle slab remnants, can convert a passive margin into a subduction zone. Models suggest that this is a long-term process, thus explaining the lack of Cenozoic examples. We speculate that new subduction zones may form in the next few tens of millions of years along the Argentine passive margin and the U.S. East Coast. Mantle suction force can similarly trigger subduction initiation along large oceanic fracture zones. We propose that new subduction zones will preferentially originate where subduction zones were active in the past, thus explaining the remarkable colocation of subduction zones during at least the last 400 Myr.
DS1992-0063
1992
Baez Presser, J.Baez Presser, J.Trans continental magmatic belt: diamond bearing lamproite targetProceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress. Held Japan August 1992, Vol. 1, abstract p. 195Arkansas, United States, British ColumbiaLamproites
DS1994-0086
1994
Baez Presser, J.Baez Presser, J.Characterization of lamproites from Paraguay (South America)Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 211-220.GlobalLamproite
DS201112-0050
2010
Baez Presser, J.L.Baez Presser, J.L.Trazado del limite litosfera astenosfera bajo craones a partir de datos S-wave en perfiles 1D.5th Brasilian Symposium on Diamond Geology, Nov. 6-12, abstract p. 82.South America, BrazilCraton, ages world
DS201112-0051
2010
Baez Presser, J.L.Baez Presser, J.L.Blancos para fuentes primarias de diamantes con potencial economico entre Paraguay, Brasil, Aregntin a Y Uruguay ( region de la Cuenca del Parana).5th Brasilian Symposium on Diamond Geology, Nov. 6-12, abstract p. 83.South America, Brazil, Argentina, UruguayGeophysics
DS201212-0043
2011
Baez Presser, J.L.Baez Presser, J.L.Seismological distinction between Archean and Proterozoic mantle: the lithospheric root beneath Parana Basin, South America. **in spaReportes Cientificos, Vol. 2, 1, pp. 45-72.South America, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, UruguayCraton, geophysics - seismics
DS201412-0030
2014
Baez Presser, J.L.Baez Presser, J.L.Distincion seismologia entre el manto arqueozico y el proterozoico: una actualizacion del craton Rio de La Plata.Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Narural del Paraguay, Vol. 18, 1, June pp. 62-66.South America, ParaguayGeophysics - seismics
DS201412-0031
2014
Baez Presser, J.L.Baez Presser, J.L., Bitschene, P.R., Vladykin, N.V.Comentarios sobre la gologia, la petrografia y la quimica mineral de Algunas lamproitas de la porcion norte de la cordillera del Ybytyruzu, Paragual oriental.Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Narural del Paraguay, Vol. 18, 1, June pp. 24-61.South America, ParaguayMineral chemistry - Lamproites?
DS201412-0032
2014
Baez Presser, J.L.Baez Presser, J.L., Bulanova, G.P., Smith, C.B.Diamantes de Capiibary, DPTO. Dan Pedro, Paraguay.Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Narural del Paraguay, Vol. 18, 1, June, pp. 5-23.South America, ParaguayAlluvials, diamonds
DS2003-0687
2003
Bagai, Z.Kampunzu, A.B., Tombale, A.R., Zhai, M., Bagai, Z., Majaule, T., Modisi, M.P.Major and trace element geochemistry of plutonic rocks from Francistown, NELithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 431-460.ZimbabweTectonics
DS200412-0949
2003
Bagai, Z.Kampunzu, A.B., Tombale, A.R., Zhai, M., Bagai, Z., Majaule, T., Modisi, M.P.Major and trace element geochemistry of plutonic rocks from Francistown, NE Botswana: evidence for a Neoarchean continental actiLithos, Vol. 71, 2-4, pp. 431-460.Africa, ZimbabweTectonics
DS200612-1586
2006
Bagai, Z.Zhai, M., Kampunzu, A.B., Modisi, M.P., Bagai, Z.Sr and Nd isotope systematics of Francistown plutonic rocks, Botswana: implications for Neoarchean crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe craton.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 95. 3. pp. 355-369.Africa, Botswana, ZimbabweGeochronology
DS200612-1587
2006
Bagai, Z.Zhai, M., Kampunzu, A.B., Modisi, M.P., Bagai, Z.Sr and Nd isotope systematics of Francistown plutonic rocks, Botswana: implications for Neoarchean crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe craton.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 95, 3, June pp. 355-369.Africa, Botswana, ZimbabweGeochronology - craton
DS1988-0026
1988
Baganov, V.I.Baganov, V.I., Sokolov, S.V.Thermobarometry of ultramafic paragenesis.(Russian)Izd. Nedra Moscow, USSR, (Russian), 149pRussiaBarometry, Mineral composition
DS1998-1495
1998
Bagas, L.Tyler, I.M., Pirajno, F., Bagas, L., Meyers, PrestonThe geology and mineral deposits of the Proterozoic in western AustraliaAgso, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 223-244.Australia, Western AustraliaTectonics, orogeny, Halls Creek, King Leopold, Diamonds mentioned p. 237
DS201212-0368
2012
Bagas, L.Kolb, J., Thrane, K., Bagas, L.Field relationship of high grade Neo- to Mesoarchean rocks of south East Greenland: tectonometamorphic and magmatic evolution.Gondwana Research, in pressEurope, GreenlandArchean
DS201511-1855
2015
Bagas, L.Kolb, J., Bagas, L., Fiorentini, M.L.Metallogeny of the North Atlantic Craton in Greenland. ( not specific to diamonds).Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 79, 4, pp. 815-855.Europe, GreenlandMetallogeny

Abstract: The North Atlantic Craton (NAC) extends along the coasts of southern Greenland. At its northern and southern margins, Archaean rocks are overprinted by Palaeoproterozoic orogeny or overlain by younger rocks. Typical granite-greenstone and granite-gneiss complexes represent the entire Archaean, with a hiatus from ~3.55-3.20 Ga. In the granulite- and amphibolite-facies terranes, the metallogeny comprises hypozonal orogenic gold and Ni-PGE-Cr-Ti-V in mafic-ultramafic magmatic systems. Gold occurrences are widespread around and south of the capital, Nuuk. Nickel mineralization in the Maniitsoq Ni project is hosted in the Norite belt; Cr and PGE in Qeqertarssuatsiaq, and Ti-V in Sinarsuk in the Fiskenæsset complex. The lower-grade metamorphic Isua greenstone belt hosts the >1000 Mt Isua iron deposit in an Eoarchaean banded iron formation. Major Neoarchaean shear zones host mesozonal orogenic gold mineralization over considerable strike length in South-West Greenland. The current metallogenic model of the NAC is based on low-resolution data and variable geological understanding, and prospecting has been the main exploration method. In order to generate a robust understanding of the metal endowment, it is necessary to apply an integrated and collective approach. The NAC is similar to other well-endowed Archaean terranes but is underexplored, and is therefore likely to host numerous targets for greenfields exploration.
DS1981-0070
1981
Bagdadi, K.A.Bagdadi, K.A.Tectonic Studies of the Mid-continent Gravity High in East Central minnesota and Western Wisconsin.Ph.d. Thesis, University Minnesota., 182P.Wisconsin, MinnesotaMid-continent, Geophysics
DS1997-0061
1997
Bagdarsarov, Yu.A.Bagdarsarov, Yu.A.Geochemical features of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks in the Tomtor alkaline carbonatiteGeochemistry International, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 7-16.Russia, Yakutia, AnabarCarbonatite, Tomtor alkaline Massif
DS201112-0831
2010
BagdasarovProskurnin, V.F., Petrov, Bagdasarov, Rozinov, Tolmacheva, Larionov, Bilskaya, Gavrish, Mozoleva, PetrushkovOrigin of carbonatites of eastern Taimyr deduced from an isotopic and geochemical study of zircons.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 52, 8, pp. 711-724.RussiaPetrology - carbonatites
DS1981-0438
1981
Bagdasarov, E.A.Yevdokimov, A.N., Bagdasarov, E.A.The Associations and Sequential Formations of Oxides of Chromium, Titanium, and Iron in Kimberlites and Porphyritic Picrites in the Kuonamka Region.Zapiski Vses. Mineral. Obsch., Vol. 110, No. 2, PP. 204-212.RussiaBlank
DS1982-0505
1982
Bagdasarov, E.A.Poroshin, YE.YE., Bagdasarov, E.A.Accessory Chrome Spinellids from Volcanic Rocks of the Uraland Altai-sayan Fold Systems.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 257, No. 6, PP. 152-154.Russia, UralsPetrography
DS1982-0649
1982
Bagdasarov, E.A.Yevdokimov, A.N., Bagdasarov, E.A.Microcrystalline Ilmenite in Relation to Kimberlite Mass Of kuonam Region, Yakutia.Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshch, Vol. 111, No. 5, PP. 570-581.RussiaMineralogy
DS1982-0650
1982
Bagdasarov, E.A.Yevdokimov, A.N., Bagdasarov, E.A.Compositions and Typical Chemical Features of Pyrope Garnets from Kimberlites in the Middle and Lower Kuonam Fields in Yakutia.International Geology Review, Vol. 24, No. 5, PP. 548-558.Russia, YakutiaGeochemistry, Mineralogy, Classification, Garnet
DS1985-0756
1985
Bagdasarov, E.A.Yevdokimov, A.N., Bagdasarov, E.A.Ilmenites of kimberlites and associated placers in northeastern SiberianPlatform*(in Russian)Zapisk. Vses. Mineral. Obshch., (Russian), Vol.114, No. 2, pp. 201-212RussiaPetrology, Analyses
DS1986-0035
1986
Bagdasarov, E.A.Bagdasarov, E.A.Comparative characteristics of the chemical composition of ilmenites of igneous rocks. (Russian)Zap. Vses. Mineral. O-Va., (Russian), Vol. 115, No. 2, pp. 155-165RussiaBlank
DS1986-0036
1986
Bagdasarov, E.A.Bagdasarov, E.A., Ilupin, I.P.Coexisting ilmenites and titanomagnetites of matrix mass ofkimberlites.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 290, No. 4, pp. 945-948RussiaPetrology
DS1988-0027
1988
Bagdasarov, E.A.Bagdasarov, E.A.Microcrystalline chrome spinellids in kimberlite and alkalic ultramaficrocksDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 301, No. 4, July-Aug. pp. 178-180RussiaCrystallography, Chrome spinellids
DS1991-1585
1991
Bagdasarov, E.A.Simakov, S.K., Bagdasarov, E.A., Lukyanov, L.I.Mineralogical features of alkaline-ultrabasic lamprophyres and Kimberlites of Kolsky Province.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Nauk SSR, (Russian), Vol. 320, No. 4, pp. 971-976RussiaKimberlites, Kolsky
DS1993-1466
1993
Bagdasarov, E.A.Simakov, S.K., Bagdasarov, E.A., Lukyanova, L.I.Mineralogy of alkalic ultramafic lamprophyres and kimberlites from the KolaProvince.Doklady Academy of Sciences USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 321, No. 8, August 1993, pp. 176-182.Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), KolaMineralogy, Kimberlites
DS1995-0088
1995
Bagdasarov, E.A.Bagdasarov, E.A., Lukiyanova, L.I., Simakov, S.K.Mineralogical and geochemical features of new province of alkali ultramaficlamprophyres, lamproites, kimb.Proceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 28-30.Russia, Kola, KareliaPetrology, Deposits -Kola, Karelia
DS1985-0032
1985
Bagdasarov, I.A.Bagdasarov, I.A.Geochemical Features of Apatite Mineralization of Dubrovinskoe Carbonatite Deposits.Doklady Academy of Sciences AKAD. NAUK SSSR., Vol. 280, No. 2, PP. 479-483.RussiaBlank
DS1985-0606
1985
Bagdasarov, I.A.Shakhotko, L.I., Bagdasarov, I.A.Polystage Diatremes of Potassic Alkaline Basaltoids and Carbonatites in the Northern Prinabarie.Doklady Academy of Sciences AKAD. NAUK SSSR., Vol. 280, No. 2, PP. 462-467.RussiaBlank
DS1988-0028
1988
Bagdasarov, I.A.Bagdasarov, I.A., Liapunov, S.M.Main geochemical pecularities of carbonatites of the linear fissureformation type. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 298, No. 3, pp. 702-706RussiaCarbonatite
DS1989-0055
1989
Bagdasarov, N. Sh.Bagdasarov, N. Sh.Accumulation capacity of spinel lherzolite partial meltsGeochemistry International, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 86-94RussiaExperimental petrology, Lherzolite
DS1990-0792
1990
Bagdasarov, N.Sh.Kadik, A.A., Dorfman, A.M., Bagdasarov, N.Sh., Lebedev, Ye.B.Influence of pyroxenes on the melt distribution in the intergranular spacein a peridotiteGeochemical Int, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 131-134RussiaPyroxenes, Mantle melt
DS1988-0029
1988
Bagdasarov, V.V.Bagdasarov, V.V.Carbon and oxygen isotope composition in carbonatite bodies of northernSiberia, emplaced among sedimentary carbonate rocksDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 294, No. 1-6, October pp. 201-204RussiaCarbonatite
DS1985-0033
1985
Bagdasarov, Y.A.Bagdasarov, Y.A., Buyakayte, M.I.Peculiarities of Carbonatite Formation in Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks According to Isotopic Geochemical Data.Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya)., No. 4, PP. 559-568.RussiaBlank
DS1986-0037
1986
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Geological Geochemical characteristics of apatite bearing iron ore mineralized rocks and carbonatite of the Magan massif.(Russian)Geol. Rudn. Mestorozh., (Russian), Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 34-51RussiaCarbonatite, Geochemistry
DS1986-0038
1986
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Buyakayte, M.I.Isotopic dat a on carbonatite formation in carbonate sedimentsGeochemistry International, Vol. 22, No. 7, pp. 30-38RussiaCarbonatite, Geochronology
DS1986-0462
1986
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Kravchenko, S.M., Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Kirichenko, V.T.Geochemistry of barium bearing weathering crusts in the Yesseymassif, Maymecha Kotuy Province North SiberiaGeochem. Internat, Vol. No. 2, pp. 17-27RussiaGeochemistry, Carbonatite
DS1987-0018
1987
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of northern Siberian carbonatites formaed among sedimentary carbonate rocks.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 294, No. 6, pp. 1451-1456RussiaCarbonatite, Isotope
DS1987-0019
1987
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., et al.Geologic position and radiometric age of a new carbonatite occurrence foundin the area of the Kursk magnetic anomalyDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 282, No. 1-6, Feb. pp. 84-88RussiaCarbonatite, Geochronology
DS1987-0684
1987
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Skosyreva, M.V., Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Vlasova, E.V., Zhukhlistov, A.P.Typomorphic characteristics of micas of carbonatite deposit of the east European platform, Kursk Magnetic anomalyarea.(Russian)Geochimiya, (Russian), No. 10, pp. 1386-1397RussiaBlank
DS1988-0030
1988
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Ilupin, I.P.Trends in the composition of micro- and macrocrystals of kimberliticilmenites.(Russian)Zap. Vses. Mineral. O-Va, (Russian), Vol. 117, No. 6, pp. 686-691GlobalMineralogy, Crystallography, Ilmenites
DS1988-0031
1988
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Ilupin, I.P.Coexisting ilmenite and titanomagnetite from kimberlite cementDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 290, No. 1-6, March pp. 174-176RussiaGeochemistry, Analyses
DS1988-0032
1988
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Ilupin, I.P.Evolution of compositions of microcrystalline and macrocrystalline kimberlitic ilmenites. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 302, No. 5, pp. 1201-1204RussiaMineralogy, Crystallography, Ilmenites
DS1988-0376
1988
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Kravchenko, S.M., Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Lapin, A.V.Geological and mineral genetic new dat a on carbonatite formations.(Russian)Geologii i Geofiziki, (Russian), No. 11, PP. 22-31RussiaCarbonatite
DS1989-0056
1989
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Lyapunov, S.M.The geochemical properties of carbonatite bodies of the linear fracture-filling typeDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 298, No. 1-6, April pp. 145-148RussiaCarbonatite, Geochemistry -Dykes
DS1989-0057
1989
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Syngaevskii, E.D.Formation conditions and source of matter for Dubrava manifestation carbonatites based on sulfur, oxygen and carbon isotopic data.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 304, No. 4, pp. 956-960RussiaCarbonatite
DS1990-0151
1990
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Apatite carbonate eruptive breccias in the Tomtor Massif -new type of rocks of carbonatite complexes.RUSDoklady Academy of Sciences Nauk. SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 310, No. 4, pp. 931-935RussiaCarbonatite, Apatite
DS1990-0152
1990
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Syngayevskiy, Ye.D.Conditions of formation and source of carbonatites of the Dubravinskoyeoccurrence, as inferred from dat a on sulfur, oxygen and carbon isotopesDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 304 No. 1-6, pp. 215-218RussiaCarbonatite, Geochronology
DS1991-0049
1991
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.The apatite carbonate eruptive breccias of the Tomtor pluton - a new type of rock in carbonatite complexesDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 310, No. 1-6, September pp. 90-94RussiaCarbonatite, Breccias
DS1992-0064
1992
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Pototskiy, Yu.P., Zinkova, O.N.Baddeleyite-containing stratiform bodies in old carbonate sequences - a possible new genetic type of zirconium depositsDoklady Academy of Sciences USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 315, No. 3, pp. 144-147RussiaCarbonatite, Geochemistry
DS1994-0087
1994
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A., Syngayevskiy, Ye.P.Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions and conditions of formation of carbonatite mineral Gornoozero Massif.Geochemistry International, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 104-113.Russia, YakutiaCarbonatite, Geochronology -C and I
DS2002-0089
2002
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Phosphate rare metal carbonatites of the Belaya Zima Massif ( eastern Sayan, Russia)Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol.44,2,pp.132-41.RussiaCarbonatite, Petrology
DS200912-0024
2009
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Comparative mineralogy of carbonatite complexes belonging to different formations.alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractGlobalCarbonatite
DS200912-0025
2009
Bagdasarov, yu.A.Bagdasarov, yu.A.Assignment of igneous rocks to lamproite major and trace element criteria and implications for the history of the Tomtor pluton ( northwestern Yakutia).Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 50, 10, pp. 911-916.RussiaLamproite
DS200912-0026
2009
Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Bagdasarov, Yu.A.Assignment of igneous rocks to lamproite: major and trace element criteria and implications for the history of the Tomtor pluton ( northwestern Yakutia).Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 50, pp. 911-916.Russia, YakutiaMineralogy
DS1987-0020
1987
Bagdasarov, Yu.M.Bagdasarov, Yu.M., Gaidukova, V.S.Structure and origin of magnetite from rocks on their on ore complex and carbonatites of northernSiberia.(Russian)Zap. Vses. Mineral. O-Va, (Russian), Vol. 116, No. 6, pp. 645-658RussiaCarbonatite
DS1986-0079
1986
Bagdasarova, V.V.Bocharov, V.I., Bagdasarova, V.V., Belykh, V.I.The apatite content of the Kursk magnetic anomaly carbonatite complexInternational Geology Review, Vol. 28, No. 11, November pp. 1327=1335RussiaGeophysics, Carbonatite
DS1987-0375
1987
Bagdasraov, Yu.A.Kravcehnko, S.M., Bagdasraov, Yu.A.Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of apatitecontainingmassifs(Maimecha-Kotui carbonatiteprovince) USSR.(Russian)Nauka Moscow, (Russian), 129pRussiaCarbonatite
DS200912-0027
2009
Bagdassarov, N.Bagdassarov, N., Solferino, G., Golabek, G.J., Schmidt, M.W.Centrifuge assisted percolation of Fe-S melts in partially molten peridotite: time constraints for planetary core formation.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 288, 1-2, pp. 84-95.MantleMelting
DS201212-0626
2012
Bagdassarov, N.Schmidt, M.W., Forien, M., Solferino, G., Bagdassarov, N.Setting and compaction of olivine in basaltic magmas: an experimental study on the time scales of cumulate formation.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 164, 6, pp. 959-976.MantleMagmatism
DS1991-0050
1991
Bagdesarov, Yu.A.Bagdesarov, Yu.A.The main petrochemical and geochemical characteristics of linear type carbonatites and the conditions of their formationGeochemistry International, Vol. pp. 30-38RussiaCarbonatite, Petrology, geochemistry
DS1930-0009
1930
Bagg, R.M.Bagg, R.M.The Diamond Mining Industry of South AfricaWisconsin Academy of Science Transactions, Vol. 25, PP. 79-87.South AfricaMining Economics, Mineral Resources
DS1992-0065
1992
Baggott, J.Baggott, J.Buckyballs, diamonds from junkNew Scientist, Vol. 133, No. 1804, Jan. 18th. p. 48GlobalNews item, Fullerenes, Diamond
DS201212-0044
2012
Bagherbandi, M.Bagherbandi, M., Sjoberg, L.E.Modelling the density contrast and depth of the Moho discontinuity seismic and gravimetric isostatic methods with an application to A1Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 68, pp. 111-120.MantleCrustal depth
DS201312-0048
2013
Bagherbandi, M.Bagherbandi, M., Tenzer, R., Sjoberg, L.E., Novak, P.Improved global crustal thickness modeling based on the VMM isostatic model and non-isostatic gravity correction.Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 66, pp. 25-37.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201312-0928
2013
Baginski, B.Upton, B.G.J., Macdonald, R., Odling, N., Ramo, O.T., Baginski, B.Kungnaat, revisited. A review of five decades of research into an alkaline complex in South Greenland, with new trace element and Nd isotopic data.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 77, 4, pp. 523-550.Europe, GreenlandKungnaat
DS201705-0851
2017
Baginski, B.Macdonald, R., Baginski, B., Zozulya, D.Differing responses of zircon, chevkinite - (Ce), monazite-(Ce) and fergusonite-(Y) to hydrothermal alteration: Evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 22p.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkaline rocks

Abstract: A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65-2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9-1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66-1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.
DS201604-0636
2016
Baglow, N.Thomas, R.J, Spencer, C., Bushi, A.M., Baglow, N., Gerrit de Kock, B., Hortswood, M.S.A., Hollick, L., Jacobs, J., Kajara, S., Kaminhanda, G., Key, R.M., Magana, Z., McCourt, M.W., Momburi, P., Moses, F., Mruma, A., Myamilwa, Y., Roberts, N.M.W., HamisiGeochronology of the centra Tanzania craton and its southern and eastern orogenic margins.Precambrian Research, in press available 57p.Africa, TanzaniaGeochronology

Abstract: Geological mapping and zircon U-Pb/Hf isotope data from 35 samples from the central Tanzania Craton and surrounding orogenic belts to the south and east allow a revised model of Precambrian crustal evolution of this part of East Africa. The geochronology of two studied segments of the craton shows them to be essentially the same, suggesting that they form a contiguous crustal section dominated by granitoid plutons. The oldest orthogneisses are dated at ca. 2820 Ma (Dodoma Suite) and the youngest alkaline syenite plutons at ca. 2610 Ma (Singida Suite). Plutonism was interrupted by a period of deposition of volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed to greenschist facies, directly dated by a pyroclastic metavolcanic rock which gave an age of ca. 2725 Ma. This is supported by detrital zircons from psammitic metasedimentary rocks, which indicate a maximum depositional age of ca. 2740 Ma, with additional detrital sources 2820 and 2940 Ma. Thus, 200 Ma of episodic magmatism in this part of the Tanzania Craton was punctuated by a period of uplift, exhumation, erosion and clastic sedimentation/volcanism, followed by burial and renewed granitic to syenitic magmatism. In eastern Tanzania (Handeni block), in the heart of the East African Orogen, all the dated orthogneisses and charnockites (apart from those of the overthrust Neoproterozoic granulite nappes), have Neoarchaean protolith ages within a narrow range between 2710 and 2630 Ma, identical to (but more restricted than) the ages of the Singida Suite. They show evidence of Ediacaran "Pan-African" isotopic disturbance, but this is poorly defined. In contrast, granulite samples from the Wami Complex nappe were dated at ca. 605 and ca. 675 Ma, coeval with previous dates of the "Eastern Granulites" of eastern Tanzania and granulite nappes of adjacent NE Mozambique. To the south of the Tanzania Craton, samples of orthogneiss from the northern part of the Lupa area were dated at ca. 2730 Ma and clearly belong to the Tanzania Craton. However, granitoid samples from the southern part of the Lupa "block" have Palaeoproterozoic (Ubendian) intrusive ages of ca. 1920 Ma. Outcrops further south, at the northern tip of Lake Malawi, mark the SE continuation of the Ubendian belt, albeit with slightly younger ages of igneous rocks (ca. 1870-1900 Ma) which provide a link with the Ponte Messuli Complex, along strike to the SE in northern Mozambique. In SW Tanzania, rocks from the Mgazini area gave Ubendian protolith ages of ca. 1980-1800 Ma, but these rocks underwent Late Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism between 1015 and 1040 Ma. One granitoid gave a crystallisation age of ca. 1080 Ma correlating with known Mesoproterozoic crust to the east in SE Tanzania and NE Mozambique. However, while the crust in the Mgazini area was clearly one of original Ubendian age, reworked and intruded by granitoids at ca. 1 Ga, the crust of SE Tanzania is a mixed Mesoproterozoic terrane and a continuation from NE Mozambique. Hence the Mgazini area lies at the edge of the Ubendian belt which was re-worked during the Mesoproterozoic orogen (South Irumide belt), providing a further constraint on the distribution of ca. 1 Ga crust in SE Africa. Hf data from near-concordant analyses of detrital zircons from a sample from the Tanzania Craton lie along a Pb-loss trajectory (Lu/Hf = 0), extending back to ~3.9 Ga. This probably represents the initial depleted mantle extraction event of the cratonic core. Furthermore, the Hf data from all igneous samples, regardless of age, from the entire study area (including the Neoproterozoic granulite nappes) show a shallow evolution trend (Lu/Hf = 0.028) extending back to the same mantle extraction age. This implies the entire Tanzanian crust sampled in this study represents over 3.5 billion years of crustal reworking from a single crustal reservoir and that the innermost core of the Tanzanian Craton that was subsequently reworked was composed of a very depleted, mafic source with a very high Lu/Hf ratio. Our study helps to define the architecture of the Tanzanian Craton and its evolution from a single age-source in the early Eoarchaean.
DS1990-1445
1990
Bagmut, N.N.Taran, M.N., Bagmut, N.N., Kvasnitsa, V.N., Kharkiv, A.D.Optical and EPR-spectra of natural kimberlite-type zircons.(Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 44-51RussiaKimberlites, Spectroscopy
DS1999-0695
1999
Bagriantsev, D.G.Sonin, V.M., Bagriantsev, D.G., Turkin, A.I., Babich, Y.Formation of pseudohemimorphic diamond crystals during dissolution in a thermal gradient.in RUSSIAN.Proceedings Russ. Min. Soc., (Russian), Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 122125.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1940-0023
1941
Bagrowski, B.P.Bagrowski, B.P.Pyrope Garnet Vs Ruby Spinel in KansasAmerican MINERALOGIST., Vol. 26, PP. 675-676.KansasKimberlite, Central States, Riley, Bala Pipe
DS1994-1666
1994
Bagryantsev, D.G.Sonin, V.M., Bagryantsev, D.G., Federov, I.I., Chepurov.A.Formation of corrosion figures on diamond crystalsRussian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 57-61.RussiaDiamond morphology
DS1995-0089
1995
Bagryantsev, D.G.Bagryantsev, D.G., Chepurov, A.A.Experimental study of fluid conditions of diamond growthProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, p. 31.Russia, YakutiaPetrology -diamond cyrstals
DS1998-0414
1998
Bagryantsev, D.G.Fedorov, I.I., Bagryantsev, D.G., Chepurov, OsoginExperimental investigation of the volatiles captured by crystallizingdiamonds.Geochemistry International, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 361-366.RussiaDiamond inclusions, Petrology - experimental
DS1993-0061
1993
Bagshaw, A.N.Bagshaw, A.N.Rare earth resources in Australia: potential for processingRare earth Minerals: chemistry, origin and ore deposits, International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP) Project, pp. 4-6. abstractAustraliaRare earths, Mineral processing
DS1994-0001
1994
Bagtzoglou, A.C.Ababou, R., Bagtzoglou, A.C., Wood, E.F.On the condition number of covariance matrices in kriging, estimation, and simulation of random fieldsMathematical Geology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 99-133GlobalGeostatistics, Kriging
DS201501-0004
2014
Bah, M.D.Bah, M.D.Mining for peace: diamonds, bauxite, iron ore and political stability in Guinea.Review of African Political Economy, Routledge Pub., Vol. 41, no. 142, pp. 500-515.Africa, GuineaHistory

Abstract: The article explores the relationship between mineral resources and conflict management in Guinea. Literature on theories of recent civil wars and/or armed conflicts in West Africa identifies the combination of abundant natural resources and extreme poverty as a significant trigger of violent civil conflicts. In Guinea, however, despite this combination, the state has managed to avoid large-scale civil violence. This gives rise to the question of why this combination has failed to be associated with the onset of large-scale violence in the country. The article identifies mitigating factors that have contributed to political stability in Guinea. It concludes that measures taken by Guinea and its international partners mitigated the security threats posed by these resources, while keeping most Guineans in abject poverty. This is in contrast to findings in recent quantitative studies whereby natural resource abundance alongside extreme poverty is strongly associated with armed conflicts in West African nations.
DS1989-0058
1989
Bahar, D.Bahar, D., McCurry, M.Maar deposits at Kilbourne Hole: implications for base surge processesNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 11 Abstract held June 25-July 1New MexicoVolcanology
DS1991-0051
1991
Bahat, D.Bahat, D.TectonofractographySpringer Verlag, 388p. approx. $ 250.00 United StatesGlobalBook-ad, Fractures
DS2002-0090
2002
Bahattacharya, S.Bahattacharya, S.Nature of crustal tri-junction between the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Singhblum Craton and Bastar cratonGondwana Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 53-62.India, western OrissaStructural evidence of oblique collision, Mobile belt - not specific to diamonds
DS1993-0062
1993
Bahlburg, H.Bahlburg, H.Hypothetical southeast Pacific continent revisited: new evidence from the Middle Paleozoic basins of northern ChileGeology, Vol. 21, No. 10, October pp. 909-912Andes, ChileBasins
DS1993-0063
1993
Bahlburg, H.Bahlburg, H., Breitkreuz, C.Differential response of a Devonian Carboniferous platform deeper basin systen to sea-level change and tectonics N. Chilean AndesBasin Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, March pp. 21-40ChileBasin, Platform successions
DS1996-0066
1996
Bahlburg, H.Bahlburg, H., Furlong, K.P.Lithospheric modeling of the Ordovician foreland basin in the Puna of northwestArgentina: arc loading formationsTectonophysics, Vol. 259, No. 1-3, June 30, pp. 245-ArgentinaTectonics
DS1997-0062
1997
Bahlburg, H.Bahlburg, H., Herve, F.Geodynamic evolution and tectonostratigraphic terranes of northwesternArgentin a and northern ChileGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin, Vol. 109, No. 7, pp. 869-884Argentina, ChileTectonics, Gondwana, Paleozoic
DS2000-0093
2000
Bahlburg, H.Bock, B., Bahlburg, H., Worner, G., Zimmermann, U.Tracing crustal evolution in the Southern Central Andes from late Precambrian to Permian geochemical isotopeJournal of Geology, Vol. 108, pp. 515-35.Argentina, Chile, Andes, South AmericaGeochemistry, geochronology, craton, Paleotectonics
DS2002-1415
2002
Bahlburg, H.Schaltz, M., Resichmann, T., Tait, J., Bachtadse, V., Bahlburg, H., Martin, U.The Early Paleozoic break up of northern Gondwana, new paleomagnetic andInternational Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 91, No. 5, Oct. pp. 838-49.GermanyTectonics, Gondwana
DS201112-0052
2011
Bahlburg, H.Bahlburg, H.Mantle controlled mountains. At the edge of continental plates or in their centre.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 4, pp. 280-281.MantleOrogenic systems
DS2000-0049
2000
Bahr, K.Bahr, K., Duba, A.Is the asthenosphere electrically anisotropic?Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 178, No. 1-2, May 15, pp.87-96.MantleGeophysics
DS2002-0091
2002
Bahr, K.Bahr, K., Simpson, F.Electrical anisotropy below slow and fast moving plates; paleoflow in the upper mantle?Science, No. 5558, Feb. 15, pp. 1270-1.MantleTectonics
DS1985-0034
1985
BaiBai, GE, Yuan zhongxin.On the Rare Earth Elements (ree) Rich Carbonatites.*chiIn: New frontiers Rare Earth Science Applications Proceedings International Conference Rare, Vol. 1, pp. 45-48ChinaCarbonatite, Rare Earth
DS1996-0687
1996
BaiJin, Bai, Fengyan, DaiThe early Precambrian crustal evolution of ChinaJournal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3/5, pp. 205-214ChinaPrecambrian, Structure, tectonics
DS200912-0313
2009
Bai, G.Hou, Z., Tian, S., Xie, Y., Yang, Z., Yuan, Z., Yin, S., Yi, L., Fei, H., Zou, T., Bai, G., Li, X.The Himalayan Mianning Dechang REE belt associated with carbonatite alkaline complexes eastern Indo Asian collision zone, SW China.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 36, 1-3, pp. 65-89.ChinaCarbonatite
DS1998-0909
1998
Bai, J.Ma, X., Bai, J.Precambrian crustal evolution of China. revised by A.C. CadmanSpringer, 336p. $ 160.00ChinaBook - ad, Precambrian geology
DS201904-0725
2019
Bai, T.Chen, W., Ying, Y-C., Bai, T., Zhang, J-J., Jiang, S-Y., Zhao, K-D.In situ major and trace element analysis of magnetite from carbonatite related complexes: implications for petrogenesis and ore genesis.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 107, pp. 30-40.Chinacarbonatite

Abstract: Magnetite (Fe3O4) is one of the most common accessory minerals in magmatic rocks, and it can accommodate a wide variety of major, minor and trace elements that can be measured by laser ablation ICP-MS. In this study, we investigate the chemical compositions of magnetite from four carbonatite complexes (Oka, Mushgai Khudag, Hongcheon and Bayan Obo). The minor elements (Mg, Ti, Al, Mn) in magnetite vary significantly both within and between different complexes. High field strength elements (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th) are generally depleted in magnetite from carbonatite complexes, whereas K, Rb, Cs, Ca and P are commonly below detection limits. V and Zn display significant variations from tens to thousands of ppm. Co, Ni and Ga are present in ppm or tens of ppm, whereas Cu, Sr, Y, Ba and Pb are characterized by sub-ppm levels. Mo and Ge are identified at the ppm level, whereas a consistent concentration of 2-5?ppm is observed for Ge. The determined chemical compositions of magnetite from carbonatite complexes are quite distinguishable compared to those formed in silicate and sulfide melts. This is clearly shown using multielement variation diagrams, and the distinct signatures of carbonatite-related magnetite include strong positive anomalies of Mn and Zn and negative anomalies of Cu, Co and Ga. The discriminant diagrams of Ti vs. Zr?+?Hf, Ti vs. Nb?+?Ta and Ni/Cr vs. Ti are applicable for distinguishing magmatic and hydrothermal magnetite in carbonatite-related environments. In addition, the discriminant diagram of Zn/Co vs. Cu/Mo and Cu vs. Zr?+?Hf can be used to distinguish carbonatite-related magnetite from magnetite that formed in other environments.
DS201909-2017
2019
Bai, T.Bai, T., Chen, W., Jiang, S-Y.Evolution of the carbonatite Mo-HREE deposits in the Lesser Qinling orogen: insights from in situ geochemical investigation of the calcite and sulfate. Huanglongpu, HuangshuianOre Geology Reviews, in press available, 38p. PdfChinacarbonatite
DS2001-0073
2001
Bai, W.Bai, W., Yang, J., Fang, Yan, ZhangExplosion of ultrahigh pressure minerals in the mantleActa Geologica Sinica, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 385-90.MantleUHP
DS200612-0071
2006
Bai, W.Bai, W., Ren, Y., Yang, J., Fang, Q., Yan, B.The native iron and wustite assemblage: records of oxygen element from the mantle.Acta Geologica Sinica , Vol. 27, 1, pp. 43-50.MantleMineral chemistry
DS2001-0072
2001
Bai, W. YangBai, W. Yang, Robinson, Febg, Zhang, Yan, HuStudy of diamonds from chromitites in the Luobusa ophiolite, TibetActa Geologica Sinica, Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 409-17.China, TibetChromitites - diamond
DS1993-0064
1993
Bai, W.J.Bai, W.J., Robinson, P.T., Zhou, M.Diamond -bearing peridotites from Tibetan ophiolites: implications for a subduction related origin of diamondsMid-continent diamonds Geological Association of Canada (GAC)-Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Symposium ABSTRACT volume, held Edmonton May, pp. 77-84China, TibetOphiolites
DS1994-1993
1994
Bai, W.J.Zhou, M.F., Robinson, P.T., Bai, W.J.Formation of podiform chromitites by melt/rock interaction in the uppermantle.Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 98-101.Mantle, ChinaHarzburgite, Lherzolites
DS201601-0051
2015
Bai, W.J.Yang, J.S., Wirth, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Griffin, W.L., Meng, F.C., Chen, S.Y., Bai, W.J., Xu, X.X., Makeeyev, A.B., Bryanchaniniova, N.I.Diamonds and highly reduced minerals from chromitite of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals: deep origin of podiform chromitites and ophiolitic diamonds.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 89, 2, p. 107.Russia, Polar UralsOphiolite
DS201112-0871
2004
Bai, W-J.Robinson, P.T., Bai, W-J., Malpas, J., Yang, J-S., Zhou, M-F., Fang, Q-S., Hu, X-F., Cameron, StaudigelUltra high pressure minerals in the Loubasa ophiolite, Tibet and their tectonic implications.Aspects of the Tectonic evolution of China, Editors Fletcher, Ali, Aitchison, Geological Society Of America, Spec. Pub.226, pp.247-71China, TibetUHP
DS201412-0964
2014
Bai, X.Wang, W., Liu, S., Santsh, M., Zhang, L., Bai, X., Zhao, Y., Zhang, S., Guo, R.1.23 Ga mafic dykes in the North Chin a craton and their implications for the reconstruction of the Columbia supercontinent.Gondwana Research, in press availableChinaSupercontinents
DS201903-0516
2018
Bai, Y.Hu, L., Li, Y-K., Wu, Z-J., Bai, Y., Wang, A-J.Two metasomatic events recorded in apatite from the ore hosting dolomite marble and implications for genesis of the giant Bayan Obo REE deposit, Inner Mongolia, northern China.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 172, pp. 56-65.China, Mongoliadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: In the Bayan Obo REE deposit in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, three major orebodies are hosted in dolomite marble of the Bayan Obo Group. There are carbonatite dikes in the ore district. Apatite is a common accessary mineral in the ore-hosting dolomite marble (DM apatite) and in carbonatite dikes (IC apatite). These two types of apatite are both fluorapatite, and have low SiO2, uniform P2O5, and variable CaO contents. Total REY (REEs?+?Y) contents are correlated with Na2O contents, indicating that REY of both types of apatite enter lattice via the substitution reaction: Na+ + (REY)3+ = 2Ca2+. These features, combined with high REY (6230-18,906?ppm) and Sr (9653-17,200?ppm) contents of DM apatite, indicate that DM apatite likely had a carbonatite origin. Some DM apatite grains are partially replaced by albite and quartz. Fluid inclusions crosscutting both apatite and albite or quartz indicate that they formed later than quartz and albite replacement. The back-scattered electron images show that DM apatite grains contain many micro-pores (fluid inclusions), and monazite inclusions formed from the fluid inclusions. However, no monazite inclusions are observed within quartz and albite, excluding the possibility that the monazite inclusions were precipitated directly from the fluids. The monazite inclusions were therefore formed during fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation processes, where DM apatite served as the source of LREEs. This also explains the depletion of some LREEs in DM apatite. The formation of monazite inclusions in apatite requires fluids with relatively low Na and Si concentrations, different from the fluids responsible for quartz and albite replacement. DM apatite was affected by two stages of fluid activities: the first stage of metasomatism by alkaline fluids that were likely derived from carbonatite magmas when the deposit first formed (represented by quartz and albite replacement), followed by a second stage of modification that caused LREEs depletion and the formation of new REE minerals. Thus, the Bayan Obo REE ore deposit was modified by a significant thermal event after the formation, which provided negligible or only small amounts of REEs.
DS200912-0858
2009
Bai, Z.Zhao, Z., Xiong, X., Wang, Q., Bai, Z., Qiao, Y.Late Paleozoic underplating in North Xinjiang: evidence from shoshonites and adakites.Gondwana Research, Vol. 18, 2, pp. 216-226.ChinaShoshonite
DS200612-1507
2006
Bai, Z-H.Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Xu, J-F., Zhao, Z-H., Jian, P., Xiong, X-L., Bao, Z-W., Li, C-F., Bai, Z-H.Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui Province: implications for geodynamics and Cu-Au mineralization.Lithos, In pressChinaShoshonites - not specific to diamond
DS1990-1616
1990
Bai GeYuan Zhongxin, Bai GeGeological features of Baiyan -Obo ore deposit and its genetic analyisInternational Mineralogical Association Meeting Held June, 1990 Beijing China, Vol. 2, extended abstract p. 975ChinaCarbonatite, Baiyan -Obo
DS1986-0039
1986
Bai Ge: Yuan ZhongxinBai Ge: Yuan ZhongxinThe rare earth elements (REE) rich carbonatites.*CHIBulletin Institute Mineral Deposits *CHI, Vol. 2, No. 18, pp. 126-128ChinaCarbonatite, rare earth elements (REE).
DS1981-0154
1981
Bai WangiFang qingsong, Bai WangiThe Discovery of Alpine Type Diamond Bearing Ultrabasic Intrusions in Xizang (tibet).Geological Review., Vol. 27, No. 5, PP. 455-457.ChinaGeology
DS1982-0079
1982
Bai WenjiBai WenjiThe Models of Variation in the Chemical Composition of Chrome Spinel and its Significance As an Indicator in Ore Prospecting.Bulletin. Institute GEOL. (CHINESE ACAD. GEOL. SCI.), No. 5, PP. 53-63.ChinaChromite, Mineral Chemistry
DS200712-0585
2007
BaibchevKuper, K.E., Zedgenizov, D.A., Ragozin, A.L., Shatsky, V.S., Porosev, V.V., Zolotarev, K.V., Baibchev, IvanovThree dimensional distribution of minerals in Diamondiferous eclogites, obtained by the method of high resolution X-ray computed tomography.Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A., Vol. 575, 1-2, pp. 255-258.TechnologyDiamond genesis
DS201212-0045
2012
Baich, Yu.V.Baich, Yu.V., Feigelson, B.N., Yelisseyev, A.P., Chepuov, A.I.Nitrogen in corporation in octahedral diamonds grown in the Fe-Ni-C systemGeochemistry International, Vol. 50, 2, pp. 179-184.TechnologyDiamond genesis
DS200912-0680
2009
Baidder, L.Sebti, S., Saddiqi, O., El Haimer, F.Z., Michard, A., Ruiz, G., Bousquet, R., Baidder, L., Frizonde Lamotte, D.Vertical movements at the fringe of the West African Craton: first zircon fission track datings from the Anti Atlas Precambrian basement, Morocco.Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Vol. 341, no. 1, pp. 71-77.Africa, MoroccoTectonics
DS202001-0030
2019
Baidder, L.Najih, A., Montero, P., Verati, C., Chabou, M.C., Fekkak, A., Baidder, L., Ezzouhairi, H., Bea, F., Michard, A.Initial Pangean rifting north of the West African craton: insights from late Permian U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating of alkaline magmatism from the eastern Anti-Atlas ( Morocco).Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 132, 17p.Africa, Moroccocamptonites

Abstract: Numerous mafic dykes, sills and laccoliths crop out in the southern part of the Tafilalt basin (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco). These rocks intrude the mildly folded Ordovician to Early Carboniferous formations, consisting mainly of lamprophyric dolerites and camptonites with minor gabbros and syenodiorites. Previous geochemical studies have shown that the Tafilalt magmatism of sodic-alkaline affinity has been produced by low degrees of partial melting from an enriched deep mantle source within the garnet stability field. However, the age and the geodynamic context of these rocks were presently unknown since no isotopic dating had so far been made of the Tafilalt dolerites. To resolve this issue, we present here the first 40Ar/39Ar biotite and U-Pb zircon dating from the Tafilalt alkaline magmatism. Three samples (biotite separates) yielded well-defined 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 264.2?±?2.7 Ma, 259.0?±?6.3 Ma and 262.6?±?4.5 Ma whereas 206Pb/238U dating of zircon from one of these samples yielded an age of 255?±?3 Ma. These ages coincide within the dating error, and indicate that this magmatism occurred in the late Permian. Considering geochronological and geochemical data, we propose that the Tafilalt magmatism reflects an early-rift magmatic activity that preceded the Triassic rifting heralded by the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. This magmatic activity is recorded in both sides of the future Atlantic Ocean by small-volume alkaline magmatism that started in the late Permian and extends into the Triassic. The alkaline magmas are probably generated in response to an increase in the mantle potential temperature underneath the Pangea supercontinent.
DS201312-0733
2013
Baidya, P.R.Ravi Kumar, M., Saikia, D., Singh, A., Srinagesh, D., Baidya, P.R., Dattatrayam, R.S.Low shear velocities in the sublithospheric mantle beneath the Indian shield?Journal of Geophysical Research, 50114IndiaTectonics
DS201909-2050
2019
Baiel, R.Hutchison, W., Baiel, R., Finch, A., Marks, M., Markl, G., Boyce, A., Stueken, E., Friis, H., Borst, A., Horsburgh, N.Sulphur isotopes of alkaline igneous suites: new insights into magmatic fluid evolution and crustal recycling.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractGlobalalkaline rocks
DS201705-0843
2017
Baier, H.Kramm, U., Korner, T., Kittel, M., Baier, H., Sindern, S.Triassic emplacement age of the Kalkfeld complex, NW Namibia: implications for carbonatite magmatism and its relationship to the Tristan Plume.International Journal of Earth Sciences, in press available 17p.Africa, NamibiaAlkaline rocks

Abstract: Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral isotope data from nepheline syenite, tinguaite, and carbonatite samples of the Kalkfeld Complex within the Damaraland Alkaline Province, NW Namibia, indicate a date of 242?±?6.5 Ma. This is interpreted as the age of final magmatic crystallization in the complex. The geological position of the complex and the spatially close relationship to the Lower Cretaceous Etaneno Alkaline Complex document a repeated channeling of small-scale alkaline to carbonatite melt fractions along crustal fractures that served as pathways for the mantle-derived melts. This is in line with Triassic extensional tectonic activity described for the nearby Omaruru Lineament-Waterberg Fault system. The emplacement of the Kalkfeld Complex more than 100 Ma prior to the Paraná-Etendeka event and the emplacement of the Early Cretaceous Damaraland intrusive complexes excludes a genetic relationship to the Tristan Plume. The initial eSr-eNd pairs of the Kalkfeld rocks are typical of younger African carbonatites and suggest a melt source, in which EM I and HIMU represent dominant components.
DS201711-2523
2017
Baier, H.Kramm, U., Korner, T., Kittel, M., Baier, H., Sindern, S.Triassic emplacement age of the Kalkfeld complex, NW Namibia: implications for carbonatite magmatism and its relationship to the Tristan Plume.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 106, pp. 2797-2813.Africa, Namibiacarbonatites

Abstract: Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral isotope data from nepheline syenite, tinguaite, and carbonatite samples of the Kalkfeld Complex within the Damaraland Alkaline Province, NW Namibia, indicate a date of 242?±?6.5 Ma. This is interpreted as the age of final magmatic crystallization in the complex. The geological position of the complex and the spatially close relationship to the Lower Cretaceous Etaneno Alkaline Complex document a repeated channeling of small-scale alkaline to carbonatite melt fractions along crustal fractures that served as pathways for the mantle-derived melts. This is in line with Triassic extensional tectonic activity described for the nearby Omaruru Lineament-Waterberg Fault system. The emplacement of the Kalkfeld Complex more than 100 Ma prior to the Paraná-Etendeka event and the emplacement of the Early Cretaceous Damaraland intrusive complexes excludes a genetic relationship to the Tristan Plume. The initial eSr-eNd pairs of the Kalkfeld rocks are typical of younger African carbonatites and suggest a melt source, in which EM I and HIMU represent dominant components.
DS201803-0459
2018
Baier, H.Kramm, U., Korner, T., Kittel, M., Baier, H., Sindern, S.Triassic emplacement age of Kakfeld complex, NW Namibia: implications for carbonatite magmatism and its relationship to the Tristan plume.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 106, 8, pp. 2797-2813.Africa, Namibiacarbonatite

Abstract: Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral isotope data from nepheline syenite, tinguaite, and carbonatite samples of the Kalkfeld Complex within the Damaraland Alkaline Province, NW Namibia, indicate a date of 242 ± 6.5 Ma. This is interpreted as the age of final magmatic crystallization in the complex. The geological position of the complex and the spatially close relationship to the Lower Cretaceous Etaneno Alkaline Complex document a repeated channeling of small-scale alkaline to carbonatite melt fractions along crustal fractures that served as pathways for the mantle-derived melts. This is in line with Triassic extensional tectonic activity described for the nearby Omaruru Lineament-Waterberg Fault system. The emplacement of the Kalkfeld Complex more than 100 Ma prior to the Paraná-Etendeka event and the emplacement of the Early Cretaceous Damaraland intrusive complexes excludes a genetic relationship to the Tristan Plume. The initial ?Sr-?Nd pairs of the Kalkfeld rocks are typical of younger African carbonatites and suggest a melt source, in which EM I and HIMU represent dominant components.
DS1995-0360
1995
Baigent, M.Cowan, D.R., Baigent, M., Cowan, S.Aeromagnetic gradiometers - a perspectiveExploration Geophysics ( Australia), Vol. 26, No. 2-3, June 1, pp. 241-246AustraliaGeophysics -gradiometers, Overview
DS1995-1829
1995
Bailes, A.H.Stern, R.A., Syme, E.C., Bailes, A.H., Lucas, S.B.Paleoproterozoic (1.90 -1.86 Ga) arc volcanism in the Flin Flon belt, Trans Hudson Orogen, Canada.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 119, pp. 117-141.Manitoba, SaskatchewanAlkaline, shoshonites, boninites, Geochemistry, geochronology
DS200512-0284
2005
BaileyFerguson, I.J., Craven, J.A., Kurtz, R.D., Boerner, D.E., Bailey, Wu, Orellana, Spratt, Wennberg, NortonGeoelectric response of Archean lithosphere in the western Superior Province, central Canada.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 150, 1-3, May 16, pp. 123-143.Canada, OntarioGeophysics - magnetotelluric, North Caribou terrane
DS200812-0073
2008
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Smith, L., Neuner, M., Gupton, M., Blowes, D.W., Smith, L., Sego, D.C., Gould, D.Diavik waste rock project: early stage geochemistry and microbiology of effluent from low sulfide content waste rock piles.Northwest Territories Geoscience Office, p. 11-12. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS200812-1085
2008
Bailey, B.L.Smith, L., Neuner, M., Gupton, M., Bailey, B.L., Blowes, D., Smith, L., Sego, D.Diavik test piles project: design and construction of large scale research waste rock piles in the Canadian Arctic.Northwest Territories Geoscience Office, p. 57-58. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS201012-0031
2010
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Smith, L.J.D., Blowes, D.W., Ptacek, C.J., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.Diavik waste rock project: blasting residuals in waste rock piles.38th. Geoscience Forum Northwest Territories, Abstract p. 30.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDiavik
DS201112-0409
2011
Bailey, B.L.Hannam, S., Bailey, B.L., Lindsay, M.B.J., Gibson, B., Blowes, D.W., Paktunc, A.D., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.Diavik waste rock project: geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste rock weathering at the Diavik diamond mine.Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts for 2011, abstract p. 43-44.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesMining - waste rock
DS201212-0046
2012
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Smith, L.J.D., Blowes, D.W.,Ptacek, C.J., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.The Diavik waste rock project: persistence of contaminants from blasting agents in waste rock effluent.Applied Geochemistry, in press availableCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik mining
DS201312-0049
2013
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Norlund, K.L., Wen, M., Novy, l., Butler, H.Ekati diamond mine: Long Lake containment facility pore water geochemistry.2013 Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts, p. 9. abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Ekati
DS201312-0850
2013
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Smith, L.J.D., Blowes, D.W., Ptacek, C.J., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.The Diavik waste rock project: persistence of contaminants from blasting agents in waste rock effluent.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 36, pp. 256-270.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesMining - Diavik
DS201507-0303
2015
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Blowes, D.W., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.The Diavik waste rock project: geochemical and microbiological characterization of drainage from low sulfide waste rock: active zone field experiments.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 36, pp. 187-199.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik
DS201512-1896
2015
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Blowes, D.W., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.The Diavik waste rock project: geochemical and microbiological characterization of low sulfide content large-scale waste rock test piles.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 62, pp. 18-34.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik

Abstract: Two experimental waste-rock piles (test piles), each 15 m in height × 60 m × 50 m, were constructed at the Diavik diamond mine in Northern Canada to study the behavior of low-sulfide content waste rock, with a similarly low acid-neutralization potential, in a continuous permafrost region. One test pile with an average of 0.035 wt.% S (<50 mm fraction; referred to as Type I) and a second test pile with an average of 0.053 wt.% S (<50 mm fraction; referred to as Type III) were constructed in 2006. The average carbon content in the <50 mm fraction of waste rock in the Type I test pile was 0.031 wt.% as C and in the Type III test pile was 0.030 wt.% as C. The NP:AP ratio, based on the arithmetic mean of particle-size weighted NP and AP values, for the Type I test pile was 12.2, suggesting this test pile was non-acid generating and for the Type III test pile was 2.2, suggesting an uncertain acid-generating potential. The Type I test pile maintained near-neutral pH for the 4-year duration of the study. Sulfate and dissolved metal concentrations were low, with the exception of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Co in the fourth year following construction. The pore water in the Type III test pile contained higher concentrations of SO42- and dissolved metals, with a decrease in pH to <4.7 and an annual depletion of alkalinity. Maximum concentrations of dissolved metals (20 mg L-1 Ni, 2.3 mg L-1 Cu, 3.7 mg L-1 Zn, 35 µg L-1 Cd, and 3.8 mg L-1 Co) corresponded to decreases in flow rate, which were observed at the end of each field season when the contribution of the total outflow from the central portion of the test pile was greatest. Bacteria were present each year in spite of annual freeze/thaw cycles. The microbial community within the Type I test pile included a population of neutrophilic S-oxidizing bacteria. Each year, changes in the water quality of the Type III test-pile effluent were accompanied by changes in the microbial populations. Populations of acidophilic S-oxidizing bacteria and Fe-oxidizing bacteria became more abundant as the pH decreased and internal test pile temperatures increased. Irrespective of the cold-climate conditions and low S content of the waste rock, the geochemical and microbiological results of this study are consistent with other acid mine drainage studies; indicating that a series of mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions controls pH and metal mobility, and transport is controlled by matrix-dominated flow and internal temperatures.
DS201601-0002
2016
Bailey, B.L.Bailey, B.L., Blowes, D.W., Smith, L., Sego, D.C.The Diavik waste rock project: geochemical and microbiological characterization of low sulfide content large-scale waste rock test piles.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 65, pp. 54-72.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Diavik

Abstract: Two experimental waste-rock piles (test piles), each 15 m in height × 60 m × 50 m, were constructed at the Diavik diamond mine in Northern Canada to study the behavior of low-sulfide content waste rock, with a similarly low acid-neutralization potential, in a continuous permafrost region. One test pile with an average of 0.035 wt.% S (<50 mm fraction; referred to as Type I) and a second test pile with an average of 0.053 wt.% S (<50 mm fraction; referred to as Type III) were constructed in 2006. The average carbon content in the <50 mm fraction of waste rock in the Type I test pile was 0.031 wt.% as C and in the Type III test pile was 0.030 wt.% as C. The NP:AP ratio, based on the arithmetic mean of particle-size weighted NP and AP values, for the Type I test pile was 12.2, suggesting this test pile was non-acid generating and for the Type III test pile was 2.2, suggesting an uncertain acid-generating potential. The Type I test pile maintained near-neutral pH for the 4-year duration of the study. Sulfate and dissolved metal concentrations were low, with the exception of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Co in the fourth year following construction. The pore water in the Type III test pile contained higher concentrations of SO42- and dissolved metals, with a decrease in pH to <4.7 and an annual depletion of alkalinity. Maximum concentrations of dissolved metals (20 mg L-1 Ni, 2.3 mg L-1 Cu, 3.7 mg L-1 Zn, 35 µg L-1 Cd, and 3.8 mg L-1 Co) corresponded to decreases in flow rate, which were observed at the end of each field season when the contribution of the total outflow from the central portion of the test pile was greatest. Bacteria were present each year in spite of annual freeze/thaw cycles. The microbial community within the Type I test pile included a population of neutrophilic S-oxidizing bacteria. Each year, changes in the water quality of the Type III test-pile effluent were accompanied by changes in the microbial populations. Populations of acidophilic S-oxidizing bacteria and Fe-oxidizing bacteria became more abundant as the pH decreased and internal test pile temperatures increased. Irrespective of the cold-climate conditions and low S content of the waste rock, the geochemical and microbiological results of this study are consistent with other acid mine drainage studies; indicating that a series of mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions controls pH and metal mobility, and transport is controlled by matrix-dominated flow and internal temperatures.
DS200812-0690
2007
Bailey, D.G.Lupulescu, M.V., Bailey, D.G., Minarik, W.G.Mineral and whole rock chemistry of kimberlite like rocks from New York.Geological Society of America Annual Meeting 2007, Denver Oct. 28, 1p. AbstractUnited States, New YorkDykes - petrology
DS201012-0032
2009
Bailey, D.G.Bailey, D.G., Lupulescu, M.V.Kimberlites of central New York State: magmatism related to Mesozoic extension and reactivation of lithospheric structures.Geological Society of America Abstracts, 1/2p.United States, New YorkDikes
DS201212-0047
2012
Bailey, D.G.Bailey, D.G., Lupilescu, M.V.Kimberlitic rocks of New York State: the Dewitt "kimberlite".Hamilton College, New York State Museum, Field trip guide 16p.United States, New YorkHistory, mineralogy
DS201706-1099
2017
Bailey, D.G.O'Sullivan, D., Bailey, D.G.Major and trace element compositions of garnets from New York state kimberlites: a window in the lower crust and upper mantle.GSA Annual Meeting, 1p. AbstractUnited States, New Yorkdeposit - Taughannock Creek, Ithica, Dewitt Reservoir

Abstract: Kimberlites are unusual igneous rocks that are not only the singular source of gem quality diamonds, but also a source of upper mantle and lower crustal material for scientific study. As kimberlite magmas rise, they disaggregate xenoliths from the surrounding country rocks. One mineral that is commonly picked up and transported to the surface is garnet, and their compositions have been correlated with different mantle conditions and source materials. The goal of our study is to use garnet compositions to characterize the diversity of lithologies sampled by Mesozoic kimberlitic intrusions in New York State. Approximately 90 kimberlitic dikes cut through the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of central New York State, most clustered around the cities of Ithaca and Syracuse. Samples of garnet-bearing kimberlites were collected from both of these localities (Taughannock Creek, Ithaca and Dewitt Reservoir, Syracuse), in order to compare the garnet populations present to see if the two dikes sampled similar mantle and crustal materials. Garnets were extracted from both dikes, and their bulk compositions were obtained using energy-dispersive, x-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). We were able to identify four major compositional groups of garnets: 1) low to moderate Cr pyrope, 2) high Cr pyrope, 3) almandine, and 4) grossular. Samples of each of these were then analyzed for trace element composition by laser ablation, inductively coupled plasma, mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Both dikes contain macrocrysts of almandine and Cr-bearing pyrope (up to ~ 5 wt. % Cr2O3); garnets with a high grossular component were only found in the Dewitt kimberlite. Based on the classification of Gurney et al. (1984), none of the garnets indicate a high diamond potential for either kimberlite. While the pyrope and almandine macrocrysts in both dikes are broadly similar in composition, sub-populations of garnets can be recognized based on trace element profiles. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests that the kimberlite intrusions in central New York sampled garnets from a heterogeneous mantle source and, in addition, sampled garnets from a Grenvillian lower crust.
DS1984-0127
1984
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Kimberlite "the Mantle Sample" Formed by UltrametasomatismProceedings of Third International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, PP. 323-334.GlobalGenesis, Model, Segregation, Experiments, Source
DS1985-0035
1985
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Fluids, melts, flowage and styles of eruption in alkalineultramaficmagmatismTransactions Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 88, pt. 2, May-August pp. 449-457Democratic Republic of CongoUganda, Alkaline Rocks
DS1985-0036
1985
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Mantle Metasomatism- Perspective and ProspectConference Report of Meeting of The Volcanic Studies Group H, 1P. ABSTRACT.GlobalIsotopes, Lithophile, Petrogenesis
DS1988-0711
1988
Bailey, D.K.Turner, D.C., Bailey, D.K., Roberts, B.Volcanic carbonatites of the Kaluwe complex, Zambia, and discussionJournal of Geology Society of London, Vol. 145, pt. 1, January pp. 95-106ZambiaCarbonatite
DS1989-0059
1989
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Carbonate melt from the mantle in the volcanoes of southeast ZambiaNature, Vol. 338, No. 6214, March 30, pp. 415-418ZambiaMantle
DS1990-0153
1990
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Mantle carbonatite eruptions: crustal context and evolutionLithos, Special Issue, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 37-42GlobalMantle, Carbonatite
DS1990-0154
1990
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Hampton, C.M.Volatiles in alkaline magmatismLithos, Special Issue, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 157-166GlobalAlkaline rocks, Experimental petrology
DS1990-1102
1990
Bailey, D.K.Ngwemya. B.T., Bailey, D.K.Kalune carbonatite, Zambia- an alternative natrocarbonatite (technicalnote)Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 147, No. 3, March pp. 213-216ZambiaCarbonatite-natrocarbonatite, Kalune
DS1991-1004
1991
Bailey, D.K.Lloyd, F.E., Bailey, D.K.The genesis of perovskite-bearing beredourite and the problems posed by clinopyroxenite-carbonatite complexesProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 237-239BrazilCarbonatite, Bebedourite
DS1992-0066
1992
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Episodic alkaline igneous activity across Africa: implications for the causes of continental break-upGeological Society Special Publication, Magmatism and the Causes of Continental, No. 68, pp. 91-98AfricaTectonics, Alkaline rocks
DS1992-0067
1992
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Primary carbonatite fluid activity and source constraintsProceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress. Held Japan August 1992, Vol. 2, abstract p. 578GlobalCarbonatite, Source
DS1993-0065
1993
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Primary carbonatites: ultramafic and kimberlite connectionsTerra Abstracts, IAGOD International Symposium on mineralization related to mafic, Vol. 5, No. 3, abstract supplement p. 3AfricaCarbonatite, Kimberlite -affinity
DS1993-0066
1993
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Carbonate magmasJournal of Geological Society of London, Vol. 150, No. 7, July, pp. 637-651MantleCarbonate magma, brief mention of kimberlite connection, Sovite
DS1993-0067
1993
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.Petrogenetic implications of the timing of alkaline, carbonatite, and kimberlite igneous activity in Africa.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 96, No. 3, Sept. pp. 67-74.Africa, West AfricaCraton, Kimberlites
DS1994-1042
1994
Bailey, D.K.Lloyd, F.E., Bailey, D.K.Complex mineral textures in bededourite: possible links with alkalic linopyroxenite xenoliths and kamafugitic volcanism.Proceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 263-269.GlobalXenoliths
DS1994-1461
1994
Bailey, D.K.Riley, T.R., Bailey, D.K., Lloyd, F.E.Variations in carbonatite melt parageneses: Rockeskyll Complex, West EifelGermany.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Abstract Volume, Vol. 19, p.GermanyCarbonatite, Roskeskyll Complex
DS1996-1190
1996
Bailey, D.K.Riley, T.R., Bailey, D.K., Lloyd, F.E.Extrusive carbonatite from the Quaternary Rockeskyll Complex, West EifelGermany.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 34, pt. 2, April pp. 389-402.GermanyCarbonatite
DS2000-0050
2000
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Collier, J.D.Carbonatite melilite association in the Italian collision zone and the Ugand an rifted craton: factorsMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 4, Aug. 1, pp.675-83.UgandaCarbonatite, Common factors
DS2000-0051
2000
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Collier, J.D.Carbonatite melilitite association in Italian collision zone and UgAnd a rifted craton: common factors...Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 4, Aug. pp. 675-UgandaCarbonatite, Melilitite
DS2000-0052
2000
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Woolley, A.R.The wider tectono-magmatic context of the Chilwa alkaline provinces, MalawiIgc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.MalawiCarbonatite, Geochronology, tectonics
DS2002-0092
2002
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Kearns, S.High Ti magnetite in some fine grained carbonatites with the magmatic implicationsMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 66,3,pp.379-84.GlobalCarbonatite - titanium, Magmatism
DS200512-0053
2005
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Woolley, A.R.Repeated, synchronous magmatism within Africa: timing, magnetic reversals, and global tectonics.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, pp. 365-378. ( total book 861p. $ 144.00)AfricaMagmatism
DS200812-1228
2008
Bailey, D.K.Wall, F., Rosatelli, G., Bailey, D.K., Jeffries, T.E., Kearne, S., Munoz, M.Comparison of calcite compositions from extrusive carbonatites at Kaisterstuhl, Germany and Calatrava, Spain: implications for mantle carbonate.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractEurope, Germany, SpainCarbonatite
DS201012-0033
2010
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K.New forms of carbonate volcanism: what to look for and where.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 558.Europe, Spain, Africa, Kenya, ZambiaAlkalic
DS201212-0048
2012
Bailey, D.K.Bailey, D.K., Kearns, S.New forms of abundant carbonatites silicate volcanism: recognition criteria and further target locations.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 76, 2, pp. 271-284.TechnologyCarbonatite, exploration
DS201212-0792
2012
Bailey, D.K.Woolley, A.R., Bailey, D.K.The crucial role of lithospheric structure in the generation and release of carbonatites: geological evidence.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 76, 2, pp. 259-270.MantleCarbonatite, genesis
DS1860-0747
1892
Bailey, E.H.Failyer, G.H., Bailey, E.H.A Revised List of Kansas MineralsKansas Acad. Science Transactions, Vol. 13, PP. 27-29.United States, KansasDiamond Occurrence
DS1960-1069
1969
Bailey, E.H.Bailey, E.H., Blake, M.C.JR.Tectonic Development of Western California in the Late Mezozoic ; Article 2, Metamorphism and its Relationship with Regional Tectonics.Geotectonics, No. 4, PP. 225-230.CaliforniaKimberlite
DS1900-0106
1902
Bailey, G.E.Bailey, G.E.California as a Gem StateOverland Month, N.S. Vol. 40, PP. 468-470.United States, California, West CoastGemstone
DS201212-0049
2012
Bailey, I.W.Bailey, I.W., Miller, M.S., Liu, K., Levander, A.V(S) and density structure beneath the Colorado Plateau constrained by gravity anomalies and joint inversions of receiver function and phase velocity data.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B2, B02313.United States, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - gravity
DS1991-1122
1991
Bailey, J.Mellish, M., Bailey, J.Surface miningMining Annual Review, June 1991, pp. 207-219GlobalMining, Applications -mineral exploration/mining
DS1991-1123
1991
Bailey, J.Mellish, M., Bailey, J.Brief note on the Venetia diamond mine processing plantMining Annual Review, June 1991, p. 219South AfricaMineral processing, Venetia, De Beers
DS1996-0619
1996
Bailey, J.Hazell, M., Blewett, R., Bailey, J.If only Newton had had AGSO's FieldPadAgso Research Newsletter, No. 25, Nov. pp. 3-5GlobalComputer, Digitized version of field notebook
DS1994-0088
1994
Bailey, J.C.Bailey, J.C., Gworzdz, R.Lithium distribution in aegirine lujavrite, limaussaq alkaline intrusion, SouthGreenland: role of cumulus and post-cumulus processes.Lithos, Vol. 31, No. 3/4, January pp. 207-226.GreenlandAlkaline rocks
DS200612-0072
2006
Bailey, J.C.Bailey, J.C.Geochemistry of boron in the Ilmaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland.Lithos, in press availableEurope, GreenlandAlkalic
DS200612-0073
2006
Bailey, J.C.Bailey, J.C., Sorensen, H., Andersen, T., Kogarko, L.N., Rose-Hansen, J.On the origin of microrhythmic layering in arfvedsonite lujavrite from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland.Lithos, in press availableEurope, GreenlandAlkalic
DS200612-1337
2006
Bailey, J.C.Sorensen, H., Bohse, H., Bailey, J.C.The origin and mode of emplacement of lujavrites in the Ilmaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland.Lithos, in press availableEurope, GreenlandAlkaline rocks, agpaitic nepeheline syenites
DS200512-0054
2003
Bailey, K.Bailey, K., Kearns, R.E.Carbonatite magmas: natural examples and the phase relations they define.Periodico di Mineralogia, (in english), Vol. LXX11, 1. April, pp. 27-31.MantleMetasomatism
DS200512-0055
2005
Bailey, K.Bailey, K., Lloyd, F., Kearns, S., Stoppa, F., Eby, N., Woolley, A.Melilitite at Fort Portal, Uganda: another dimension to the carbonate volcanism.Lithos, Advanced in press,Africa, UgandaCalciocarbonatite lavas
DS200612-0074
2006
Bailey, K.Bailey, K., Kearns, S., Mergoil, J., Mergoil, D.J., Paterson, B.Extensive dolomitic volcanism through the Limagne Basin, central France: a new form of carbonatite activity.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 70, 2, April, pp. 231-236.Europe, France, Spain, Africa, ZambiaNephelinite, kimberlite, peperite, carbonatite
DS200612-0075
2005
Bailey, K.Bailey, K., Lloyd, F., Kearns, S., Stoppa, F., Eby, N., Woolley, A.Melilitite at Fort Portal, Uganda: another dimension to the carbonate volcanism.Lithos, Vol. 85, 1-4, Nov-Dec. pp. 15-25.Africa, UgandaCarbonatite, volcanism
DS200812-0074
2008
Bailey, K.Bailey, K., Kearns, S.Kimberlitic melt in the carbonate volcanism of Calatrava, central Spain.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractEurope, SpainMelting
DS200812-0491
2008
Bailey, K.Humphreys, E.R., Bailey, K., Wall, F., Hawkesworth, C.J., Kearms, S.Highly heterogeneous mantle sampled by rapidly erupted carbonate volcanism.9IKC.com, 3p. extended abstractEurope, ItalyCalatrava volcanic province
DS200912-0320
2009
Bailey, K.Humphreys, E.R., Bailey, K., Hawkesworth, C.J., Wall, F.Carbonate inclusions in mantle olivines: mantle carbonatite.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A564 Abstract.Europe, SpainLeucitites
DS201012-0297
2010
Bailey, K.Humprhreys, E.R., Bailey, K., Hawkesworth, C.J., Wall, F., Najorka, J., Rankin, A.H.Aragonite in olivine from Calatrava, Spain - evidence for mantle carbonatite melts from > 100km depth.Geology, Vol. 38, 10, pp. 911-914.Europe, SpainCarbonatite
DS201212-0772
2012
Bailey, K.White, J.L., Sparks, R.S.J., Bailey, K., Barnett, W.P., Field, M., Windsor, L.Kimberlite sills and dykes associated with the Wesselton kimberlite pipe, Kimberley, South Africa.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 115, 1, pp. 1-32.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Wesselton
DS1998-0067
1998
Bailey, L.M.Bailey, L.M., Helmstaedt, H.H., Peterson, R., MandarinoMicrodiamonds and indicator minerals from a talc schist rock, FrenchGuiana.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 37-39.GlobalMetakimberlites, Paramaca series
DS1950-0247
1955
Bailey, R.A.Young, R.S., Bailey, R.A.A Mica Peridotite Dike Near Front Royal VirginiaVirginia Journal of Science, Vol. 6 PP. 282-283.Appalachia, VirginiaRelated Rocks, Petrography
DS1987-0215
1987
Bailey, R.C.Flores, C., Bailey, R.C.Geomagnetic induction soundings over the Michigan BasinPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 48, pp. 142-152MichiganGeophysics, Mid Continent
DS1989-0060
1989
Bailey, R.C.Bailey, R.C., Craven, J.A., Macnae, J.C., Polzar, B.D.Deep UTEM controlled source electromagnetic sounding across the Ivanhoe Lake cataclastic zoneGeological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Program Abstracts, Vol. 14, p. A124. (abstract.)OntarioTectonics, Kapuskasing Zone
DS1989-0061
1989
Bailey, R.C.Bailey, R.C., Craven, J.A., Macnae, J.C., Polzer, B.D.Imaging of deep fluids in Archean crustNature, Vol. 340, No. 6229, July 13, pp. 136-8 Database #18038OntarioGeophysics, Midcontinent- Ivanhoe Lake
DS1998-0068
1998
Bailey, R.C.Bailey, R.C.Continental overflow on to ocean basins as a complement to subduction in Archean tectonics.Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A393.MantleArchean, Subduction
DS1999-0038
1999
Bailey, R.C.Bailey, R.C.Gravity driven continental overflow and Archean tectonicsNature, Vol. 398, No. 6726, Apr. 1, pp. 413-5.MantleGeophysics - gravity, Tectonics
DS2003-1015
2003
Bailey, R.C.Nitescu, B., Cruden, A.R., Bailey, R.C.Topography of the crust mantle interface under the Western Superior Craton fromCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, 10, Oct. pp. 1307-20.Ontario, ManitobaGeophysics - seismics, boundary
DS2003-1016
2003
Bailey, R.C.Nitescu, B., Cruden, A.R., Bailey, R.C.Topography of the crust mantle interface under the Western Superior craton fromCanadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 40, 10, pp. 1307-1320.Ontario, Manitoba, SaskatchewanGeophysics - gravity
DS200412-1437
2003
Bailey, R.C.Nitescu, B., Cruden, A.R., Bailey, R.C.Topography of the crust mantle interface under the Western Superior Craton from gravity data.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, 10, Oct. pp. 1307-20.Canada, Ontario, ManitobaGeophysics - seismics, boundary
DS200612-0076
2005
Bailey, R.C.Bailey, R.C.Crustal ductility and early continental tectonophysics.Benn, K., Mareschal, J-C., Condie, K.C. Archean Geodynamics and Environments, AGU Geophysical Monograph, No. 164, pp. 115-130.MantleTectonics
DS200612-0981
2006
Bailey, R.C.Nitescu, N., Cruden, A.R., Bailey, R.C.Crustal structure and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Archean western Superior Craton from forward and inverse gravity modeling.Tectonics, Vol. 25, 1. TC 1009Canada, Ontario, Manitoba, SaskatchewanTectonics
DS200912-0633
2009
Bailey, R.C.Robin, C.M.I., Bailey, R.C.Simultaneous generation of Archean crust and subcratonic roots by vertical tectonics.Geology, Vol. 37, 6, pp. 523-526.MantleCraton, not specific to diamonds
DS1995-1410
1995
Bailey, R.J.Otto, S.C., Bailey, R.J.Tectonic evolution of the northern Ural orogenJournal of Geology Society of London, Vol. 152, No. 6, Nov. 1, pp. 903-906.Russia, UralsTectonics
DS1984-0733
1984
Bailey, S.W.Tompkins, L.A., Bailey, S.W., Haggerty, S.E.Kimberlitic Chlorites from Sierra Leone, West Africa: Unusual Chemistries and Structural Polytypes.American Mineralogist., Vol. 69, PP. 237-249.West Africa, Sierra LeoneMineral Chemistry, Nodules
DS1987-0566
1987
Baillie, P.W.Parker, A.J., Rickwood, P.C., Baillie, P.W., McClenaghan, M.P.Mafic dyke swarms of Australiain: Mafic dyke swarms, Editors, Halls, H.C., Fahrig, W.F. Geological, Special Paper 34, pp. 401-417AustraliaKimberley Basin, Canning Basin p. 408, southeast Victoria p. 4, Kimberlite, Lamproite
DS1994-1006
1994
Baillie, P.W.Leaman, D.E., Baillie, P.W., Powell, McA.Precambrian Tasmania: a thin skinned devilExploration Geophysics, Australian Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 1, March pp. 19-24TasmaniaGeophysics, Tectonics, Precambrian
DS1970-0873
1974
Baillieul, T.A.Baillieul, T.A.An Introduction to Gemstones and Ornamental Stones of Botswana.Botswana Notes And Records, No. 5, PP. 170-178.BotswanaDiamond Occurrences
DS1975-0017
1975
Baillieul, T.A.Baillieul, T.A.A Reconnaissance Survey of the Cover Sands in the Republic Of Botswana.Journal of SED. PETROLOGY, Vol. 45, PP. 494-503.BotswanaGeomorphology
DS1975-0933
1979
Baillieul, T.A.Baillieul, T.A.Makgadikgadi Pans Complex of Central BotswanaGeological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 90, PP. 133-136.BotswanaGeomorphology
DS2002-0608
2002
Bailly, L.Grancea, L., Bailly, L., Leroy, Banks, Marcoux, MilisiFluid evolution in the Baia Mare epithermal gold/polymetallic district, Inner CarpathiansMineralium deposita, RomaniaGold, copper, zinc, Deposit - Baia Mare
DS2002-0894
2002
Bailly, L.Kouzmanov, K., Bailly, L., Ramboz, C., Rouer, O., BnyMorphology, origin and infrared microthermometry of fluid inclusions in pyrite from Radka epithermal copperMineralium deposita, BulgariaCopper, gold, geochronology, Deposit - Radka, Srednogorie zone
DS201909-2040
2019
Bailly, L.Gaillard, E., Nabyl, Z., Tuduri, J., Di Carlo, I., Melleton, J., Bailly, L.The effects of F, Cl, P and H2O on the immiscibility and rare metals partitioning between carbonate and phonolite melts.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractGlobalcarbonatite - REE

Abstract: Carbonatite and alkaline magma constitute one of the principal resources of rare metals (REE, Nb, Ti, Zr). Carbonatite rare metals enrichment is mainly considered as the result of hydrothermal or supergen processes. However, the magmatic processes linked to carbonatites genesis and differentiation are still debated and whether these processes can significantly impact on the rare metal concentrations remains unclear. Experimental studies have shown that immiscibility processes between carbonate and silicate melts can lead to both REE enrichments and depletions in carbonatites. Anionic species (F, Cl, P or S) and water may impact both melt compositions and expand the immiscibility gap. Morever, anionic species are assumed to play an important role in REE behaviour in carbonate melts [1]. Indeed, halogens may occur in carbonatites as immiscible salt melts in melt inclusions [2] and primary REE- fluoride minerals have been identified as magmatic phases in carbonatites. Such occurrences thus question on the role of salt (carbonate, phosphate, fluoride and chloride) melts in REE and other rare metals partitioning. F, Cl, P and also H2O may all significantly increase the window of primary REE enrichment in carbonatites. Here we present high pressure and high temperature experiments made in piston-cylinder (850 to 1050°C, 8kb) simulating the immiscibility between carbonate and differentiated alkaline melts. We added F, Cl, P and H2O in order to assess the effect of salts and water on the immiscibility gap and on the rare metals partitoning between carbonatite and evolved silicate melts. The partitioning data are analysed using LA-ICP-MS, nano-SIMS, FTIR and RAMAN. The characterization of rare metal partition coefficients allow to determine the relative importance of F, Cl, P and H2O on carbonatites rare metal enrichments at evolved magmatic stage.
DS201909-2065
2019
Bailly, L.Nabyl, Z., Massuyeau, M., Gaillard, F., Tuduri, J., Iacono-Marziano, G., Rogerie, G., Le Trong, E., Di Carlo, I., Melleton, J., Bailly, L.REE-rich carbonatites immiscible with phonolitic magma.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractGlobalcarbonatite - REE

Abstract: uncommon type of magmatic rocks dominates by carbonate, are broadly enriched in rare earth elements (REE) relative to the majority of igneous silicate rocks. While more than 500 carbonatites are referenced worldwide [1], only a few contain economic REE concentrations that are widely considered as resulting from late magmatic-hydrothermal or supergene processes. Magmatic pre-enrichment, linked to the igneous processes at the origin of carbonatites, are, however, likely to contribute to the REE fertilisation. Field observations [1] and experimental surveys [2, 3] suggest that a large part of the carbonatite melts can be produced as immiscible liquids with silicate magmas. Experimental constraints reveals that such immiscibility processes can lead to both REE enrichments and depletions in carbonatites [2, 3], making the magmatic processes controlling REE enrichments unclear. Here we present results of high-pressure and hightemperature experiments, simultaneously addressing crystal fractionation of alkaline magmas and immiscibility between carbonate and silicate melts. The experimental data reveal that the degree of differentiation, controlling the chemical composition of alkaline melts is a key factor ruling the REE concentration of the coexisting immiscible carbonatites. The parameterization of the experimental data together with the compilation of geochemical data from various alkaline provinces show that REE concentrations similar to those of highly REE enriched carbonatites (SREE > 30000 ppm) can be produced by immiscibility with phono-trachytic melt compositions, while more primitive alkaline magma can only be immiscible with carbonatites that are not significantly enriched in REE.
DS202006-0940
2020
Bailly, L.Nabyl, Z., Massuyeau, M., Gaillard, F., Tuduri, J., Iacono-Marziano, G., Rogerie, G., Le Trong, E., Di Carlo, I., Melleton, J., Bailly, L.A window in the course of alkaline magma differentiation conducive to immiscible REE-rich carbonatites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 57p. PdfMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Rare earth element (REE) enrichments in carbonatites are often described as resulting from late magmatic-hydrothermal or supergene processes. However, magmatic pre-enrichment linked to the igneous processes at the origin of carbonatites are likely to contribute to the REE fertilisation. Experimental constraints reveals that immiscibility processes between carbonate and silicate melts can lead to both REE enrichments and depletions in carbonatites making the magmatic processes controlling REE enrichments unclear. We link REE contents of carbonatites to the magmatic stage at which carbonatites are separated from silicate magma in their course of differentiation. We present results of experiments made at pressure and temperature conditions of alkaline magmas and associated carbonatites differentiation (0.2-1.5 GPa; 725-975?°C; FMQ to FMQ?+?2.5), simultaneously addressing crystal fractionation of alkaline magmas and immiscibility between carbonate (calcio-carbonate type) and silicate melts (nephelinite to phonolite type). The experimental data shows that the degree of differentiation, controlling the chemical composition of alkaline melts, is a key factor ruling the REE concentration of the coexisting immiscible carbonate melts. In order to predict carbonate melt REE enrichments during alkaline magma differentiation, we performed a parameterisation of experimental data on immiscible silicate and carbonate melts, based exclusively on the silica content, the alumina saturation index and the alkali/alkaline-earth elements ratio of silicate melts. This parameterisation is applied to more than 1600 geochemical data of silicate magmas from various alkaline provinces (East African Rift, Canary and Cape Verde Islands) and show that REE concentrations of their potential coeval carbonatite melts can reach concentration ranges similar to those of highly REE enriched carbonatites (?REE?>?30 000?ppm) by immiscibility with phonolitic/phono-trachytic melt compositions, while more primitive alkaline magmas can only be immiscible with carbonatites that are not significantly enriched in REE.
DS202009-1643
2020
Bailly, L.Nabyl, Z., Massuyeau, M.,Gaillard, F., Tuduri, J., Gregory, G-M., Trong, E., Di Carlo, I., Melleton, J., Bailly, L. A window in the course of alkaline magma differentiation conducive to immiscible REE-rich carbonatite.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 282, pp. 297-323.Africa, East Africacarbonatites

Abstract: Rare earth element (REE) enrichments in carbonatites are often described as resulting from late magmatic-hydrothermal or supergene processes. However, magmatic pre-enrichment linked to the igneous processes at the origin of carbonatites are likely to contribute to the REE fertilisation. Experimental constraints reveals that immiscibility processes between carbonate and silicate melts can lead to both REE enrichments and depletions in carbonatites making the magmatic processes controlling REE enrichments unclear. We link REE contents of carbonatites to the magmatic stage at which carbonatites are separated from silicate magma in their course of differentiation. We present results of experiments made at pressure and temperature conditions of alkaline magmas and associated carbonatites differentiation (0.2-1.5 GPa; 725-975?°C; FMQ to FMQ?+?2.5), simultaneously addressing crystal fractionation of alkaline magmas and immiscibility between carbonate (calcio-carbonate type) and silicate melts (nephelinite to phonolite type). The experimental data shows that the degree of differentiation, controlling the chemical composition of alkaline melts, is a key factor ruling the REE concentration of the coexisting immiscible carbonate melts. In order to predict carbonate melt REE enrichments during alkaline magma differentiation, we performed a parameterisation of experimental data on immiscible silicate and carbonate melts, based exclusively on the silica content, the alumina saturation index and the alkali/alkaline-earth elements ratio of silicate melts. This parameterisation is applied to more than 1600 geochemical data of silicate magmas from various alkaline provinces (East African Rift, Canary and Cape Verde Islands) and show that REE concentrations of their potential coeval carbonatite melts can reach concentration ranges similar to those of highly REE enriched carbonatites (?REE?>?30 000?ppm) by immiscibility with phonolitic/phono-trachytic melt compositions, while more primitive alkaline magmas can only be immiscible with carbonatites that are not significantly enriched in REE.
DS1859-0119
1856
Bain, A.G.Bain, A.G.On the Geology of South Africa (1856)Geological Society of London Transactions, N.S. 2, Vol. 7, PP. 53-59; PP. 175-192.Africa, South AfricaGeology
DS1994-0089
1994
Bain, D.C.Bain, D.C., Bacon, J.R.Strontium isotopes as indicators of mineral weathering in catchmentsCatena, Vol. 22, pp. 201-214ScotlandBasins, Weathering - not specific to diamonds
DS1994-0090
1994
Bain, D.C.Bain, D.C., Bacon, J.R.Strontium isotopes as indicators of mineral weathering in catchmentsCatena, Vol. 22, pp. 201-214.ScotlandBasins, Weathering - not specific to diamonds
DS1987-0021
1987
Bain, G.W.Bain, G.W.Hypothermal deposits. Pt. IVa An overview text type of treatisekimberlite, carbonatite and breccia pipes are discussed in brief outlinePreprint given to Geological Society of South Africa, pp. 22-32South AfricaKimberlite genesis discussed
DS1980-0044
1980
Bain, J.H.C.Bain, J.H.C., Withnall, I.W.Mineral Deposits of the Georgetown Region, Northeast Queensland.In: The Geology And Geophysics of Northeast Australia, Hende, PP. 129-148.Australia, QueenslandDiamond
DS1997-0063
1997
Bain, K.A.Bain, K.A., Giles, J.R.A.A standard model for storage of geological map dataComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 613-620GlobalMapping, Computers - Program
DS1997-0409
1997
Bain, K.A.Giles, J.R.A., Lowe, D.J., Bain, K.A.Geological dictionaries - critical elements of every geological databaseComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 621-26GlobalDictionary, Computers - Program
DS1860-0101
1870
Bain, T.Bain, T.An Attempt to Account for the Origin of the Cape Diamond - Orange and Vaal riversCape Town: Saul Solomon, Pamphlet., 8P.Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceGeology
DS201312-0051
2012
Bain & CompanyBain & CompanyThe global diamond industry.Bain & Company, 75p. Pdf availableGlobalDiamond industry - markets
DS201501-0005
2014
Bain & CompanyBain & CompanyThe global diamond report 2014, Diamonds: timeless gems in a changing world. Challenges, financing, supply and demandBain & Company, 84p. Pdf availableGlobalDiamond markets

Abstract: In this year’s edition: Diamonds: Timeless Gems in A Changing World, we focus on key challenges facing the industry, initiatives under way to address them, and possible outcomes that would support the industry’s continued growth. We believe that the challenges explored in this report also present opportunities for all players in the diamond industry and for the investment community. The key challenges include the following: Sustaining demand for diamonds in jewelry and as investments. What models of cooperation are players adopting to spur demand for diamonds, in jewelry and as an investment vehicle? Securing long-term access to diamonds. As long-term supply tapers off, what options can retailers consider? Defining the role of synthetic diamonds. What opportunities and challenges will the continued evolution of synthetic-diamond technologies present to the industry? Ensuring that diamond financing will continue to sustain industry growth. How should the diamond-financing business model evolve to sustain healthy growth for all industry players? As in previous years, the report also identifies key trends along the value chain for rough and polished diamonds as well as diamond jewelry. We compare 2013 results with the results of previous years and highlight the impact of continuing economic uncertainty on the diamond market. We also provide an update on the outlook for the diamond industry through 2024. The 2024 demand outlook is based on our extensive market analysis and research. The updated supply forecast is based on the latest developments among key diamond miners and the largest diamond mines worldwide.
DS201601-0003
2015
Bain & CompanyBain & CompanyThe global diamond report 2015. Covers recent developments, rough diamond production, cutting and polishing, retailing, industry challenges, supply -demand balance through 2030.Bain & Company, Dec. 9, 48p. PdfGlobalReport - industry

Abstract: Welcome to the fifth annual report on the global diamond industry prepared by the Antwerp World Diamond Centre (AWDC) and Bain & Company. In this year’s edition, we take a comprehensive look at the year’s major developments along the diamond value chain. We focus on the reasons for the recent drop in rough and polished prices against the background of continued but slowing growth in the macro economy. As in previous years, we start with key developments along the value chain and a review of recent economic fundamentals that are the long-term drivers of diamond jewelry demand and prices. We look at the long- and short-term factors influencing prices to better understand the recent declines in polished and rough-diamond prices and expectations for their recovery. We compare 2014 results with the results of previous years and review the market to date in 2015, which has been marked by demand uncertainty and price declines. We also provide an update on the long-term outlook for the diamond industry through 2030. The 2030 supply-demand outlook is based on long-term macro-fundamental factors and incorporates the effects of the recent decline in demand from China.
DS201412-0033
2013
Bain GroupBain GroupThe global diamond report 2013 - journey through the value chain.Bain & Company, Dec. 13, 65p.GlobalOverview - industry
DS1992-0068
1992
Baines, D.Baines, D.Texas Star backtracks on mergerVancouver Sun, Tuesday June 16, p. D4ArkansasNews item, Texas Star, CPM.
DS201312-0203
2013
Baines, K.H.Delitsky, M.L., Baines, K.H.Comment: Jupiter and Saturn could be diamond-rich.UniverseToday.com, 1p.TechnologyLiquid diamond idea
DS1860-0060
1868
Baines, T.Baines, T.The Gold Fields and Diamond Beds of South AfricaLeisure Hour., PP. 787-790.South Africa, Cape Province, Kimberley Area, Orange RiverAlluvial placers
DS200712-0610
2007
Baird, A.K.Lee, C.T., Morton, D.M., Kistler, R.W., Baird, A.K.Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: from island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 263, 3-4, pp. 370-387.MantleMagmatism
DS1992-0683
1992
Baird, D.Hauck, M.L., Baird, D., Brown, L., Nelson, K.D., Walters, J.COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling across the Williston Basin and underlying Trans-Hudson Orogen: acquisition and analysisEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p. 321SaskatchewanCOCORP -seismic, Williston Basin
DS1992-0069
1992
Baird, D.J.Baird, D.J., Nelson, K.D., Walters, J., Hauck, M., Brown, L.D.Deep structure of the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen beneath the WillistonBasin: results from recent COCORP seismic reflection profilingEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p. 321SaskatchewanCOCORP -seismic, Williston Basin
DS1993-1120
1993
Baird, D.J.Nelson, K.D., Baird, D.J.Trans-Hudson orogen and Williston basin in Montana and North Dakota: new COCORP deep-profiling results.Geology, Vol. 21, No. 5, May pp. 447-450.Montana, North DakotaTectonics, Geophysics -seismics
DS1995-0090
1995
Baird, D.J.Baird, D.J., et al.Reprocessing lithoprobe seismic reflection dat a from the western Trans-Hudson Orogen.Eos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F400-1. Abstract.Saskatchewan, ManitobaGeophysics -seismic, Lithoprobe -Trans -Hudson Orogeny
DS1995-0091
1995
Baird, D.J.Baird, D.J., Knapp, J.H., Steer, D.N., et al.Upper mantle reflectivity beneath the Williston basin phase change Moho, and origin of intracratonic basinsGeology, Vol. 23, No. 5, May pp. 431-434SaskatchewanTrans Hudson Orogeny, Craton
DS1995-0092
1995
Baird, D.J.Baird, D.J., Knapp, J.H., Steer, D.N., Brown, L.D., NelsonUpper mantle reflectivity beneath the Williston Basin, phase change @and origin of intracratonic basinsGeology, Vol. 23, No. 5, May pp. 431-434.SaskatchewanTrans Hudson Orogeny, Crust
DS1996-0067
1996
Baird, D.J.Baird, D.J., Nelson, K.D., Knapp, J.H., Walters, BrownCrustal structure and evolution of the Trans-Hudson Orogen: results from seismic reflection profiling.Tectonics, Vol. 15, No. 2, April pp. 416-426.Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, AlbertaCraton, Wyoming, Hearne, Lithoprobe
DS1996-1366
1996
Baird, D.J.Steer, D.N., Brown, L.D., Knapp, J.H., Baird, D.J.Comparison of explosive and vibroseis source energy penetration during COCORP deep seismic Williston BasinGeophysics, Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan-Feb. pp. 211-221.Alberta, SaskatchewanGeophysics -seismics, Williston Basin
DS201112-0443
2011
Bairstow, F.L.Holme, R., Olsen, N., Bairstow, F.L.Mapping geomagnetic secular variation at the core-mantle boundary.Geophysical Journal International, In press available,MantleGeophysics - magnetics
DS201112-0446
2011
Bairstow, F.L.Home, R., Olsen, N., Bairstow, F.L.Mapping geomagnetic secular variation at the core-mantle boundary.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 186, 2, pp. 521-528.MantleGeophysics - magnetics
DS1990-1639
1990
Bajc, A.F.Zippi, P.A., Bajc, A.F.Recognition of a Cretaceous outlier in northwestern OntarioCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 2, February pp. 306-311OntarioMainly paleontology
DS1995-1308
1995
Bajc, A.F.Morris, T.F., Bajc, A.F., Bernier, M.A., Kaszycki, C.A.Kimberlite heavy mineral indicator dat a releaseOntario Geological Survey Open File, No. 5934, 91p. MRD 16, $ 10.00OntarioExploration, Geomorphology, prospecting
DS2001-0074
2001
Bajc, A.F.Bajc, A.F., Crabtree, D.C.Results of regional till sampling for kimberlite and base metal indicator minerals, Peterlong and Radisson L.Ontario Geological Survey Open File, No. 6060, digital#78 $34.Ontario, northeasternGeochemistry - till
DS1993-1558
1993
Bajt, S.Sutton, S.R., Bajt, S., Rivers, M.L., Smith, J.V., Blanchard, D.X-ray microprobe determination of chromium oxidation state in olivine from lunar basalt and kimberlitic diamonds.Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 24, pp. 1383-1384.GlobalGeochemistry, Microprobe
DS1960-0916
1968
Bakayoko, L.Bakayoko, L.Diamonds in GuineaPrzeglad Geologiczny, Vol. 16, No. 5, P. 252.Guinea, West AfricaGeology
DS1998-1604
1998
BakerWynne, P.J., Enkin, R.J., Baker, Johnston, HartThe big flush: paleomagnetic signature of a 70 Ma regional hydrothermal event in displaced rocks ....Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 6, June pp. 657-71.YukonGeophysics - paleomagnetics, Northern Cordillera
DS2001-0711
2001
BakerMacdonald, G., Wytrychowski, S., Baker, Madsen, E.Environmental management and monitoring - Diavik 2001 dike contruction29th. Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Nov. 21-23, abstract p. 55-6.Northwest TerritoriesLegal - environment, Deposit - Diavik
DS2001-1086
2001
BakerSkovgaard, A.C., Storey, M., Baker, Blusztajn, HartOsmium oxygen isotopic evidence for a recycled and strongly depleted component in the Iceland mantle plumeEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 194, No. 1-2, pp. 259-75.IcelandPlume, Geochronology
DS200412-1932
2004
BakerStorey, M., Pedersen, A.K., Stecher, O., Bernstein, S., Larsen, H.C., Larsen, L.M., Baker, Duncan, R.A.Long lived post breakup magmatism along the East Greenland margin: evidence for shallow mantle metasomatism by the Iceland plumeGeology, Vol. 32, 2, Feb. pp. 173-176.Europe, Greenland, IcelandMagmatism
DS200612-1342
2006
BakerSparks, R.S.J., Baker, Brooker, Brown, Field, Fontana, Gernon, Kavanagh, Shumacher, Stripp, Walter, Walters, White, WindsorDynamical constraints on kimberlite volcanism,Emplacement Workshop held September, 5p. abstractGlobalMagmatism, water, stages
DS1984-0506
1984
Baker, A.J.Mclellan, E.L., Baker, A.J., Troop, G.T.R.Discussion of Grampian metamorphic conditions deduced from mafic granulites and sillimanite K feldspar gneisses in the Dalradian of Glen Muick, Scotland, DiscussionJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 141, No. 3, pp. 603-605ScotlandBlank
DS1950-0372
1958
Baker, B.H.Baker, B.H.Geology of the Magadi AreaGeological Survey KENYA Report, No. 42, PP. 1-81.GlobalGeology
DS1985-0037
1985
Baker, B.H.Baker, B.H.Volcanic and Petrochemical Associations in the Kenya Rift Alkaline province and Their Tectonic Setting.Conference Report of A Meeting of The Volcanics Study Group, 1P. ABSTRACT.East Africa, Kenya, TanzaniaPetrogenesis, Tectonics
DS2000-0053
2000
Baker, C.K.Baker, C.K., Giacomo, S.M.Resources and reserves: their uses and abuses by the equity marketsMin. Res. Ore Res. Est. AusIMM Guide, Mon. 23, pp. 667-76.AustraliaEconomics - geostatistics, ore reserves, exploration, Not specific to diamonds
DS1982-0080
1982
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L.Report on the Sedimentology and Provenance of Sediments in Eskers in the Kirkland Lake Area, and on the Finding of Kimberlite Float in Gauthier Township.Ontario Geological Survey miscellaneous PAPER., No. 106, PP. 125-127.Canada, OntarioBlank
DS1982-0081
1982
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L.Kimberlite Float, Gauthier Township: from Esker to Source AreaOntario Geological Survey GEOSCIENCE RESEARCH SEMINAR., Dec. 8, 9TH. P. 7, (abstract.).Canada, Ontario, GauthierBlank
DS1984-0128
1984
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L.Kimberlite Finds in the Kirkland Lake Area - New Glitter For an Old Gold Camp.Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Annual Meeting, 14P. UNPUBL.Canada, OntarioDiamonds, History, Current Activities, Prospecting, Companies
DS1985-0030
1985
Baker, C.L.Averill, S.A., Macneil, K.A., Huneault, R.G., Baker, C.L.Rotasonic drilling operations and overburden heavy mineral studies Matheson area, district of CochraneOntario Geological Survey Open File, No. 5569, 59p. 5 figs. 1 mapOntarioDrilling, Geochemistry, Sampling, Geomorphology
DS1985-0038
1985
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L.Diamond Exploration in the Clay Belt Areas of Ontario #1Northeastern Municipal Advisory Committee for Ontario, Seminar held, p. 9OntarioBrief News Item
DS1985-0039
1985
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L.Reconnaissance heavy mineral and geochemical sampling of the Munro Lake Abitibi area, Cochrane districtOntario Geological Survey miscellaneous Paper, No. 126, pp. 297-300OntarioSampling, Geochemistry
DS1985-0040
1985
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L., Steele, K.G., MccleneaghanReconnaissance till sampling program Matheson Lake Abitibi areaCochranedistrictOntario Geological Survey miscellaneous Paper, No. 126, pp. 329-333OntarioSampling, Geochemistry
DS1986-0040
1986
Baker, C.L.Baker, C.L.Diamond exploration in the clay belt areas of Ontario #2Industrial Minerals Seminar Proceedings, Special Publishing Ontario pp. 9-11OntarioProspecting
DS1960-0119
1961
Baker, C.O.Baker, C.O.Report of ActivitiesGeological Survey SIERRA LEONE Annual Report, FOR 1959/1960, 16P.Sierra Leone, West AfricaGeology, Kimberlite
DS1986-0041
1986
Baker, C.R.Baker, C.R.The hardness of Australian diamondsAustralian Gemologist, Vol. 16, No.1, Feb. pp. 11-12AustraliaBrief note, Mineralogy
DS1996-1523
1996
Baker, D.Welte, D., Horsfield, B., Baker, D.Petroleum and basin evolutionSpringer Verlag, 408p. approx. 130.00GlobalBook - ad, Sedimentary basins - bias to petroleuM.
DS1991-1206
1991
Baker, D.E.Murray, M.R., Baker, D.E.MWINDOW: an interactive FORTRAN 77 program for calculating moving-windowstatisticsComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 423-430GlobalProgram -MWINDOW.
DS1975-0301
1976
Baker, D.R.Johnson, M., Baker, D.R.Intrusive Model of the Magnet Cove Complex, ArkansawGeological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 8, No. 1, P. 26. (abstract.).United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Hot Spring CountyGenesis, Structure
DS1994-1110
1994
Baker, D.R.Marr, R.A., Baker, D.R., Williams-Jones, A.E.The role of halogens in the speciation of alkali silicate minerals infelsic, peralkaline rocks: an experimental study.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Abstract Volume, Vol. 19, p.GlobalAlkaline rocks, Halogens
DS201704-0619
2017
Baker, D.R.Baker, D.R., Sofonio, K.A metasomatic mechanism for the formation of Earth's earliest evolved crust.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 463, pp. 48-55.MantleMetasomatism

Abstract: Following giant impacts the early Hadean Earth was shrouded in a steam atmosphere for durations on the order of 1 Ma. In order to investigate the potential of this atmosphere to fractionate major elements between various silicate reservoirs and influence a planet's geochemical evolution, we performed experiments simulating the interaction of a post-giant-impact steam atmosphere with a bulk silicate Earth (BSE) composition. Our experiments indicate that the composition of the solute in a water-rich atmosphere at 10 MPa and ~727?°C is remarkably similar to that of Earth's modern continental crust and would constitute up to 10% of the solution mass. This solute composition is similar to solute compositions previously measured at higher pressures, but distinct from those of near-solidus peridotite melts. Mass balance calculations based upon the hypothesis that Earth's initial water concentration was similar to that in CI carbonaceous chondrites, and that degassing and metasomatism produced the BSE, indicate that metasomatism could produce from 10 to 300% of the mass of the modern crust. If instead the amount of metasomatism is estimated by the difference between the water concentration in the BSE and in the depleted upper mantle, then a mass of up to approximately 4% of the current crust could be produced by metasomatism. Using results of earlier research we find that the solute is expected to have a smaller Sm/Nd ratio than the residual BSE, and if the solute was formed early in Earth's history its Nd isotopic signatures would be highly enriched. Although we cannot be certain that the metasomatic process created a significant fraction of Earth's crust in the early Hadean, our research indicates that it has the potential to form crustal nuclei and possibly was responsible for the production of incompatible-element enriched reservoirs in the early Earth, as seen in the isotopic signatures of Archean rocks.
DS1991-0052
1991
Baker, D.W.Baker, D.W.Guidebook of the central Montana Alkalic Province: geology, ore deposits and originMontana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication, No. 100, 203p. approx. $ 18.00 United StatesMontanaAlkaline rocks, Deposits -gold
DS1991-0053
1991
Baker, D.W.Baker, D.W.Laramide tectonics and magmatism in the central Montana alkalic province:Little belt MountainsGuidebook of the Central Montana Alkalic Province, ed. Baker, D.W., Berg. R., No. 100, pp. 128-130. extended abstractMontanaAlkaline rocks, tectonics
DS1991-0054
1991
Baker, D.W.Baker, D.W., Berg, R.B.Guidebook of the central Montana alkalic province, geology, ore deposits and originMontana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Spec. Publishing No. 100, 210p. 103 figs. $ 18.00MontanaAlkaline rocks, Guidebook
DS1960-0215
1962
Baker, G.Baker, G.Detrital Heavy Minerals in Natural Accumulates with Special reference to Australian Occurrences.Australasian Institute of Mining And Metallurgy. Monograph, No. 1.AustraliaDiamond, Heavy Mineral Concentrates, Beach Sands
DS201709-1967
2017
Baker, G.S.Burkhart, P.A., Alley, R.B., Thompson, L.G., Balog, J.D., Baukdauf, P.E., Baker, G.S.Savor the cryosphere.GSA Today, Vol. 27, pp. 4-11.Globalglaciers

Abstract: This article provides concise documentation of the ongoing retreat of glaciers, along with the implications that the ice loss presents, as well as suggestions for geoscience educators to better convey this story to both students and citizens. We present the retreat of glaciers—the loss of ice—as emblematic of the recent, rapid contraction of the cryosphere. Satellites are useful for assessing the loss of ice across regions with the passage of time. Ground-based glaciology, particularly through the study of ice cores, can record the history of environmental conditions present during the existence of a glacier. Repeat photography vividly displays the rapid retreat of glaciers that is characteristic across the planet. This loss of ice has implications to rising sea level, greater susceptibility to dryness in places where people rely upon rivers delivering melt water resources, and to the destruction of natural environmental archives that were held within the ice. Warming of the atmosphere due to rising concentrations of greenhouse gases released by the combustion of fossil fuels is causing this retreat. We highlight multimedia productions that are useful for teaching this story effectively. As geoscience educators, we attempt to present the best scholarship as accurately and eloquently as we can, to address the core challenge of conveying the magnitude of anthropogenic impacts, while also encouraging optimistic determination on the part of students, coupled to an increasingly informed citizenry. We assert that understanding human perturbation of nature, then choosing to engage in thoughtful science-based decision-making, is a wise choice. This topic comprised “Savor the Cryosphere,” a Pardee Keynote Symposium at the 2015 Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, for which the GSA recorded supporting interviews and a webinar.
DS1860-0332
1880
Baker, H.Baker, H.On a Crystal of Diamond from South AfricaJournal of Chemistry Society , Vol. 37, PP. 579-581.South AfricaMineralogy
DS1860-0333
1880
Baker, H.Baker, H.On a Crystal of Diamond from South Africa.Journal of Chemistry Society, Vol. 37, PP. 579-581.South Africa, Griqualand West, Kimberley AreaCrystallography
DS1992-1050
1992
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Fan Weiming, Baker, J., Thirlwall, M.F., Ming ZhangThe lower lithosphere of eastern China: on craton/ off craton isotopic provinciality or recent recycling?International Symposium Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks Deep seated xenoliths China and its, Abstracts pp. 85-88ChinaCraton, Geochronology
DS1996-0076
1996
Baker, J.Barendregt, R.W., Enkin, R.J., Duk-Rodkin, A., Baker, J.Paleomagnetic evidence for late Cenozoic glaciations in the Mackenzie Mountains of the Northwest TerritoriesCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 6, June pp. 896-903.Northwest TerritoriesGeomorphology, Paleomagnetism
DS1996-1574
1996
Baker, J.Xue, F., Rowley, D.B., Baker, J.Refolded syn-ultrahigh pressure thrust sheets in south Dabie Mountaincomplex: field evidence and tectonics.Geology, Vol. 24, No. 5, May pp. 455-458.ChinaMetasomatism, Tectonics
DS1997-0064
1997
Baker, J.Baker, J., Matthews, A., Mattey, D., Rowley, D., Xue, F.Fluid-rock interactions during high pressure metamorphism, Dabie Shan, China.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 61, No. 8, April pp. 1685-1696.ChinaEclogites, metamorphism
DS1998-0069
1998
Baker, J.Baker, J., Chazot, G., Menzies, M., Thirwall, M.Metasomatism of the shallow mantle beneath Yemen by the Afar plume -implications for mantle plumes, flood...Geology, Vol. 26, No. 5, May pp. 431-434.Globalvolcanism - intraplate, Lherzolite xenoliths
DS2002-0093
2002
Baker, J.Baker, J., Chazot, G., Menzies, M.A., Thirlwall, M.Lithospheric mantle beneath Arabia: a Pan-African protolith modified by the Afar and older plumes, rather than a source for continental flood volcanism?Geological Society of America Special Paper, No. 362, pp. 65-80.Arabia, AfricaHeat flow, geothermometry
DS2002-1047
2002
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger, C.J., Baker, J.Volcanic rifted marginsGeological Society of America Special Paper, 362, 230p.GlobalBook - volcanism, tectonics
DS2002-1048
2002
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger, C.J., Baker, J.Characteristics of volcanic rifted marginsGeological Society of America Special Paper, No, 362, pp. 1-14.GlobalOverview
DS2003-0941
2003
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger, C.J., Baker, J.Volcanic rifted marginsGeological Society of America Special Paper, No. 362, 470p. $ 80. www.geosociety.org/bookstoreEast Africa, Colorado, Madagascar, Greenland, NamibiaDike swarms, volcanology, Book
DS2003-0942
2003
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger, C.J., Baker, J.Characteristics of volcanic rifted marginsGeological Society of America Special Paper, No. 362, chapter 1.GlobalOverview
DS200412-0825
2004
Baker, J.Hieronymous, C., Baker, J.Deep subduction of the mantle wedge and the origin of OIB.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13th Goldschmidt Conference held Copenhagen Denmark, Vol. 68, 11 Supp. July, ABSTRACT p.A560.MantleSubduction
DS200412-1302
2002
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger, C.J., Baker, J.Volcanic rifted margins.Geological Society of America Special Paper, 362, 230p.GlobalBook - volcanism, tectonics
DS200412-1303
2002
Baker, J.Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger, C.J., Baker, J.Characteristics of volcanic rifted margins.Geological Society of America Special Paper, No, 362, pp. 1-14.TechnologyOverview
DS2002-1135
2002
Baker, J.A.Nielsen, S.G., Baker, J.A., Krogstad, E.J.Petrogenesis of an early Archean (3.4) Ga norite dyke, Isua, West Greenland: evidence for early Archean crustal recycling?Precambrian Research, Vol. 118, 1-2, pp. 133-48.GreenlandDyke - not specific to diamonds, petrology
DS2003-0117
2003
Baker, J.A.Bizzaro, M., Baker, J.A., Haack, H., Ulfbeck, D., Rosing, M.Early history of Earth's crust mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes inNature, No. 6926, Feb. 27, pp. 931-2.MantleGeochronology
DS200412-1513
2004
Baker, J.A.Peate, D.W., Baker, J.A., Breddam, K., Waight, T.E., Skovgaard, A.C., Stecher, O., Prestvik, T., JonassonPb isotope heterogeneity of the mantle beneath Iceland.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13th Goldschmidt Conference held Copenhagen Denmark, Vol. 68, 11 Supp. July, ABSTRACT p.A569.Europe, IcelandGeochronology
DS200612-1540
2006
Baker, J.A.Wittig, N., Baker, J.A., Downes, H.Dating the mantle roots of young continental crust.Geology, Vol.34, 4, April pp. 237-240.Europe, French Massif CentralGeochronology, xenoliths, Variscan Orogeny
DS200712-0824
2006
Baker, J.A.Peate, D.W., Breddam, K., Baker, J.A., Kurz, M., Grassineau, N., Barker, A.K.Compositional features of enriched Icelandic mantle components.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In press availableEurope, IcelandGeochemistry
DS200712-0972
2007
Baker, J.A.Shaw, J.E., Baker, J.A., Kent, A.J.R., Ibrahim, K.M., Menzies, M.A.The geochemistry of the Arabian lithospheric mantle - a source for intraplate volcanism.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 48, 8, pp.1495-1512.AfricaMagmatism
DS200712-0973
2007
Baker, J.A.Shaw, J.E., Baker, J.A., Kent, A.J.R., Ibrahim, K.M., Menzies, M.A.The geochemistry of the Arabian lithospheric mantle - a source for intraplate volcanism.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 48, 8, pp.1495-1512.AfricaMagmatism
DS200812-0446
2008
Baker, J.A.Handler, M.R., Baker, J.A., Schiller, M., Bennett, V.C., Yaxley, G.M.Stable Mg isotope composition of Earth's mantle,Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A348.MantleGeochronology
DS200912-0821
2009
Baker, J.A.Wittig, N., Pearson, D.G., Downes, H., Baker, J.A.The U, Th and Pb elemental and isotope compositions of mantle clinopyroxenes and their grain boundary contamination derived from leaching and digestion experiments.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 73, 2, pp. 469-488.MantleGeochronology
DS1989-1114
1989
Baker, J.M.Newton, M.E., Baker, J.M.Nitrogen -14 endor of the OK1 center in natural type 1B diamondJournal of Phys. Condens. Matter, Vol. 1, No. 51, pp. 10, 549-10, 561GlobalDiamond morphology, Nitrogen
DS1989-1115
1989
Baker, J.M.Newton, M.E., Baker, J.M.Nitrogen -14 endor of the N2 center in diamondJournal of Phys. Condens. Matter, Vol. 1, No. 48, pp. 9801-9803GlobalNitrogen, Diamond morphology
DS1991-1232
1991
Baker, J.M.Newton, M.E., Baker, J.M.ENDOR studies on the W7 DI-nitrogen center in brown diamondsJ. Phys. Cond, Vol. 3, No. 20, May 20, pp. 3591-3603. # FN326GlobalDiamond morphology, Nitrogen
DS1991-1233
1991
Baker, J.M.Newton, M.E., Baker, J.M.Models for the DI-nitrogen centres found in brown diamondJ. Phys. Cond, Vol. 3, No. 20, May 20, pp. 3605-3616. #FN326GlobalDiamond morphology, Nitrogen
DS200712-0046
2007
Baker, J.M.Baker, J.M.Deducing atomic models for point defects in diamond: the relevance of their mechanism of formation.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 16, 2, Feb., pp. 216-219.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS201012-0196
2010
Baker, J.M.Felton, S., Cann, B.J., Edmonds, A.M., Liggins, S., Cruddace, R.J., Newton, M.E., Fisher, D., Baker, J.M.Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of nitrogen interstital defects in diamond.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, 36, pp. 364212-219.TechnologyDiamond crystallography
DS200612-1341
2006
Baker, L.Sparks, R.J.S., Baker, L., Brown, R.J., Field, M., Schumacher, J., Stripp, G., Walters, A.Dynamical constraints on kimberlite volcanism.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, in press availableAfrica, South AfricaGeodynamics, eruptions, diamonds, models, fluidization
DS1991-0055
1991
Baker, L.M.Baker, L.M.MAKESHARE.COM: a VMS utility for creating shareable images from object module librariesUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open file, No. 91-0379, 24p. $ 3.75GlobalComputer, Program - MAKESHARE.COM.
DS1989-1317
1989
Baker, M.Ryabchikov, I.D., Baker, M., Wyllie, F.J.Phosphate bearing carbonatite liquids in equilibrium with mantlel herzolites at 30 KBAR.Geochemistry International, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 102-106RussiaCarbonatite, Phosphates
DS1989-1318
1989
Baker, M.Ryabchikov, I.D., Baker, M., Wyllie, P.J.Phosphate content of carbonatite melts in equilibrium with mantlel herzolites at 30 Kbars.(Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 5, pp. 725-729RussiaCarbonatite, Phosphate
DS1989-0960
1989
Baker, M.B.Mattoli, G.S., Baker, M.B., Rutter, M.J., Stolper, E.M.Upper mantle oxygen fugacity and its relationship to MetasomatismJournal of Geology, Vol. 97, No. 5, September pp. 521-536HawaiiUpper mantle, Xenoliths
DS1990-0155
1990
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Wyllie, P.J.Liquid immiscibility in a nephelinite-carbonate system at 25 kbar And implications for carbonatite originNature, Vol. 346, No. 6280, July 12, pp. 168-170HawaiiCarbonatite, Experimental petrology
DS1990-1593
1990
Baker, M.B.Wyllie, P.J., Baker, M.B., White, B.S.Experimental boundaries for the origin and evolution of carbonatitesLithos, Special Issue, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 3-20GlobalExperimental petrology, Carbonatite
DS1991-0979
1991
Baker, M.B.Lesher, C.E., Baker, M.B.Recent developments in igneous petrology #1 (1991)International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 20th. meeting held Vienna, pp. 471-485GlobalIgneous petrology, Overview -review paper
DS1991-0980
1991
Baker, M.B.Lesher, C.E., Baker, M.B.Recent developments in igneous petrologyá#2 (1991)Iugg Contributions In Volcanology, Geochemistry And Petrology, National, pp. 471-485GlobalReview -Petrology, Igneous rocks
DS1992-0070
1992
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Newamn, S., Beckett, J.R., Stolper, E.M.Seperating liquid from crystals in high pressure melting experiments using diamond aggregatesGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts with programs, 1992 Annual, Vol. 24, No. 7, abstract p. A256New MexicoExperimental petrology, Diamond aggregates
DS1992-0071
1992
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Wyllie, P.J.High-pressure apatite solubility in carbonate-rich liquids- Implications for mantle MetasomatismGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 56, No. 9, September pp. 3409-3422MantleApatite, Metasomatism
DS1994-0091
1994
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.The composition of high pressure mantle melts: results from diamond aggregate experiments.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58A, pp. 44-45. AbstractGlobalPeridotite, Petrology -experimental
DS1994-0092
1994
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.Determining the composition of high pressure mantle melts using diamondaggregates.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 58, No. 13, pp. 2811-2827.MantlePeridotites, Experimental petrology
DS1995-0093
1995
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Hurschmann, M.M., Ghiorso, M.S., Stolper, E.Compositions of near solidus peridotite melts from experiments and thermodynamic calculations.Nature, Vol. 375, No. 6529, May 25, pp. 308-311.GlobalPeridotite, Petrology -experimental
DS1998-0622
1998
Baker, M.B.Hirschmann, M.M., Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.The effect of alkalis on the silica content of mantle derived meltsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 62, No. 5, pp. 883-902.Mantlegeochemistry, Alkali - silica
DS1999-0039
1999
Baker, M.B.Baker, M.B., Beckett, J.R.The origin of abyssal peridotites: a reinterpretation of constraints Based on primary bulk compositions.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 171, No. 1, Aug. 15, pp. 49-62.MantleGeochemistry - mineral chemistry, Peridotites
DS2003-0589
2003
Baker, M.B.Hirschmann, M.M., Kogiso, T., Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.Alkalic magmas generated by partial melting of garnet pyroxeniteGeology, Vol. 31, 6, June pp. 481-4.GlobalBlank
DS2003-0590
2003
Baker, M.B.Hirschmann, M.M., Kogiso, T., Baker, M.B., Stolper, M.Alkalic magmas generated by partial melting of garnet pyroxeniteGeology, Vol. 31, 6, June pp. 481-5.GlobalMagmatism
DS2003-1454
2003
Baker, M.B.Wasylenki, L.E., Baker, M.B., Kent, A.J.R., Stolper, E.M.Near solidus melting of the shallow upper mantle: partial melting experiments onJournal of Petrology, Vol. 44, 7, pp. 1163-92.MantlePeridotite
DS200412-0835
2003
Baker, M.B.Hirschmann, M.M., Kogiso, T., Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.Alkalic magmas generated by partial melting of garnet pyroxenite.Geology, Vol. 31, 6, June pp. 481-4.TechnologyAlkalic
DS200412-2088
2003
Baker, M.B.Wasylenki, L.E., Baker, M.B., Kent, A.J.R., Stolper, E.M.Near solidus melting of the shallow upper mantle: partial melting experiments on depleted peridotite.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 44, 7, pp. 1163-92.MantlePeridotite
DS200812-0900
2008
Baker, M.B.Pilet,S., Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.Metasomatized lithosphere and the origin of alkaline lavas.Science, Vol. 320, 5878 May 16, pp. 916-919.MantleRecycled oceanic crust - melting
DS201112-0799
2011
Baker, M.B.Pilet, S., Baker, M.B., Muntener, O., Stolper, E.M.Simulations of metasomatic enrichment in the lithosphere and implications for the source of alkaline basalts.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 52, 7-8, pp. 1415-1442.MantleMetasomatism
DS201708-1577
2017
Baker, M.B.Matzen, A.K., Wood, B.J., Baker, M.B., Stolper, E.M.The roles of pyroxenite and peridotite in the mantle sources onf oceanic basalt.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 10, pp. 530-535/Mantleperidotites

Abstract: Subduction of oceanic crust generates chemical and lithological heterogeneities in the mantle. An outstanding question is the extent to which these heterogeneities contribute to subsequent magmas generated by mantle melting, but the answer differs depending on the geochemical behaviour of the elements under investigation: analyses of incompatible elements (those that preferentially concentrate into silicate melts) suggest that recycled oceanic crust is an important contributor, whereas analyses of compatible elements (those that concentrate in crystalline residues) generally suggest it is not. Recently, however, the concentrations of Mn and Ni—two elements of varying compatibility—in early-crystallizing olivines, have been used to infer that erupted magmas are mixtures of partial melts of olivine-rich mantle rocks (that is, peridotite) and of metasomatic pyroxene-rich mantle rocks (that is, pyroxenite) formed by interaction between partial melts of recycled oceanic crust and peridotite. Here, we test whether melting of peridotite alone can explain the observed trend in olivine compositions by combining new experimental data on the partitioning of Mn between olivine and silicate melt under conditions relevant to basalt petrogenesis with earlier results on Ni partitioning. We show that the observed olivine compositions are consistent with melts of fertile peridotite at various pressures—importantly, melts from metasomatic pyroxenites are not required. Thus, although recycled materials may well be present in the mantle source regions of some basalts, the Mn and Ni data can be explained without such a contribution. Furthermore, the success of modelling the Mn–Ni contents of olivine phenocrysts as low-pressure crystallization products of partial melts of peridotite over a range of pressures implies a simple new approach for constraining depths of mantle melting.
DS2003-0063
2003
Baker, M.J.Baker, M.J., Blowes, D.W., Logsdon, M.J., Jambor, J.L.Environmental geochemistry of kimberlite materials: Diavik diamonds project, Lac deExploration Mining Geology ( C.I.M.), Vol. 10, 3, pp. 155-63.Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry - whole rock analyses, ABA results, Deposit - Diavik
DS200412-0086
2003
Baker, M.J.Baker, M.J., Blowes, D.W., Logsdon, M.J., Jambor, J.L.Environmental geochemistry of kimberlite materials: Diavik diamonds project, Lac de Gras, Northwest Territories, Canada.Exploration Mining Geology , Vol. 10, 3, pp. 155-63.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry - whole rock analyses, ABA results Deposit - Diavik
DS1984-0152
1984
Baker, N.R.Bergman, S.C., Baker, N.R.A New Look at the Proterozoic Dikes from Chelima, Andhra Pradesh, India Diamondiferous Lamproites?Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 16, No. 6, P. 444. (abstract.).India, Andhra PradeshLamproite
DS1991-0085
1991
Baker, N.R.Baxter-Brown, R., Baker, N.R.Directory of mining programs and public domain software for earthscientistsProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 14-16VenezuelaGuaniamo kimberlites, Geochronology
DS1991-0086
1991
Baker, N.R.Baxter-Brown, R., Baker, N.R.Diamond exploration in VenezuelaNorthwest Mining Association, Preprint, 14p. text 7 figsVenezuelaOverview, Diamond exploration activities
DS1989-1134
1989
Baker, R.Nixon, P.H., Davies, G.R., Condliffe, E., Baker, R., Baxter BrownDiscovery of ancient source rocks of Venezuela diamondsDiamond Workshop, International Geological Congress, July 15-16th. editors, pp. 73-75VenezuelaDiamond genesis, Mantle xenoliths
DS1997-0065
1997
Baker, R.Baker, R.Few gems among rough diamondsThe Bulletin, (Australia), July 15, pp. 41-42.AustraliaNews item, Company activities
DS2002-0742
2002
Baker, T.Hunt, J., Baker, T.Iron oxide copper gold mineralization associated with the Wernecke breccia, Yukon, Canada.Egru Newsletter, James Cook University, April,pp.8-9.YukonCopper, gold, Wernecke breccia - brief overview
DS1985-0599
1985
Bakhamina, A.V.Serbyanaya, N.R., Losev, V.G., Voronov, O.A., Bakhamina, A.V.The Morphology of Diamond Crystals Synthesized from Hydrocarbons.(russian)Kristallografiya, (Russian), Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 1026-1027RussiaDiamond Morphology
DS1970-0874
1974
Bakirov, A.B.Bakirov, A.B., Dobretsov, N.L., et al.Eclogite of the Atbashi Range Tien ShanDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 215, No. 1-6, PP. 125-128.RussiaKimberlite
DS1992-0072
1992
Bakker, P.J.Bakker, P.J., Franceschi, G., Kieley, J.W.The use of electromagnetic and magnetic methods in the exploration for kimberlitic rock: a case history from Western KenyaJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 4, May pp. 511-518KenyaGeophysics -magnetics, Kimberlites
DS2003-0064
2003
Bakker, R.J.Bakker, R.J.Computer programs for analysis of fluid inclusion dat a and for modelling bulk fluidChemical Geology, Vol. 194, 1-3, pp. 3-23.GlobalFluid inclusions - not specific to diamonds
DS2002-0094
2002
Bakker, W.H.Bakker, W.H., Schmidt, K.S.hyper spectral edge filtering for measuring homogeneity of surface cover types. ( saltmarsh)Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol.56,4,pp.246-56.HollandRemote sensing - hyperspectral (not specific to diamond, Image filtering application
DS1982-0082
1982
Bakon, A.Bakon, A., Szymanski, A.Morphological Qualitative Classification of Synthetic Diamond Microcrystals.Mineral. Polonica., Vol. 13, No. 2, PP. 61-68.GlobalDiamond Synthesis
DS1985-0041
1985
Baksi, A.K.Baksi, A.K.The Rajahmundry Traps, Andhra Pradesh, India: Dat a on Theirage, Geochemistry and Tectonic Framework of Eruption.Eos, Vol. 66, No. 46, NOVEMBER 12, P. 1145. (abstract.).India, Andhra PradeshGeochemistry
DS1997-0066
1997
Baksi, A.K.Baksi, A.K., Archibald, D.A.Mesozoic igneous activity in the Maranhao, 40 Ar-39Ar evidence for seperate episodes of basaltic magmatismEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 151, No. 3-4, Oct.1, pp. 139-154Brazil, Maranhao ProvinceGeochronology, Argon, Magma - basalt
DS1999-0040
1999
Baksi, A.K.Baksi, A.K.Reevaluation of plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.Journal of Geology, Vol. 107, No.1, Jan. pp. 13-26.IndiaHot spot models, Tectonics
DS2001-0075
2001
Baksi, A.K.Baksi, A.K.Search for deep mantle component in mafic lavas using a Niobium, Yttrium, and Zirconium plot.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 5, May, pp. 813-24.MantleMelting - garnet lherzolite
DS200512-0056
2005
Baksi, A.K.Baksi, A.K.Critical assessment of radiometric ages for oceanic hotspot tracks, based on statistical analysis of individual ages and evaluation of alteration state.Chapman Conference held in Scotland August 28-Sept. 1 2005, 1p. abstractIndian OceanMantle plume
DS1997-0067
1997
Baksi, A.Y.Baksi, A.Y.The timing of Late Cretaceous alkalic igneous activity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, southeastern USAJournal of Geology, Vol. 105, pp. 629-643.ArkansasAlkaline rocks, Geochronology
DS1970-0875
1974
Bakumenko, I.T.Bakumenko, I.T., Sobolev, V.S.Inclusions in Minerals of Ultramafic Xenoliths from the Avacha Volcano.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 218, No. 1-6, PP. 157-160.RussiaKimberlite
DS1984-0129
1984
Bakumenko, I.T.Bakumenko, I.T., Sobolev, N.V., Khokhriakov, A.F., Chepurov, A.Faceted Inclusions in Diamond CrystalsDoklady Academy of Sciences AKAD. NAUK SSSR., Vol. 278, No. 6, PP. 1461-1465.RussiaDiamond Morphology
DS1986-0042
1986
Bakumenko, I.T.Bakumenko, I.T., Sobolev, N.V., Khokryakov, A.F., Chepurov, A.I.Faceted inclusions in diamond crystalsDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 278, No. 1-6, pp. 168-170RussiaDiamond morphology, Inclusions
DS1991-1623
1991
Bakumenko, I.T.Sobolev, N.V., Bakumenko, I.T., Yefimova, E.S., Pokhilenko, N.P.Morphological features of microdiamonds, sodium in garnet and potassium inpyroxenes content of two eclogite xenoliths from Udachnaya pipe(Yakutia).(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 321, No. 3, pp. 585-592Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), YakutiaMicrodiamonds, Udachanya pipe
DS1991-1624
1991
Bakumenko, I.T.Sobolev, N.V., Bakumenko, I.T., Yefimova, E.S., Pokhilenko, N.P.Pecularities of microdiamond morphology, sodium content in garnets andDoklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 321, No. 3, pp. 585-592. #hh968RussiaMicro-diamonds, Geochemistry
DS1986-0043
1986
Bakumento, I.T.Bakumento, I.T., Dolgov, Yu.A., Doroshev, A.M., et al.Physicochemical formation conditions and features of The composition of rocks of the crust and upper mantleSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 81-88RussiaDiamond, Genesis
DS1994-1655
1994
Bakumento, L.T.Sobolev, N.V., Bakumento, L.T., et al.Morphology of microscopic diamonds containing traces of sodium in garnet sand of potassium in pyroxenes.Doklady Academy of Sciences USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 322, No. 1, pp. 138-146.RussiaDiamond morphology, eclogite xenoliths, Deposit -Udachnaya
DS1995-0094
1995
Bal, M.Bal, M.Gold prospecting in arid environment Sahel countries, West AfricaProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Preprint, 6pGlobalGold, geochemistry, Laterites
DS1994-0093
1994
Balaban, A.T.Balaban, A.T., Klein, D.J., Folden, C.A.Diamond graphite hybridsChem. P. Letters, Vol. 217, No. 3, Jan. 14, pp. 266-270. # MR402GlobalMineralogy, Graphite
DS1995-1256
1995
Balaban, N.Miller, J.D.Jr., McDonald, L., DeShane, G., Balaban, N.Field trip guidebook for the geology and ore deposits of the Midcontinent rift in the Lake Superior region #1Minnesota Geological Survey, University of Minnesota, Guidebook No. 20, 216p.OntarioMidcontent Rift
DS1993-0696
1993
Balachandar, S.Honda, S., Yuen, D.A., Balachandar, S., Reuteler, D.Three-dimensional instabilities of mantle convection with multiple phasetransitionsScience, Vol. 259, February 26, pp. 1308-1311MantlePlumes, Tectonics
DS1995-1566
1995
Balachander, S.Reuteler, D.M., Balachander, S., Yuen, D.A.The generation of localized toroidal velocity patches from plume dynamics:implications spinning microplatesEos, Vol. 76, No. 46, Nov. 7. p.F633-4. Abstract.MantlePlumes, Geodynamics, Tectonics
DS2001-0688
2001
BalaganskayaLifrovich, R.P., Pakhomovsky, Bogdanova, BalaganskayaCollinsite in hydrothermal assemblages related to carbonatites in the Kovdor Complex, northwestern RussiaCanadian Mineralogist, Vol. 39, No. 4, Aug. pp.1081-94.RussiaCarbonatite, mineralogy, Deposit - Kovdor
DS2000-0226
2000
Balaganskaya, E.Demaiffe, D., Verhulst, A., Balaganskaya, E., KirnarskyThe Kovdor carbonatitic and alkaline complex ( Kola Peninsula) evidence for multi source evolution.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, Deposit - Kovdor
DS2001-0076
2001
Balaganskaya, E.Balaganskaya, E., et al.Kola carbonatites: new insights into their origin as shown by Strontium, neodymium and geochemical studies..Journal of South African Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, p. A 11 (abs)Russia, Baltic ShieldCarbonatite - geochronology, Vuorijarvi Massif
DS200512-0110
2005
Balaganskaya, E.Brassinnes, S., Balaganskaya, E., Demaiffe, D.Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi, Kola Peninsula, Russia, A LA ICP MS study of apatite.Lithos, Advanced in pressRussia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS200512-0111
2003
Balaganskaya, E.Brassinnes, S., DeMaiffe, D., Balaganskaya, E., Downes, H.New mineralogical and geochemical dat a on the Vuorijarvi ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex ( Kola Region, NW Russia).Periodico di Mineralogia, (in english), Vol. LXX11, 1. April, pp. 79-86.Russia, Kola PeninsulaMelilite
DS200512-0247
2005
Balaganskaya, E.Downes, H., Balaganskaya, E., Beard, A., Liferovich, R., Demaiffe, D.Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola alkaline province: a review.Lithos, Advanced in press,Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, kimberlites
DS200612-0166
2005
Balaganskaya, E.Brassines, S., Balaganskaya, E., Demaiffe, D.Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi ( Kola Peninsula) Russia, A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite.Lithos, Vol. 85, 1-4, Nov-Dec. pp. 76-92Russia, Kola PeninsulaMagmatism
DS200612-0348
2005
Balaganskaya, E.Downes, H., Balaganskaya, E., Beard, A., Liferovich, R., Demaiffe, D.Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola alkaline province: a review.Lithos, Vol. 85, 1-4, Nov-Dec. pp. 48-75.Russia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite
DS200612-0786
2006
Balaganskaya, E.Lee, M.J., Lee, J.I., Hur, S.D., Kim, Y., Moutte, J., Balaganskaya, E.Sr Nd Pb isotopic compositions of the Kovdor phoscorite carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia.Lithos, in press availableRussia, Kola PeninsulaCarbonatite, geochronology, FOZO, plume lithosphere
DS200712-0612
2006
Balaganskaya, E.Lee, M.J., Lee, J.I., Hur, S.D., Kim, Y., Moutte, J., Balaganskaya, E.Sr Nd Pb isotopic composition of the Kovdor phoscorite carbonatite Kola Peninsula, NW Russia.Lithos, Vol. 91, 1-4, pp. 250-261.RussiaGeochronology, carbonatite
DS2002-1147
2002
Balaganskaya, E.G.Nivin, V.A., Ikorsky, S.V., Balaganskaya, E.G., Liferovich, R.P., Subbotin, V.V.Helium and argon isotopes in minerals of ore deposits associated with the Kovdor and18th. International Mineralogical Association Sept. 1-6, Edinburgh, abstract p.250.Russia, Kola Peninsulacarbonatite - mineralogy
DS200512-0787
2003
Balaganskaya, E.G.Nivin, V.A., Liferovich, R.P., Ikorsky, S.V., Balaganskaya, E.G., Subbotin, V.V.Noble gas isotopes in minerals from phoscorites and carbonatites in Kovdor and Seblyavr ultramafic alkaline complexes ( Kola alkaline province NW Russia).Periodico di Mineralogia, (in english), Vol. LXX11, 1. April, pp. 135-146.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochronology
DS1994-0094
1994
Balaganskaya, Ye.G.Balaganskaya, Ye.G., Pripachkin, V.A.Petrological and geochemical features of breccias at the Khibiny apatite-nepheline deposits.Geochemistry International, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 124-142.RussiaAlkaline rocks
DS1995-1280
1995
Balaganskiy, V.V.Mitrofanov, F.P., Balaganskiy, V.V., Balahov, Yu.A., et al.uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages of Kola Peninsula gabbro-anorthositesDoklady Academy of Sciences Acad. Science Russia, Vol. 331A, No. 6, June pp. 150-154.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochronology
DS200712-0997
2006
Balagansky, et al.Slabunov, A.I., Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Bibikova, E.V., Balagansky, et al.The Archean of the Baltic Shield: geology, geochronology and geodynamic settings.Geotectonics, Vol. 40, 6, pp. 409-433.EuropeTectonics
DS200412-0016
2004
Balagansky, V.V.Alekseev, N.L., Balagansky, V.V., Zinger, T.F., Levchenkov, O.A.Late Archean evolution of the junction between the Belomorian mobile belt and Karelian craton, Baltic Shield: evidence from newDoklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 397, 6, July-August pp. 743-746.Russia, Baltic ShieldGeochronology, tectonics
DS1970-0347
1971
BALAGO POLAN, M.k.Mathur, S.M., Mathur, P.C., Seva dass, BALAGO POLAN, M.k.Report on the Preliminary Prospecting for Diamonds between Urki and Majhgawan, District Panna, M.p.India Geological Survey, UNPUBL.India, Madhya PradeshProspecting
DS1995-1280
1995
Balahov, Yu.A.Mitrofanov, F.P., Balaganskiy, V.V., Balahov, Yu.A., et al.uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages of Kola Peninsula gabbro-anorthositesDoklady Academy of Sciences Acad. Science Russia, Vol. 331A, No. 6, June pp. 150-154.Russia, Kola PeninsulaGeochronology
DS1995-1540
1995
Balaji, S.Ramasamy, S.M., Balaji, S.Remote sensing and Pleistocene tectonics of Southern Indian peninsulaInternational Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 16, No. 13, Sept. 10, pp. 2375-2392IndiaTectonics, Remote sensing
DS200512-0057
2005
Balaji, S.Balaji, S., Ramasamy, S.M.Remote sensing and resistivity image for the tectonic analysis of Biligirirangan region, peninsular India.Geocarto International, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 55-62.Asia, IndiaRemote sensing
DS1985-0042
1985
Balakrishnan, P.Balakrishnan, P., Bhattacharya, S.Carbonatite Body Near Kambammettu, Tamil NaduJournal of Geological Society INDIA., Vol. 26, No. 6, JUNE PP. 418-421.India, Tamil NaduCarbonatite, Sovite, Magnetite, Geochemistry
DS1993-1278
1993
Balakrishnan, S.Rajamani, V., Balakrishnan, S., Hanson, G.N.Komatiite genesis: insights provided by iron-magnesium exchange equilibriaJournal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 6, November pp. 809-819IndiaKomatiite, Archean, Kolar Schist Belt, Genesis
DS1999-0041
1999
Balakrishnan, S.Balakrishnan, S., Rajamani, V., Hanson, G.N.uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for zircon and titanite from the Ramagiri area, evidence for accretionary origin ....Late ArcheanJournal of Geology, Vol. 107, No.1, Jan. pp. 69-86.India, South IndiaGeochronology, Dharwar Craton
DS201801-0016
2017
Balakrishnan, S.Gautam, I., Bhutani, R., Balakrishnan, S., Chatterjee, A., George, B.G., Ray, J.S.142Nd/144Nd of alkaline magmas in Phenai Mat a complex, Chhota Udaipur, Deccan flood basalt province.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 14.Indiaalkaline rocks

Abstract: The 65 million year old alkaline plug at Phenai Mata Complex, in Chota Udaipur sub province, is often linked to the last pulse of the Deccan volcanism. However, many believe that the Deccan-Reunion mantle plume that was responsible for the generation of flood basalts might not have been the source of Phenai Mata. It, however, could have acted as a heat source for these magmas derived from the subcontinentallithospheric- mantle (SCLM). Since the SCLM is generally considered to be a nonconvective mantle domain it has the potential to preserve some of the geochemical evidence of the early silicate Earth differentiation, e.g., 142Nd anomaly. In search of such signatures we analysed alkali basalts from the complex for their 142Nd/144Nd using high precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Whereas the geochemical characterization of these samples confirmed the lithospheric origin of their source magmas, their i 142Nd compositions are found to be normal with respect to terrestrial standards. We infer that either the mantle source of Phenai Mata does not represent a true non-convective mantle or it is too young to retain any evidence of 146Sm decay.
DS2000-0389
2000
Balakrishnan, T.S.Harikumar, P., Rajaram, M., Balakrishnan, T.S.Aeromagnetic study of peninsular IndiaProceedings Indian Academy of Science, Vol. 109, No. 3, Sept pp. 381-91.IndiaGeophysics - magnetics
DS200912-0028
2009
Balakrishnan, T.S.Balakrishnan, T.S., Unnikrishnan, P., Murty, A.V.S.The tectonic map of India and contiguous areas.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 74, August pp. 158-170.IndiaMap - tectonics
DS1950-0314
1957
Balakshin, G.D.Balakshin, G.D.Tests on the Application of Geophysical Methods of Prospecting for Kimberlite Pipes.Razved. Okhr. Nedr. Sssr., No. 4.Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1960-0012
1960
Balakshin, G.D.Balakshin, G.D., Menshikov, P.N.Tests on the Application of an Induction Method for Outlining Kimberlite Pipes.Razved. Okhr. Nedr. Sssr., No. 8.RussiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS1960-0420
1964
Balakshin, G.D.Balakshin, G.D.On Diamond Field Prospecting by Geophysical MethodsGeologii i Geofiziki, No. 6, PP. 142-145.Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Geophysics, Gravity, Daaldyn, Alakit Region
DS1960-0784
1967
Balakshin, G.D.Balakshin, G.D., Savrasov, D., Federov, N.N.Possibilite D'emploi de Leves Aeromagnetiques Pour Les Recherches de Kimberlites et de Carbonatites En Yakoutie.Razv. I Okhr. Nedr. Sssr., Vol. 33, No. 3, PP. 43-46. French Geological Survey (BRGM) TRANSLATION No. 5368.RussiaBlank
DS1960-0917
1968
Balakshin, G.D.Balakshin, G.D., Savarsov, D.I.Analyse des Premises de la Nature des Anomalies Magnetiquesau-dessus des Kimberlites, des Carbonatites et des Tufs Trappeens dans la Region de l'anabar.Zap. Vses. Arktiki Institute Geol., No. 12, PP. 171-180. French Geological Survey (BRGM) TRANSLATION No. 5365.RussiaBlank
DS1970-0235
1971
Balakshin, G.D.Balakshin, G.D., Savrasov, D.I.Effectiveness of Ground and Airborne Magnetic Surveys in Exploration for Kimberlite Pipes.Razved. Okhr. Nedr. Sssr., No. 3, PP. 45-50.Russia, YakutiaKimberlite, Geophysics
DS2001-0077
2001
Balan, E.Balan, E., Trocellier, Jupille, Fritsch, Muller, CalasSurface chemistry of weathered zirconsChemical Geology, Vol. 181,No. 1-4, pp. 13-22.Brazil, Amazon BasinSEM, spectroscopy, weathering - not specific to diamond
DS201012-0501
2010
Balaram, A.V.Mir, A.R., Alvi, S.H., Balaram, A.V.Geochemistry of mafic dikes in the Singhbhum Orissa craton: implications for subuction related metasomatism of the mantle beneath the eastern Indian craton.International Geology Review, Vol. 52, 1, pp. 79-94.IndiaSubduction
DS200612-1028
2005
Balaram, V.Parijat Roy, Balaram, V., Satyanarayana, M., Kumar, A.Determination of trace and REE in kimberlite and related rocks by ICP-MS.Geological Society of India, Bangalore November Meeting Group Discussion on Kimberlites and Related Rocks India, Abstract p. 142.IndiaMineral chemistry, petrology
DS200712-0915
2007
Balaram, V.Roy, P., Balaram, V., Kumar, A., Satyanarayanan, M., Gnaneshwar Rao, ThotaNew REE and trace element dat a on two kimberlite reference materials by ICP-MS.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 31, 3, pp. 261-273.TechnologyKimberlte trace elements
DS200812-0936
2008
Balaram, V.Rao, D.V.S., Balaram, V., Raju, K.N., Sridhar, D.N.Paleoproterozoic boninite like rocks in an intracratonic setting from northern Bastar Craton, central India.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 27, 3, pp. 373-380.IndiaBoninites
DS200812-1137
2008
Balaram, V.Subba Rao, D.V., Sridhar, D.N., Balaram, V., Nagaraju, K., Gnaneshwara Rao, T., Keshavakrishna, A., Singh, U.P.Proterozoic mafic ultramafic dyke swarms in the vicinity of Chhattisgarh Khariar Singhora basins in northern Bastar Craton, central India.Indian Dykes: editors Srivastava, Sivaji, Chalapathi Rao, pp. 377-396.IndiaBoninites
DS200912-0029
2009
Balaram, V.Balaram, V., Roy, P.Abundance of PGE and gold in kimberlites from eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A78 Abstract.IndiaGeochemistry
DS200912-0648
2009
Balaram, V.Roy, P., Balaram, V., Chalapti Rao, N.V.The PGE geochemistry of the on craton kimberlites from eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A1127 Abstract.IndiaGeochemistry
DS200912-0649
2007
Balaram, V.Roy, P.,Balaram, V., Kumar, A., Sathyanarayan, M., Gnaneshwara, Rao, T.New REE and trace element dat a on two kimberlite reference materials by ICP-MS.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 31, pp. 261-273.IndiaGeochronology
DS201012-0525
2010
Balaram, V.Naga Raju, K., Subba Rao, D.V., Balaram, V.Polybaric melting in an upwelling harzburgite diapir: evidence from central Indian boninite like rocks.International Dyke Conference Held Feb. 6, India, 1p. AbstractIndiaBoninites
DS201012-0640
2010
Balaram, V.Roy, P., Balaram, V.The PGE geochemistry of the on craton kimberlites from eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: a direct window to the nature of the mantle.International Dyke Conference Held Feb. 6, India, 1p. AbstractIndiaDiamond morphology
DS201012-0716
2010
Balaram, V.Singh, S.P., Balaram, V., Satyanarayanan, M., Anjaiah, K.V., Kharia, A.Platinum group elements in basic and ultrabasic rocks around Madawara Bundelk hand Massif, Central India.Current Science, Vol. 99, 3, August 16, 9p.IndiaPGE melting - not specific to diamonds
DS201012-0717
2010
Balaram, V.Singh, S.P., Balaram, V., Satyanarayanan, M., Anjaiah, K.V., Kharia, A.Platinum group elements in basic and ultrabasic rocks around Madawara Bundelk hand Massif, Central India.Current Science, Vol. 99, 3, August 16, 9p.IndiaPGE melting - not specific to diamonds
DS201012-0747
2010
Balaram, V.Srivastava, R.K., Mondal, S.K., Balaram, V., Gautam, G.C.PGE geochemistry of low Ti high Mg siliceous mafic rocks within the Archean Central Indian Bastar Craton: implications for magma fractionation.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 98, 1-4, pp. 329-345.IndiaMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS201212-0578
2012
Balaram, V.Ram Mohan, M., Singh, S.P., Santosh, M., Siddiqui, M.A., Balaram, V.TTG suite from the Bundelk hand Craton, Central India: geochemistry, petrogenesis and implications for Archean crustal evolution.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 58, pp. 38-50.IndiaTectonics
DS201212-0603
2012
Balaram, V.Roy, P., Balaram, V.PGE geochemistry of Diamondiferous and non-Diamondiferous kimberlites from eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for understanding the nature of the mantle below Dharwar.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractIndiaDiamond genesis
DS201312-0140
2014
Balaram, V.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Lehmann, B., Balaram, V.Platinum group elements (PGE) geochemistry of Deccan orangeites, Bastar craton, central India: implication for a non-terrestrial origin for irridium enrichment at the K-Pg boundary.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 84, pp. 24-33.IndiaOrangeites
DS201412-0117
2014
Balaram, V.Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Lehmann, B., Balaram, V.Platinum-group elements ( PGE) geochemistry of Deccan orangeites, Bastar craton, central India: implication for a non-terrestrial origin for iridium enrichment at the K-Pg boundary.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 84, Apr. 15, pp. 24-33.IndiaOrangeites
DS201907-1526
2019
Balaram, V.Balaram, V.Rare earth elements: a review of applications, occurrence, exploration, analysis, recycling, and environmental impact.Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 10, pp. 1285-1303.GlobalRare earths

Abstract: Rare earth elements (REE) include the lanthanide series elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) plus Sc and Y. Currently these metals have become very critical to several modern technologies ranging from cell phones and televisions to LED light bulbs and wind turbines. This article summarizes the occurrence of these metals in the Earth's crust, their mineralogy, different types of deposits both on land and oceans from the standpoint of the new data with more examples from the Indian subcontinent. In addition to their utility to understand the formation of the major Earth reservoirs, multi-faceted updates on the applications of REE in agriculture and medicine including new emerging ones are presented. Environmental hazards including human health issues due to REE mining and large-scale dumping of e-waste containing significant concentrations of REE are summarized. New strategies for the future supply of REE including recent developments in the extraction of REE from coal fired ash and recycling from e-waste are presented. Recent developments in individual REE separation technologies in both metallurgical and recycling operations have been highlighted. An outline of the analytical methods for their precise and accurate determinations required in all these studies, such as, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GD-MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (including ICP-MS, ICP-TOF-MS, HR-ICP-MS with laser ablation as well as solution nebulization) and other instrumental techniques, in different types of materials are presented.
DS1970-0313
1971
Balashov, I.A.Ilupin, I.P., Khomiakov, A.P., Balashov, I.A.Rare Earths in Accessory Minerals of Yakutian KimberlitesDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 201, PP. 272-274.RussiaBlank
DS1990-0156
1990
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A., Kotogin, N.F.Geochemistry of rare earth and other trace elements in the Archean greenstone belts of the Voronoezh crystalline massif. (Russian)Geochemistry International (Geokhimiya), (Russian), No. 4, pp. 603-609RussiaPeridotite, Picrite
DS1991-0056
1991
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A., Yegorov, O.S., Kolesov, G.M.The rare earth elements (REE) in Middle Bug basic and ultrabasic rocksGeochemistry International, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 124- 129RussiaHarzburgites -analyses, rare earth elements (REE) indicators
DS200412-0087
2004
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A., Glaznev, V.N.The impact of plume magmatism on the dyanmics of Precambrian crust formation.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 394, 2, Feb-Mar. pp. 170-173.TechnologyMagmatism
DS200512-0058
2004
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A., Glaznev, V.N.Mantle cycles: a modern insight.Deep seated magmatism, its sources and their relation to plume processes., pp. 68-95.MantleModels
DS200612-0077
2006
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A., Glaznev, V.N.Endogenic cycles and the problem of crustal growth.Geochemistry International, Vol. 44, 2, pp. 109-117.MantleTectonics
DS200612-0078
2005
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A., Glaznev, V.N.Cycles of alkaline magmatism.Geochemistry International, Vol. 44, 3, pp. 274-285.RussiaMagmatism
DS200912-0030
2009
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A.Correlation between modern heterogeneous lithosphere and Phanerozoic alkaline magmatism.alkaline09.narod.ru ENGLISH, May 10, 2p. abstractMantleMetasomatism
DS201012-0034
2009
Balashov, Yu.A.Balashov, Yu.A.Evolution aspects of geochemical heterogeneity of the lithosphere.Deep Seated Magmatism, its sources and plumes, Ed. Vladykin, N.V., p.86-97.MantleGeochemistry
DS1994-0095
1994
Balashov, Yu.Z.Balashov, Yu.Z., Fedotov, Zh.A., et al.Rubidium-Strontium dating of the lower volcanogenic series in the Pechenga Compex, Kola PeninsulaGeochemistry International, Vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 85-90GlobalGeochronology, sulphides, Pechenga Complex
DS201805-0961
2018
Balashova, A.Mattsson, H.B., Balashova, A., Almqvist, S.A., Bosshard-Stadlin, S.A., Weidendorfer, D.Magnetic mineralogy and rock properties of silicate and carbonatite rocks from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (Tanzania).Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 142, pp. 193-206.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Oldoinyo Lengai, a stratovolcano in northern Tanzania, is most famous for being the only currently active carbonatite volcano on Earth. The bulk of the volcanic edifice is dominated by eruptive products produced by silica-undersaturated, peralkaline, silicate magmas (effusive, explosive and/or as cumulates at depth). The recent (2007-2008) explosive eruption produced the first ever recorded pyroclastic flows at this volcano and the accidental lithics incorporated into the pyroclastic flows represent a broad variety of different rock types, comprising both extrusive and intrusive varieties, in addition to various types of cumulates. This mix of different accidental lithics provides a unique insight into the inner workings of the world's only active carbonatite volcano. Here, we focus on the magnetic mineralogy and the rock magnetic properties of a wide selection of samples spanning the spectrum of Oldoinyo Lengai rock types compositionally, as well from a textural point of view. Here we show that the magnetic properties of most extrusive silicate rocks are dominated by magnetite-ulvöspinel solid solutions, and that pyrrhotite plays a larger role in the magnetic properties of the intrusive silicate rocks. The natrocarbonatitic lavas, for which the volcano is best known for, show distinctly different magnetic properties in comparison with the silicate rocks. This discrepancy may be explained by abundant alabandite crystals/blebs in the groundmass of the natrocarbonatitic lavas. A detailed combination of petrological/mineralogical studies with geophysical investigations is an absolute necessity in order to understand, and to better constrain, the overall architecture and inner workings of the subvolcanic plumbing system. The results presented here may also have implications for the quest in order to explain the genesis of the uniquely natrocarbonatitic magmas characteristic of Oldoinyo Lengai.
DS201810-2294
2018
Balashova, A.Balashova, A., Mattsson, H.B., Hirt, A.M.New tephrostratigraphic data from Lake Emakat ( northern Tanzania): implications for the eruptive history of the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. ( melilitites)Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 147, pp. 374-382.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: The northern Tanzanian sector of the Gregory Rift is an area of an active continental rifting, in which sedimentation processes are strongly affected by volcanism. Due to limited stratigraphic exposure, the volcanic record of the region is rather sparse, and assigning volcanic centres for the individual eruptions is difficult. This study presents new data on the tephrostratigraphy of the sedimentary sequence of Lake Emakat, Empakaai Crater, northern Tanzania. Seven volcanic ash layers are identified and described from a 1.1-m core of lake sediments. Geochemical, mineralogical, petrographic and magnetic analyses show that: (1) all ash layers are products of highly explosive eruptions of melilite-bearing magmas; (2) most of the eruptions originate from a complex magmatic system; (3) all ash horizons are very well preserved in the lake environment; and (4) there are significant fluctuations of the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the lacustrine sediments which is related to microtephra from additional eruptions, the result of detritus, washed from the shore during periods of strong lake level fluctuations or periods of high erosion rates, or simply by the contamination by the material from the ash layers. Based on geochemistry and mineralogy of the seven identified ash layers in Lake Emakat, combined with the eruption ages from ¹4C datings, we can pinpoint Oldoinyo Lengai volcano as the source of these specific layers. The combination of this new data with existing chronological data from Ryner et al. (2007), retrieved from the same core, provides precise ages of the voluminous highly explosive eruptions in this region of East Africa during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.
DS1975-0680
1978
Balasubrahmanyan, M.N.Balasubrahmanyan, M.N., Murthy, M.K., Paul, D.K.Potassium-argon Ages of Indian KimberlitesGeological Society INDIA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 12, PP. 584-585.IndiaGeochronology, Kimberlites
DS1980-0298
1980
Balasubrahmanyan, M.N.Sarkar, A., Paul, D.K., Balasubrahmanyan, M.N., Sengupta, N.R.Lamprophyres from Indian Gondwanas Potassium-argon Ages and ChemistryGeological Society INDIA Journal, Vol. 21, MARCH PP. 188-193.IndiaGeochronology, Petrography, Chemistry
DS201801-0002
2017
Balasubramani, S.Balasubramani, S., Sahoo, P., Bhattacharya, D., Rengarajan, M., Thangavel, S., Bhatt, A.K., Verma, M.B., Nanda, L.K.A note on anomalous concentration of scandium in the Pakkanadu alkaline complex, Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 46.Indiaalkaline rocks

Abstract: Pakkanadu Alkaline complex (PAC) of Neoproterozoic age is located at the southwestern end of Dharmapuri rift/shear zone on the northern part of southern granulitic terrain in Tamil Nadu, India. PAC mainly comprises carbonatite-syenitepyroxenite suite of rocks. Syenite is the predominant rock exposed on the eastern and western part of the explored area with enclaves of pyroxenite and dunite. The carbonatite (sovite) occurs as thin veins/bands and discontinuous lenticular bodies intrusive into highly deformed biotite schist that is considered as the fenitised product of pyroxenite traceable over a strike length of 1.5 km. Petromineralogical study of the biotite schist, pyroxenite containing carbonatite rock and carbonatite indicated presence of monazite, allanite, sphene and betafite as the main radioactive minerals occurring as inclusion within biotite or as discrete mineral grains. Other ore minerals are apatite, thorite, titanite, rutile and barite. Chloritisation, hematitisation, silicification and calcitisation are the main wall rock alteration observed in pyroxenite and syenite. Sub-surface exploration carried out by Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD) in PAC revealed that biotite schist (n=166) contains anomalously high concentration of Scandium (11-1275 ppm, av.161 ppm), REE (67-58275 ppm, av. 14836 ppm,) and V (5-620 ppm, av. 127 ppm, with carbonatite veins and syenite (n=149) contain scandium (10-462 ppm, av.71 ppm,), REE (18-57510 ppm, av. 4106 ppm) and V (1-285 ppm, av. 48 ppm). In these rocks, LREE (12.5-57670 ppm, av. 9617 ppm, n=315) shows enrichment over HREE (7.1-774 ppm, av. 173 ppm, n=315). The concentration of Scandium (Av. 166 and 71 ppm in biotite schist and syenite respectively) is anomalous as compared to its crustal abundance (22 ppm). Geochemical analyses of the rock indicate that the radioactive biotite schist, pyroxenite containing carbonatite veins generally shows higher Sc and REE concentrations as compared to those of the other rocks (syenite). However, there is no significant correlation between REE and Sc. The higher concentration of scandium in PAC is possibly due to selective partitioning of it into minerals like apatite, pyrochlore, allanite, monazite and other REE bearing phases, apart from its concentration in the ferromagnesian minerals. Scandium rarely concentrates in nature as independent ore mineral. The demand for the metal is very high due to multiple high value commercial uses as an alloy with aluminum, specifically in aerospace and automobile industry, besides, in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in electrical industries. Eight boreholes drilled as part of the preliminary subsurface exploration in PAC, covering an area of 0.05 sq. km, indicated an elevated Scandium content of about 6 times that of the average crustal abundance.
DS1989-0062
1989
Balasubramaniam, K.S.Balasubramaniam, K.S., Faure, G., Goni, J., Grubb, P.L.C.Weathering : its products and deposits.Vol. 1. processes. Vol. IIGeotechnicsAugustithis Publishing, (Greece), Vol. I 462p. $ 50.00 Vol. II 672p. $ 65.00GlobalWeathering, Deposits -processes
DS2003-1122
2003
Balasubramonian, G.Radhakrishna, T., Joseph, M., Krishnendu, N.R., Balasubramonian, G.Paleomagnetism of mafic dykes in Dharwar Craton: possible geodynamic implicationsGeological Society of India Memoir, No. 50, pp. 193-224.IndiaGeophysics - magnetics
DS200412-1608
2003
Balasubramonian, G.Radhakrishna, T., Joseph, M., Krishnendu, N.R., Balasubramonian, G.Paleomagnetism of mafic dykes in Dharwar Craton: possible geodynamic implications.Geological Society of India Memoir, No. 50, pp. 193-224.IndiaGeophysics - magnetics
DS201312-0726
2013
Balasubramonian, G.Radhakrishna, T., Chandra, R., Srivastava, A.K., Balasubramonian, G.Central/eastern Indian Bundelk hand and Bastar cratons in the Paleoproterozoic supercontinental reconstructions: a paleomagnetic perspective.Precambrian Research, Vol. 226, pp. 91-104.IndiaPaleomagnetism
DS201312-0727
2013
Balasubramonian, G.Radhakrishna, T., Krishnendu, N.R., Balasubramonian, G.Nd-Hf isotope systematics of megacrysts from the Mbuji-Mayi kimberlites, D.R. Congo: evidence for a metasomatic origin related to kimberlite interaction with the cratonic lithosphere mantle.Earth Science Reviews, in press availableIndiaGondwana
DS201312-0728
2013
Balasubramonian, G.Radhakrishna, T., Krishnendu, N.R., Balasubramonian, G.Paleoproterozoic Indian shield in the global continental assembly: evidence from the paleomagnetism of mafic dyke swarms.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 126, pp. 370-389.IndiaDykes
DS1970-0236
1971
Balasundaram, M.S.Balasundaram, M.S., Mahadevan, T.M.Geological Environment of Diamond Deposits and its Bearing On Prospecting and Exploration in India.India Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publishing, No. 19, PP. 7-18.IndiaDiamond Genesis
DS1990-0372
1990
Balay, R.H.Crovelli. R.A., Balay, R.H.PROBDIST: probability distributions for modeling and simulation in the absence of dataUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 90-0446-A, B. 51p. 1 disc $ 8.25 and $ 6.00GlobalComputer, Program -PROBDIST.
DS1992-0317
1992
Balay, R.H.Crovelli, R.A., Balay, R.H.LOGRAF; log normal graph for resource assessment forecastUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 92-0679, 30p. $ 10.75GlobalComputer, Program -LOGRAF.
DS1993-0068
1993
Balay, R.H.Balay, R.H.GKS-PC; a kernel graphics programming system for IBM-PC and compatiblemicrocomputersUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 93-0241-A, B, 52p. $ 8.25 and disc $ 6.00GlobalComputer, Program -GKS-PC.
DS1993-0069
1993
Balchm A.H.Balchm A.H., Karazincir, H.Diffraction imaging using cross borehole seismics: a physical model studySociety for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) Meeting held February 15-18, 1993 in Reno, Nevada, Preprint No. 93-216, 5pUnited StatesGeophysics, Oil
DS1992-0343
1992
Baldauf, J.G.Davies, T.A., Baldauf, J.G., Kidd, R.B.A simple spreadsheet routine for calculating depth/age relationsComputers and Geosciences, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 579-586GlobalComputers, Program -depth/age relations
DS201909-2023
2019
Baldim, M.Bosco-Santos, A., Gilholy, W.P., Fouskas, F., Baldim, M., Oliveira, E.P.Ferruginous - euxinc - oxic: a three step redox change in the Neoarchean record.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractSouth America, Brazilcraton

Abstract: Much of the secular record of sulfur mass independet fractionation (S-MIF) is based on pyrites extracted from a limited number of formations from Western Australia and Southern Africa. Here we present multiproxy evidence for an episodic loss of S-MIF in sulfides from a 2.7 Ga sedimentary record in the São Francisco craton, Brazil. Based on combined proxies, we assigned three phases, in a continous drill core, that track evolving water column redox conditions and changes in ecology. In Phase-I, the stratigraphically older rocks, reactive iron ratios suggest ferruginous conditions. The pyrites have modest S-MIF values (D33S from -0.7 to 2.6‰) and the carbon isotope composition of the iron formations is indicative of carbon fixation by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that oxidized Fe2+ (d13Corg from -27.7 to -17.5‰). Within Phase-II, an intermediate phase characterized by graphite schist, the iron ratios, expansion of the S-MIF (D33S from 2.15 to 3.4‰) and an excess of Mo relative to Corg suggest deposition in an anoxic environment with periodic development of euxinic conditions. Phase-III culminates in fully oxic conditions with a loss of S-MIF and emergence of sulfur mass dependent fractionation (S-MDF) with homogeneous d34S pyrite values (average = 3.3 ± 0.5‰). The loss of S-MIF in the Archean sulfides of Phase-III was interpreted as a response to increased oxygen levels that lead to an intensification of oxidative weathering. Based on the continous deposition within this drillcore, the development of more oxidizing conditions may have been relatively rapid, reinforcing the model that the transition from S-MIF to S-MDF can happen on rapid geological time scales and was recorded about 400 million years prior to the GOE in the Brazilian craton.
DS1996-0068
1996
Baldo, E.G.Baldo, E.G., Martino, R.D.Evolution of the Sierras de Cordoba, ArgentinaTectonophysics, Vol. 267, No. 1-4, Dec. 30, pp. 121-142ArgentinaTectonics, Sierras de Cordoba region
DS200712-0873
2007
Baldo, E.G.Rapela, C.W., Pankhurts, R.J., Casquet, C., Fanning, C.M., Baldo, E.G., Gonzalez-Casado, J.M., Galindo, C., Dahlquist, J.The Rio de la Plate craton and the assembly of SW Gondwana.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 83, 1-2, pp. 49-82.South America, BrazilCraton, tectonics
DS1970-0473
1972
Baldock, J.W.Baldock, J.W.Mercury Project Botswana 1972: a New Concept Applied to Exploration of the Kalahari Region. Phase 1.1. Preliminary Orientation Shows the Way Ahead.Botswana Geological Survey, JWB/2/72, 22P. (UNPUBL.)BotswanaGeochemistry, Prospecting
DS1975-0237
1976
Baldock, J.W.Baldock, J.W., Hepworth, J.V., Marenga, B.S.I.Gold, Base Metals and Diamonds in BotswanaEconomic Geology, Vol. 71, No. 1, PP. 139-152;BotswanaKimberlite, Orapa
DS1975-0455
1977
Baldock, J.W.Baldock, J.W., Hepworth, J.V., Marengwa, B.S.I.Resource Inventory of BotswanaBotswana Geological Survey, Vol. 4, 69P. PP. 49-57. (DIAMONDS).BotswanaKimberlite, Diamond Prospecting
DS201803-0479
2017
Baldoncini, M.Strati, V., Wipperfurth, S.A., Baldoncini, M., McDonough, W.F., Mantovani, F.Perceiving the crust in 3-D: a model integrating geological, geochemical and geophysical data.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems G3, pp. 4326-Mantlegeophysics

Abstract: Regional characterization of the continental crust has classically been performed through either geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or geophysical surveys. Rarely are these techniques fully integrated, due to limits of data coverage, quality, and/or incompatible data sets. We combine geologic observations, geochemical sampling, and geophysical surveys to create a coherent 3-D geologic model of a 50 × 50 km upper crustal region surrounding the SNOLAB underground physics laboratory in Canada, which includes the Southern Province, the Superior Province, the Sudbury Structure, and the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. Nine representative aggregate units of exposed lithologies are geologically characterized, geophysically constrained, and probed with 109 rock samples supported by compiled geochemical databases. A detailed study of the lognormal distributions of U and Th abundances and of their correlation permits a bivariate analysis for a robust treatment of the uncertainties. A downloadable 3-D numerical model of U and Th distribution defines an average heat production of math formula µW/m3, and predicts a contribution of math formula TNU (a Terrestrial Neutrino Unit is one geoneutrino event per 1032 target protons per year) out of a crustal geoneutrino signal of math formula TNU. The relatively high local crust geoneutrino signal together with its large variability strongly restrict the SNO+ capability of experimentally discriminating among BSE compositional models of the mantle. Future work to constrain the crustal heat production and the geoneutrino signal at SNO+ will be inefficient without more detailed geophysical characterization of the 3-D structure of the heterogeneous Huronian Supergroup, which contributes the largest uncertainty to the calculation.
DS200712-0872
2007
Baldor Casado, E.G.Rapela, C.W., Pankhurst, R.J., Casquet, C., Fanning, C.M., Baldor Casado, E.G., Galindo, C., DahlquistThe Rio de la Plat a craton and the assembly of SW Gondwana.Earth Science Reviews, In press availableSouth America, BrazilTectonics
DS1991-0840
1991
BaldridgeKeller, G.R., Khan, M.A., Morgan, P., Wendland, R.F., BaldridgeA comparative study of the Rio-Grande and Kenya riftsTectonophysics, Vol. 197, No. 2-4, October 30, pp. 355-371New Mexico, KenyaTectonics, Rio Grande Rift
DS1975-0018
1975
Baldridge, W.S.Baldridge, W.S., Ehrenberg, S.N., Mcgetchin, T.R.Ultramafic Xenolith Suite from Ship Rock, New MexicoEos, Vol. 56, PP. 464-465, (abstract.).GlobalColorado Plateau, Kimberlite, Rocky Mountains
DS1989-1597
1989
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, E., Baldridge, W.S.Isotopic and geochemical constraints on lower crustal evolution in the Colorado PlateauEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1389. AbstractColorado PlateauGeochronology, Geochemistry
DS1989-1598
1989
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, E., DePaolo, D.J., Baldridge, W.S.Isotopic geochemical studies of a lithospheric column sampled by Colorado plateau xenolithsNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Bulletin., Continental Magmatism Abstract Volume, Held, Bulletin. No. 131, p. 290 Abstract held June 25-July 1Colorado PlateauXenoliths, Geochemistry
DS1991-0057
1991
Baldridge, W.S.Baldridge, W.S., Perry, F.V., Vaniman, D.T., et al.Middle to late Cenozoic magmatism of the southeastern Colorado Plateau And central Rio Grande rift ( New Mexico and Arizona): a model for continentalriftingTectonophysics, Vol. 197, No. 2-4, November pp. 327-354New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado PlateauTectonics, Rift systems
DS1991-1842
1991
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, E., Baldridge, W.S.Proterozoic neodymium model ages and Tertiary mineral ages for Colorado Plateau eclogite xenoliths: subducted oceanic crust?Eos Transactions, Vol. 72, No. 44, October 29, abstract p. 530Colorado PlateauEclogite, Geochronology
DS1991-1843
1991
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, R.F., Baldridge, W.S., Neumann, E.R.Modification of lower crust by continental rift magmatismGeophysical Research Letters, Vol. 18, No. 9, September pp. 1759-1762GlobalCrust, Tectonics -rifts
DS1993-1707
1993
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, E., DePaolo, D.J., Baldridge, W.S.neodymium and Strontium isotope chronostratigraphy of Colorado Plateau lithosphere: implications for magmatic and tectonic underplating of the continental crust.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 116, No. 1/4, April pp. 23-44.Colorado PlateauMantle, geochronology, Tectonics
DS1995-0095
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Baldridge, W.S., Keller, G.R., et al.The Rio Grande riftContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 233-276Colorado Plateau, New Mexico, Arizona, TexasXenoliths, Geophysics - seismics, gravity, magnetics
DS1995-0096
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Baldridge, W.S., Keller, G.R., et al.The Rio Grande riftContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 233-276.Colorado Plateau, New Mexico, Arizona, TexasXenoliths, Geophysics - seismics, gravity, magnetics
DS1995-0097
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Baldridge, W.S., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W.Continental rifting: a final perspectiveContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 453-461MantleMagmatism, mantle plumes, MOHO, Tectonics
DS1995-0098
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Baldridge, W.S., Keller, G.R., Braile, L.W.Continental rifting: a final perspectiveContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 453-461.MantleMagmatism, mantle plumes, MOHO, Tectonics
DS1995-0928
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Keller, G.R., Baldridge, W.S.The southern Oklahoma aulacogenContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 427-452GlobalGeophysics - seismics, gravity, Tectonics
DS1995-0929
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Keller, G.R., Baldridge, W.S.The southern Oklahoma aulacogenContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 427-452.GlobalGeophysics - seismics, gravity, Tectonics
DS1995-1336
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Neumann, E.R., Olsen, K.H., Baldridge, W.S.The Oslo riftContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 345-374Norway, SwedenGeophysics - seismics, Paleorift
DS1995-1337
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Neumann, E.R., Olsen, K.H., Baldridge, W.S.The Oslo riftContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 345-374.Norway, SwedenGeophysics - seismics, Paleorift
DS1995-2048
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, R.F., Alherr, R., Neumann, E., Baldridge, W.S.Methods of investigation: petrology, geochemistry, isotopesContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 47-60GlobalMagma, Xenoliths, thermobarometry
DS1995-2049
1995
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, R.F., Alherr, R., Neumann, E., Baldridge, W.S.Methods of investigation: petrology, geochemistry, isotopesContinental Rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics, No. 25, pp. 47-60.GlobalMagma, Xenoliths, thermobarometry
DS1996-1527
1996
Baldridge, W.S.Wendlandt, E., De Paolo D.J., Baldridge, W.S.Thermal history of Colorado Plateau lithosphere from samarium-neodymium (Sm-Nd) mineral geochronology of xenoliths.Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin., Vol. 108, No. 7, July pp. 757-767.ColoradoGeochronology, Xenoliths
DS200412-0607
2004
Baldridge, W.S.Gao, W., Grand, S.P., Baldridge, W.S., Wilson, D., West, M., Ni, J.F., Aster, R.Upper mantle convection beneath the central Rio Grande rift imaged by P and S wave tomography.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, 3, DOI 10.1029/2003 JB002743United States, New Mexico, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics, tectonics
DS200412-2101
2004
Baldridge, W.S.West, M., Ni, J., Baldridge, W.S., Wilson, D., Aster, R., Gao, W., Grand, S.Crust and upper mantle shear wave structure of the southwest United States: implications for rifting and support for high elevatJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, 3, DOI 10.1029/2003 JB002575United States, California, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics, tectonics
DS200512-1185
2005
Baldridge, W.S.Wilson, D., Aster, R., Ni, J., Grand, S., West, M., Gao, W.,Baldridge, W.S., Semken, S.Imaging the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Great Plains, Rio Grande Rift, and Colorado Plateau using receiver functions.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, B5, 10.1029/2004 JB003492United States, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics
DS200512-1186
2005
Baldridge, W.S.Wilson, D., Aster, R., Ni, J., Grand, S., West, M., Gao, W., Baldridge, W.S., Semken, S.Imaging the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Great Plains, Rio Grande Rift and Colorado Plateau using receiver functions.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, B5 May 28, B05306 10.1029/2004 JB003492United States, ColoradoGeophysics - seismics
DS200812-1072
2008
Baldridge, W.S.Sine, C.R., Wilson, D., Gao, W., Grand, S.P., Aster, R., Ni, J., Baldridge, W.S.Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, 10, May 28, L10303.United States, Colorado PlateauTectonics
DS200812-1240
2008
Baldridge, W.S.Wang, X., Ni, J.F., Aster, R., Sandovi, E., Wilson, D., Sine, C., Grand, S.P., Baldridge, W.S.Shear wave splitting and mantle flow beneath the Colorado Plateau and its boundary with the Great Basin.Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, Vol. 98, 5, pp. 2526-2532.United States, Colorado PlateauGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0812
2010
Baldridge, W.S.Van Wijk, J.W., Baldridge, W.S., Van Hunen, J., Goes, S., Aster, R., Coblentz, D.D., Grand, S.P., Ni, J.Small scale convection at the edge of the Colorado Plateau: implications for topography, magmatism, and evolution of Proterozoic lithosphere.Geology, Vol. 38, 7, pp. 611-614.United States, Colorado PlateauMagmatism
DS1997-0068
1997
Baldry, J.Baldry, J.The made in Canada mining booMProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Paper presentation, 9p. and 10 slide reprodCanadaEconomics, discoveries, Mining
DS1986-0205
1986
Baldwin, D.K.Edgar, A.D., Arima, M., Baldwin, D.K., Bell, D.R., Shee, S.R., Skinner, E.M.high pressure melting experiments on an aphanitic kimberlite from the Wesselton mine, Kimberley South AfricaProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 170-172South AfricaBlank
DS1988-0188
1988
Baldwin, D.K.Edgar, A.D., Arima, M., Baldwin, D.K., Bell, D.R., Shee, S.R.High-pressure-high temperature melting experiments on a SiO2poor aphanitic kimberlite from the Wesselton mine, Kimberley,South AfricaAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 73, No. 5-6 May June pp. 524-533South AfricaBlank
DS2003-0172
2003
Baldwin, J.Brown, M., Baldwin, J., Morales, J., Fuck, R.Modelling ultra hot beauties from Brazil: peak temperature and P-T evolutionGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.222.BrazilUHP
DS200412-0227
2003
Baldwin, J.Brown, M., Baldwin, J., Morales, J., Fuck, R.Modelling ultra hot beauties from Brazil: peak temperature and P-T evolution.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.222.South America, BrazilUHP
DS201906-1300
2019
Baldwin, J.Harms, T., Baldwin, J.Paleoproterozoic metasupracrustal suites on the NW flank of the Wyoming province: the stories they do and do not tell about an evolving continent.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 103.United States, Canadacraton

Abstract: Metasupracrustal sequences interlayered with quartzofeldspathic gneisses distinguish the Montana Metasedimentary terrane on the NW flank of the Wyoming Province (WP). Early thinking correlated marble-bearing suites and considered them younger than carbonate-absent sequences, promoting models of WP continental crust evolution toward thick lithosphere supporting a stable marine platform in the period ~ 3.5-2.5 Ga. Metasupracrustal suite depositional ages constrained by (1) detrital zircons; (2) times of metamorphism; and (3) cross-cutting meta-igneous rocks now indicate a more complex pattern of tectonic environments along the NW margin of the WP. Carbonate-bearing metasupracrustal suites in the Tobacco Root Mountains and Ruby Range include marble, amphibolite, orthoamphibolite, pelitic gneiss, quartzite, and iron formation. Detrital zircons constrain the protolith age to 2.45 Ga. Interlayered quartzofeldspathic gneiss with calc-alkaline geochemistry were previously interpreted as suggesting a continental fringing arc superimposed on Archean basement. An episode of metamorphism and anatexis followed at 2.45 Ga, demonstrated by metamorphic monazite and intrusive ages of cross-cutting mylonitic leucogneiss. We interpret this to be a time of collision along the NW WP. Cross-cutting mafic sills and dikes suggest continental rifting at 2.06 Ga. Diverse metasupracrustal suites whose protoliths must be 1.8 Ga occur in the Ruby, Tobacco Root, and Highland mountains. A carbonate-absent suite of amphibolite, orthoamphibolite, pelitic schist and quartzite in the Tobacco Root Mountains represents oceanic crust, while aluminous schist and interlayered amphibolite in the Highland Mountains are consistent with a back-arc basin setting. The Ruby Range suite includes prominent marble, amphibolite, orthoamphibolite, pelitic schist, quartzite and iron formation and may represent a second, post-rift carbonate platform facing that basin. These suites collapsed against the WP during the 1.78-1.72 Ga Big Sky orogeny as a consequence of subduction directed beneath the WP.
DS2001-0078
2001
Baldwin, J.A.Baldwin, J.A., Williamsn, M.L., Bowring, S.A.Petrology and metamorphic evolution of high pressure granulites and eclogites from Snowbird tectonic zone.Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Annual Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 26, p.6, abstract.Saskatchewan, northernEcologites, Thermobarometry
DS2003-0065
2003
Baldwin, J.A.Baldwin, J.A., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L.Petrological and geochronological constraints on high pressure, high temperatureJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 21, 1, pp. 81-98.Alberta, SaskatchewanGeochronology, UHP
DS200412-0088
2004
Baldwin, J.A.Baldwin, J.A., Bowring, S.A., Williams, M.L., Williams, I.S.Eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone: petrological and U Pb geochronological evidence for Paleoproterozoic high pressure metaContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 147, 5, pp. 528-48.Canada, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesEclogite, shield
DS200712-0047
2007
Baldwin, J.A.Baldwin, J.A., Powell, R., Williams, M.L., Goncalves, P.Formation of eclogite and reaction during exhumation to mid-crustal levels, Snowbird Tectonic zone, Western Canadian Shield.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 25, 9, pp. 953-974.Canada, Saskatchewan, AlbertaEclogite
DS1980-0045
1980
Baldwin, J.L.Baldwin, J.L.A Crustal Seismic Refraction Study in Southwestern Indiana And Southern Illinois.Msc. Thesis, Purdue University, GlobalMid-continent
DS2002-1656
2002
Baldwin, J.N.Vaughn, J.D., Baldwin, J.N., Barron, A.D.Recurrent late Quaternary deformation within the Dexter tectonic zone, Upper Mississippi embayment.16th. International Conference On Basement Tectonics '02, Abstracts, 2p., 2p.MissouriTectonics - Reelfoot rift region
DS1991-0058
1991
Baldwin, R.Baldwin, R., Frey, H.MAGSAT crustal anomalies for Africa- dawn to dusk dat a differences and acombined dat a setPhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 67, No. 3-4, July pp. 237-250Africa, South AfricaCrust, Geophysics -magnetics
DS200412-0089
2004
Baldwin, S.Baldwin, S., White, N., Muller, R.D.Resolving multiple rift phases by strain rate inversion in the Petrel sub-basin, northwest Australia.Hillis, R.R., Muller, R.D. Evolution and dynamics of the Australian Plate, Geological Society America Memoir, No. 372, pp. 245-264.AustraliaTectonics
DS200612-0079
2006
Baldwin, S.L.Baldwin, S.L., Fitzgerald, P.G.Using thermochronology to determine the timing and rates of tectonic processes.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, p. 1. abstract only.MantleGeothermometry
DS1993-1083
1993
Bale, W.C.Morton, R.D., Stewart, J.P., Bale, W.C.A review of diamond occurrences and potentials in AlbertaThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) , Annual Meeting Abstracts approximately 10 lines, Vol. 86, No. 968, March POSTER ABSTRACT p. 67.AlbertaTectonics, Structure
DS1993-1084
1993
Bale, W.C.Morton, R.D., Stewart, J.P., Bale, W.C., Day, R.C.A review of diamond occurrences and potential in AlbertaMid-continent diamonds Geological Association of Canada (GAC)-Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Symposium ABSTRACT volume, held Edmonton May, pp. 98-99.AlbertaOverview of diamond exploration
DS1960-0013
1960
Bales, A.H.Bales, A.H.Report on Precambrian section of Tudale diamond drill home of magnetic anomaly near Neepawa, Manitoba.Man. Geological Survey, 29p.ManitobaPrecambrian, Magnetics, Neepawa Area
DS1983-0116
1983
Bales, J.R.Bales, J.R., Steele, K.F.A Comparison of Carbonatites at Magnet Cove and Potash Sulfur Springs, Arkansaw.Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 15, No. 1, P. 7, (abstract.).United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, Hot Spring County, Garland CountyPetrology, Geochemistry, Ijolite, Mineral Chemistry
DS1985-0697
1985
Balestra, G.Venterelli, G., Balestra, G., Toscani, L.The Ultrapotassic Rocks and their Geologic SettingGeological Association of Canada (GAC)., Vol. 10, P. A65, (abstract.).ItalyLeucite
DS1985-0043
1985
Balfour, D.J.Balfour, D.J., Hegenberger, W., Medlycott, A.S., Wilson, K.J.Kimberlites Near Sikereti, North Eastern Southwest Africa/namibia.Communs. Geological Survey Swa/namibia., Vol. 1, PP. 69-77.Southwest Africa, NamibiaHistory, Pipe, Lithology, Petrography, Xenoliths, Age Of Emplacement
DS1960-0421
1964
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous Diamonds. #1London: Debeers Consol. Mines, 2nd Edition., XEROX.GlobalKimberlite, Kimberley, Janlib
DS1960-0785
1967
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous Diamonds. #4De Beers Cons. Diamond Mines, SECOND EDITION, 28P.GlobalDiamonds Notable, Kimberley
DS1960-0918
1968
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous Diamonds. #2De Beers Consolidated Mines Publishing, 28P. SECOND EDITION.South AfricaDiamonds Notable
DS1970-0237
1971
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.A Century of Great DiamondsInternational DIAMOND ANNUAL FOR 1971, PP. 72-76.GlobalDiamonds Notable
DS1975-0934
1979
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Niarchos DiamondIndiaqua., 1979/I, No. 20, PP. 81-83.GlobalDiamonds Notable
DS1975-0935
1979
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Mysterious Affair of the Brunswick BlueIndiaqua., 1979/III, No. 21, PP. 103-105.GlobalDiamonds Notable
DS1975-0936
1979
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Woyie River DiamondIndiaqua., Vol. 22, 1979/3, PP. 103-105.Sierra Leone, West AfricaDiamonds Notable
DS1980-0046
1980
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Shah DiamondIndiaqua., No. 24, P. 115; P. 117.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1980-0047
1980
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Dresden Green DiamondIndiaqua., No. 26, P. 105; P. 107; P. 109.India, BrazilDiamonds Notable
DS1980-0048
1980
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Amsterdam DiamondIndiaqua., 1980/IV, No. 27, PP. 127-130.South AfricaPremier Mine, Black Diamond, Diamonds Notable
DS1980-0049
1980
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Jonker DiamondIndiaqua., 1980/II, No. 25, PP. 91-96.South Africa, ElandsfonteinDiamonds Notable
DS1981-0071
1981
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Lesotho BrownIndiaqua., 1981/1, No. 29, PP. 123-125.LesothoDiamonds Notable
DS1981-0072
1981
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Has Anyone Seen the Florentine?Indiaqua., 1981/1, No. 28, PP. 113-115.South AfricaAustria, Shah Of Persia, Diamonds Notable
DS1982-0083
1982
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Wittelsbach DiamondIndiaqua., No. 32, PP. 135-137.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1982-0084
1982
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The 'William son Pink' DiamondIndiaqua., No. 33, PP. 125-128.Tanzania, East AfricaBlank
DS1983-0117
1983
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Hastings DiamondIndiaqua., No. 34, PP. 127-133.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1983-0118
1983
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Orlov DiamondIndiaqua., No. 36, PP. 127-131.India, RussiaDiamonds Notable
DS1983-0119
1983
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Excelsior DiamondIndiaqua., 1983/II, No. 35, PP. 131-134.South Africa, TransvaalJagersfontein, Diamonds Notable, History
DS1984-0130
1984
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Hope DiamondIndiaqua., No. 38, PP. 127-138.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1984-0131
1984
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Culli nan Diamond - Indiaqua 1984Indiaqua., No. 39, 1984/III, PP. 123-132.South AfricaDiamonds Notable, History
DS1984-0132
1984
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Star of Sierra LeoneIndiaqua., No. 37, 1984/1, PP. 129-131.West Africa, Sierra LeoneDiamonds Notable, History
DS1985-0044
1985
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Star of the SouthIndiaqua., No. 40, 1985/1, PP. 113-118.BrazilHistory, Diamonds Notable
DS1985-0045
1985
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Nassak DiamondIndiaqua, No. 42, 1985/3. pp. 133-135IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1985-0046
1985
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Eureka DiamondIndiaqua., No. 41, 1985/II, PP. 123-134.South AfricaDiamonds Notable, History
DS1986-0044
1986
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The SancyIndiaqua, No. 43, 1986/I, pp. 127-132FranceDiamonds notable
DS1986-0045
1986
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Sancy. Famous diamonds of the worldIndiaqua, No. 43, 1986/I, pp. 127-132FranceHistory, Diamonds notable
DS1986-0046
1986
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world XXVIIIndiaqua, No. 45, III, ppGlobalDiamonds notable, Matan
DS1986-0047
1986
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Vainier Briolette. Famous diamonds of the world XXVIIIndiaqua, No. 44, 1986-II, pp. 129-130South AfricaCutting, Diamonds notable
DS1986-0048
1986
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.La Belle Helene. Famous diamonds of the world XXVIIndiaqua, No. 44, 1986-II, pp. 125-127Southwest Africa, NamibiaDiamonds notable
DS1987-0022
1987
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamondsIndiaqua, No. 47, 1987/II, ad. p. 115GlobalBook-ad
DS1987-0023
1987
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world part XXXI, EugenieIndiaqua, No. 47, 1987/II pp. 117-119IndiaFamous diamonds
DS1987-0024
1987
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world- PIGOTIndiaqua, No. 46, 1987/1, pp. 149-153IndiaHistory, Diamond
DS1987-0025
1987
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world part XXXI, KimberleyIndiaqua, No. 47, 1987/II pp. 120-121South AfricaFamous diamonds
DS1988-0033
1988
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamond of thr world XXXIV, The De Beers diamondIndiaqua, No. 49, 1988/I, p. 123South AfricaFamous diamonds
DS1988-0034
1988
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamond of thr world XXXIII, the TiffanyIndiaqua, No. 49, 1988/I, pp. 119, 121-122South AfricaFamous diamonds
DS1988-0035
1988
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The McLean diamond. Famous diamonds of the world XXXVIIndiaqua, No. 51, 1988/III, pp. 145-148United StatesStar of the East, Hope, McLean, Star of the South
DS1989-0063
1989
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Dresden White. Famous diamonds of the world XLIndiaqua, No. 52, 1989/I, p. 149GlobalDiamonds notable
DS1989-0064
1989
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Harlequin. Famous diamonds of the world IXIndiaqua, No. 52, 1989/I, p. 149GlobalDiamonds notable
DS1989-0065
1989
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Richelieu. Famous diamonds of the world XXXVIIIndiaqua, No. 52, 1989/I. pp. 148GlobalHistory, Diamonds notable
DS1989-0066
1989
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.The Agra. Famous diamonds of the world XLIIIndiaqua, No. 54, 1989/III pp. 171-172, 175IndiaDiamonds notable, Agra
DS1989-0067
1989
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Little Sancy. Famous diamonds of the world XXXVIIndiaqua, No. 52, 1989/I. pp. 147-148IndiaHistory, Diamonds notable
DS1989-0068
1989
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Penthievre. Famous diamonds of the worldIndiaqua, No. 53, 1989/II, pp. 149-152India, BrazilFamous diamonds, Penthievre
DS1990-0157
1990
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Aga Khan III. Famous diamonds of the world XLIIIIndiaqua, No. 55 1990/1, p. 195-196GlobalFamous diamonds, Aga Khan III
DS1990-0158
1990
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Star of Egypt. Famous diamonds of the world XLIIIIndiaqua, No. 55 1990/1, p. 197-198GlobalFamous diamonds, Star of Egypt
DS1991-0059
1991
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world XLVI. Some notable diamonds in 1990Indiaqua, Industrial Diamond ANNUAL, 1991 pp. 251-254GlobalOverview of diamonds up for sale, Moon of Baroda, Guinea Star, added history of Agra
DS1991-0060
1991
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world XLVII. The Centenary diamondIndiaqua, Industrial Diamond ANNUAL, 1991 pp. 255South AfricaDiamonds notable, Centenary diamond
DS1992-0073
1992
Balfour, I.Balfour, I.Famous diamonds of the world XLVII.. brief overview of several that came on the market in 1991-1992 also some historical aspects of lost gemsIndiaqua, Annual 1992/3, pp. 283-285GlobalDiamond histories, Diamonds notable
DS1994-0096
1994
Balfour Howell InternationalBalfour Howell InternationalBrasil - guide for mining executivesBalfour Howell International, BrazilBrasil -overview for mining, Book - ad
DS1994-0097
1994
Balfour Howell LtdBalfour Howell LtdRussian mining industry -handbook of laws and regulationsBalfour Howell, RussiaBook -ad, Legal -mining laws
DS200712-0092
2007
Bali, E.Bolfan-Casanova, N., Bali, E., Koga, K.Pressure and temperature dependence of water solubility in forsterite: implications for the activity of water in the Earth's mantle.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A106.MantleWater
DS200812-0075
2008
Bali, E.Bali, E., Bolfan-Casanova, N., Koga, K.T.Pressure and temperature dependence of H solubility in forsterite: an implication to water activity in the Earth interior.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 268, no. 3-4, April. 30, pp. 354-363.MantleWater
DS200812-0437
2008
Bali, E.Guzmics, T., Kodolanyi, J., Kovacs, I., Szabo, C., Bali, E., Ntaflos, T.Primary carbonatite melt inclusions in apatite and in K feldspar of clinopyroxene rich mantle xenoliths hosted in lamprophyre dikes, Hungary.Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available, 18p.Europe, HungaryLamprophyre, dykes
DS201312-0052
2013
Bali, E.Bali, E., Audekat, A., Keppler, H.Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth's mantle.Nature, Vol. 495, March 14, pp. 220-223.MantleChemistry
DS201905-1038
2019
Bali, E.Guzmics, T., Berkesi, M., Bodnar, R.J., Fall, A., Bali, E., Milke, R., Vetlenyi, E., Szabo, C.Natrocarbonatites: a hidden product of three phase immiscibility. ( Oldoinyo Lengai)Geology, https://doi.org/ 10.1130/G46125.1 Africa, Tanzaniacarbonatite

Abstract: Earth’s only active natrocarbonatite volcanism, occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), Tanzania, suggests that natrocarbonatite melts are formed through a unique geological process. In the East African Rift, the extinct Kerimasi (KER) volcano is a neighbor of OL and also contains nephelinites hosting melt and fluid inclusions that preserve the igneous processes associated with formation of natrocarbonatite melts. Here, we present evidence for the presence of coexisting nephelinite melt, fluorine-rich carbonate melt, and alkali carbonate fluid. The compositions of these phases differ from the composition of OL natrocarbonatites; therefore, it is unlikely that natrocarbonatites formed directly from one of these phases. Instead, mixing of the outgassing alkali carbonate fluid and the fluorine-rich carbonate melt can yield natrocarbonatite compositions at temperatures close to subsolidus temperatures of nephelinite (<630-650 °C). Moreover, the high halogen content (6-16 wt%) in the carbonate melt precludes saturation of calcite (i.e., formation of calciocarbonatite) and maintains the carbonate melt in the liquid state with 28-41 wt% CaO at temperatures =600 °C. Our study suggests that alkali carbonate fluids and melts could have commonly formed in the geological past, but it is unlikely they precipitated calcite that facilitates fossilization. Instead, alkali carbonates likely precipitated that were not preserved in the fossil nephelinite rocks. Thus, alkali carbonate fluids and melts have been so far overlooked in the geological record because of the lack of previous detailed inclusion studies.
DS201906-1298
2019
Bali, E.Guzmics, T., Berkesi, M, Bodnar, R.J., Fall, A., Bali, E., Milke, R., Vetlenyi, E., Szabo, C.Natrocarbonatites: a hidden product of three phase immiscibility.Geology, Vol. 47, 6, pp. 527-530.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Earth’s only active natrocarbonatite volcanism, occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), Tanzania, suggests that natrocarbonatite melts are formed through a unique geological process. In the East African Rift, the extinct Kerimasi (KER) volcano is a neighbor of OL and also contains nephelinites hosting melt and fluid inclusions that preserve the igneous processes associated with formation of natrocarbonatite melts. Here, we present evidence for the presence of coexisting nephelinite melt, fluorine-rich carbonate melt, and alkali carbonate fluid. The compositions of these phases differ from the composition of OL natrocarbonatites; therefore, it is unlikely that natrocarbonatites formed directly from one of these phases. Instead, mixing of the outgassing alkali carbonate fluid and the fluorine-rich carbonate melt can yield natrocarbonatite compositions at temperatures close to subsolidus temperatures of nephelinite (<630-650 °C). Moreover, the high halogen content (6-16 wt%) in the carbonate melt precludes saturation of calcite (i.e., formation of calciocarbonatite) and maintains the carbonate melt in the liquid state with 28-41 wt% CaO at temperatures =600 °C. Our study suggests that alkali carbonate fluids and melts could have commonly formed in the geological past, but it is unlikely they precipitated calcite that facilitates fossilization. Instead, alkali carbonates likely precipitated that were not preserved in the fossil nephelinite rocks. Thus, alkali carbonate fluids and melts have been so far overlooked in the geological record because of the lack of previous detailed inclusion studies.
DS202007-1125
2020
Bali, E.Berkesi, M., Bali, E., Bodnar, R.J., Szabo, A., Guzmics, T.Carbonatite and highly peralkaline nephelinitie melts from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: the role of natrite-normative fluid degassing.Gondwana Research, Vol. 85, pp. 76-83. pdfAfrica, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Oldoinyo Lengai, located in the Gregory Rift in Tanzania, is a world-famous volcano owing to its uniqueness in producing natrocarbonatite melts and because of its extremely high CO2 flux. The volcano is constructed of highly peralkaline [PI = molar (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 > 2-3] nephelinite and phonolites, both of which likely coexisted with carbonate melt and a CO2-rich fluid before eruption. Results of a detailed melt inclusion study of the Oldoinyo Lengai nephelinite provide insights into the important role of degassing of CO2-rich vapor in the formation of natrocarbonatite and highly peralkaline nephelinites. Nepheline phenocrysts trapped primary melt inclusions at 750-800 °C, representing an evolved state of the magmas beneath Oldoinyo Lengai. Raman spectroscopy, heating-quenching experiments, low current EDS and EPMA analyses of quenched melt inclusions suggest that at this temperature, a dominantly natritess-normative, F-rich (7-14 wt%) carbonate melt and an extremely peralkaline (PI = 3.2-7.9), iron-rich nephelinite melt coexisted following degassing of a CO2 + H2O-vapor. We furthermore hypothesize that the degassing led to re-equilibration between the melt and liquid phases that remained and involved 1/ mixing between the residual (after degassing) alkali carbonate liquid and an F-rich carbonate melt and 2/ enrichment of the coexisting nephelinite melt in alkalis. We suggest that in the geological past similar processes were responsible for generating highly peralkaline silicate melts in continental rift tectonic settings worldwide.
DS2002-0095
2002
Bali, E.O.Bali, E.O., Szabo, C., Vaselli, O., Torok, K.Significance of silicate melt pockets in upper mantle xenoliths from Bakony Balaton Highland volcanic fieldLithos, Vol.61, 1-2, March, pp. 79-102.HungaryXenoliths - silicates ( not specific to diamond)
DS1995-1143
1995
Balia, L.Mah, A., Taylor, G.R., Lennox, P., Balia, L.Lineament analyses of Land sat thematic mapper images, Northern TerritoryPhotogr. Eng. and Remote Sensing, Vol. LXI, No. 6, June pp. 761-773AustraliaRemote sensing, Structure - lineaments
DS2001-0910
2001
Balic-Zunic, T.Petersen, O.V., Gault, R.A., Balic-Zunic, T.Odintsovite from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South GreenlandNeues Jahrbuch fnr Mineralogie Mh., No. 5, pp. 235-40.GreenlandAlkaline rocks, Ilmaussaq Complex
DS201112-1096
2011
Balic-Zunic, T.Vulic, P., Balic-Zunic, T., Belmonte, L.J., Kahlenberg, V.Crystal chemistry of nephelines from ijolites and nepheline rich pegmatites: influence of composition and genesis on the crystal structure investigated by X-ray diffraction.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 101, 3-4, pp. 185-194.MantleIjolite
DS202007-1123
2020
Balic-Zunic, T.Anzolini, C., Siva-Jothy, W., Locock, A.J., Nestola, F., Balic-Zunic, T., Alvaro, M., Stachel, T., Pearson, D.G.Heamanite-(Ce) (K0.5Ce0.5)Ti03 Mineralogical Magazine reports CNMNC Newsletter , No. 55, Vol. 84, https://doi.org/ 10.1180/mgm. 2020.39Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Gahcho Kue
DS1975-0456
1977
Balint, F.Balint, F.The Neys Diatreme, Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Northwestern Ontario.Bsc. Thesis, Lakehead University, Canada, OntarioDiatreme Breccias
DS1993-0070
1993
Balk, P.I.Balk, P.I., Dolgal, A.S., Balk, T.V.Grid methods for solving inverse problems and practice of their usage while tracing differentiated intrusions according to gravity survey dataRussian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 112-118RussiaGeophysics -gravimetric, Formula - mathematical equations
DS1950-0163
1954
Balk, R.Allen, J.F., Balk, R.Mineral Resources of the Fort Defiance and Tohatchi Quadrangles.New Mexico Bureau of Mines Min. Res. Bulletin., No. 36, 192P.GlobalDiatreme
DS1950-0169
1954
Balk, R.Balk, R.Kimberlitic Tuff Plugs in Northeastern ArizonaAmerican Geophysical Union Transactions, Vol. 35, No. 11, P. 381, (abstract.).GlobalDiatreme, Kimberlite
DS1950-0170
1954
Balk, R.Balk, R., Sun, M.S.Petrographic Description of Igneous RocksNew Mexico Bureau of Mines Min. Res., No. 36, PP. 100-118.GlobalDiatreme
DS1993-0070
1993
Balk, T.V.Balk, P.I., Dolgal, A.S., Balk, T.V.Grid methods for solving inverse problems and practice of their usage while tracing differentiated intrusions according to gravity survey dataRussian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 112-118RussiaGeophysics -gravimetric, Formula - mathematical equations
DS1990-0159
1990
Ball, D.G.A.Ball, D.G.A., Robin, P.Y.F.METPET: metamorphic petrology microcomputer programsJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 8, No. 3, May pp. 251-256GlobalComputer program -METPET., Petrology
DS1991-0061
1991
Ball, J.W.Ball, J.W., Nordstrom, D.K.User's manual for WATEQ4F with revised thermodynamic dat a base and testcases for calculating speciation of major, trace and redox elements in naturalwatersUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 91-0183, 193p. one disc $ 35.00GlobalComputer, Program -WATEQ4F.
DS201412-0111
2014
Ball, N.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N., Reguir, E.P., Medici, L., Abdu, Y., Antonov, A.A.Vladykinite Na3Sr4(Fe2+Fe3+)Si8O24: a new complex sheet silicate from peralkaline rocks of the Murun complex, eastern Siberia, Russia.Deep Seated Magmatism, its sources and plumes, Ed. Vladykin, N.V., pp. 5-21TechnologyAlkalic
DS201510-1761
2014
Ball, N.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N., Reguir, E.P., Medici, L., Abdu, Y., Antonov, A.A.Vladykinite, Na3Sr4(Fe2+Fe3+)Si8024: a new complex sheet silicate from peralkaline rocks of the Murun Complex, eastern Siberia, Russia.Deep-seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, Proceedings of XIII International Workshop held 2014., Vol. 2014, pp. 5-21.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Murun

Abstract: Vladykinite, ideally Na3Sr4(Fe2+Fe3+)Si8O24, is a new complex sheet silicate occurring as abundant prismatic crystals in a dike of coarse-grained peralkaline feldspathoid syenite in the north-central part of the Murun complex in eastern Siberia, Russia (Lat. 58° 22' 48? N; Long. 119° 03' 44? E). The new mineral is an early magmatic phase associated with aegirine, potassium feldspar, eudialyte, lamprophyllite, and nepheline; strontianite (as pseudomorphs after vladykinite) and K-rich vishnevite are found in the same assemblage, but represent products of late hydrothermal reworking. Vladykinite is brittle, has a Mohs hardness of 5, and distinct cleavage on {100}. In thin section, it is colorless, biaxial negative [a = 1.624(2), b = 1.652(2), g = 1.657(2), 2Vmeas = 44(1)°, 2Vcalc = 45(1)°] and shows an optic orientation consistent with its structural characteristics (X^a = 5.1° in b obtuse, Z^c = 4.7° in b acute, Y = b). The Raman spectrum of vladykinite consists of the following vibration modes (listed in order of decreasing intensity): 401, 203, 465, 991, 968, 915, 348, 167, 129, 264, 1039, and 681 cm–1; O-H signals were not detected. The Mössbauer spectrum indicates that both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present in the mineral (Fe3+/FeS = 0.47), and that both cations occur in a tetrahedral coordination. The mean chemical composition of vladykinite (acquired by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry), with FeS recast into Fe2+ and Fe3+ in accord with the Mössbauer data, gives the following empirical formula calculated to 24 O atoms: (Na2.45Ca0.56)S3.01(Sr3.81 K0.04Ba0.02La0.02Ce0.01)S3.90(Fe2+0.75Fe3+0.66Mn0.26Zn0.16Al0.12Mg0.05Ti0.01)S2.01(Si7.81Al0.19)S8.00O24. The mineral is monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 5.21381(13), b = 7.9143(2), c = 26.0888(7) Å, b = 90.3556(7)°, V = 1076.50(5) Å3, Z = 2. The ten strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [dobs in Å (I) (hkl)]: 2.957 (100) (123, 123); 2.826 (100) (117, 117); 3.612 (58) (114, 114); 3.146 (37) (120); 2.470 (32) (210, 01.10); 4.290 (30) (111, 111); 3.339 (30) (106, 115, 106); 2.604 (28) (200); 2.437 (25) (034); 1.785 (25) (21.10, 234). The structure of vladykinite, refined by single-crystal techniques on the basis of 3032 reflections with Fo > 4sFo to R1 = 1.6%, consists of tetrahedral sheets parallel to (100) and consisting of (Si8O24)16– units incorporating four-membered silicate rings and joined into five- and eight-membered rings by sharing vertices with larger tetrahedra hosting Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn, Zn, Al, Mg, and Ti. Larger cations (predominantly Na, Sr, and Ca) are accommodated in octahedral and square-antiprismatic interlayer sites sandwiched between the tetrahedral sheets. Structural relations between vladykinite and other sheet silicates incorporating four-, five-, and eight-membered rings are discussed. The name vladykinite is in honor of Nikolay V. Vladykin (Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Russia), in recognition of his contribution to the study of alkaline rocks. Holotype and co-type specimens of the mineral were deposited in the Robert B. Ferguson Museum of Mineralogy in Winnipeg, Canada.
DS200512-0059
2005
Ball, P.Ball, P.Distant planets could be made of diamond.Nature, Nature.com April 15, 2p.Space, planetsCarbon - diamond
DS200712-0048
2007
Ball, P.Ball, P.Diamonds 'melted ' inside an onion.Nature, Vol. 448, 7152 pp. 396-397.TechnologyMelting
DS202001-0002
2019
Ball, P.Ball, P.Black diamonds.Nature Materials, Vol. 18, pp. 1266-1277.Globalnanodiamond
DS201810-2373
2018
Ball, P.W.Roberts, G.G., White, N., Hoggard, M.J., Ball, P.W., Meenan, C.A Neogene history of mantle convective support beneath Borneo.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 496, 1, pp. 142-158.Asia, Borneoconvection

Abstract: Most, but not all, geodynamic models predict 1-2 km of mantle convective draw-down of the Earth's surface in a region centered on Borneo within southeast Asia. Nevertheless, there is geomorphic, geologic and geophysical evidence which suggests that convective uplift might have played some role in sculpting Bornean physiography. For example, a long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly of +60 mGal centered on Borneo coincides with the distribution of Neogene basaltic magmatism and with the locus of sub-plate slow shear wave velocity anomalies. Global positioning system measurements, an estimate of elastic thickness, and crustal isostatic considerations suggest that regional shortening does not entirely account for kilometer-scale regional elevation. Here, we explore the possible evolution of the Bornean landscape by extracting and modeling an inventory of 90 longitudinal river profiles. Misfit between observed and calculated river profiles is minimized by smoothly varying uplift rate as a function of space and time. Erosional parameters are chosen by assuming that regional uplift post-dates Eocene deposition of marine carbonate rocks. The robustness of this calibration is tested against independent geologic observations such as thermochronometric measurements, offshore sedimentary flux calculations, and the history of volcanism. A calculated cumulative uplift history suggests that kilometer-scale Bornean topography grew rapidly during Neogene times. This suggestion is corroborated by an offshore Miocene transition from carbonate to clastic deposition. Co-location of regional uplift and slow shear wave velocity anomalies immediately beneath the lithospheric plate implies that regional uplift could have been at least partly generated and maintained by temperature anomalies within an asthenospheric channel.
DS1997-0069
1997
Ball, S.Ball, S.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report for the geological, geophysical and geochemical Rich ClaimsAlberta Geological Survey, MIN 19970007AlbertaExploration - assessment, Kennecott Canada Ltd.
DS1997-0070
1997
Ball, S.Ball, S.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report for the geological, geophysical and geochemical, drilling Masumeka - Troymin claim.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19970008AlbertaExploration - assessment, Kennecott Canada Ltd.
DS1997-0071
1997
Ball, S.Ball, S.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report for the geological, geophysical and geochemical ClaymoreAlberta Geological Survey, MIN 19970009AlbertaExploration - assessment, Kennecott Canada Ltd.
DS2003-0890
2003
Ball, S.Masun, K.M., Doyle, B.J., Ball, S., Walker, S.The geology and mineralogy of the Anuri kimberlite, Nunavut, Canada31st Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 63. (abst.)NunavutMineralogy
DS200412-1244
2003
Ball, S.Masun, K.M., Doyle, B.J., Ball, S., Walker, S.The geology and mineralogy of the Anuri kimberlite, Nunavut, Canada.31st Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, p. 63. (abst.Canada, NunavutMineralogy
DS2003-0891
2003
Ball, S.A.Masun, K.M., Doyle, B.J., Ball, S.A., Walker, S.The geology and mineralogy of the Anuri kimberlite, Nunavut, Canada8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 1 POSTER abstractNunavutKimberlite geology and economics, Deposit - Anuri
DS1910-0031
1910
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H., Shaler, M.K.Mining Conditions in the Belgian CongoAmerican Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Transactions, MARCH, 30P.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaMining, Politics, Recovery, Diamonds
DS1910-0259
1912
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Diamonds in the Belgian CongoEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 101, Feb. 3RD. PP. 268-269.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaMining
DS1910-0260
1912
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Mining in the Belgian Congo (1912)Mining and Scientific Press, JANUARY 20TH. PP. 132-136.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaMining Recovery, Diamonds
DS1910-0336
1913
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Mining in the Belgian CongoMining and Scientific Press, APRIL 19TH. PP. 576-582.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaMining
DS1910-0458
1915
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H., Shaler, M.K.Mining in the Belgian Congo (1915)Mining Engineering Journal of South Africa, No. 1231Democratic Republic of CongoDiamonds, Current Activities, Mineral Resources
DS1910-0459
1915
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H., Shaler, M.K.Economic Geology of the Belgian Congo, Central AfricaMining Engineering Journal of South Africa, NOS: 1214; 1215; 1216; 1219; 1223; 1227; 1228; 1231; 1232; 1233. MAYDemocratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaGeology, Diamond
DS1910-0580
1919
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H., Shaler, M.K.Mining in the Belgian Congo (1919)Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 108, AUGUST 9TH. PP. 213-216.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaMining Recovery, Diamonds
DS1920-0025
1920
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Diamonds; Engineering and Mining Journal, 1920Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 109, MAY 29TH. PP. 1202-1209.South Africa, United States, GlobalOrigin, Classification, Location
DS1920-0222
1925
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Diamond Mining in the African Jungle, Belgian Congo and Angola.Mining Engineering Journal of South Africa, No. 1766, P. 642. ALSO: THE JEWELLER'S CIRCULAR No. 1768, PPAngola, Zaire, East Africa, Central AfricaAlluvial Diamond Placers
DS1920-0223
1925
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.The Origin of Diamonds (1925)Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 119, Feb. 28TH. PP. 371-372.South AfricaDiamond Genesis
DS1930-0010
1930
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Diamond Sources other Than KimberliteInternational CONGRESS Mines 6TH., Vol. 1, PP. 13-16.South Africa, Global, United StatesRelated Rocks, Non-kimberlitic Source Rocks
DS1930-0011
1930
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H., Singewald, J.T.Jr.An Alnoite Pipe, its Contact Phenomena and Ore Deposition Near Avon, missouri. a DiscussionJournal of Geology, Vol. 38, No. 5, PP. 456-459.Missouri, United States, Central StatesAlnoite, Related Rocks, Diatreme
DS1930-0053
1931
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Diamond Mining in BorneoEngineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 132, No. 5, SEPT. 14TH. PP. 200-202.BorneoOccurrence, Production, History
DS1930-0054
1931
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.The Diamond and the Diamond Industry 1931Royal Canadian Institute Transactions, Vol. 18, PP. 251-269.South Africa, GlobalProduction, History, Current Activities
DS1930-0097
1932
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.The Diamond and the Diamond Industry 1932Toronto: Royal Canadian Institute Transactions, Vol. 18, PP. 251-269.GlobalKimberlite, Diamond, Production
DS1930-0132
1933
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Diamond Deposits of Magmatic OriginIn: ore deposits of the western states, pp. 524-6.CaliforniaAlluvial Diamonds
DS1930-0182
1935
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.A Historical Study of Precious Stone Valuation and PricesEconomic Geology, Vol. 30, SEPT.-Oct. PP. 630-642.GlobalMineral Resources
DS1930-0242
1937
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Precious Stones (1937)In: Industrial Minerals And Rocks, ( Nonmetallics Other Than, CHAPTER 26, PP. 303-332.GlobalKimberlite, Kimberley, History
DS1940-0024
1941
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.The Mining of Gems, Ornamental Stones by American IndiansWashington: Anthropological Paper., No. 13, Publishing SMITHSONIAN Institute Bulletin. No. 128, 77P.United StatesKimberley, History
DS1940-0025
1941
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.The Mining of Gems and Ornamental Stones by American IndiansWashington: Anthropological Papers, Smithsonian Bur. American E, No. 13, ALSO Bulletin., No. 128, 77P.United StatesKimberlite, Diamond, Kimberley, History
DS1940-0082
1944
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.The Diamond Industry in 1943. 19th. Annual ReviewJewelers Circular Keystone., PP. 1-24.United States, Gulf Coast, ArkansasDiamond Production Statistics
DS1940-0145
1947
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.New Diamond Company Started in ArkansawThe Diamond Industry In 1946, United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaInvestment
DS1940-0202
1949
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Precious Stones (1949)In: Industrial Minerals And Rocks. (non-mettalics And Other, CHAPTER 35, PP. 714-747.Global, United StatesKimberlite, Diamond, Production, Statistics
DS1950-0010
1950
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.A Roman Book on Precious StonesGemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, CA, 338P.GlobalKimberlite, Kimberley, History
DS1950-0011
1950
Ball, S.H.Ball, S.H.Mining Operations Start Up in ArkansawThe Diamond Industry In 1949, United States, Gulf Coast, Arkansas, PennsylvaniaMining Methods
DS1996-0069
1996
Ball, T.H.Ball, T.H., Farmer, G.Isotopic study of the Richeau Hills: implications for accretionary tectonics at southern margin of Archean..Geological Society of America, Abstracts, Vol. 28, No. 7, p. A-315.WyomingTectonics, Geochronology
DS1991-0062
1991
Ball, T.K.Ball, T.K., Cameron, D.G., Colman, T.B., Roberts, P.D.Behaviour of radon in the geological environment: a reviewUnknown, Vol. pp. 169-182GlobalRadon, Environment
DS1991-0063
1991
Ball, T.T.Ball, T.T., Farmer, G.L.Identification of 2.0 to 2.4 Ga neodymium model age crustal material of the Cheyenne belt, southeast Wyoming: implications Prot. accretionary tectonics s margin Of the Wyoming craGeology, Vol. 19, No. 4, April pp. 360-363WyomingGeochronology, Tectonics
DS1991-0064
1991
Ball, T.T.Ball, T.T., Farmer, G.L.Identification of 2.0 to 2.4 Ga neodymium model age crustal material in the Cheyenne belt, southeastern Wyoming: implications for Proterozoic accretionary tectonics athe soGeology, Vol. 19, No. 4, April pp. 360-363WyomingTectonics, Geochronology
DS1991-0466
1991
Ball, T.T.Farmer, G.L., Ball, T.T.Origin of Tdm (neodymium)=2.0-2.2 Ga crust in southern Wyoming: mechanical mixing of Proterozoic and Archean crustal materialEos, Spring Meeting Program And Abstracts, Vol. 72, No. 17, April 23, p. 296WyomingGeochronology, Crust
DS1860-0273
1877
Ball, V.Ball, V.On the Diamonds, Gold and Lead Ores of the Sampalpur DistricIndia Geological Survey Records, Vol. 10, PT. 4, PP. 186-192.India, Andhra PradeshHistory, Diamond Occurrence
DS1860-0334
1880
Ball, V.Ball, V.On the Mode of Occurrence and Distribution of Diamonds in India.Journal of the Royal Geological Society Ireland , Vol. 6, PT. 1, PP. 10-40; ALSO: Proceedings of the Royal Society. DUBLIN, Vol.IndiaHistory, Diamond Occurrence
DS1860-0354
1881
Ball, V.Ball, V.On the Identity of Some Ancient Diamond Mines in India, Especially Mentioned by Tavernier.Nature., Vol. 23, P.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1860-0355
1881
Ball, V.Ball, V.The Diamonds, Coal and Gold of India. Their Mode of Occurrence and Distribution. Great Mogul, KohinurLondon: Trubner And Co., 136P. DIAMONDS PP. 1-57; PP. 130-136.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1860-0356
1881
Ball, V.Ball, V.On the Identification of Certain Diamond Mines in IndiaAsiatic Society Bengal Journal, Vol. 50, PT. 2, No. 1, PP. 31-44.India, Andhra PradeshDiamond Occurrences
DS1860-0357
1881
Ball, V.Ball, V.Additional Note on the Identification of Ancient Diamond Mines Visited by Tavernier.Asiatic Society Bengal Journal, Vol. 50, PT. 2, No. 3, PP. 219-223.India, Andhra PradeshDiamond Occurrences
DS1860-0358
1881
Ball, V.Ball, V.A Manual of the Geology of India. Pt. Iii, Economic GeologyCalcutta: Government. Printing Office, Also London: Trubner And Co., 663P. PP. 1-50.India, Karnul, Khristna, Panna, Golconda, Chandra Diamonds Notable
DS1860-0406
1883
Ball, V.Ball, V.On the existing records as to the discovery of a diamond in Ireland in the year 1816.Geology Magazine, pp. 163-165.Europe, IrelandDiamond Occurrence
DS1860-0643
1889
Ball, V.Tavernier, J.B., Ball, V.Travels in India by Jean Baptiste Tavernier, Baron of AubonnLondon: Macmillan And Co., Vol. 1, 420P.; Vol. 2, 496P.IndiaHistory, Travelogue
DS1860-0651
1890
Ball, V.Ball, V.The Great Mogul's Diamond and the KohinoorNature., Vol. 43, P. 103.; Vol. 44, PP. 592-593. Vol. 45, P. 126.IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1860-0691
1891
Ball, V.Ball, V.The Kohinoor, a ReplyNature., Vol. 44IndiaDiamonds Notable
DS1860-0740
1892
Ball, V.Ball, V.Diamonds in India; January, 1892Jewellers Review., Jan. 29.IndiaHistory
DS1920-0253
1925
Ball, V.Tavernier, J.B., Ball, V., Crooke, W.Travels in India by Jean Baptiste TavernierLondon: Oxford University Press, Vol. 1, 336P.; Vol. 2, 399P.IndiaHistory, Travelogue
DS1960-0873
1967
Ballal, N.R.R.Reddy, B.S.R., Ballal, N.R.R.Investigation for Ultrabasic Pipes and Other Basic Rocks In anantapur District, A.p.India Geological Survey Program Report, FOR 1966-1967India, Andhra PradeshBlank
DS1960-0974
1968
Ballal, N.R.R.Krishnamurthy, K.V., Ballal, N.R.R.Investigation of Ultrabasic Pipes and Other Basic Rocks in Anantapur District.India Geological Survey Progr, Report, FOR 1965-1966, UNPUBL. ReportIndia, Andhra PradeshProspecting
DS1970-0238
1971
Ballal, N.R.R.Ballal, N.R.R.Geology of the Diamond Occurrences in Andhra PradeshIndia Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publishing, No. 19, PP. 102-108.India, Andhra PradeshProspecting, Diamonds Notable, History
DS2002-0096
2002
Ballani, L.Ballani, L., Greiner Mai, H., Stromeyer, D.Determining the magnetic field in the core mantle boundary zone by non-harmonic downward continuation.Geophysical Journal International, Vol.149,2,pp.374-89., Vol.149,2,pp.374-89.MantleGeophysics - magnetics, Boundary
DS2002-0097
2002
Ballani, L.Ballani, L., Greiner Mai, H., Stromeyer, D.Determining the magnetic field in the core mantle boundary zone by non-harmonic downward continuation.Geophysical Journal International, Vol.149,2,pp.374-89., Vol.149,2,pp.374-89.MantleGeophysics - magnetics, Boundary
DS1993-1296
1993
Ballantye, B.Rencz, A., Harris, J., Toubourg, J., Ballantye, B., Green, S.Remote sensing applications in geosciences: a an introductionProspectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Meeting Workshop held April 1, Toronto, approx. 100pGlobalBook -table of contents, Remote sensing
DS1998-0070
1998
Ballantyne, C.K.Ballantyne, C.K., McCarroll, D., Fifield, L.K.High resolution reconstruction of the last ice sheet in northwest ScotlandTerra Nova, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 63-68.ScotlandGeomorphology, Glacial
DS2003-0308
2003
Ballantyne, D.Dalpe, C., Ballantyne, D.Diamonds profiling: a new approach for forensic application8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractGlobalDiamonds - mineralogy, legal
DS1993-0071
1993
Ballantyne, S.B.Ballantyne, S.B., Day, R.C.Canada-Alberta MDA orientation studies ProgramThe Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) , Annual Meeting Abstracts approximately 10 lines, Vol. 86, No. 968, March POSTER ABSTRACT p. 69AlbertaGeochemistry
DS1994-0098
1994
Ballantyne, S.B.Ballantyne, S.B., Harris, D.C.The exploration significance of central Alberta: modern and Tertiaryalluvial platinum group minerals, chromites, ilmenites and placer gold.Geological Survey of Canada forum, Handout 1p.AlbertaGeochemistry, Heavy minerals
DS1994-0099
1994
Ballantyne, S.B.Ballantyne, S.B., Harris, D.C.Alluvial gold, platinum group minerals and diamond indicator minerals from modern tertiary drainages in central Alberta.Geological Survey of Canada Open Forum January 17-19th. Abstracts only, p. 9, 10.AlbertaGeomorphology, Indicator minerals
DS1997-0072
1997
Ballantyne, S.B.Ballantyne, S.B., Harris, D.C.Alluvial platinum group minerals and gold in Alberta: results from exploration and their significance to explGeological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin., No. 500, pp. 279-329.AlbertaGeochemistry - not specific to diamonds
DS201809-2003
2018
Ballaran, T.B.Buchen, J., Marquardt, H., Speziale, S., Kawazoe, T., Ballaran, T.B., Kumosov, A.High pressure single crystal elasticity of wadlsleyite and the seismic signature of water on the shallow transition zone.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 498, pp. 77-87.Mantlegeophysics - seismic

Abstract: Earth's transition zone at depths between 410 km and 660 km plays a key role in Earth's deep water cycle since large amounts of hydrogen can be stored in the nominally anhydrous minerals wadsleyite and ringwoodite, . Previous mineral physics experiments on iron-free wadsleyite proposed low seismic velocities as an indicative feature for hydration in the transition zone. Here we report simultaneous sound wave velocity and density measurements on iron-bearing wadsleyite single crystals with 0.24 wt-% . By comparison with earlier studies, we show that pressure suppresses the velocity reduction caused by higher degrees of hydration in iron-bearing wadsleyite, ultimately leading to a velocity cross-over for both P-waves and S-waves. Modeling based on our experimental results shows that wave speed variations within the transition zone as well as velocity jumps at the 410-km seismic discontinuity, both of which have been used in previous work to detect mantle hydration, are poor water sensors. Instead, the impedance contrast across the 410-km seismic discontinuity that is reduced in the presence of water can serve as a more robust indicator for hydrated parts of the transition zone.
DS201801-0008
2018
Ballard, J-F.Clerc, C., Ringenbach, J-C., Jolivet, L., Ballard, J-F.Rifted margins: ductile deformation, boudinage, continentward-dipping normal faults and the role of the weak crust.Gondwana Research, Vol. 53, 1, pp. 20-40.Mantlerifting

Abstract: The stunningly increased resolution of the deep crustal levels in recent industrial seismic profiles acquired along most of the world's rifted margins leads to the unraveling of an unexpected variety of structures. It provides unprecedented access to the processes occurring in the middle and lower continental crust. We present a series of so far unreleased profiles that allows the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear and low-angle detachment faulting, and a rifting history that differs from the classical models of oceanward-dipping normal faults. The lower crust in rifted margins appears much more intensely deformed than usually represented. At the foot of both magma-rich and magma-poor margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust along large-scale shallow dipping shear zones. These shear zones generally show a top-to-the-continent sense of shear consistent with the activity of Continentward Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) observed in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for a migration of the deformation and associated sedimentation and/or volcanic activity toward the ocean. We discuss the origin of these CDNF and investigate their implications and the effect of sediment thermal blanketing on crustal rheology. In some cases, low-angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures. The maximum deformation is localized in the inter-boudin areas. The upper crust is intensely boudinaged and the highly deformed lower crust fills the inter-boudins underneath. The boudinage pattern controls the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples from the margins of Uruguay, West Africa, South China Sea and Barents Sea, and discuss their implications for the time-temperature history of the margins.
DS1987-0026
1987
Ballard, S.Ballard, S., Pollack, H.N.Diversion of heat by Archean cratons: a model for southern AfricaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 85, No. 1-3, September pp. 253-264South AfricaCraton, Heat flow
DS1987-0027
1987
Ballard, S.Ballard, S., Pollack, H.N., Skinner, N.J.Terrestrial heat flow in Botswana and NamibiaJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 92, No. B7, June 10, pp. 6291-6300.GlobalLithosphere, Archean, Heat flow data
DS1988-0036
1988
Ballard, S.Ballard, S., Pollack, H.N.Modern and ancient geotherms beneath Southern AfricaEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 88, No. 1-2, April pp. 132-142AfricaBlank
DS1986-0049
1986
Ballard, S.III.Ballard, S.III., Pollard, H.N.Present day heat flow and thermobarometry of ancient diamonds:implications for diversion of heat by archean cratonsEos, Vol. 67, No. 44, Nov. 4, p. 1183. (abstract.)GlobalMantle, Thermobarometry
DS200412-1569
2004
Ballentine, C.Porcelli, D., Pepin, R., Halliday, A., Ballentine, C.Xe, mantle degassing and atmospheric closure.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13th Goldschmidt Conference held Copenhagen Denmark, Vol. 68, 11 Supp. July, ABSTRACT p.A553.MantleDegassing
DS200612-0080
2006
Ballentine, C.Ballentine, C., Asimov, P., Hirschmann, M., Marty, B.Volatiles in the mantle.Goldschmidt Conference 16th. Annual, S4-07 theme abstract 1/8p. goldschmidt2006.orgMantleGeochemistry
DS201012-0133
2010
Ballentine, C.Cuthbert, S., Qas-Cohen, A., Ballentine, C., Burgess, R., Droop, G.Norwegian garnet websterites: analogues for mantle metasomatism?Goldschmidt 2010 abstracts, abstractEurope, NorwayMetasomatism
DS201012-0522
2009
Ballentine, C.Murphy, D.T., Brandon, A.D., Debaille, V., Burgess, R., Ballentine, C.In search of a hidden long term isolated sub-chondritic 142 Nd 144Nd reservoir in the deep mantle: implications for the Nd isotope systematics of the Earth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 74, 2, pp. 738-750.MantleGeochronology
DS1998-0071
1998
Ballentine, C.J.Ballentine, C.J., Van Keken, P.E.Dynamical models of mantle 3 He 4 He evolutionMineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 104-5.MantleGeodynamics, Helium, Degassing, volatiles
DS1998-1517
1998
Ballentine, C.J.Van Keken, P.E., Ballentine, C.J.Whole mantle versus layered mantle convection and the role of high viscosity lower mantle in terrestrial vol.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 156, No. 1-2, Mar. 15, pp. 19-32.MantleConvection, melt, Volatile evolution
DS1999-0763
1999
Ballentine, C.J.Van Keken, P.E., Ballentine, C.J.Dynamical models of mantle volatile evolution and the role of phase transitions and temperature dependent...Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. 4, Apr. 10, pp. 7137-52.MantleRheology, Geodynamics
DS2000-0054
2000
Ballentine, C.J.Ballentine, C.J., Barfod, D.N.The origin of air like noble gases in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) and Ocean Island Basalt (OIB)Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 180, No.1-2, July, pp.39-48.MantleGeochemistry, Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB), Ocean Island Basalt (OIB).
DS2002-0098
2002
Ballentine, C.J.Ballentine, C.J., Van Keken, P.E., Porcelli, D., Hauri, E.H.Numerical models, geochemistry and the zero-paradox noble gas mantlePhilosophical Transactions, Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical, Vol.1800, pp. 2611-32.MantleGeochemistry - model
DS2002-1645
2002
Ballentine, C.J.Van Keken, P.E., Hauri, E.H., Ballentine, C.J.Mantle mixing: the generation, preservation and destruction of chemical heterogeneityAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol.30,pp. 493-525.mantleGeochemistry
DS2002-1646
2002
Ballentine, C.J.Van Keken, P.E., Hauri, E.H., Ballentine, C.J.Mantle mixing: the generation, preservation and destruction of chemical heterogeneityAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol.30,pp. 493-525.mantleGeochemistry
DS200512-0060
2005
Ballentine, C.J.Ballentine, C.J., Marty, B., Lollar, B.S., Cassidy, M.Neon isotopes constrain convection and volatile origin in the Earth's mantle.Nature, no. 7021, Jan. 6, pp. 33-38.MantleGeochronology
DS200612-0539
2005
Ballentine, C.J.Harrison, D., Ballentine, C.J.Noble gas models of mantle structure and reservoir mass transfer.American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, Ed. Van der Hilst, Earth's Deep Mantle, structure ...., No. 160, pp. 9-26..MantleGeochemistry
DS200712-0049
2007
Ballentine, C.J.Ballentine, C.J., Brandenburg, J.P., Van Keken, P.E., Holland, G.Seawater recycling into the deep mantle - and the source of 3He.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A56.MantleNoble gases
DS200812-0076
2008
Ballentine, C.J.Ballentine, C.J., Holland, G.What CO2 well gases tell us about the origin of noble gases in the mantle and their relationship to the atmosphere.Philosophical Transactions Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 366, no. 1883, pp. 4183-4204.MantleNoble gases
DS201112-0837
2011
Ballentine, C.J.Quas-Cohen, A., Cuthbert, S., Droop, G., Ballentine, C.J., Burgess, R.Diamond facies fluid flow during subduction: evidence and consequence.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1683.Europe, NorwayWestern Gneiss region
DS201501-0031
2014
Ballentine, C.J.Lollar, B.S., Onstott, T.C., Lacrampe-Couloume, G., Ballentine, C.J.The contribution of the Precambrian continental lithosphere to global H2 production.Nature, Vol. 516, Dec. 18, pp. 379-382.MantleHydrogeology
DS201706-1104
2017
Ballentine, C.J.Smye, A.J., Jackson, C.R.M., Konrad-Schnolke, M., Hesse, M.A., Parman, S.W., Shuster, D.L., Ballentine, C.J.Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 471, pp. 65-73.Mantlegeochemistry, water cycle

Abstract: Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.
DS201804-0693
2018
Ballentine, C.J.Gifillan, S.M.V., Ballentine, C.J.He, Ne and Ar 'snapshot' of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle from CO2 well gas.Chemical Geology, Vol. 480, pp. 116-127.Mantlechemistry

Abstract: The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) constitutes a significant portion of the upper mantle sourcing magmatic volatiles to the continents above, yet its geochemical signature and evolution remain poorly constrained. Here we present new interpretation of noble gas datasets from two magmatic CO2 fields in the SW US, namely Bravo Dome and Sheep Mountain, which provide a unique insight into the volatile character of the SCLM sourcing the Cenozoic volcanism in the region. We identify that reduction of 3He/4Hemantle ratio within the Sheep Mountain CO2 field can be attributed to radiogenic production within the SCLM. Using a Reduced Chi-Squared minimisation on the variation of derived 4He/21Necrust ratios within samples from the Sheep Mountain field, combined with a radiogenically raised 21Ne/22Nemantle end member, we resolve 3He/4Hemantle ratios of 2.59 ± 0.15 to 3.00 ± 0.18 Ra. These values correspond with a 21Ne/22Nemantle value of 0.136. Using these 3He/4Hemantle end member values with 21Nemantle resolved from Ne three component analysis, we derive the elemental 3He/22Nemantle of 2.80 ± 0.16 and radiogenic 4He/21Ne*mantle range of 1.11 ± 0.11 to 1.30 ± 0.14. A second Reduced Chi-Squared minimisation performed on the variation of 21Ne/40Arcrust ratios has allowed us to also determine both the 4He/40Armantle range of 0.78 to 1.21 and 21Ne/40Armantle of 7.66 ± 1.62 to 7.70 ± 1.54 within the field. Combining these ratios with the known mantle production ranges for 4He/21Ne and 4He/40Ar allows resolution of the radiogenic He/Ne and He/Ar ratios corresponding to the radiogenically lowered 3He/4Hemantle ratios. Comparing these values with those resolved from the Bravo Dome field allows identification of a clear and coherent depletion of He to Ne and He to Ar in both datasets. This depletion can only be explained by partial degassing of small melt fractions of asthenospheric melts that have been emplaced into the SCLM. This is the first time that it has been possible to resolve and account for both the mantle He/Ne and He/Ar ratios within a SCLM source. The data additionally rule out the involvement of a plume component in the mantle source of the two gas fields and hence any plume influence on the Colorado Plateau Uplift event.
DS201810-2299
2018
Ballentine, C.J.Broadley, M.W., Barry, P.H., Ballentine, C.J., Taylor, L.A., Burgess, R.End-Permian extinction amplified by plume-induced release of recycled lithospheric volatiles.Nature Geoscience, 10.1038/s41561-018-0215-4 pp. 682-687.Russia, Siberiasubduction

Abstract: Magmatic volatile release to the atmosphere can lead to climatic changes and substantial environmental degradation including the production of acid rain, ocean acidification and ozone depletion, potentially resulting in the collapse of the biosphere. The largest recorded mass extinction in Earth’s history occurred at the end of the Permian, coinciding with the emplacement of the Siberian large igneous province, suggesting that large-scale magmatism is a key driver of global environmental change. However, the source and nature of volatiles in the Siberian large igneous province remain contentious. Here we present halogen compositions of sub-continental lithospheric mantle xenoliths emplaced before and after the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts. We show that the Siberian lithosphere is massively enriched in halogens from the infiltration of subducted seawater-derived volatiles and that a considerable amount (up to 70%) of lithospheric halogens are assimilated into the plume and released to the atmosphere during emplacement. Plume-lithosphere interaction is therefore a key process controlling the volatile content of large igneous provinces and thus the extent of environmental crises, leading to mass extinctions during their emplacement.
DS201904-0752
2019
Ballentine, C.J.Kobayashi, M., Sumino, H., Burgess, R., Nakai, S., Iizuka, T., Nagao, J. Kagi, H., Nakamura, M., Takahashi, E., Kogiso, T., Ballentine, C.J.Halogen heterogeneity in the lithosphere and evolution of mantle halogen abundances inferred from intraplate mantle xenoliths. Kilbourne HoleGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 952-973.United States, New Mexicoxenoliths

Abstract: Elemental and isotopic compositions of volatile species such as halogens, noble gases, hydrogen, and carbon can be used to trace the evolution of these species in the Earth. Halogens are important tracers of subduction recycling of surface volatiles into the mantle: however, there is only limited understanding of halogens in the mantle. Here we provide new halogen data of mantle xenoliths from intraplate settings. The mantle xenoliths show a wide range of halogen elemental ratios, which are expected to be related to later processes after the xenoliths formed. A similar primary halogen component is present in the xenoliths sampled from different localities. This suggests that the mantle has the uniform halogen composition over a wide scale. The halogen composition in the convecting mantle is expected to have remained constant over more than 2 billion years, despite subduction of iodine-rich halogens. We used mass balance calculations to gain understanding into evolution rate of I/Cl ratio in the mantle. Calculations suggest that, in order to maintain the I/Cl ratio of the mantle over 2 Gyr, the I/Cl ratio of the subducted halogens must be no more than several times higher than the present-day mantle value.
DS202005-0744
2020
Ballentine, C.J.Labidi, J., Barry, P.H., Bekaert, D.V., Broadley, M.W., Marty, B., Giunta, T., Warr, O., Sherwood Lollar, B., Fischer, T.P., Avice, G., Caracusi, A., Ballentine, C.J., Halldorsson, S.A., Stefansson, A., Kurz, M.D., Kohl, I.E., Young, E.D.Hydrothermal 15N15N abundances constrain the origins of mantle nitrogen.Nature, Vol. 580, 7803 pp. 367-371. Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen is the main constituent of the Earth’s atmosphere, but its provenance in the Earth’s mantle remains uncertain. The relative contribution of primordial nitrogen inherited during the Earth’s accretion versus that subducted from the Earth’s surface is unclear1,2,3,4,5,6. Here we show that the mantle may have retained remnants of such primordial nitrogen. We use the rare 15N15N isotopologue of N2 as a new tracer of air contamination in volcanic gas effusions. By constraining air contamination in gases from Iceland, Eifel (Germany) and Yellowstone (USA), we derive estimates of mantle d15N (the fractional difference in 15N/14N from air), N2/36Ar and N2/3He. Our results show that negative d15N values observed in gases, previously regarded as indicating a mantle origin for nitrogen7,8,9,10, in fact represent dominantly air-derived N2 that experienced 15N/14N fractionation in hydrothermal systems. Using two-component mixing models to correct for this effect, the 15N15N data allow extrapolations that characterize mantle endmember d15N, N2/36Ar and N2/3He values. We show that the Eifel region has slightly increased d15N and N2/36Ar values relative to estimates for the convective mantle provided by mid-ocean-ridge basalts11, consistent with subducted nitrogen being added to the mantle source. In contrast, we find that whereas the Yellowstone plume has d15N values substantially greater than that of the convective mantle, resembling surface components12,13,14,15, its N2/36Ar and N2/3He ratios are indistinguishable from those of the convective mantle. This observation raises the possibility that the plume hosts a primordial component. We provide a test of the subduction hypothesis with a two-box model, describing the evolution of mantle and surface nitrogen through geological time. We show that the effect of subduction on the deep nitrogen cycle may be less important than has been suggested by previous investigations. We propose instead that high mid-ocean-ridge basalt and plume d15N values may both be dominantly primordial features.
DS201702-0234
2016
Baller, L.Presser, J.L.B., Farina-Dolsa, S., Larroza-Cristaldo, F.A., Rocca, M., Alonso, R.N., Acededo, R.D., Cabral-Antunez, N.D., Baller, L., Zarza-Lima, P.R., Sekatcheff, J.M.Modeled mega impact structures in Paraguay: II the eastern region. **PortBoletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Narural del Paraguay, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 205-213. pdf available in * PortSouth America, ParaguayImpact Crater

Abstract: We report here the discovery and study of several new modeled large impact craters in Eastern Paraguay, South America. They were studied by geophysical information (gravimetry, magnetism), field geology and also by microscopic petrography. Clear evidences of shock metamorphic effects were found (e.g., diaplectic glasses, PF, PDF in quartz and feldspar) at 4 of the modeled craters: 1) Negla: diameter:~80-81 km., 2) Yasuka Renda D:~96 km., 3) Tapyta, D: ~80 km. and 4) San Miguel, D: 130-136 km. 5) Curuguaty, D: ~110 km. was detected and studied only by geophysical information. Target-rocks range goes from the crystalline Archaic basement to Permian sediments. The modeled craters were in some cases cut by tholeiitic/alkaline rocks of Mesozoic age and partially covered by lavas of the basaltic Mesozoic flows (Negla, Yasuka Renda, Tapyta and Curuguaty). One of them was covered in part by sediments of Grupo Caacupé (age: Silurian/Devonian). Some of these modeled craters show gold, diamonds, uranium and REE mineral deposits associated. All new modeled large impact craters are partially to markedly eroded.
DS201802-0259
2017
Baller, L.Presser, J.L.B., Alonso, R.N., Farina Dolsa, S., Larroza, F.A., Rocca, M.C.L., Hornes, K., Baller, L.Impact metamorphism evidence of Negla and Yasuka Renda large impact crater. ***PORT only abstract in eng Boletin Museum History Natural Paraguay ***IN PORT, Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 69-82. pdfSouth America, Paraguayimpact craters
DS1998-0828
1998
Ballevre, M.Lapierre, H., Arculus, R., Ballevre, M., Bosch, D.Accreted eclogites with oceanic plateau basalt affinities in EcuadorMineralogical Magazine, Goldschmidt abstract, Vol. 62A, p. 852-3.EcuadorRaspas Formation, MetmorphisM., Eclogites
DS200412-2155
2004
Ballevre, M.Xie, Z., Zheng, Y-F., Jahn, B-M., Ballevre, M., Chen, J., Gautier, P., Gao, T., Gong, B., Zhou, J.Sm Nd and Rb Sr dating of pyroxene garnetite from North Dabie in east centra China: problem of isotope disequilibrium due to retChemical Geology, Vol. 206, 1-2, May 28, pp. 137-158.ChinaUHP, eclogite, geochronology
DS1994-0100
1994
Balley, R.C.Balley, R.C.Fluid trapping in mid-crustal reservoirs by H2O-CO2 mixturesNature, Vol. 371, Sept. 15, pp. 238-243MantleFluids, Experimental petrology
DS1997-0742
1997
BallhausMateev, S., Ballhaus, Fricke, Truckenbrodt, ZiegenbeinVolatiles in the Earth's mantle: I. Synthesis of CHO fluids at 1273 K and2.4 GPas.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 61, No. 15, pp. 3081-88.MantleGeochemistry - experimental
DS2001-0737
2001
BallhausMateev, S., O'Neill, H. St., Ballhaus, Taylor, GreenEffect of silica activity on OH IR spectra of olivine: implications for low aSiO2 mantle Metasomatism..Journal of Petrology, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr. pp. 721-30.MantleMetasomatism - silica
DS1990-0160
1990
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C., Berry, R.F., Green, D.H.Oxygen fugacity controls in the earth's upper mantleNature, Vol. 348, No. 6300, November 29, pp. 437-439GlobalMantle, Geochronology -oxygen
DS1991-0065
1991
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C., Berry, R.F., Green, D.H.high pressure experimental calibration of the olivine ortho pyroxene spinel oxygen geobarometer-implications for the oxidation state of the upper mantleContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 107, No. 1, pp. 27-40GlobalMantle, Geobarometry
DS1993-0072
1993
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.Petrology - a question of reductionNature, Vol. 366, No. 6451, November 11, p. 112GlobalPetrology
DS1993-0073
1993
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.Redox states of lithospheric and asthenospheric upper mantleContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 114, pp. 331-348.MantleOxidation, Lithosphere
DS1993-0074
1993
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.Petrology - a question of reductionNature, Vol. 366, No. 6451, NOvember 11, pp. 112-113.MantlePetrology
DS1993-0075
1993
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.Redox states of lithospheric and asthenospheric upper mantleContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 114, pp. 331-348MantleRedox state, Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB), Ocean Island Basalt, Craton, Oxidation, Lithosphere, melting processes
DS1994-0101
1994
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.C H O fluid speciations under mantle conditionsMineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58A, pp. 46-47. AbstractMantleGraphite-carbonate, Petrology -experimental
DS1994-0102
1994
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C., Frost, B.R.The generation of oxidized CO2 bearing basaltic melts from reduced CH4bearing upper mantle sources.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 58, 23, pp. 4931-40.MantleMelt -redox, Asthenosphere zonation
DS1995-0099
1995
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.Is the upper mantle metal saturated?Earth and Plan. Sci. Letters, Vol. 132, pp. 75-86MantleMetals, Geochemistry
DS1995-1181
1995
Ballhaus, C.Matveev, S., Ballhaus, C., Frick, K., et al.Synthesis of C H O fluids at high pressureProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 356-358.MantleIgneous processes, Fluid composition
DS1998-0072
1998
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C.Origin of podiform chromite deposits by magma minglingEarth Plan. Sci. Lett, Vol. 156, No. 3-4, March 30, pp. 185-194GlobalChromite, Magma - genesis, layered intrusion
DS1998-0452
1998
Ballhaus, C.Frost, B., Ballhaus, C.Comment on constrainsts on the oxidation state of mantle overlying subduction zones....Geochim. Cosmochin. Acta, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 329-31.GlobalTectonics, mantle, subduction
DS200512-0097
2004
Ballhaus, C.Bockrath, C., Ballhaus, C., Holzheid, A.Fractionation of the platinum group elements during mantle melting.Science, No. 5692, Sept. 24, pp. 1951-1952.MantleGeochemistry
DS200512-0696
2005
Ballhaus, C.Matveev, S., Portnyagin, M., Ballhaus, C., Brooker, R., Geiger, C.A.Spectrum of phenocryst olivine as an indicator of silica saturation in magmas.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 603-614.MantleMagmatism
DS200512-0909
2005
Ballhaus, C.Rohrbach, A., Schuth, S., Ballhaus, C., Munker, C., Matveev, S., Qopoto, C.Petrological constraints on the origin of arc picrites, New Georgia Solomon Islands.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 149, 6, pp. 685-712.Asia, Solomon IslandsPicrite
DS200712-0902
2006
Ballhaus, C.Rohrbach, A., Ballhaus, C., Golla-Schindler, U., Ulmer, P.Ferric ferrous iron ratios in upper mantle minerals.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, In press availableMantleChemistry - iron
DS200712-0903
2007
Ballhaus, C.Rohrbach, A., Ballhaus, C., Golla-Schindler, U., Ulmer, P., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kuzmin, D.V.Metal saturation in the upper mantle.Nature, Vol. 449, no. 7161, Sept. 27, pp.456-458.MantleOxygen fugacity
DS200712-0904
2007
Ballhaus, C.Rohrbach, A., Ballhaus, C., Golla-Schindler, U., Ulmer, P., Schonbohm, D.Metal saturation in the upper mantle.Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, 1p. abstract p. A848.MantleOxygen fugacities
DS200912-0640
2009
Ballhaus, C.Rohrbach, A., Schmidt, M.W., Ballhaus, C.Carbonate stability in the Earth's lower mantle and redox melting across the 660 km discontinuity.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A1113 Abstract.MantleMelting
DS201112-0011
2011
Ballhaus, C.Albaraede, F., Ballhaus, C., Lee, C.T.A., Yin, Q-Z., Blichert-Toft, J.The great volatile delivery to Earth.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.420.MantleGeochronology - Pb
DS201112-0053
2011
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C., Laurenz, V., Fonseca, R., Munker, C., Albarede, Rohrbach, Schmidt, Jochum, Stoll, Weis, HelmyLate volatile addition to Earth.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.475.MantleW and Cr elements
DS201112-0330
2011
Ballhaus, C.Fonseca, R.O., Luguet, A., Ballhaus, C., Pohl, F.Experimental constraints on the development of Os isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.858.MantleMelting - tracer
DS201112-0876
2011
Ballhaus, C.Rohrbach, A., Ballhaus, C., Ulmer, P., Golla-Schindler, U., Schnbohm, D.Experimental evidence for a reduced metal saturated upper mantle.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 52, 4, pp. 717-737.MantleRedox
DS201312-0053
2013
Ballhaus, C.Ballhaus, C., Laurenz, V., Munker, C., Fonseca, R.O.C., Albarede, F., Rohrbach, A., Lagos, M., Schmidt, M.W., Jochum, K-P., Stoll, B., Weis, U., Helmy, H.M.The U /Pb ratio of the Earth's mantle - a signature of late volatile addition.Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 362, pp. 237-245.MantleMelting
DS1991-0582
1991
Ballhaus, C.G.Glikson, A.Y., Stewart, A.J., Ballhaus, C.G.Layered basic/ultrabasic intrusions and the deep seated Proterozoic crust of central AustraliaGeological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstract Volume, Vol. 23, No. 5, San Diego, p. A 60AustraliaTectonics, Ultrabasic
DS1960-0786
1967
Ballhausen, C.Ballhausen, C.high pressure- HIGH TEMPERATURE- METHOD in SCIENCE and TECHNICS.Wissenschaft Und Technik, Vol. 15, PP. 481-487.GlobalSynthetic Diamond Research
DS2000-0055
2000
Balling, N.Balling, N.Deep seismic reflection evidence for ancient subduction and collision zones with continental lithosphere.Tectonophysics, Vol. 329, No. 1-4, Dec. 31, pp. 269-301.EuropeGeophysics - seismics, Subduction
DS200412-0785
2004
Balling, N.Hansen, T.M., Balling, N.Upper mantle reflectors: modelling of seismic wavefield characteristics and tectonic implications.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 157, 2, pp. 664-682.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS201602-0235
2015
Balling, N.Schiffer, C., Stephenson, R.A., Petersen, K.D., Nielsen, S.B., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Macdonald, D.I.M.A sub crustal piercing point for North Atlantic reconstructions and tectonic implications.Geology, Vol. 43, 12, pp. 1087-1090.Europe, GreenlandPlate Tectonics

Abstract: Plate tectonic reconstructions are usually constrained by the correlation of lineaments of surface geology and crustal structures. This procedure is, however, largely dependent on and complicated by assumptions on crustal structure and thinning and the identification of the continent-ocean transition. We identify two geophysically and geometrically similar upper mantle structures in the North Atlantic and suggest that these represent remnants of the same Caledonian collision event. The identification of this structural lineament provides a sub-crustal piercing point and hence a novel opportunity to tie plate tectonic reconstructions. Further, this structure coincides with the location of some major tectonic events of the North Atlantic post-orogenic evolution such as the occurrence of the Iceland Melt Anomaly and the separation of the Jan Mayen microcontinent. We suggest that this inherited orogenic structure played a major role in the control of North Atlantic tectonic processes.
DS201312-0082
2013
Ballmer, M.D.Bianco, T.A., Ito, G., van Hunen, J., Mahoney, J.J., Ballmer, M.D.Geochemical variations at ridge centered hotspots caused by variable melting of a veined mantle plume.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 371-372, pp. 191-202.GlobalGeochemisty
DS201505-0254
2015
Ballmer, M.D.Ballmer, M.D., Conrad, C.P., Smith, E.I., Johnsen, R.Intraplate volcanism at the edges of the Colorado Plateau sustained by a combination of triggered edge-driven convection and shear-driven upwelling.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 16, 2, pp. 366-379.United States, Colorado PlateauConvection

Abstract: Although volcanism in the southwestern United States has been studied extensively, its origin remains controversial. Various mechanisms such as mantle plumes, upwelling in response to slab sinking, and small-scale convective processes have been proposed, but have not been evaluated within the context of rapidly shearing asthenosphere that is thought to underlie this region. Using geodynamic models that include this shear, we here explore spatiotemporal patterns of mantle melting and volcanism near the Colorado Plateau. We show that the presence of viscosity heterogeneity within an environment of asthenospheric shearing can give rise to decompression melting along the margins of the Colorado Plateau. Our models indicate that eastward shear flow can advect pockets of anomalously low viscosity toward the edges of thickened lithosphere beneath the plateau, where they can induce decompression melting in two ways. First, the arrival of the pockets critically changes the effective viscosity near the plateau to trigger small-scale edge-driven convection. Second, they can excite shear-driven upwelling (SDU), in which horizontal shear flow becomes redirected upward as it is focused within the low-viscosity pocket. We find that a combination of “triggered” edge-driven convection and SDU can explain volcanism along the margins of the Colorado Plateau, its encroachment toward the plateau's southwestern edge, and the association of volcanism with slow seismic anomalies in the asthenosphere. Geographic patterns of intraplate volcanism in regions of vigorous asthenospheric shearing may thus directly mirror viscosity heterogeneity of the sublithospheric mantle.
DS201506-0286
2015
Ballmer, M.D.Motoki, M.H., Ballmer, M.D.Intraplate volcanism due to convective instability of stagnant slabs in the mantle transition zone.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 16, 2, pp. 538-551.MantleSubduction
DS201702-0193
2016
Ballmer, M.D.Ballmer, M.D., Schumacher, L., Lekic, V., Thomas, C., Ito, G.Compositional layering with the large slow shear wave velocity provinces in the lower mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 17, 2, pp. 5056-5077.MantleGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVP) are thermochemical anomalies in the deep Earth's mantle, thousands of km wide and ~1800 km high. This study explores the hypothesis that the LLSVPs are compositionally subdivided into two domains: a primordial bottom domain near the core-mantle boundary and a basaltic shallow domain that extends from 1100 to 2300 km depth. This hypothesis reconciles published observations in that it predicts that the two domains have different physical properties (bulk-sound versus shear-wave speed versus density anomalies), the transition in seismic velocities separating them is abrupt, and both domains remain seismically distinct from the ambient mantle. We here report underside reflections from the top of the LLSVP shallow domain, supporting a compositional origin. By exploring a suite of two-dimensional geodynamic models, we constrain the conditions under which well-separated "double-layered" piles with realistic geometry can persist for billions of years. Results show that long-term separation requires density differences of ~100 kg/m3 between LLSVP materials, providing a constraint for origin and composition. The models further predict short-lived "secondary" plumelets to rise from LLSVP roofs and to entrain basaltic material that has evolved in the lower mantle. Long-lived, vigorous "primary" plumes instead rise from LLSVP margins and entrain a mix of materials, including small fractions of primordial material. These predictions are consistent with the locations of hot spots relative to LLSVPs, and address the geochemical and geochronological record of (oceanic) hot spot volcanism. The study of large-scale heterogeneity within LLSVPs has important implications for our understanding of the evolution and composition of the mantle.
DS201704-0620
2017
Ballmer, M.D.Ballmer, M.D., Houser, C., Hernlund, J.W., Wentzcovitch, R.M., Hirose, K.Persistence of strong silica enriched domains in the Earth's lower mantle.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 10, 3, pp. 236-240.MantleGeophysics - seismic

Abstract: The composition of the lower mantle—comprising 56% of Earth’s volume—remains poorly constrained. Among the major elements, Mg/Si ratios ranging from ~0.9-1.1, such as in rocky Solar-System building blocks (or chondrites), to ~1.2-1.3, such as in upper-mantle rocks (or pyrolite), have been proposed. Geophysical evidence for subducted lithosphere deep in the mantle has been interpreted in terms of efficient mixing, and thus homogenous Mg/Si across most of the mantle. However, previous models did not consider the effects of variable Mg/Si on the viscosity and mixing efficiency of lower-mantle rocks. Here, we use geodynamic models to show that large-scale heterogeneity associated with a 20-fold change in viscosity, such as due to the dominance of intrinsically strong (Mg, Fe)SiO3-bridgmanite in low-Mg/Si domains, is sufficient to prevent efficient mantle mixing, even on large scales. Models predict that intrinsically strong domains stabilize mantle convection patterns, and coherently persist at depths of about 1,000-2,200?km up to the present-day, separated by relatively narrow up-/downwelling conduits of pyrolitic material. The stable manifestation of such bridgmanite-enriched ancient mantle structures (BEAMS) may reconcile the geographical fixity of deep-rooted mantle upwelling centres, and geophysical changes in seismic-tomography patterns, radial viscosity, rising plumes and sinking slabs near 1,000?km depth. Moreover, these ancient structures may provide a reservoir to host primordial geochemical signatures.
DS202004-0547
2020
Ballmer, M.D.Yan, J., Ballmer, M.D., Tackley, P.J.The evolution and distribution of recycled oceanic crust in the Earth's mantle: insight from geodynamic models.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 537, 116171 12p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: A better understanding of the Earth's compositional structure is needed to place the geochemical record of surface rocks into the context of Earth accretion and evolution. Cosmochemical constraints imply that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in silica relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, whereas geophysical observations support whole-mantle convection and mixing. To resolve this discrepancy, it has been suggested that subducted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) segregates from subducted harzburgite to accumulate in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) and/or the lower mantle. However, the key parameters that