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SDLRC - Scientific Articles all years by Author - A-An


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Author Index
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years - A-An
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS202007-1178
2020
ASoltys, A., Giuliani, A,m Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S.Kimberlite metasomatism of the lithosphere and the evolution of olivine in carbonate rich melts evidence from the Kimberley kimberlites ( South Africa).Journal of Petrology, 10.1093/petrology /egaa062/5857610 90p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: Olivine is the most abundant phase in kimberlites and is stable throughout most of the crystallisation sequence, thus providing an extensive record of kimberlite petrogenesis. To better constrain the composition, evolution, and source of kimberlites we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of olivine from multiple dyke, sill, and root zone kimberlites in the Kimberley cluster (South Africa). Olivine grains in these kimberlites are zoned, with a central core, a rim overgrowth, and occasionally an external rind. Additional ‘internal’ and ‘transitional’ zones may occur between the core and rim, and some samples of root zone kimberlites contain a late generation of high-Mg olivine in cross-cutting veins. Olivine records widespread pre-ascent (proto-)kimberlite metasomatism in the mantle including: (a) Relatively Fe-rich (Mg# <89) olivine cores interpreted to derive from the disaggregation of kimberlite-related megacrysts (20% of cores); (b) Mg-Ca-rich olivine cores (Mg# >89; >0.05?wt.% CaO) suggested to be sourced from neoblasts in sheared peridotites (25% of cores); (c) transitional zones between cores and rims probably formed by partial re-equilibration of xenocrysts (now cores) with a previous pulse of kimberlite melt (i.e., compositionally heterogeneous xenocrysts); and (d) olivine from the Wesselton water tunnel sills, internal zones (I), and low-Mg# rims, that crystallised from a kimberlite melt that underwent olivine fractionation within the shallow lithospheric mantle. Magmatic crystallisation begins with internal olivine zones (II), which are common but not ubiquitous in the Kimberley olivine. These zones are euhedral, contain rare inclusions of chromite, and have a higher Mg# (90.0 ± 0.5), NiO, and Cr2O3 contents, but are depleted in CaO compared to the rims. Internal olivine zones (II) are interpreted to crystallise from a primitive kimberlite melt during its ascent and transport of olivine toward the surface. Their compositions suggest assimilation of peridotitic material (particularly orthopyroxene) and potentially sulfides prior to or during crystallisation. Comparison of internal zones (II) with liquidus olivine from other mantle-derived carbonate-bearing magmas (i.e., orangeites, ultramafic lamprophyres, melilitites) show that low (100×) Mn/Fe (~1.2), very low Ca/Fe (~0.6), and moderate Ni/Mg ratios (~1.1) appear to be the hallmarks of olivine in melts derived from carbonate-bearing garnet-peridotite sources. Olivine rims display features indicative of magmatic crystallisation, which are typical of olivine rims in kimberlites worldwide - i.e. primary inclusions of chromite, Mg-ilmenite and rutile, homogeneous Mg# (88.8 ± 0.3), decreasing Ni and Cr, increasing Ca and Mn. Rinds and high-Mg olivine are characterised by extreme Mg-Ca-Mn enrichment and Ni depletion, and textural relationships indicate these zones represent replacement of pre-existing olivine, with some new crystallisation of rinds. These zones likely precipitated from evolved, oxidised, and relatively low-temperature kimberlite fluids after crustal emplacement. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of combined petrography and olivine geochemistry to trace the evolution of kimberlite magmatic systems from early metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by (proto-)kimberlite melts, to crystallisation at different depths en route to surface, and finally late-stage deuteric/hydrothermal fluid alteration processes after crustal emplacement.
DS202010-1845
2020
AGordeychik, B., Churikova, T., Shea, T., Kronz, A,m Simakin, A., Worner, G.Fo and Ni relations in olivine differentiate between crystallization and diffusion trends.Journal of Petrology, 10.1093/petrology/egaa083Mantleolivine

Abstract: Nickel is a strongly compatible element in olivine, and thus fractional crystallization of olivine typically results in a concave-up trend on a Fo-Ni diagram. "Ni-enriched" olivine compositions are considered those that fall above such a crystallization trend. To explain Ni-enriched olivine crystals, we develop a set of theoretical and computational models to describe how primitive olivine phenocrysts from a parent (high-Mg, high-Ni) basalt re-equilibrate with an evolved (low-Mg, low-Ni) melt through diffusion. These models describe the progressive loss of Fo and Ni in olivine cores during protracted diffusion for various crystal shapes and different relative diffusivities for Ni and Fe-Mg. In the case when the diffusivity of Ni is lower than that for Fe-Mg interdiffusion, then olivine phenocrysts affected by protracted diffusion form a concave-down trend that contrasts with the concave-up crystallization trend. Models for different simple geometries show that the concavity of the diffusion trend does not depend on the size of the crystals and only weakly depends on their shape. We also find that the effect of diffusion anisotropy on trend concavity is in the same magnitude as the effect of crystal shape. Thus, both diffusion anisotropy and crystal shape do not significantly change the concave-down diffusion trend. Three-dimensional numerical diffusion models using a range of more complex, realistic olivine morphologies with anisotropy corroborate this conclusion. Thus, the curvature of the concave-down diffusion trend is mainly determined by the ratio of Ni and Fe-Mg diffusion coefficients. The initial and final points of the diffusion trend are in turn determined by the compositional contrast between mafic and more evolved melts that have mixed to cause disequilibrium between olivine cores and surrounding melt. We present several examples of measurements on olivine from arc basalts from Kamchatka, and several published olivine datasets from mafic magmas from non-subduction settings (lamproites and kimberlites) that are consistent with diffusion-controlled Fo-Ni behaviour. In each case the ratio of Ni and Fe-Mg diffusion coefficients is indicated to be?
DS202006-0946
2020
A, V.Ponomarchuk, V.A., Dobretsov, N.L. , Lazareva, E.V., Zhmodik, S.M., Karmanov, N.S., Tolstov, A,V., Pyryaev, A.N.Evidence of microbial-induced mineralization in rocks of the Tomtor carbonatite complex ( Arctic Siberia).Doklady Earth Science, Vol. 490, 2, pp. 76-80.Russia, Siberiacarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonates of the Tomtor complex of ultramafic alkaline rocks and carbonatites (the northern part of the Republic of Sakha Yakutia) are distinguished by a wide range of carbon isotopic composition d13C from +2 to -59.9‰. The geological position, localization patterns, mineral and chemical compositions and the relationship with REE mineralization of samples with values of d13C carbonates from -25 to -59‰ are characterized. The formation of abnormally low d13C in carbonates is determined by the biogenic oxidation of methane from d13Cmet to -70‰.
DS200812-0641
2008
A.Lee, C-T A., Luffi, P., Hoink, T., Li, Z-X.,A., Lenardic, A.The role of serpentine in preferential craton formation in the late Archean by lithosphere underthrusting.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 269, 1-2, May 15, pp. 96-104.MantleGeochronology - cratons
DS202001-0035
2019
A.Reina, G., Zhao, Li. Bianco, A., Komatsu, N.Chemical functionalization of nanodiamonds: opportunities and challenges ahead.Angewandte Chemie International edition, Vol. 58, 50, pp. 17918-17929.Globalnanodiamond

Abstract: Nanodiamond(ND)-based technologies are flourishing in a wide variety of fields spanning from electronics and optics to biomedicine. NDs are considered a family of nanomaterials with an sp3 carbon core and a variety of sizes, shapes, and surfaces. They show interesting physicochemical properties such as hardness, stiffness, and chemical stability. Additionally, they can undergo ad-hoc core and surface functionalization, which tailors them for the desired applications. Noteworthy, the properties of NDs and their surface chemistry are highly dependent on the synthetic method used to prepare them. In this Minireview, we describe the preparation of NDs from the materials-chemistry viewpoint. The different methodologies of synthesis, purification, and surface functionalization as well as biomedical applications are critically discussed. New synthetic approaches as well as limits and obstacles of NDs are presented and analyzed.
DS202010-1833
2020
A.Clerici, A.M.C., Gomes, C.B.. De Min, A., Comin-Chiaramnti, P.Heavy minerals in the sediments from Paraguay rivers as indicators for diamond occurrences.Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Paraguay, , Vol. 20, 2, pp. 188-204. pdfSouth America, Paraguaygeochemistry

Abstract: After some works of Jaime Baez-Presse that quoted the presence of diamonds in Eastern Paraguay, we have perfprmed a whole sampling a study relative to the indicator mineral for diamonds. Indicator minerals are mineral species that, when appearing as transported grains in clastic sediments, indicate the presence in bedrock of a specific type of mineralization, hydrothermal alteration or lithology. Their physical and chemical characteristics, including a relatively high density (heavy minerals), facilitate their preservation and identification. The heavy minerals represent an important exploration method for detecting a variety of ore deposit types including diamond, gold, Ni-Cu, PGE, and so on.. One of the most significant events in the application of indicator mineral methods in the past was the diamond exploration. This paper provides an overview of indicator mineral methods, i.e. presence of Cr-diopside, Pyrope-rich garnet and Picroilmenite, for diamond exploration along the Eastern Paraguay river. Unfortunately the above heavy mineraks, generally associated to the diamonds, do not appear in Eastern Paraguay, excluding this Country as a potential source for the diamond as economic potential source.
DS202001-0012
2019
A., McCausland< P.Gauthier, M.S., Hodder, T., Ross, M., Kelley, S.E. Rochester, A., McCausland< P. The subglacial mosaic of the Laurentide ice sheet; a study of the interior region of southwestern Hudson Bay.Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 214, pp. 1-27.Canada, Manitobageomorphology

Abstract: Reconstructions of past ice-flow provide useful insights into the long-term behaviour of past ice sheets and help to understand how glaciated landscapes are shaped. Here, we present reconstruction of a 10-phase ice-flow history from southwestern Hudson Bay in northeastern Manitoba (Canada), a dynamic region situated between two major ice dispersal centres of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. We utilize a diverse geologic dataset including 1900 field-based erosional indicators, 12 streamlined-landform flowsets, esker and meltwater corridor orientations, 103 till-fabrics analyses, and 1344 till-clast lithology counts. Our reconstruction suggests that both pre-MIS 2 and MIS 2 glaciations followed similar growth patterns, where ice advanced into study area from ice centered to the east (probably in northern Quebec), followed by a switch in ice-flow direction indicating flow from the Keewatin ice centre to the northwest and north. The cause for this switch in ice-flow orientation is uncertain, but the youngest switch may relate to retreat of ice during MIS 3 that then left space for Keewatin-sourced ice to advance over the study area. While modelling experiments indicate widespread cold-based conditions in the study area during the last glacial cycle, uniformly relict landscapes are not common. Instead, the glaciated landscape is palimpsest and commonly fragmented, forming a subglacial bed mosaic of erosional and depositional assemblages that record both shifting ice-flow direction through time and shifting subglacial conditions. Each assemblage formed, or modified, during times of dynamic (warm-based) ice, and later preserved under conditions below or close to the pressure melting point (slow and sluggish, or cold-based).
DS1860-0327
1880
A.H. Smith And CoA.H. Smith And CoA Short Sketch of the African Diamond MinesA.h. Smith And Co., 12P.Africa, South AfricaMineralogy, Morphology
DS1975-0902
1979
A.O. Australia Pty. LtdA.O. Australia Pty. LtdEl 1626, El 1627, El 1629, El 1630, El 1649, El 1651, El 1704, El 1705 Final Report 1977-1979.Northern Territory Geological Survey Open File Report, No. CR 80/031, 11P.Australia, Northern TerritoryProspecting, Geochemistry, Sampling
DS1975-0903
1979
A.O. Australia Pty. LtdA.O. Australia Pty. LtdEl 1768 Annual Report on Exploration for Period Ending 5/12/79.Northern Territory Geological Survey Open File Report, No. CR 80/101, 17P.Australia, Northern TerritoryProspecting, Sampling, Geophysics
DS201806-1229
2018
Aadhiseshan, K.R.Jayananda, M., Santosh, M., Aadhiseshan, K.R.Formation of Archean (3600-2500 Ma) continental crust in the Dharwar craton, southern India.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 181, pp. 12-42.Indiageodynamics

Abstract: The generation, preservation and destruction of continental crust on Earth is of wide interest in understanding the formation of continents, cratons and supercontinents as well as related mineral deposits. In this contribution, we integrate the available field, petrographic, geochronologic, elemental Nd-Hf-Pb isotope data for greenstones, TTG gneisses, sanukitoids and anatectic granites from the Dharwar Craton (southern India). This review allows us to evaluate the accretionary processes of juvenile crust, mechanisms of continental growth, and secular evolution of geodynamic processes through the 3600-2500?Ma window, hence providing important insights into building of continents in the Early Earth. The Dharwar Craton formed by assembly of micro-blocks with independent thermal records and accretionary histories. The craton can be divided into three crustal blocks (western, central and eastern) separated by major shear zones. The western block contains some of the oldest basement rocks with two generations of volcano-sedimentary greenstone sequences and discrete potassic plutons whereas the central block consist of older migmatitic TTGs, abundant younger transitional TTGs, remnants of ancient high grade supracrustal rocks, linear volcanic-dominated greenstone belts, voluminous calc-alkaline granitoids of sanukitoid affinity and anatectic granites. In contrast, the eastern block comprises younger transitional TTGs, abundant diatexites, thin volcanic-sedimentary greenstone belts and calc-alkaline plutons. Published geochronologic data show five major periods of felsic crust formation at ca. 3450-3300?Ma, 3230-3150?Ma, 3000-2960?Ma, 2700-2600?Ma, and 2560-2520?Ma which are sub-contemporaneous with the episodes of greenstone volcanism. U-Pb ages of inherited zircons in TTGs, as well as detrital zircons together with Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data, reveal continental records of 3800-3600?Ma. The U-Pb zircon data suggest at least four major reworking events during ca. 3200?Ma, 3000?Ma, 2620-2600?Ma, and 2530-2500?Ma corresponding to lower crustal melting and spatially linked high grade metamorphic events. The TTGs are sub-divided into the older (3450-3000?Ma) TTGs and the younger (2700-2600?Ma) transitional TTGs. The older TTGs can be further sub-divided into low-Al and high-Al groups. Elemental and isotopic data suggest that the low-Al type formed by melting of oceanic island arc crust within plagioclase stability field. In contrast, the elemental and isotopic features for the high-Al group suggest derivation of their magmatic precursor by melting of oceanic arc crust at deeper levels (55-65?km) with variable garnet and ilmenite in residue. The transitional TTGs likely formed by melting of composite sources involving both enriched oceanic arc crust and sub-arc mantle with minor contamination of ancient crustal components. The geochemical and isotopic compositions of granitoids with sanukitoid affinity suggest derivation from enriched mantle reservoirs. Finally, anatectic granites were produced by reworking of crustal sources with different histories. In the light of the data reviewed in this contribution, we propose the following scenario for the tectonic evolution of the Dharwar Craton. During 3450-3000?Ma, TTGs sources (oceanic arc crust) formed by melting of down going slabs and subsequent melting of such newly formed crust at different depths resulted in TTG magmas. On the contrary, by 2700?Ma the depth of slab melting increased. Melting of slab at greater depth alongside the detritus results in enriched melts partly modified the overlying mantle wedge. Subsequent melting of such newly formed enriched oceanic arc crust and surrounding arc-mantle generated the magmatic precursor to transitional TTGs. Finally at ca. 2600-2560?Ma, eventual breakoff of down going slab caused mantle upwelling which induced low degree (10-15%) melting of overlying enriched mantle at different depths, thereby, generating the sanukitoid magmas which upon emplacement into the crust caused high temperature metamorphism, reworking and final cratonization.
DS201012-0395
2010
Aanyu, K.Koehm, D., Lindenfeld, M., Rumpker, G., Aanyu, K., Haines, S., Passchier, C.W., Sachu, T.Active transgression faults in rift transfer zones: evidence for complex stress fields and implications for crustal fragmentation processes in the western branchInternational Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 99, 7, pp. 1633-1642.Africa, East AfricaEast African Rift
DS201012-0444
2010
Aanyu, K.Link, K., Koehm, D., Barth, M.G., Tiberindwa, J.V., Barifaijo, E., Aanyu, K., Foley, S.F.Continuous cratonic crust between the Congo and Tanzania blocks in western Uganda.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 99, 7, pp. 1559-1573.Africa, Uganda, TanzaniaGeophysics - seismics
DS201612-2350
2016
Aarab, E.M.Youbi, N., Ernst, R.E., Soderlund, U., Boumehdi, M.A., Bensalah, M.K., Aarab, E.M.Morocco, North Africa: a dyke swarm bonanza.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, July abstract p. 15.Africa, MoroccoDykes
DS1975-0513
1977
Aarden, H.M.Garcia, V., Aarden, H.M.Analysis Preliminar de Correlaciones Y Agrupaciones Geo-quimicas En Lateritas Del Cerro Impacto, Estado Bolivar.Fith. Congreso Geologico Venezolano, PP. 941-946.South America, VenezuelaLaterite, Geochemistry, Analyses
DS2001-0626
2001
Aaro, S.Korje, A., Heikkinen, P., Aaro, S.Crustal structure of the northern Baltic Sea paleoriftTectonophysics, Vol. 331, No. 4, Feb. 28, pp. 341-58.Baltic SeaTectonics - rifting
DS1995-1538
1995
Aaros, S.Raisanen, M.L., Tarvainen, T., Aaros, S.NORMA - a program to calculate a normative mineralogy for glacial tills and rocks from chemical analysis.Gff., Vol. 117, pp. 215-224.GlobalGeomorphology, Computer Program - NORMA.
DS1994-0001
1994
Ababou, R.Ababou, R., Bagtzoglou, A.C., Wood, E.F.On the condition number of covariance matrices in kriging, estimation, and simulation of random fieldsMathematical Geology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 99-133GlobalGeostatistics, Kriging
DS2000-0157
2000
Abaca-Hernandez, F.Chica-Olmo, M., Abaca-Hernandez, F.Computing geostatistical image texture for remotely sensed dat a classification.Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 26, No. 4, Apr. pp. 373-84.GlobalComputer - Program, Remote sensing - not specific to diamond
DS201312-0741
2013
Abad, I.Reolid, M., Sacchez-Gomez, M., Abad, I., Gomez-Sanchez, M.E., de Mora, J.Natural monument of the Volcano of Cancarix, Spain: a case of lamproite phreatomagmatic volcanism.Geoheritage, Vol. 5, 1, pp. 35-45.Europe, SpainLamproite
DS201212-0270
2012
Abad, J.D.Guneralp, I., Abad, J.D., Zolezzi, G., Hooke, J.Advances and challenges in meandering channels research.Geomorphology, Vol. 163-164, pp. 1-9.TechnologyMeandering channels - issue (not specific to diamonds)
DS201504-0204
2015
Abakumov, A.M.Kaminsky, F.V., Ryabchikov, I.D., McCammon, C.A., Longo, M., Abakumov, A.M., Turner, S., Heidari, H.Oxidation potential in the Earth's lower mantle as recorded by ferropericlase inclusions in diamond.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 417, pp. 49-56.South America, BrazilDeposit - Juina
DS1995-0001
1995
Abalos, B.Abalos, B., Cusi, J.D.Correlation between seismic anisotropy and major geological structures in southwest Liberia: a case study on continental lithosphere deformation.Tectonics, Vol. 14, No. 4, Aug. pp. 1021-40.GlobalLithosphere, tectonics
DS2003-0876
2003
Abart, R.Markl, G., Abart, R., Vennemann, T., Sommer, H.Mid-crustal metasomatic reaction veins in a spinel peridotiteJournal of Petrology, Vol. 44, 6, pp. 1097-1120.MantleBlank
DS200412-1226
2003
Abart, R.Markl, G., Abart, R., Vennemann, T., Sommer, H.Mid-crustal metasomatic reaction veins in a spinel peridotite.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 44, 6, pp. 1097-1120.MantleMetasomatism
DS200912-0599
2009
Abart, R.Prenzel, J., Abart, R., Keller, L.Complex chemical zoning in eclogite facies garnet reaction rims: the role of grain boundary diffusion.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 95, 3-4, pp. 303-313.TechnologyMineral chemistry
DS201012-0255
2010
Abart, R.Guzmics, T., Mitchell, R.H., Szabo, C., Berkesi, M., Milke, R., Abart, R.Carbonatite melt inclusions in coexisting magnetite, apatite and monticellite in Kerimasi calciocarbonatite, Tanzania: melt evolution and petrogenesis.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 161, 2, pp. 177-196.Africa, TanzaniaCarbonatite
DS201112-0675
2011
Abart, R.Milke, R., Abart, R., Keller, L., Rhede, D.The behaviour of Mg, Fe, and Ni during the replacement of olivine by orthopyroxene: experiments relevant to mantle metasomatism.Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available, 8p.MantleMetasomatism
DS201112-0676
2011
Abart, R.Milke, R., Abart, R., Keller, L., Rhede, D.The behaviour of Mg, Fe and Ni during the replacement of olivine by orthopyroxene: experiments relevant to mantle metasomatism.Mineralogy and Petrology, In press available, 8p.MantlePeridotite, xenoliths
DS1991-1368
1991
Abate, R.Popplewell, G., Abate, R.The application of modular plants to diamond recovery #1The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin) ., Session, Vol. 84, No. 947, March p. 99. AbstractGlobalDiamond recovery, Mining applications-processing
DS1991-0001
1991
Abate, R.L.Abate, R.L.Ore designed modular plants for small scale mining operations in Third World countriesInstitute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM) Newsletter, December pp. 19-21AfricaDiamond recovery, Sortex, alluvial mining
DS1993-0002
1993
Abate, R.L.Abate, R.L.The design and development of modular process plants for small scale diamond mining operations #1Prospectors and Developers Diamond Workshop, held March 27th, Toronto, 7pSouth AfricaMining, Processing plants
DS1994-0002
1994
Abate, R.L.Abate, R.L.The design and development of modular process plants for small scale diamond mining operations #2The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Section, p. 69. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesMining, Mineral processing plants
DS1997-0002
1997
Abate, R.L.Abate, R.L.A review of marine diamond mining and processing. Points of interest28th. Annual Underwater Mining Institute, 6p.South Africa, NamibiaMarine mining, Overview
DS201507-0333
2015
Abazova, Z.M.Sazonova, L.V., Nosova, A.A., Kargin, A.V., Borisovskiy, S.E., Tretyachenko, V.V., Abazova, Z.M., Griban, Yu.G.Olivine from the Pionerskaya and V. Grib kimberlite pipes, Arkangelsk diamond province, Russia: types, composition, and origin.Petrology, Vol. 23, 3, pp. 227-258.RussiaDeposit - Grib
DS2002-1460
2002
Abbaschian, R.Shigley, J.E., Abbaschian, R., Clarke, C.Gemesis laboratory created diamonds. a study of the jewelry quality yellow synthetic diamonds being grown on a commercial scale by Genesis Corp. Sarasota FloridaGems & Gemology, Vol. 38, 4, pp. 301-310.GlobalDiamond - synthesis, Economics
DS1998-0001
1998
Abbasi, K.Abbasi, K.uranium-lead (U-Pb) zircons dates from lower crustal xenoliths, State Line kimberlitedistrict, Colorado.Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A352.ColoradoGeochronology, State Line District
DS1992-0001
1992
Abbey, S.Abbey, S.Evaluation and application of reference materials for the analysis of rock sand mineralsChemical Geology, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, January 1, pp. 123-130GlobalGeochemistry -analysis, Rocks and minerals -overview
DS1988-0221
1988
Abbinett, D.Forsyth, D.A., Thomas, M.D., Broome, J., Abbinett, D., Halpenny, J.Regional geophysics of the central metasedimentary beltGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 20, No. 5, March p. 344. abstractGlobalBlank
DS1990-0485
1990
Abbinett, D.Forsyth, D.A., Pilkington, M., Grieve, R.A.F., Abbinett, D.Major circular structure beneath southern Lake Huron defined from potential field dataGeology, Vol. 18, No. 8, August pp. 773-777Ontario, Great LakesGeophysics -aeromagnetics, Tectonics
DS201810-2292
2018
Abbo, A.Abbo, A., Avigad, D., Gerdes, A.The lower crust of the Northern broken edge of Gondwana: evidence for sediment subduction and syn-Variscan anorogenic imprint from zircon U-Pb-Hf granulite xenoliths.Gondwana Research, Vol. 64, pp. 84-96.Europesubduction

Abstract: The continental basement in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the northern edge of Gondwana, which has been the site of repeated crustal accretion and has subsequently been modified by consecutive rifting events. We investigated the geologic and thermal history of the North Gondwana lower crust by examining the U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics in zircons within 6 mafic granulite xenoliths from Pliocene lava cone in North Israel. The lava cone protrudes through the platform cover that seals the late Neoproterozoic junction between the Arabian-Nubian basement to the South and the Cadomian basement exposed in the Taurides to the North. The mafic granulite xenoliths are composed of plagioclase + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene ± garnet ± spinel ± secondary amphibole. U-Pb zircon ages from the granulites vary among the different samples with distinct zircon age populations at 400-1200 Ma, 170-350 Ma, and 3.6-4.2 Ma, attesting the lower crust preserves a prolonged thermal and igneous history. While 400-550 Ma U-Pb ages are interpreted to be the result of Pb loss, the wide scatter of zircon grains aged between 550 and 1200 Ma, alongside their diverse eHf(t) values (-25-+10), is an extraordinary evidence for the accretion of Neoproterozoic sediments into the North Gondwana arc root lower crust. The U-Pb-Hf signature of these zircons resembles Cadomian sediments of the Tauride block to the north, indicating southward (present coordinates) subduction under North Gondwana and possible accretion of fore-arc sediments to the lower crust through relamination in the latest Neoproterozoic. One xenolith contained metamorphic-shaped zircons aged 170-350 Ma with positive eHf values and Hf-TDM of 0.85 Ga interpreted to reflect Paleozoic recycling of the Neoproterozoic juvenile Arabian basement, which we consider to form a major component of the lower crust in the region. An overwhelming cluster of Carboniferous zircons concentrating at 305 Ma with exclusively negative eHf values around -6, was retrieved from three xenoliths. Some of these zircons portrayed igneous textures and shape. While Carboniferous igneous activity is the hallmark of Western Europe's Variscan orogeny, the latter did not affect the southern rifted edge of Neo-Tethys where our xenoliths were retrieved. The Paleozoic age-Hf composition in our xenoliths is therefore interpreted to result from syn-Variscan recycling of Neoproterozoic sedimentary remains in the lower crust, and some degree of melting in a non-orogenic environment. Rather than with horizontal plate motions and orogeny, the Carboniferous zircon ages in the xenoliths appear to coalesce with significant vertical movements that created continental scale unconformities and a broad basin and swell architecture known to develop over the entire North Gondwana margin at that time. The Carboniferous aged zircons in northern Israel lower crustal xenoliths are therefore a unique gauge of the thermal perturbation that accompanied the large-scale mantle dynamics below the then passive North African margin of Gondwana, while Variscan orogenic accretion occurred on the Eurasian margin. These lower crustal granulites xenoliths therefore contain important information with respect to the nature of the lower crust under Israel, with implications on the geodynamic setting during the Cadomian and Variscan cycles.
DS2001-1157
2001
AbbottThorkelson, FD.J., Mortensen, Creaser, Davidson, AbbottEarly Proterozoic magmatism in Yukon: constraints on the evolution of northwestern Laurentia.Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 38, No. 10, Oct. pp. 1479-94.YukonMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS1970-0458
1972
Abbott, A.L.Abbott, A.L.Gem Trails of CaliforniaAnaheim: Privately Publishing, 84P.CaliforniaKimberlite
DS202003-0367
2020
Abbott, B.W.Turetsky, M.R., Abbott, B.W., Jones, M.C., Walter Anthony, K.. Olefeldt, D., Schuur, E.A.G., Grosse, G., Kuhry, P., Higelius, G., Koven, C., Lawrence, D.M., Gibson, C., Sannel, A.B.K., McGuire, A.D.Carbon release through abrupt permafrost thaw. ( not specific to diamonds but interest)Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, pp. 138-143.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: The permafrost zone is expected to be a substantial carbon source to the atmosphere, yet large-scale models currently only simulate gradual changes in seasonally thawed soil. Abrupt thaw will probably occur in <20% of the permafrost zone but could affect half of permafrost carbon through collapsing ground, rapid erosion and landslides. Here, we synthesize the best available information and develop inventory models to simulate abrupt thaw impacts on permafrost carbon balance. Emissions across 2.5?million?km2 of abrupt thaw could provide a similar climate feedback as gradual thaw emissions from the entire 18?million?km2 permafrost region under the warming projection of Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. While models forecast that gradual thaw may lead to net ecosystem carbon uptake under projections of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5, abrupt thaw emissions are likely to offset this potential carbon sink. Active hillslope erosional features will occupy 3% of abrupt thaw terrain by 2300 but emit one-third of abrupt thaw carbon losses. Thaw lakes and wetlands are methane hot spots but their carbon release is partially offset by slowly regrowing vegetation. After considering abrupt thaw stabilization, lake drainage and soil carbon uptake by vegetation regrowth, we conclude that models considering only gradual permafrost thaw are substantially underestimating carbon emissions from thawing permafrost.
DS1989-0001
1989
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Anders, M.Identifying Precambrian hotspots: the Limpopo beltEos, Vol. 70, No. 43, October 24, p. 1357. AbstractSouthern AfricaBeitbridge, Diamonds
DS1990-0101
1990
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Menke, W.Length of the global plate boundary at 2.4 GaGeology, Vol. 18, No. 1, January pp. 58-61GlobalCraton, Size of the plates
DS1992-0002
1992
Abbott, D.Abbott, D.Sailing continents: the extent of >1.6 1.8 Ga basementEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p. 323MantleKimberlite, lamproite, Xenoliths
DS1994-0003
1994
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Burgess, L., Longhi, J., Smith, W.H.F.An empirical thermal history of the Earth's upper mantleJournal of Geophy. Res., Vol. 99, No. B7, July 10, pp. 13, 385-13, 850.MantleGeothermometry
DS1994-0004
1994
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Drury, R., Smith, W.H.F.Flat to steep transition in subduction styleGeology, Vol. 22, No. 10, October pp. 937-940MantleSubduction
DS1994-0005
1994
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Drury, R., Smith, W.H.F.Flat to steep transition in subduction styleGeology, Vol. 22, No. 10, October pp. 937-940.MantleTectonics, Subduction
DS1995-0002
1995
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Mooney, W.The structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust -support for oceanic plateau model.Review Geophysics, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 231-242.MantleGeochemistry, Crust -structure
DS1996-1181
1996
Abbott, D.Riccardi, K., Abbott, D.Increased mantle convection during the Mid Cretaceous- a comparative studyof mantle potential temperature.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. B4, April 10, pp. 8673-8684.MantleSubduction
DS1996-1377
1996
Abbott, D.Stoddart, P.R., Abbott, D.Influence of the tectonsphere upon plate motionJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. B3, March 10, pp. 5425-33.MantleTectonics
DS1998-0002
1998
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Mooney, W., Sparks, D.Growth rate of early continents from two parameters: crustal thickness and depleted mantle thickness.Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A207.MantleArchean
DS1998-1031
1998
Abbott, D.Mooney, W.D., Abbott, D.The formation of continental crust and lithosphere: a synthesis based on seismic reflection profiling...Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, abstract. only, p.A109.MantleTectonic, Lithoprobe
DS1999-0223
1999
Abbott, D.Franco, H., Abbott, D.Gravity signatures of terrane accretionLithos, Vol. 46, pp. 5-16.MantleGeophysics - gravity, Tectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS2000-0001
2000
Abbott, D.Abbott, D., Sparks, D., Herzberg, C., Mooney, W., et al.Quantifying Precambrian crustal extraction: the root is the answerTectonophysics, Vol. 322, No. 1-2, pp.163-90.MantleTectonics - root
DS2001-0205
2001
Abbott, D.Condie, K.C., Des Marais, D.J., Abbott, D.Precambrian superplumes and supercontinents: a record in black shales, carbon isotopes and paleoclimates.Precambrian Research, Vol. 106, No. 3-4, Mar. 1, pp. 239-60.MantleHot spots
DS1996-0001
1996
Abbott, D.G.Abbott, D.G., Camp, D.C.The use of new microtunneling technology to escavate hard rock in a miningapplicationSociety for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME)-American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, 96-19United StatesMining, Underground
DS1996-0002
1996
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H.Plumes and hotspots as sources of greenstone beltsLithos, Vol. 37, No. 2/3, April pp. 113-128MantleGreenstone belts, Plumes, hotspots
DS1997-0003
1997
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H., Drury, R., Mooney, W.D.Continents as lithological icebergs: the importance of buoyant lithospheric roots.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 149, No. 1-4, pp. 15-27.MantleTectonics, Subduction, mantle, Lithospheric roots, Continental Crust
DS1997-0004
1997
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H., Drury, R., Mooney, W.D.Continents as lithological icebergs: the importance of bouyant lithosphericroots.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 149, pp. 15-27.Russia, Europe, UralsSubduction, plumes, Oceanic crust
DS2000-0002
2000
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H.Do large impacts strengthen mantle plumes and produce komatiites?Geological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts, Vol. 32, No. 7, p.A-314.MantleImpacts
DS2002-0002
2002
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H., Isley, A.E.The intensity, occurrence and duration of superplume events and eras over geological time.Journal of Geodynamics, Vol.34, 2, Sept. pp. 265-307.GlobalTectonics, Geochronology
DS2002-0003
2002
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H., Isley, A.E.Extraterrestrial influence on mantle plume activityEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 205, 1-2, pp. 53-62.MantleHot spots, plumes
DS2002-0004
2002
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H., Isley, A.E.The intensity, occurrence and duration of superplume events and eras over geological timeJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 34, 2, pp. 265-307.MantleTectonics
DS2002-0751
2002
Abbott, D.H.Isley, A.E., Abbott, D.H.Implications of the temporal distribution of high Mg magmas for mantle plume volcanism through time.Journal of Geology, Vol.110, 2, pp. 141-58.MantleMagmatism, high magnesium magmas, Plume - hot spots
DS2002-0752
2002
Abbott, D.H.Isley, A.E.,Abbott, D.H.Implications of the temporal distribution of high Mg magmas for mantle plume volcanism through time.Journal of Geology, Vol.110,No.2,pp.141-58.GlobalUltramafics, komatiites, meimcheites, picrites, Plume - time series, geochronology
DS2003-1390
2003
Abbott, D.H.Trubitsyb, V.P., Mooney, W.D., Abbott, D.H.Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: how continents affect mantle convectionInternational Geology Review, Vol. 45, 6, pp. 479-96.MantleTectonics
DS2003-1392
2003
Abbott, D.H.Trubitsyn, V.P., Mooney, W.D., Abbott, D.H.Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: how continents affect mantle convectionInternational Geology Review, Vol. 45, 6, June pp. 479-96.MantleConvection, Geothermometry
DS200412-2015
2003
Abbott, D.H.Trubitsyn, V.P., Mooney, W.D., Abbott, D.H.Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: how continents affect mantle convection.International Geology Review, Vol. 45, 6, pp. 479-96.MantleTectonics
DS201312-0001
2013
Abbott, D.H.Abbott, D.H., Mooney, W.D., Van Tongeron, J.A.The character of the Moho and lower crust within Archean cratons and the tectonic implications.Tectonophysics, Vol. 609, pp. 690-705.Africa, South Africa, ZimbabweKaapvaal Craton
DS1995-0003
1995
Abbott, G.Abbott, G.Overview of MDD field trip to northeast Russia in September 1994The Gangue, No. 47, Jan. pp. 1, 3-5, 8RussiaFieldtrip overview
DS200412-1771
2004
Abbott, G.Schwab, D.L., Thorkelson, D.J., Mortensen, J.K., Creaser, R.A., Abbott, G.The Bear River dykes (1265-1269) Ma): westward continuation of the Mackenzie dyke swarm into Yukon, Canada.Precambrian Research, Vol. 133, no. 3-4, Aug. 20, pp.175-186.Canada, YukonDyke swarms, geochronology
DS1993-0003
1993
Abbott, R.Abbott, R., Champigny, N.Implementing management systems... EMS (environmental management system)Mining Environmental Management, pp. 4, 5CanadaEnvironmental, Management systems
DS1997-0005
1997
Abbott, R.M.Abbott, R.M.Strategic mining environmental managementNorth American Mining, June pp. 16-17United StatesMining - environment, Legal
DS1900-0284
1905
Abbott, W.J.L.Abbott, W.J.L.Gemmological Tables for the Use of Diamond and Gem Merchants; Jewellers and Students.London:, 4 SHEETS.GlobalDiamond Cutting, Standards
DS1996-0720
1996
Abbruzzi, J.M.Kay, S.M., Abbruzzi, J.M.Magmatic evidence for Neogene lithospheric evolution of the central Andean'flat-slab' between 30 and 23 deg S.Tectonophysics, Vol. 259, No. 1-3, June 30, pp. 15-28Andes, Cordillera, Bolivia, ArgentinaSubduction, Tectonics
DS1996-0873
1996
Abbruzzi, J.M.Mahlburg Kay, S., Orrell, S., Abbruzzi, J.M.Zircon and whole rock neodymium lead isotopic evidence for a Grenville age and a Laurentian Origin for the basementJournal of Geology, Vol. 104, No. 6, Nov. pp. 637-648ArgentinaGeochronology, Precordillera
DS201412-0088
2014
Abdallah, N.Caby, R., Bruguier, O., Fernandez, L., Hammor, D., Bosch, D., Mechati, M., Laouar, R., Ouabadi, A., Abdallah, N., Douchet, C.Metamorphic diamonds in a garnet megacryst from the Edough Massif (northeastern Algeria)… Recognition and geodynamic consequences.Tectonophysics, Vol. 637, pp. 341-353.Africa, AlgeriaEdough Massif
DS201709-1965
2017
Abdallah, N.Bruguier, O., Bosch, D., Caby, R., Vitale-Brovarone, A., Fernadez, L., Hammor, D., Laouar, R., Ouabadi, A., Abdallah, N., Mechanti, M.Age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean: insight from rutile and minute zircon inclusions in a diamond bearing garnet megacryst ( Edough Massif, NE Algeria).Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 474, pp. 215-225.Africa, Algeriadiamond inclusions

Abstract: Diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks witness for subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle and their return to shallow levels. In this study we present U-Pb and trace elements analyses of zircon and rutile inclusions from a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst collected in a mélange unit exposed on the northern margin of Africa (Edough Massif, NE Algeria). Large rutile crystals (up to 300 µm in size) analyzed in situ provide a U-Pb age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde to peak subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Trace element analyses of minute zircons (=30 µm) indicate that they formed in equilibrium with the garnet megacryst at a temperature of 740-810 °C, most likely during HP retrograde metamorphism. U-Pb analyses provide a significantly younger age of 20.7 ± 2.3 Ma attributed to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean Orogen to the Oligocene/early Miocene, thus unambiguously relating UHP metamorphism to the Alpine history. Exhumation of these UHP units is coeval with the counterclockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block and most likely resulted from subduction rollback that was driven by slab pull.
DS201909-2105
2019
Abdallisamed, M-I-M.Wang, L-X., Ma, C-Q., Salih, M-A., Abdallisamed, M-I-M., Zhu, Y-X.The syenite-carbonatite-fluorite association in Jebel Dumbier complex ( Sudan): magma origin and evolution.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. Poster abstractAfrica, Sudancarbonatite

Abstract: Jebel Dumbier is the first-identified carbonatite-bearing alkaline complex in Sudan. It is located on the northeastern margin of the Nuba Mountains in the south part of Sudan. The complex exposed as small elliptical hills with outcrops of around 8 km2. It is composed of dominant orthoclasite and ditroite and subdominant carbonatite and fluorite dykes. The fluorite dykes are mined and together with the carbonatite dykes are controlled by a NNE strike-slip fault system. Orthoclasite is the dominant rock type, comprising of orthoclase, kalsilite, few interstitial biotite and calcium carbonate and accesserary minerals of fluorite, apatite and zircon. Ditroite consists of perthite, aegirine-augite, nepheline, sodalite, and minor annite-phlogopite and richterite, with common accessories of fluorite, titanite, apatite and zircon. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that both orthoclasite and ditroite emplaced at around 600 Ma. Relative to orthoclasites, ditroites display higher FeOtotal and MgO and lower Al2O3 contents, contain higher volatiles (F, Cl, Br, S), and are more depleted in LILEs (Rb, Sr, Ba) and enriched in HFSEs (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U) and REEs. Isotopic data imply that the ditoite, orthoclasite, fluorite and carbonatite dyke originated from a common source of depleted mantle affinities, with identical low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7033-0.7037) and high eNd (t) values (1.6-2.7). The carbonatites display d13C(V-PDB) of -5.8 to -6.7‰ and d18O(SMOW) of 9.1 to 11.3‰, typical of primary igneous carbonatite worldwide. We propose that the orthoclasite, ditroite, carbonatite, and fluorite association in Jebel Dumbier is product of variable degrees of fractional crystallization of mantlederived volatile-rich magma. Magma immiscibility among silicates, carbonates and fluorates may proceed. The Jebel Dumbier alkaline-carbonatite complex represents the postorogenic alkaline magmatism during the end evolution of Pan-African orogen (650-550 Ma) at Arabian-Nubian Shield.
DS202004-0500
2020
Abdeina, E.H.Ba, M.H., Ibough, H., Lo, K., Youbi, N., Jaffal, M., Ernst, R.E., Niang, A.J., Dia, I., Abdeina, E.H., Bensalah, M.K., Boumehdi, M.A., Soderlund, U.Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Precambrian mafic dyke swarms in northern Mauritania ( West African Craton): analysis and results fro remote sensing interpretation, geographical information systems ( GIS), Google Earth TM images, and regionaArabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 13, , 209 orchid.org/ 0000-002-3287-9537Africa, Mauritaniacraton

Abstract: We used remote sensing, geographical information systems, Google Earth™ images, and regional geology in order to (i) improve the mapping of linear structures and understand the chronology of different mafic dyke swarms in the Ahmeyim area that belongs to the Archean Tasiast-Tijirit Terrane of the Reguibat Shield, West African craton, NW Mauritania. The spatial and temporal distributions with the trends of the dyke swarms provide important information about geodynamics. The analysis of the mafic dyke swarms map and statistical data allow us to distinguish four mafic dyke swarm sets: a major swarm trending NE-SW to NNE-SSW (80%) and three minor swarms trending EW to ENE-WSW (9.33%), NW-SE to WNW-ESE (9.06%), and NS (1.3%). The major swarms extend over 35 km while the minor swarms do not exceed 13 km. The Google Earth™ images reveal relative ages through crossover relationships. The major NE-SW to NNE-SSW and the minor NS swarms are the oldest generations emplaced in the Ahemyim area. The NW-SE-oriented swarm dykes which are cutting the two former swarms are emplaced later. The minor E-W to WSW-ENE swarms are probably the youngest. A precise U-Pb baddeleyite age of 2733?±?2 Ma has been obtained for the NNE-SSW Ahmeyim Great Dyke. This dyke is approximately 1500 m wide in some zone and extends for more than 150 km. The distinct mafic dyke swarms being identified in this study can potentially be linked with coeval magmatic events on other cratons around the globe to identify reconstructed LIPs and constrain continental reconstructions.
DS202005-0717
2020
Abdel Halim, A.H.Abdel Halim, A.H., Helmy, H.H., Elhaddad, M.A., El-Mahallawi, M., Mogessie, A.Petrology of a Neoproteroxoic mantle peridotite-chromitite association from Abu Dahr area, eastern Egypt Desert, Egypt: infiltration of boninitic melt in highly depleted harzburgite.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 165, 18p. PdfAfrica, EgyptBoninite

Abstract: Peridotites of Abu Dahr represent the main litho-unit of a Neoproterozoic dismembered ophiolite sequence and are among the best-preserved and well-exposed mantle rocks in South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Here, we present new geochemical and mineral chemical data for peridotites and associated pyroxenites and for chromitites and their platinum-group minerals to constrain their petrogenesis and geotectonic setting. The Abu Dahr ophiolite mantle section consists mainly of harzburgites, cut by pyroxenite dykes and containing dunite-chromitite lenses. The harzburgites are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel and minor clinopyroxene (?1.0 vol %) and amphibole. Olivine from harzburgites is highly magnesian (Fo 91-93) and Cr-spinel shows a wide-range of Cr2O3 and Al2O3 contents. The enstatite component of orthopyroxene decreases from harzburgite (En = 90-91) to orthopyroxenite (En = 84-87). Amphiboles are represented by magnesiohornblende and tschermakite. The chromitites are massive to disseminated and composed of magnesiochromite with high Cr# (83-93) and Mg# (66-79), and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt%) content. Solid inclusions in chromite include olivine, orthopyroxene and hornblende. Laurite (RuS2) is the most common PGM detected in the investigated chromitite samples and forms micrometer-size inclusions in fresh chromite. Various Ni-sulfides are found both in fresh chromite and along serpentine veinlets. Harzburgites have a refractory composition with a very low Al2O3 (0.4-0.8 wt%) and CaO (0.2-1.6 wt%) contents and high bulk-rock Mg# (89-92). Geochemical data suggest that the Abu Dahr peridotites are highly depleted SSZ peridotites formed in a forearc mantle wedge setting by high degrees of hydrous partial melting and emplaced as a result of the collision of the intra-oceanic arc with the Beitan gneisses. The podiform chromitites and orthopyroxenites were formed due to impregnation of mantle wedge harzburgites by boninitic melt. The highly depleted nature of the harzburgite is responsible for the small reserves of chromite ore at Abu Dahr and in the South Eastern Desert in general.
DS1993-0004
1993
Abdel Raman, E.M.Abdel Raman, E.M., et al.A new ophiolite occurrence in northwest Sudan - contraints on late Proterozoictectonism.Terra Nova, Vol. 2, pp. 363-76.GlobalTectonics, Ultramafic volcanism.
DS201412-0001
2014
Abdelfadil, K.M.Abdelfadil, K.M., Romer, R.L., Glodny, J.Mantle wedge metasomatism revealed by Li isotopes in orogenic lamprophyres. ( Bohemian Massif)Lithos, Vol. 196-197, pp. 14-26.EuropeLamprophyre
DS201312-0002
2013
Abdelfadil, Kh.M.Abdelfadil, Kh.M., Romer, R.L., Seifert, Th., Lobst, R.Calc-alkaline lamprophyres from Lusatia ( Germany) - evidence for a repeatedly enriched mantle source.Chemical Geology, Vol. 353, pp. 230-245.Europe, GermanyLamprophyre
DS2003-0001
2003
Abdelrahman, E.Abdelrahman, E., El-Araby, T., Essa, K.A least square minimisation approach to depth, index parameter and amplitudeExploration Geophysics, (Australian Bulletin), Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec. pp. 241-248.GlobalBlank
DS200412-0001
2003
Abdelrahman, E.M.Abdelrahman, E.M., El Araby, T.M., Essa, K.S.A least squares minimisation approach to depth, index parameter, and amplitude coefficient determination from magnetic anomaliesExploration Geophysics, Vol. 34, pp. 241-248.TechnologyGeophysics - magnetics, dykes, ( not specific to diamon
DS200712-0001
2007
Abdelrahman, E.M.Abdelrahman, E.M., Abo-Ezz, E.R., Soliman, K.S., El-Araby, T.M., Essa, K.S.A least squares window curve method for interpretation of magnetic anomalies caused by dipping dikes.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 164, 5, May pp. 1027-1044.CanadaGeophysics - airborne magnetics
DS2002-0005
2002
Abdelrahman, E.S.M.Abdelrahman, E.S.M., El Araby, H.M., El Araby, T.M., Essa, K.S.A new approach to depth determination from magnetic anomaliesGeophysics, Vol. 67, 5, pp. 1524-31.GlobalGeophysics - magnetics not specific to diamonds
DS1994-0006
1994
Abdel-Rahman, A.F.M.Abdel-Rahman, A.F.M.Nature of biotites from alkaline, calc-alkaline and peraluminous magmasJournal of Petrology, Vol. 35, No. 2, April pp. 525-542GlobalMagmatism, Mineral chemistry -biotites
DS1994-0007
1994
Abdel-Rahman, A.F.M.Abdel-Rahman, A.F.M.Alkali amphibole: a potential source of rare earth elements in felsicalkaline rocks.Exploration and Mining Geology, Vol. 3, No. 2, April pp. 81-94.Quebec, Labrador, California, Nubian ShieldAlkaline rocks, Deposit -Oka
DS201712-2667
2018
Abdelsalam, G.Abdelsalam, G., Atekwana, E., Elsenbeck, J., Jones, A.G., Chikambwe, E.Imaging Precambrian lithospheric structure in Zambia using electromagnetic methods.Gondwana Research, Vol. 54, pp. 38-49.Africa, Zambia, Malawigeophysics

Abstract: The Precambrian geology of eastern Zambia and Malawi is highly complex due to multiple episodes of rifting and collision, particularly during the formation of Greater Gondwana as a product of the Neoproterozoic Pan-African Orogeny. The lithospheric structure and extent of known Precambrian tectonic entities of the region are poorly known as there have been to date few detailed geophysical studies to probe them. Herein, we present results from electromagnetic lithospheric imaging across Zambia into southern Malawi using the magnetotelluric method complemented by high-resolution aeromagnetic data of the upper crust in order to explore the extent and geometry of Precambrian structures in the region. We focus particularly on determining the extent of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratonic Bangweulu Block and the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Irumide and Southern Irumide Orogenic Belts. We also focus on imaging the boundaries between these tectonic entities, particularly the boundary between the Irumide and Southern Irumide Belts. The thickest and most resistive lithosphere is found beneath the Bangweulu Block, as anticipated for stable cratonic lithosphere. Whereas the lithospheric thickness estimates beneath the Irumide Belt match those determined for other orogenic belts, the Southern Irumide Belt lithosphere is substantially thicker similar to that of the Bangweulu Block to the north. We interpret the thicker lithosphere beneath the Southern Irumide Belt as due to preservation of a cratonic nucleus (the pre-Mesoproterozoic Niassa Craton). A conductive mantle discontinuity is observed between the Irumide and Southern Irumide Belts directly beneath the Mwembeshi Shear Zone. We interpret this discontinuity as modified SCLM relating to a major suture zone. The lithospheric geometries determined from our study reveal tectonic features inferred from surficial studies and provide important details for the tectonothermal history of the region.
DS2003-0763
2003
Abdelsalam, M.Kusky, T.M., Abdelsalam, M., Tucker, R.D., Stern, R.J.Evolution of the East African and related orogens, and the assembly of GondwanaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 123, 2-4, pp. 81-85.Gondwana, East Africa, TanzaniaBlank
DS200412-1072
2003
Abdelsalam, M.Kusky, T.M., Abdelsalam, M., Tucker, R.D., Stern, R.J.Evolution of the East African and related orogens, and the assembly of Gondwana.Precambrian Research, Vol. 123, 2-4, pp. 81-85.Gondwana, East Africa, TanzaniaTectonics
DS1996-0003
1996
Abdelsalam, M.G.Abdelsalam, M.G.Suture and shear zones in the Arabian Nubian shieldJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 3, Oct. 1, pp. 289-310Africa, Saudi Arabia, SudanTectonics, Arabian-Nubian shield
DS2002-0006
2002
Abdelsalam, M.G.Abdelsalam, M.G., Liegeois, J.P., Stern R.J.The Saharan metacratonJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol.34, No.3-4,April-May pp. 119-36.AfricaTectonics, Craton
DS201112-0001
2011
Abdelsalam, M.G.Abdelsalam, M.G., Gao, S.S., Liegeois, J-P.Upper mantle structure of the Sahara metacraton.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 60, 5, pp. 328-336.AfricaUpper mantle structure, convection
DS201212-0407
2013
Abdelsalam, M.G.Liegeois, J-P., Abdelsalam, M.G., Ennih, N., Ouabadi, A.Metacraton: nature, genesis and behaviour.Gondwana Research, Vol. 23, 1, pp. 220-237.TechnologySubduction
DS201705-0832
2017
Abdelsalam, M.G.Goussi Ngalamo, J.F., Bisso, D., Abdelsalam, M.G., Atekwana, E.A., Katumwehe, A.B., Ekodeck, G.E.Geophysical imaging of metacratonization in the northern edge of the Congo craton in Cameroon.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 129, pp. 94-107.Africa, CameroonCraton, Congo

Abstract: We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate the Archean Congo craton and the Oubanguides orogenic belt in Cameroon. The Oubanguides orogenic belt constitutes, from northwest to southeast, the Neoproterozoic West Cameroon domain, the Paleoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Adamawa-Yade domain, and the dominantly Neoproterozoic Yaoundé domain (the crustal expression of the suture zone between the Congo craton and the orogenic terranes). We analyzed the WGM 2012 data to identify different gravity anomalies. We also applied the two-dimensional (2D) radially-averaged power spectral analysis to the WGM 2012 data to estimate the Moho depth. Additionally, we developed a 2D forward gravity model along a Nsbnd S profile to image the lithospheric structure of the Precambrian entities. We found that: (1) the Congo craton, the Yaoundé domain, the southeastern part of the West Cameroon domain, and the northern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain are characterized by low gravity anomaly. (2) the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain is marked by a pronounced E-W trending high gravity anomaly. (3) the crust is thicker beneath the Congo craton, the Yaoundé domain and the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain. (4) the presence of a denser lower crust material beneath the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain. We propose that this denser crustal material is an under-thrusted portion of the Congo craton that has been densified through metacratonization processes that accompanied collision between the craton and the orogenic terranes. This is in good agreement with geological and geochemical observations indicating that the northern edge of the Congo craton and the Adamawa-Yade domain had undergone metacratonization during the Neoproterozoic. Our suggestion is also in good agreement with observations which show that the margins of many cratons worldwide have been decratonized due to subduction processes. Our work highlights the importance of potential field geophysical data in mapping the metacratonized margins of cratons.
DS201801-0055
2018
Abdelsalam, M.G.Sarfian, E., Evans, R.L, Abdelsalam, M.G., Atekwana, E., Elsenbeck, J., Jones, A.G., Chikambwe, E..Imaging Precambrian lithospheric structure in Zambia using electromagnetic methods.Gondwana Research, Vol. 54, pp. 38-49.Africa, Zambiageophysics -em
DS201802-0263
2018
Abdelsalam, M.G.Sarafian, E., Evans, R.L., Abdelsalam, M.G., Atekwana, E., Elsenbeck, J., Jones, A.G., Chikambwe, E.Imaging Precambrian lithospheric structure in Zambia using electromagnetic methods.Gondwana Research, Vol. 54, pp. 38-49.Africa, Zambiageophysics

Abstract: The Precambrian geology of eastern Zambia and Malawi is highly complex due to multiple episodes of rifting and collision, particularly during the formation of Greater Gondwana as a product of the Neoproterozoic Pan-African Orogeny. The lithospheric structure and extent of known Precambrian tectonic entities of the region are poorly known as there have been to date few detailed geophysical studies to probe them. Herein, we present results from electromagnetic lithospheric imaging across Zambia into southern Malawi using the magnetotelluric method complemented by high-resolution aeromagnetic data of the upper crust in order to explore the extent and geometry of Precambrian structures in the region. We focus particularly on determining the extent of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratonic Bangweulu Block and the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Irumide and Southern Irumide Orogenic Belts. We also focus on imaging the boundaries between these tectonic entities, particularly the boundary between the Irumide and Southern Irumide Belts. The thickest and most resistive lithosphere is found beneath the Bangweulu Block, as anticipated for stable cratonic lithosphere. Whereas the lithospheric thickness estimates beneath the Irumide Belt match those determined for other orogenic belts, the Southern Irumide Belt lithosphere is substantially thicker similar to that of the Bangweulu Block to the north. We interpret the thicker lithosphere beneath the Southern Irumide Belt as due to preservation of a cratonic nucleus (the pre-Mesoproterozoic Niassa Craton). A conductive mantle discontinuity is observed between the Irumide and Southern Irumide Belts directly beneath the Mwembeshi Shear Zone. We interpret this discontinuity as modified SCLM relating to a major suture zone. The lithospheric geometries determined from our study reveal tectonic features inferred from surficial studies and provide important details for the tectonothermal history of the region.
DS201809-2021
2018
Abdelsalam, M.G.Fletcher, A.W., Abdelsalam, M.G., Emishaw, L., Atekwana, E.A., Lao-Davila, D.A., Ismail, A.Lithospheric controls on the rifting of the Tanzanian Craton at the Eyasi Basin, eastern branch of the East African Rift system.Tectonics, Aug 14, doi: 10.1029/2018 TC005065Africa, Tanzaniacraton

Abstract: Continental rifts most often nucleate within orogenic belts. However, some studies in the East African Rift System (EARS) have shown that continental rifts can also develop withincratons. This work investigated the ~1.5 Ma Eyasibasin,which propagates in a WSW direction into the Tanzanian craton. The basin is located where the Eastern Branch of the EARS transitions from a narrow rift (~70 km wide) thewider(~300 km wide) North Tanzanian Divergence. Unlike the rest of the Eastern Branch segments, the Eyasibasindoes not follow the Mozambique orogenic belt located on the eastern margin of the Tanzanian craton. This work generatedlithospheric-scale sections across the basinusing: (1) Digital Elevation Model to map surface rift-related brittle structures; (2) Aeromagnetic data to determine the depth to the Precambrian basement;and (3) World Gravity Model 2012 to estimatecrustal and lithospheric thickness by applying the two-dimensional(2D) radially-averaged power spectral analysis and 2D forward gravity modeling. These cross-sectionsshow that the Eyasibasinnucleates within a previously unidentified suture zone within the Tanzanian cratonand that this suture zone is characterized by thinner lithospherethat can be as thin as ~95 km. This zone ofthinner lithosphere is offset southeastwardfrom the surface expression of the Eyasibasinand might have facilitated the formation of other basins further south. Furthermore, the lithospheric thickness map indicates that the Tanzanian craton is heterogeneous and possibly composed of multiplesmaller cratonic fragments.
DS201811-2595
2018
Abdelsalam, M.G.Ngalamo, J.F.G., Sobh, M., Bisso, D., Abdelsalam, M.G., Atekwana, E., Ekodeck, G.E.Lithospheric structure beneath the Central Africa Orogenic Belt in Cameroon from the analysis of satellite gravity and passive seismic data.Tectonophysics, Vol. 745, pp. 326-337.Africa, Cameroongeophysics - seismic

Abstract: We present original results that contribute to the understanding of lithospheric structures modification of regions that have witnessed superimposition of multiple tectonic events throughout their geological history. We analyze satellite gravity data through two-dimensional radially-averaged power spectral analysis as well as passive seismic data through thermal modeling to image the depth to the Moho and the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary (LAB beneath the Central Africa Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The CAOB is an ENE-trending deformation belt extending from Cameroon in the west to Sudan in the east. In Cameroon, it is found on the northern edge of the Congo craton represented by the Oubanguides orogenic belt (the Western Cameroon, the Adamawa - Yade, and the Yaoundé domains). It coincides with the Adamawa plateau and the Benue Trough, and it is spotted by the Cenozoic Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). The CAOB was formed during the Precambrian Greater Gondwana assembly but was reactivated during the Mesozoic as a result of Gondwana breakup. We find deeper Moho and LAB) beneath Congo craton and the Yaoundé domain reaching ~50?km and ~200?km, respectively. We map shallower Moho and LAB beneath the CAOB (together with the Adamawa plateau and the Benue trough) reaching ~25?km and ~70?km, respectively. We interpret the shallower LAB beneath the CAOB as due to zonal sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) delamination along the northern edge of the Congo craton that occurred in association with collisional assembly of Greater Gondwana. This allowed for channelization of mantle flow during the Cenozoic resulting in the formation of the CVL and the uplift of the Adamawa plateau. Our approach can be used to understand the modification of lithospheric structures beneath other terrains that have long tectonic history.
DS201812-2812
2018
Abdelsalam, M.G.Goussi Ngalamo, J.F., Sobh, M., Bisso, D., Abdelsalam, M.G., Atekwana, E., Ekodeck, G.E.Lithospheric structure beneath the central Africa orogenic belt in Cameroon from the analysis of satellite gravity and passive seismic data.Tectonophysics, Vol. 745, pp. 326-337.Africa, Cameroongeophysics - seismics

Abstract: We present original results that contribute to the understanding of lithospheric structures modification of regions that have witnessed superimposition of multiple tectonic events throughout their geological history. We analyze satellite gravity data through two-dimensional radially-averaged power spectral analysis as well as passive seismic data through thermal modeling to image the depth to the Moho and the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary (LAB beneath the Central Africa Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The CAOB is an ENE-trending deformation belt extending from Cameroon in the west to Sudan in the east. In Cameroon, it is found on the northern edge of the Congo craton represented by the Oubanguides orogenic belt (the Western Cameroon, the Adamawa - Yade, and the Yaoundé domains). It coincides with the Adamawa plateau and the Benue Trough, and it is spotted by the Cenozoic Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). The CAOB was formed during the Precambrian Greater Gondwana assembly but was reactivated during the Mesozoic as a result of Gondwana breakup. We find deeper Moho and LAB) beneath Congo craton and the Yaoundé domain reaching ~50?km and ~200?km, respectively. We map shallower Moho and LAB beneath the CAOB (together with the Adamawa plateau and the Benue trough) reaching ~25?km and ~70?km, respectively. We interpret the shallower LAB beneath the CAOB as due to zonal sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) delamination along the northern edge of the Congo craton that occurred in association with collisional assembly of Greater Gondwana. This allowed for channelization of mantle flow during the Cenozoic resulting in the formation of the CVL and the uplift of the Adamawa plateau. Our approach can be used to understand the modification of lithospheric structures beneath other terrains that have long tectonic history.
DS201904-0733
2019
Abdelsalam, M.G.Evans, R.L., Elsenbeck, J., Zhu, J., Abdelsalam, M.G., Sarafian, E., Mutamina, D., Chilongola, F., Atekwana, E.A., Jones, A.G.Structure of the lithosphere beneath the Barotse basin, western Zambia, from magnetotelluric data.Tectonics, Vol. 38, 2, pp. 666-686.Africa, Zambiageophysics

Abstract: A magnetotelluric survey in the Barotse Basin of western Zambia shows clear evidence for thinned lithosphere beneath an orogenic belt. The uppermost asthenosphere, at a depth of 60-70 km, is highly conductive, suggestive of the presence of a small amount of partial melt, despite the fact that there is no surface expression of volcanism in the region. Although the data support the presence of thicker cratonic lithosphere to the southeast of the basin, the lithospheric thickness is not well resolved and models show variations ranging from ~80 to 150 km in this region. Similarly variable is the conductivity of the mantle beneath the basin and immediately beneath the cratonic lithosphere to the southeast, although the conductivity is required to be elevated compared to normal lithospheric mantle. In a general sense, two classes of model are compatible with the magnetotelluric data: one with a moderately conductive mantle and one with more elevated conductivities. This latter class would be consistent with the impingement of a stringer of plume-fed melt beneath the cratonic lithosphere, with the melt migrating upslope to thermally erode lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt that is overlain by the Barotse Basin. Such processes are potentially important for intraplate volcanism and also for development or propagation of rifting as lithosphere is thinned and weakened by melt. Both models show clear evidence for thinning of the lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt, consistent with elevated heat flow data in the region.
DS2000-0003
2000
Abdrahmanov, K.A.Abdrahmanov, K.A.New petrologic geodynamic model of diamond bearing magmatic formations And diamond deposit forecast.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.RussiaMagmatism - lamproite-kimberlite-picrite
DS1998-0003
1998
Abdrakhimov, M.Z.Abdrakhimov, M.Z., Kouznetsova, E.I.Development of intergranular cracking and relaxation of stress in deep crystalline rock of eartb crust ....7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 1-3.RussiaGeochemistry, Physico-chemical influence of water
DS201910-2295
2019
Abdrault, D.Rizo, H., Abdrault, D., Bennett, N.R., Humayun, M., Brandon, A., Vlastelic, I., Moine, B., Poirier, A., Bouhifd, M.A., Murphy, D.T.182W evidence for core-mantle interaction in the source of mantle plumes.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 11, pp. 6-11.Mantlemantle plumes, hotspots

Abstract: Tungsten isotopes are the ideal tracers of core-mantle chemical interaction. Given that W is moderately siderophile, it preferentially partitioned into the Earth’s core during its segregation, leaving the mantle depleted in this element. In contrast, Hf is lithophile, and its short-lived radioactive isotope 182Hf decayed entirely to 182W in the mantle after metal-silicate segregation. Therefore, the 182W isotopic composition of the Earth’s mantle and its core are expected to differ by about 200 ppm. Here, we report new high precision W isotope data for mantle-derived rock samples from the Paleoarchean Pilbara Craton, and the Réunion Island and the Kerguelen Archipelago hotspots. Together with other available data, they reveal a temporal shift in the 182W isotopic composition of the mantle that is best explained by core-mantle chemical interaction. Core-mantle exchange might be facilitated by diffusive isotope exchange at the core-mantle boundary, or the exsolution of W-rich, Si-Mg-Fe oxides from the core into the mantle. Tungsten-182 isotope compositions of mantle-derived magmas are similar from 4.3 to 2.7 Ga and decrease afterwards. This change could be related to the onset of the crystallisation of the inner core or to the initiation of post-Archean deep slab subduction that more efficiently mixed the mantle.
DS201012-0358
2010
Abdu, Y.Khomyakov, A.P., Camara, F., Sokolova, E., Abdu, Y., Hawthorne, F.C.Paraershovite, a new mineral species from the Khibin alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: description and crystal structure.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 48, 2, pp. 291-300.Russia, Kola PeninsulaAlkalic
DS201412-0111
2014
Abdu, Y.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N., Reguir, E.P., Medici, L., Abdu, Y., Antonov, A.A.Vladykinite Na3Sr4(Fe2+Fe3+)Si8O24: a new complex sheet silicate from peralkaline rocks of the Murun complex, eastern Siberia, Russia.Deep Seated Magmatism, its sources and plumes, Ed. Vladykin, N.V., pp. 5-21TechnologyAlkalic
DS201510-1761
2014
Abdu, Y.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N., Reguir, E.P., Medici, L., Abdu, Y., Antonov, A.A.Vladykinite, Na3Sr4(Fe2+Fe3+)Si8024: a new complex sheet silicate from peralkaline rocks of the Murun Complex, eastern Siberia, Russia.Deep-seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, Proceedings of XIII International Workshop held 2014., Vol. 2014, pp. 5-21.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Murun

Abstract: Vladykinite, ideally Na3Sr4(Fe2+Fe3+)Si8O24, is a new complex sheet silicate occurring as abundant prismatic crystals in a dike of coarse-grained peralkaline feldspathoid syenite in the north-central part of the Murun complex in eastern Siberia, Russia (Lat. 58° 22' 48? N; Long. 119° 03' 44? E). The new mineral is an early magmatic phase associated with aegirine, potassium feldspar, eudialyte, lamprophyllite, and nepheline; strontianite (as pseudomorphs after vladykinite) and K-rich vishnevite are found in the same assemblage, but represent products of late hydrothermal reworking. Vladykinite is brittle, has a Mohs hardness of 5, and distinct cleavage on {100}. In thin section, it is colorless, biaxial negative [a = 1.624(2), b = 1.652(2), g = 1.657(2), 2Vmeas = 44(1)°, 2Vcalc = 45(1)°] and shows an optic orientation consistent with its structural characteristics (X^a = 5.1° in b obtuse, Z^c = 4.7° in b acute, Y = b). The Raman spectrum of vladykinite consists of the following vibration modes (listed in order of decreasing intensity): 401, 203, 465, 991, 968, 915, 348, 167, 129, 264, 1039, and 681 cm–1; O-H signals were not detected. The Mössbauer spectrum indicates that both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present in the mineral (Fe3+/FeS = 0.47), and that both cations occur in a tetrahedral coordination. The mean chemical composition of vladykinite (acquired by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry), with FeS recast into Fe2+ and Fe3+ in accord with the Mössbauer data, gives the following empirical formula calculated to 24 O atoms: (Na2.45Ca0.56)S3.01(Sr3.81 K0.04Ba0.02La0.02Ce0.01)S3.90(Fe2+0.75Fe3+0.66Mn0.26Zn0.16Al0.12Mg0.05Ti0.01)S2.01(Si7.81Al0.19)S8.00O24. The mineral is monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 5.21381(13), b = 7.9143(2), c = 26.0888(7) Å, b = 90.3556(7)°, V = 1076.50(5) Å3, Z = 2. The ten strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [dobs in Å (I) (hkl)]: 2.957 (100) (123, 123); 2.826 (100) (117, 117); 3.612 (58) (114, 114); 3.146 (37) (120); 2.470 (32) (210, 01.10); 4.290 (30) (111, 111); 3.339 (30) (106, 115, 106); 2.604 (28) (200); 2.437 (25) (034); 1.785 (25) (21.10, 234). The structure of vladykinite, refined by single-crystal techniques on the basis of 3032 reflections with Fo > 4sFo to R1 = 1.6%, consists of tetrahedral sheets parallel to (100) and consisting of (Si8O24)16– units incorporating four-membered silicate rings and joined into five- and eight-membered rings by sharing vertices with larger tetrahedra hosting Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn, Zn, Al, Mg, and Ti. Larger cations (predominantly Na, Sr, and Ca) are accommodated in octahedral and square-antiprismatic interlayer sites sandwiched between the tetrahedral sheets. Structural relations between vladykinite and other sheet silicates incorporating four-, five-, and eight-membered rings are discussed. The name vladykinite is in honor of Nikolay V. Vladykin (Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Russia), in recognition of his contribution to the study of alkaline rocks. Holotype and co-type specimens of the mineral were deposited in the Robert B. Ferguson Museum of Mineralogy in Winnipeg, Canada.
DS201602-0241
2015
Abdu, Y.Sokolova, E., Abdu, Y., Hawthorne, F.C., Genovese, A., Camara, F., Khomyakov, A.P.From structure topology to chemical composition. XVIII. Titanium silicates: revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of Betalomonosovite, a group IV TS-block mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula.The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 53, pp. 401-428.Russia, Kola PeninsulaLovozero Massif

Abstract: The crystal structure of betalomonosovite, ideally Na6?4Ti4(Si2O7)2[PO3(OH)][PO2(OH)2]O2(OF), a 5.3331(7), b 14.172(2), c 14.509(2) Å, a 103.174(2), ß 96.320(2), ? 90.278(2)°, V 1060.7(4) Å3, from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia, has been refined in the space group PFormula to R = 6.64% using 3379 observed (Fo > 4sF) reflections collected with a single-crystal APEX II ULTRA three-circle diffractometer with a rotating-anode generator (MoKa), multilayer optics, and an APEX-II 4K CCD detector. Electron-microprobe analysis gave the empirical formula (Na5.39Ca0.36Mn0.04Mg0.01)S5.80 (Ti2.77Nb0.48Mg0.29Fe3+0.23Mn0.20Zr0.02Ta0.01)S4(Si2.06O7)2[P1.98O5(OH)3]O2[O0.82F0.65(OH)0.53]S2, Dcalc. = 2.969 g cm-3, Z = 2, calculated on the basis of 26 (O + F) apfu, with H2O determined from structure refinement. The crystal structure of betalomonosovite is characterized by extensive cation and anion disorder: more than 50% of cation sites are partly occupied. The crystal structure of betalomonosovite is a combination of a titanium silicate (TS) block and an intermediate (I) block. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H-heteropolyhedral, O-octahedral) and exhibits linkage and stereochemistry typical for Group IV (Ti + Mg + Mn = 4 apfu) of the TS-block minerals. The I block is a framework of Na polyhedra and P tetrahedra which ideally gives {Na2?4[PO3(OH)][PO2(OH)2]} pfu. Betalomonosovite is an Na-poor OH-bearing analogue of lomonosovite, Na10Ti4(Si2O7)2(PO4)2O4. In the betalomonosovite structure, there is less Na in the I block and in the TS block when compared to the lomonosovite structure. The OH groups occur mainly in the I block where they coordinate P and Na atoms and in the O sheet of the TS block (minor). The presence of OH groups in the I block and in the TS block is supported by IR spectroscopy and bond-valence calculations on anions. High-resolution TEM of lomonosovite shows the presence of pervasive microstructural intergrowths, accounting for the presence of signals from H2O in the infrared spectrum of anhydrous lomonosovite. More extensive lamellae in betalomonosovite suggest a topotactic reaction from lomonosovite to betalomonosovite.
DS201412-0091
2014
Abdu, Y.A.Camara, F., Skolova, E., Abdu, Y.A., Hawthorne, F.C.Nafertisite Na3Fe2 10Ti2(Si6017)02(OH)6F(H2))2 from Mt. Kukisvumchorr Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: refinement of the crystal structure and revision of the chemical formula.European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 26, pp. 689-700.Russia, Kola PeninsulaKhibiniy Massif
DS201512-1903
2015
Abdu, Y.A.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Medici, L., Abdu, Y.A., Shelukhina, Y.S.Anzaite-(Ce), a new rare earth mineral and structure type from the AfrikAnd a silicocarbonatite, Kola Peninsula.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 79, 5, pp. 1231-1244.RussiaCarbonatite

Abstract: Anzaite-(Ce), ideally Formula Fe2+Ti6O18(OH)2, is a new, structurally complex mineral occurring as scarce minute crystals in hydrothermally altered silicocarbonatites in the Afrikanda alkali-ultramafic complex of the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is a late hydrothermal phase associated with titanite, hibschite, clinochlore and calcite replacing the primary magmatic paragenesis. The rare-earth elements (REE) (dominated by Ce), Ti and Fe incorporated in anzaite-(Ce) were derived from primary Ti oxides abundant in the host rock. Anzaite-(Ce) is brittle and lacks cleavage; the density calculated on the basis of structural data is 5.054(6) g cm-3. The mineral is opaque and grey with a bluish hue in reflected light; its reflectance values range from 15-16% at 440 nm to 13-14% at 700 nm. Its infrared spectrum shows a prominent absorption band at 3475 cm-1 indicative of OH- groups. The average chemical composition of anzaite-(Ce) gives the following empirical formula calculated on the basis of 18 oxygen atoms and two OH- groups: (Ce2.18Nd0.85La0.41Pr0.26Sm0.08Ca0.36Th0.01)S4.15Fe0.97(Ti5.68Nb0.22Si0.04)S5.94O18(OH)2. The mineral is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 5.290(2), b = 14.575(6), c = 5.234(2) Å, ß = 97.233(7)°, V = 400.4(5) Å3, Z = 1. The ten strongest lines in the X-ray micro-diffraction pattern are [dobs in Å (I) hkl]: 2.596 (100) 002; 1.935 (18) 170; 1.506 (14) 133; 1.286 (13) 1.11.0; 2.046 (12) 2I41; 1.730 (12) 003; 1.272 (12) 0.10.2; 3.814 (11) 1I11; 2.206 (9) 061; 1.518 (9) 172. The structure of anzaite-(Ce), refined by single-crystal techniques to R1 = 2.1%, consists of alternating layers of type 1, populated by REE (+ minor Ca) in a square antiprismatic coordination and octahedrally coordinated Fe2+, and type 2, built of five-coordinate and octahedral Ti, stacked parallel to (001). This atomic arrangement is complicated by significant disorder affecting the Fe2+, five-coordinate Ti and two of the four anion sites. The order-disorder pattern is such that only one half of these positions in total occupy any given (010) plane, and the disordered (010) planes are separated by ordered domains comprising REE, octahedral Ti and two anion sites occupied by O2-. Structural and stoichiometric relations between anzaite-(Ce) and other REE-Ti (±Nb, Ta) oxides are discussed. The name anzaite-(Ce) is in honour of Anatoly N. Zaitsev of St Petersburg State University (Russia) and The Natural History Museum (UK), in recognition of his contribution to the study of carbonatites and REE minerals. The modifier reflects the prevalence of Ce over other REE in the composition of the new mineral.
DS200812-0574
2008
Abduriyim, A.Kitawaki, H., Abduriyim, A., Okano, M.Identification of melee size synthetic yellow diamonds in jewelry.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 44, 3, pp. 202-213.TechnologySynthetics
DS2001-0039
2001
Abe, M.Arai, S., Kida, M., Abe, M., Yurimoto, H.Petrology of peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalt ( 11 Ma) from Boun, Korea: insight into upper mantle....Journal of Min. Petrol. Sciences, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp. 89-99.GlobalMantle mineralogy - East Asian continental margin
DS1995-0054
1995
Abe, N.Arai, S., Abe, N.Reaction of orthopyroxene in peridotite xenoliths with alkali-basalt melt and its implication for alpine crAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 80, No. 9-10, Sept, Oct pp. 1041-1047.JapanXenoliths
DS1998-0004
1998
Abe, N.Abe, N., Arai, S., Yurimoto, H.Petrology of the arc peridotite xenoliths: implications for geochemical evolution of the wedge mantle.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 4-6.MantleXenoliths, Subduction
DS2000-0004
2000
Abe, N.Abe, N., Arai, S., Shcheka, S., Yurimoto, H.Petrology of harzburgite and related xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka Arc and its implication for..Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.RussiaMantle - wedge mantle processes, Xenoliths
DS2001-0001
2001
Abe, N.Abe, N.Petrochemistry of serpentinized peridotite from the Iberia abyssal plain: its character intermediate ....Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 187, pp. 143-60.MantleMantle - upper, sub-oceanic - sub-continental
DS2003-0502
2003
Abe, N.Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Abe, N., Aulbach, S., Davies, R.M., Pearson, N.J.The origin and evolution of Archean lithospheric mantlePrecambrian Research, Vol. 127, 1-2, Nov. pp. 19-41.China, South Africa, Siberia, Northwest Territories, BoGeochemistry, SCLM, continental, Archon, metasomatism
DS200412-0723
2003
Abe, N.Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Abe, N., Aulbach, S., Davies, R.M., Pearson, N.J., Doyle, B.J.,Kivi, K.The origin and evolution of Archean lithospheric mantle.Precambrian Research, Vol. 127, 1-2, Nov. pp. 19-41.China, Africa, Russia, Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry, SCLM, continental, Archon, metasomatism
DS200712-0023
2007
Abe, N.Arai, S., Abe, N., Ishimaru, S.Mantle peridotites from the Western Pacific.Gondwana Research, Vol. 11, 1-2, Jan. pp. 180-199.AsiaPeridotite
DS201701-0027
2016
Abe, N.Pilet, S., Abe, N., Rochat, L., Kaczmarek, M-A., Hirano. N., Machida, S., Buchs, D.M., Baumgartner, P.O., Muntener, O.Pre-subduction metasomatic enrichment of the oceanic lithosphere induced by plate flexure.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 898-903.MantleSubduction

Abstract: Oceanic lithospheric mantle is generally interpreted as depleted mantle residue after mid-ocean ridge basalt extraction. Several models have suggested that metasomatic processes can refertilize portions of the lithospheric mantle before subduction. Here, we report mantle xenocrysts and xenoliths in petit-spot lavas that provide direct evidence that the lower oceanic lithosphere is affected by metasomatic processes. We find a chemical similarity between clinopyroxene observed in petit-spot mantle xenoliths and clinopyroxene from melt-metasomatized garnet or spinel peridotites, which are sampled by kimberlites and intracontinental basalts respectively. We suggest that extensional stresses in oceanic lithosphere, such as plate bending in front of subduction zones, allow low-degree melts from the seismic low-velocity zone to percolate, interact and weaken the oceanic lithospheric mantle. Thus, metasomatism is not limited to mantle upwelling zones such as mid-ocean ridges or mantle plumes, but could be initiated by tectonic processes. Since plate flexure is a global mechanism in subduction zones, a significant portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle is likely to be metasomatized. Recycling of metasomatic domains into the convecting mantle is fundamental to understanding the generation of small-scale mantle isotopic and volatile heterogeneities sampled by oceanic island and mid-ocean ridge basalts.
DS202007-1120
2020
Abe, N.Abe, N., Surour, A.A., Madani, A.A., Arai, S.Metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from the Cretaceous rift related Natash volcanics and their bearing on the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern part of the eastern desert of Egypt.Lithos, in press available , 47p. PdfAfrica, Asia, Egyptperidotites

Abstract: Highly carbonated mantle xenoliths have been found in rift-related alkaline basalts at the Wadi Natash area in the southern part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Although all olivine and most orthopyroxene was replaced by carbonate and/or quartz, textural and mineral chemical features show that they are plagioclase-free spinel peridotites (lherzolite to harzburgite). Cr and Mg numbers (Cr#, Mg#) of Cr-spinel vary from 0.06 to 0.45 and 0.73 to 0.81, respectively. The correlation between Cr# and Mg# of the Cr-spinel in the studied xenoliths is weakly negative and its TiO2 content is slightly higher than in abyssal peridotite that was not affected by melt injection. The chemistry of ortho- and clinopyroxene suggests enstatite and chromian diopside compositions, respectively, with distinct signatures of a sub-continental mantle source. In particular, the Na2O contents (>1.0?wt%) and AlVI/AlIV ratios (1.2-2.6) of chromian diopside suggest such an origin. Two-pyroxene geothermometry indicates a temperature of about 900?°C, which is slightly lower than that of ordinary spinel peridotite xenoliths from other rift zones. It is evident that the studied peridotite xenoliths had experienced mantle processes (e.g. decompression melting, magma upwelling and metasomatism) at higher pressure than abyssal peridotites. The trace-element chemistry of clinopyroxene, e.g. high LREE/HREE ratios {(Ce/Yb)n?=?7}, high LREE contents (>3.6?ppm and up to 30.0?ppm Ce) and high Sr between >85.6?ppm and 466?ppm, indicates metasomatic alteration of the peridotite. Clinopyroxene in one sample has very low Ti/Eu and high LREE/HREE ratios. Clinopyroxene with (Ce/Yb)n higher than 3-4 and Ti/Eu ratio lower than 1500 may have experienced carbonatite or carbonate-rich melt metasomatism prior to their incorporation into the host basalt. The basalt itself is almost devoid of any carbonatization and hence the studied mantle peridotites were carbonatized before the generation of the basaltic magma but following an earlier event of K-metasomatism as indicated by the presence of phlogopite. The studied peridotites from the Wadi Natash area were altered by a carbonate-rich melt during a rifting stage. The results of the present paper indicate that the Natash basalts with their peridotite xenoliths extruded along transversal fractures of the NW-trending Nuqra-Kom Ombo-Kharit continental rift on its western shoulder in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt.
DS1993-0005
1993
Abe, Y.Abe, Y.Physical state of the very early earthLithos, Vol. 30, No. 3-4, Septtember pp. 223-236MantleGeodynamics
DS201012-0276
2010
Abedu, B.Hetman, C.M., Nowicki, T., Freeman, L., Abedu, B.The preliminary geology and evaluation of the Koidu kimberlite dykes, Sierra Leone.International Dyke Conference Held Feb. 6, India, 1p. AbstractAfrica, Sierra LeoneDyke morphology
DS201212-0298
2012
Abedu, B.Hetman, C.M., Freeman, L., Nowicki, T.E., Abedu, B.Internal geology development and emplacement of the K1 kimberlite pipe, Koidu mine, Sierra Leone, West Africa.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, Sierra LeoneDeposit - Koidu
DS201212-0493
2012
Abedu, B.Moss, S., Nowicki, T., Hetman, C., Freeman, L.,Abedu, B.Geology and evaluation of kimberlite dykes at Koidu, Sierra Leone.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractAfrica, Sierra LeoneDeposit - Koidu
DS201412-0339
2013
Abedu, B.Harder, M., Nowicki, T.E., Hetman, C.M., Freeman, L., Abedu, B.Geology and exploration of the K2 kimberlite, Koidu mine, Sierra Leone, West Africa.Proceedings of the 10th. International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 191-208.Africa, Sierra LeoneDeposit - Koidu (K2)
DS201212-0284
2012
Abedub, B.Harder, M.C., Nowickia, C., Hetman, T.E., Hetmana, D., Freeman, C.M., Abedub, B.Geology and evaluation of the K2 kimberlite, Koidu mine, Sierra Leone, West Africa.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractAfrica, Sierra LeoneDeposit - K2 Koidu
DS202002-0186
2020
Abel, M.Garcia, L.F., Abel, M., Perrin, M., dos Santis Alvarenga, R.The GeoCore ontology: a core ontology for general use in geology.Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 135, 104387 9p. PdfGlobalGeoCore

Abstract: Domain ontologies assume the role of representing, in a formal way, a consensual knowledge of a community over a domain. This task is especially difficult in a wide domain like Geology, which is composed of diversified science resting on a large variety of conceptual models that were developed over time. The meaning of the concepts used by the various professionals often depends on the particular vision that they have of a domain according to their background and working habits. Ontology development in Geology thus necessitates a drastic elucidation of the concepts and vocabulary used by geologists. This article intends to contribute to solving these difficulties by proposing a core ontology named GeoCore Ontology resting on the BFO top ontology, specially designed for describing scientific fields. GeoCore Ontology contains well-founded definitions of a limited set of general concepts within the Geology field that are currently considered by all geologists whatever their skill. It allows modelers to separately consider a geological object, the substance that constitutes it, the boundaries that limit it and the internal arrangement of the matter inside it. The core ontology also allows the description of the existentially dependent qualities attached to a geological object and the geological process that generated it in a particular geological age. This small set of formally defined and described concepts combined with concepts from BFO provides a backbone for deriving by subsumption more specialized geological concepts and also constitutes a baseline for integrating different existent domain ontologies within the Geology domain. The GeoCore ontology and the methodology that we used for building it, provide solutions for unveiling major misunderstanding regarding the concepts that are commonly used for formulating geological interpretations. This will facilitate the communication of this information to external Geology users and its integration in domain applications.
DS200412-0345
2003
Abello, J.Collins, A.S., Johnson, S., Fitzimmona, I.C.W., Powell, C.McA., Hulscher, B., Abello, J., Razakamana, T.Neoproterozoic deformation in central Madagascar: a structural section through part of the East African orogen.Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent assembly and Breakup. Ed. Yoshida , Geological Society of London Spe, No. 206, pp. 363-380.Africa, MadagascarPlume, tectonics
DS201903-0507
2019
Abelsalam, M.G.Evans, R.L., Elsenbeck, J., Zhu, J., Abelsalam, M.G., Sarafian, E., Mutamina, D., Chilongola, F., Atekwan, E., Jones, A.G.Structure of the lithosphere beneath the Barotse Basin, western Zambia from magnetotelluric data.Tectonics, in press available Africa, Zambiamelting

Abstract: A magnetotelluric survey in the Barotse Basin of western Zambia shows clear evidence for thinned lithosphere beneath an orogenic belt. The uppermost asthenosphere, at a depth of 60-70 km, is highly conductive, suggestive of the presence of a small amount of partial melt, despite the fact that there is no surface expression of volcanism in the region. Although the data support the presence of thicker cratonic lithosphere to the southeast of the basin, the lithospheric thickness is not well resolved and models show variations ranging from ~80 to 150 km in this region. Similarly variable is the conductivity of the mantle beneath the basin and immediately beneath the cratonic lithosphere to the southeast, although the conductivity is required to be elevated compared to normal lithospheric mantle. In a general sense, two classes of model are compatible with the magnetotelluric data: one with a moderately conductive mantle and one with more elevated conductivities. This latter class would be consistent with the impingement of a stringer of plume-fed melt beneath the cratonic lithosphere, with the melt migrating upslope to thermally erode lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt that is overlain by the Barotse Basin. Such processes are potentially important for intraplate volcanism and also for development or propagation of rifting as lithosphere is thinned and weakened by melt. Both models show clear evidence for thinning of the lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt, consistent with elevated heat flow data in the region.
DS1992-0003
1992
Aber, J.S.Aber, J.S.The glaciation of northeastern KansasBoreas, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 1st. pp. 297-314KansasGeomorphology, Glacial
DS1993-0006
1993
Aber, J.S.Aber, J.S.Glaciotectonics and mapping glacial depositsCanadian Press Research Center, University of Regina, Saskatchewan S4S O42 Payable, 310p. $ 78.00 plus GST etcGlobalGlacial deposits, Geomorphology
DS1993-0007
1993
Aber, J.S.Aber, J.S.Proceedings and field guide of the Inqua Commision on formation and properties of glacial depositsCanadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina, Regina, 310p. approx. $ 75.00Russia, Saskatchewan, GlobalGeomorphology, glacial deposits, Table of contents
DS1995-0004
1995
Aber, J.S.Aber, J.S., Bluemle, J.P., Brighton-Grette, J., et al.Glaciotectonic map of North AmericaGeological Society of America (GSA) Map, No. MCHO79, 1: 6, 500, 000 $ 21.00Canada, United StatesMap, Glaciology, glacial, structures
DS2001-0002
2001
Aber, J.S.Aber, J.S., Aber, S.W.Limestone xenoliths in Hills Pond lamproite, Woodson County, KansasKansas Academy of Science, Vol. 104, No. 1/2, pp. 123-28.KansasLamproite, Deposit - Hills Pond
DS2001-0002
2001
Aber, S.W.Aber, J.S., Aber, S.W.Limestone xenoliths in Hills Pond lamproite, Woodson County, KansasKansas Academy of Science, Vol. 104, No. 1/2, pp. 123-28.KansasLamproite, Deposit - Hills Pond
DS1998-1146
1998
AbercrombiePeirce, J.W., Goussev, Charters, Abercrombie, De PaoliIntrasedimentary magnetization by vertical fluid flow and exotic geochemistry.Leading Edge, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 89-92.Alberta, Western CanadaGeophysics - magnetics, Basin
DS1999-0019
1999
AbercrombieArden, K.M., DePaoli, Johnson, Hemstock, AbercrombieMetallic and industrial mineral assessment report on the Athabasca permitsin northeastern Alberta.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19990004AlbertaExploration - assessment, Birch Mountain Resources Ltd.
DS1998-0005
1998
Abercrombie, H.Abercrombie, H.Metallic and industrial mineral assessment report on the precious and base metals in northeast Alberta.Alberta Geological Survey, MIN 19980001Alberta, northeastExploration - assessment, Birch Mountain Resources Ltd.
DS1860-0575
1888
Abercromby, R.Abercromby, R.Seas and Skies in Many Latitudes; Or, Wanderings in Search Of Weather.London: E. Stanford., 447P.Africa, South AfricaTravelogue
DS1985-0501
1985
Aberg, G.Nystrom, J.O., Svensson, N.B., Aberg, G.An occurrence of apatite rich rocks of carbonatitic affinity near the Jotnian graben structure in Gavle, central SwedenGeol. Forens, Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 185-195Sweden, ScandinaviaCarbonatite
DS201709-1975
2017
Abernethy, F.Crosby, J., Mikhail, S., Stuart, F., Abernethy, F.Tracing volatiles in Earth's mantle using He-C-N isotopes in garnet bearing diamondites.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Mantlediamondites

Abstract: The origin of diamond-forming carbon in the Earth is unclear [1-3]; sources include subducted organic sediment and primordial mantle carbon. For example, some diamonds contain eclogitic silicate + sufide inclusions and have depleted ?13C (-10 to -30‰), enriched ?15N (+3 to +35‰) values, consistent with subducted crustal material [2-3]. However, some diamonds show mantle-like ?15N (<-5‰) and depleted ?13C values (-10 to -30‰ ) which have been cited as evidence of enstatite chondrite-like primordial C-N sources [1]. The helium isotope composition of mantle rocks are powerful tracers,of Earth’s volatile history because primordial 3He is not recycled back into the mantle. However, there are few He isotope studies of diamond fluids. The 3He/4He of garnetbearing diamondites from the Orapa mine (Botswana) range from 0.1 to 3 Ra [4-5], consistent with a recycled origin. However, our recent work has identified a suite of diamondites with 3He/4He = 0.06 to 8.2 Ra which correlates negatively with ?13C, suggesting that the subduction-related C is associated with mantle 3He/4He ratios. To unravel this complexity we are combining He, C and N isotope analyses in polycrystalline diamond from garnetbearing diamondites from the Orapa mine. These data will also be used to assess the extent to which carbon and nitrogen isotopes are decoupled during diamond-formation [3].
DS201910-2286
2019
Abernethy, F.Mikhail, S., Crosby, J., Stuart, F., Di Nicola, L., Abernethy, F.Helium isotopes reveals what carbon and nitrogen cannot, a mantle component for strongly 13C-depleted diamond.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractMantlehelium

Abstract: The origin of the diamond-forming fluids are routinely addressed with the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, where average d13C and d15N values are -5 ± 3‰ and -5 ± 4‰, respectively. Because these values differ from crustal sources the application of C-N stable isotopes are applied as tracers of recycled crustal volatiles into the mantle. Additionally, fluid inclusions in fast-growing diamonds provides a unique opportunity to further examine the origin of diamond-forming fluids using noble gas geochemistry. Here we combine C-N isotopes, N concentrations from the diamond with He isotopes released from trapped fluids by in vacuo crushing of mg-sized polycrystalline diamonds. The samples examined are dominantly eclogitic to websteritic abd originate from Southern Africa. d13C values range from -4.3 to -22.2 ‰ and d15N values from -4.9 to +23.2 ‰. These data require a significant contribution of material that is 13Cdepleted and 15N-enriched relative to mantle, akin to altered oceanic crust or deep ocean sediments. 3He/4He ratios range from typical mantle values (8.5 Ra) to those dominated by radiogenic He (< 0.1 Ra). These new data show 3He/4He correlates with 3He concentration, suggesting that the low 3He/4He are, at least in part, the result of ingrowth of radiogenic 4He in He-poor diamonds after their formation. 13C-depleted and 15N-enriched diamonds dominate the population studied here. This indicates that subducted altered oceanic crust is essential for diamondite-formation within the SCLM beneath southern Africa. However, the fluids trapped in the low d13C diamondites (< -15 ‰) have 3He/4He ratios that indicate an origin in the convective upper asthenospheric mantle. Ergo, helium reveals what carbon and nitrogen cannot. When the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data show strong evidence for crustal sources for diamondformation, helium isotopes reveal an unambiguos mantle component hidden within strongly 13C-depleted diamond.
DS202005-0749
2019
Abernethy, F.A.J.Mikhail, S., Crosby, J.C., Stuart, F.M., DiNicola, L., Abernethy, F.A.J.A secretive mechanical exchange between mantle and crustal volatiles revealed by helium isoptopes in 13 C depleted diamonds.Geochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 11, pp. 39-43. pdfAfrica, Botswana, South America, French Guianadeposit - Dachine, Orapa

Abstract: Fluid inclusions trapped in fast-growing diamonds provide a unique opportunity to examine the origin of diamonds, and the conditions under which they formed. Eclogitic to websteritic diamondites from southern Africa show 13C-depletion and 15N-enrichment relative to mantle values (d13C = -4.3 to -22.2 ‰ and d15N = -4.9 to +23.2 ‰). In contrast the 3He/4He of the trapped fluids have a strong mantle signature, one sample has the highest value so far recorded for African diamonds (8.5 ± 0.4 Ra). We find no evidence for deep mantle He in these diamondites, or indeed in any diamonds from southern Africa. A correlation between 3He/4He ratios and 3He concentration suggests that the low 3He/4He are largely the result of ingrowth of radiogenic 4He in the trapped fluids since diamond formation. The He-C-N isotope systematics can be best described by mixing between fluid released from subducted altered oceanic crust and mantle volatiles. The high 3He/4He of low d13C diamondites reflects the high 3He concentration in the mantle fluids relative to the slab-derived fluids. The presence of post-crystallisation 4He in the fluids means that all 3He/4He are minima, which in turn implies that the slab-derived carbon has a sedimentary organic origin. In short, although carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data show strong evidence for crustal sources for diamond-formation, helium isotopes reveal an unambiguous mantle component hidden within a strongly 13C-depleted system.
DS1999-0625
1999
Abers, G.A.Sarker, G., Abers, G.A.Lithospheric temperature estimates from seismic attentuation across range fronts in southern and central.Geology, Vol. 27, No. 5, May pp. 427-30.GlobalCraton, Tian Shan Mountains
DS200512-0001
2005
Abers, G.A.Abers, G.A.Seismic low velocity layer at the top of subducting slabs: observations, predictions, and systematics.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 149, 1-2, March 15, pp. 7-29.MantleSubduction
DS200612-1402
2006
Abers, G.A.Syracuse, E.M., Abers, G.A.Global compilation of variations in slab depth beneath arc volcanoes and implications.Geochemical, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 7, 5, May 23, 18p.MantleSlab geometry, thickness, dip - not specific to diamond
DS201112-1076
2011
Abers, G.A.Van Keken, P.E., Hacker, B.R., Syracuse, E.M.,Abers, G.A.Subduction factory: 4. Depth dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, B01401.MantleSubduction
DS201212-0277
2012
Abers, G.A.Hacker, B.R., Abers, G.A.Subduction factory 5: Unusually low Poisson's ratios in subduction zones from elastic anisotropy of peridotite.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, B6, B06308.MantleSubduction
DS201707-1298
2017
Abers, G.A.Abers, G.A., van Keken, P.E., Hacker, B.R.The cold and relatively dry nature of mantle forearcs in subduction zones.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 10, pp. 333-337.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Some of Earth's coldest mantle is found in subduction zones at the tip of the mantle wedge that lies between the subducting and overriding plates. This forearc mantle is isolated from the flow of hot material beneath the volcanic arc, and so is inferred to reach temperatures no more than 600 to 800 °C - conditions at which hydrous mantle minerals should be stable. The forearc mantle could therefore constitute a significant reservoir for water if sufficient water is released from the subducting slab into the mantle wedge. Such a reservoir could hydrate the plate interface and has been invoked to aid the genesis of megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events. Our synthesis of results from thermal models that simulate the conditions for subduction zones globally, however, indicates that dehydration of subducting plates is too slow over the life span of a typical subduction zone to hydrate the forearc mantle. Hot subduction zones, where slabs dehydrate rapidly, are an exception. The hottest, most buoyant forearcs are most likely to survive plate collisions and be exhumed to the surface, so probably dominate the metamorphic rock record. Analysis of global seismic data confirms the generally dry nature of mantle forearcs. We conclude that many subduction zones probably liberate insufficient water to hydrate the shallower plate boundary where great earthquakes and slow slip events nucleate. Thus, we suggest that it is solid-state processes and not hydration that leads to weakening of the plate interface in cold subduction zones.
DS201912-2832
2019
Abers, G.A.van Keken, P.E., Wada, I., Sime, N., Abers, G.A.Thermal structure of the forearc in subduction zones: a comparison of methodologies.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, pp. 3268-3288.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Molnar and England (1990, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB095iB04p04833) introduced equations using a semianalytical approach that approximate the thermal structure of the forearc regions in subduction zones. A detailed new comparison with high-resolution finite element models shows that the original equations provide robust predictions and can be improved by a few modifications that follow from the theoretical derivation. The updated approximate equations are shown to be quite accurate for a straight-dipping slab that is warmed by heat flowing from its base and by shear heating at its top. The approximation of radiogenic heating in the crust of the overriding plate is less accurate but the overall effect of this heating mode is small. It is shown that the previous and updated approximate equations become increasingly inaccurate with decreasing thermal parameter and increasing variability of slab dip. It is also shown that the approximate equations cannot be extrapolated accurately past the brittle-ductile transition. Conclusions in a recent paper (Kohn et al., 2018, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1809962115) that modest amount of shear heating can explain the thermal conditions of past subduction from the exhumed metamorphic rock record are invalid due to a number of compounding errors in the application of the Molnar and England (1990, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB095iB04p04833) equations past the brittle-ductile transition. The use of the improved approximate equations is highly recommended provided their limitations are taken into account. For subduction zones with variable dip and/or low thermal parameter finite element modeling is recommended.
DS200412-1914
2004
Abers, G.C.Stachnik, J.C., Abers, G.C., Christensen, D.H.Seismic attenuation and mantle wedge temperatures in the Alaska subduction zone.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, B10, B10405 10.1029/2004 JBO3018United States, AlaskaGeophysics - seismics, geothermometry
DS201610-1838
2016
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D.Petrographic and melt inclusion constraints on the petrogenesis of a magmaclast from the Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa.Chemical Geology, in press available 11p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Venetia

Abstract: Kimberlitic magmaclasts are discrete ovoid magmatic fragments that formed prior to emplacement from disrupted kimberlite magma. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of the kimberlite melts, we document the mineralogy and petrography of a magmaclast recovered from one of the ca. 520 Ma Venetia kimberlites, South Africa. The sample (BI9883) has a sub-spherical shape and consists of a ~ 10 mm diameter central olivine macrocryst, surrounded by porphyritic kimberlite. The kimberlitic material consists of concentrically aligned, altered olivine phenocrysts, set in a crystalline groundmass of calcite, chromite, perovskite, phlogopite, apatite, ilmenite, titanite, sulphides, rutile and magnetite along with abundant alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, talc and secondary calcite). These features are typical of archetypal hypabyssal kimberlites. We examined primary fluid/melt inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite containing a diversity of daughter phases. Chromite and perovskite host polycrystalline inclusions containing abundant alkali-carbonates (i.e. enriched in K, Na, Ba, Sr), phosphates, Na-K chlorides, sulphides and equal to lesser quantities of olivine, phlogopite and pleonaste. In contrast, apatite hosts polycrystalline assemblages with abundant alkali-carbonates and Na-K chlorides and lesser amounts of olivine, monticellite and phlogopite. Numerous solid inclusions of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3), Na-Sr-carbonates and apatite occur in groundmass calcite along with fluid inclusions containing daughter crystals of Na-carbonates and Na-chlorides. The primary inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite are considered to represent remnants of fluid(s)/melt(s) trapped during crystallisation of the host minerals, whereas the fluid inclusions in calcite are probably secondary in origin. The component proportions of these primary fluid/melt inclusions were estimated in an effort to constrain the composition of the evolving kimberlite melt. These estimates suggest melt evolution from a silicate-carbonate kimberlite melt that became increasingly enriched in carbonates, phosphates, alkalis and chlorides, in response to the fractional crystallisation of constituent minerals (i.e. olivine to apatite). The concentric alignment of crystals around the olivine kernel and ovoid shape of the magmaclast can be ascribed to the low viscosity of the kimberlite melt and rapid rotation whilst in a liquid or partial crystalline state, or to progressive layer-by-layer growth of the magmaclast. Although the mineralogy of our sample is similar to hypabyssal kimberlites worldwide, it differs from hypabyssal kimberlite units in the main Venetia pipes, which contain monticellite-phlogopite rich assemblages and segregationary matrix textures. Therefore magmaclast BI9883 probably originated from a batch of magma distinct from those that produced known hypabyssal units within the Venetia kimberlite cluster.-
DS201707-1299
2017
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D.Petrographic and melt inclusion constraints on the petrogenesis of a magmaclast from the Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa.Chemical Geology, Vol. 455, pp. 331-341.Africa, South Africadeposit - Venetia

Abstract: Kimberlitic magmaclasts are discrete ovoid magmatic fragments that formed prior to emplacement from disrupted kimberlite magma. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of the kimberlite melts, we document the mineralogy and petrography of a magmaclast recovered from one of the ca. 520 Ma Venetia kimberlites, South Africa. The sample (BI9883) has a sub-spherical shape and consists of a ~ 10 mm diameter central olivine macrocryst, surrounded by porphyritic kimberlite. The kimberlitic material consists of concentrically aligned, altered olivine phenocrysts, set in a crystalline groundmass of calcite, chromite, perovskite, phlogopite, apatite, ilmenite, titanite, sulphides, rutile and magnetite along with abundant alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, talc and secondary calcite). These features are typical of archetypal hypabyssal kimberlites. We examined primary fluid/melt inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite containing a diversity of daughter phases. Chromite and perovskite host polycrystalline inclusions containing abundant alkali-carbonates (i.e. enriched in K, Na, Ba, Sr), phosphates, Na-K chlorides, sulphides and equal to lesser quantities of olivine, phlogopite and pleonaste. In contrast, apatite hosts polycrystalline assemblages with abundant alkali-carbonates and Na-K chlorides and lesser amounts of olivine, monticellite and phlogopite. Numerous solid inclusions of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3), Na-Sr-carbonates and apatite occur in groundmass calcite along with fluid inclusions containing daughter crystals of Na-carbonates and Na-chlorides. The primary inclusions in chromite, perovskite and apatite are considered to represent remnants of fluid(s)/melt(s) trapped during crystallisation of the host minerals, whereas the fluid inclusions in calcite are probably secondary in origin. The component proportions of these primary fluid/melt inclusions were estimated in an effort to constrain the composition of the evolving kimberlite melt. These estimates suggest melt evolution from a silicate-carbonate kimberlite melt that became increasingly enriched in carbonates, phosphates, alkalis and chlorides, in response to the fractional crystallisation of constituent minerals (i.e. olivine to apatite). The concentric alignment of crystals around the olivine kernel and ovoid shape of the magmaclast can be ascribed to the low viscosity of the kimberlite melt and rapid rotation whilst in a liquid or partial crystalline state, or to progressive layer-by-layer growth of the magmaclast. Although the mineralogy of our sample is similar to hypabyssal kimberlites worldwide, it differs from hypabyssal kimberlite units in the main Venetia pipes, which contain monticellite-phlogopite rich assemblages and segregationary matrix textures. Therefore magmaclast BI9883 probably originated from a batch of magma distinct from those that produced known hypabyssal units within the Venetia kimberlite cluster.
DS201708-1563
2017
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamanetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).Chemical Geology, in press available, 16p.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit, Roger, Ekati

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements
DS201708-1564
2017
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamanetsky, V.S., Pearson, D.G., Kamenetsky, M., Ehrig, K., Goemann, K., Rodemann, T.Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parallel melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing. Leslie, Pipe 1Chemical Geology, in press available, 54p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, Finlanddeposit, Leslie

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25–45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Monticellite in group-I kimberlites: Implications for evolution of parental melts and post-emplacement CO 2 degassing (PDF Download Available).
DS201708-1588
2017
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).11th. International Kimberlite Conference, PosterCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Roger

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements.
DS201708-1589
2017
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A.Monticellite in Group 1 kimberlites: implications for evolution of partial melts and post-emplacement CO2 degassing.11th. International Kimberlite Conference, PosterTechnologymonticellite

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25–45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Monticellite in group-I kimberlites: Implications for evolution of parental melts and post-emplacement CO 2 degassing (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318032868_Monticellite_in_group-I_kimberlites_Implications_for_evolution_of_parental_melts_and_post-emplacement_CO_2_degassing [accessed Aug 10, 2017].
DS201711-2522
2017
Abersteiner, A.Kargin, A.V., Sazonova, L.V., Nosova, A.A., Lebedeva, N.M., Tretyachenko, V.V., Abersteiner, A.Cr-rich clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Grib kimberlite, Arkangelsk province, Russia: relation to clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths and evidence for mantle metasomatism by kimberlite melts.Lithos, in press available, 52p.Russia, Archangeldeposit - Grib

Abstract: To provide new insights into the origin of megacrysts and metasomatism of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical investigation of clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths and clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Grib kimberlite (Arkhangelsk diamond province, Russia). Clinopyroxene megacrysts and clinopyroxene from clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths have similar petrography, major and trace element compositions, and are therefore classified as Cr-rich megacrysts. Geothermobarometry suggests that Cr-rich clinopyroxenes originate from within the SCLM (3.6-4.7 GPa and 764-922 °C). Phlogopite from clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths have low-Ti and -Cr compositions that overlaps with phlogopite megacrysts from the Grib kimberlite. The clinopyroxene-phlogopite rocks within the SCLM are the main source for Cr-rich clinopyroxene and low-Ti phlogopite megacrysts in the Grib kimberlite matrix. Trace element compositions of studied Cr-rich clinopyroxenes have similar geochemical features to clinopyroxenes megacrysts occurrences worldwide and overlap with clinopyroxenes from phlogopite-garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Grib kimberlite. The strong depletion in Ti, Nb, Ta and to a lesser extent in Zr and Hf in clinopyroxene reflects equilibrium with Ti-oxides, such as ilmenite. The clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths could be the final product of metasomatism of garnet peridotites within the SCLM beneath the Grib kimberlite. The calculated equilibrium of clinopyroxene melt compositions suggests that the metasomatic agents were derived from silicate-bearing kimberlite melts. The presence of veinlets infilled with kimberlitic mineral assemblages in clinopyroxene grains suggests that the clinopyroxene-phlogopite rocks experienced intense interactions with kimberlite melt after their formation, but before their entrainment into the host kimberlite magma. This interaction resulted in the formation of high-Ti and -Cr phlogopite and high-Ti clinopyroxene rims, zones and grains with spongy textures. Finally, we propose the sequence of metasomatic events that occurred in the SCLM and the subsequent formation of the Grib kimberlite.
DS201802-0216
2018
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Significance of halogens ( F, Cl) in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe ( Ekati, Canada).Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 148-163.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Roger

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens (F, Cl) are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I (or archetypal) Roger kimberlite (Ekati cluster, Canada). The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel (i.e. magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite (MUM), Mg-magnetite, pleonaste, Cr-spinel), and perovskite along with abundant secondary alteration phases (i.e. serpentine, garnet (andradite-schlorlomite), amakinite ((Fe2 +, Mg, Mn)(OH)2), calcite). The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content (up to 2688 ppm) of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite (Ca4(Si2O7)(F, OH)2) and fluorite commonly replace olivine. In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Primary multiphase melt inclusions in Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite and secondary inclusions in olivine are shown to contain a diversity of daughter phases and compositions that are dominated by alkali/alkali-earth (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates ± F, Na-K-chlorides and sulphates, phosphates ± REE, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite, (clino)humite), and sulphides. Although alkali/alkali-earth- and halogen-bearing phases are abundant in melt inclusions, they are generally absent from the kimberlite groundmass, most likely due to ubiquitous effects of syn- and/or post-magmatic alteration (i.e. serpentinisation). Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility (i.e. F/Nd and Cl/U) in the Roger kimberlite and their respective estimated primitive mantle abundances show that halogens should be a more significant component in kimberlites than typically measured. We propose that fluorine in the Roger kimberlite was magmatic and was redistributed during hydrothermal alteration by Ca-bearing serpentinising fluids to produce the observed bultfonteinite/fluorite assemblages. Based the compositions and daughter mineral assemblages in primary melt inclusions and reconstructed halogen abundances, we suggest that Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite crystallised from a variably differentiated Si-P-Cl-F-bearing carbonate melt that was enriched in alkalis/alkali-earths and highly incompatible trace elements.
DS201802-0217
2018
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Pearson, D.G., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K., Ehrig, K., Rodemann, T.Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parental melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing.Chemical Geology, Vol. 478, pp. 76-88.Canada, Northwest Territories, Europe, Finlanddeposit - Leslie, Pipe 1

Abstract: Monticellite is a magmatic and/or deuteric mineral that is often present, but widely varying in concentrations in Group-I (or archetypal) kimberlites. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie (Canada) and Pipe 1 (Finland) kimberlites. In these kimberlites, monticellite (Mtc) is abundant (25-45 vol%) and can be classified into two distinct morphological types: discrete and intergrown groundmass grains (Mtc-I), and replacement of olivine (Mtc-II). Primary multiphase melt inclusions in monticellite, perovskite and Mg-magnetite contain assemblages dominated by alkali (Na, K, Ba, Sr)-enriched Ca-Mg-carbonates, chlorides, phosphates, spinel, silicates (e.g. olivine, phlogopite) and sulphides. These melt inclusions probably represent snapshots of a variably differentiated kimberlite melt that evolved in-situ towards carbonatitic and silica-poor compositions. Although unconstrained in their concentration, the presence of alkali-carbonates and chlorides in melt inclusions suggests they are a more significant component of the kimberlite melt than commonly recorded by whole-rock analyses. We present petrographic and textural evidence showing that pseudomorphic Mtc-II resulted from an in-situ reaction between olivine and the carbonate component of the kimberlite melt in the decarbonation reactio. This reaction is supported by the preservation of abundant primary inclusions of periclase and to a lesser extent Fe-Mg-oxides in monticellite, perovskite and Mg-magnetite. Based on the preservation of primary periclase inclusions, we infer that periclase also existed in the groundmass, but was subsequently altered to brucite. We suggest that CO2 degassing in the latter stages of kimberlite emplacement into the crust is largely driven by the observed reaction between olivine and the carbonate melt. For this reaction to proceed, CO2 should be removed (i.e. degassed), which will cause further reaction and additional degassing in response to this chemical system change (Le Chatelier's principle). Our study demonstrates that these proposed decarbonation reactions may be a commonly overlooked process in the crystallisation of monticellite and exsolution of CO2, which may in turn contribute to the explosive eruption and brecciation processes that occur during kimberlite magma emplacement and pipe formation.
DS201811-2552
2018
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Golovin, A.V., Kamenetsky, M., Goemann, K.Was crustal contamination involved in the formation of the serpentine-free Udachnaya-East kimberlite? New insights into parental melts, liquids, liquidus assemblage and effects of alteration.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 59, 8, pp. 1467-1492.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya-East

Abstract: The petrologically unique Udachnaya-East kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) is characterised by unserpentinised and H2O-poor volcaniclastic and coherent units that contain fresh olivine, along with abundant alkali-rich carbonates, chlorides, sulphides and sulphates in the groundmass. These mineralogical and geochemical characteristics have led to two divergent models that advocate different origins. It has been suggested that the unserpentinised units from Udachnaya-East are representative of pristine unaltered kimberlite. Conversely, the alkali-chlorine-sulphur enrichment has been attributed to interactions with crustal materials and/or post-emplacement contamination by brines. The mineralogical and geochemical features and the compositions of melt inclusions in unserpentinised and serpentinised Udachnaya-East kimberlite varieties are compared in this study. Both varieties of kimberlite have similar major, compatible and incompatible trace element concentrations and primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns, groundmass textures and silicate, oxide and sulphide mineral compositions. However, these two kimberlite varieties are distinguished by: (i) the presence of unaltered olivine, abundant Na-K-Cl-S-rich minerals (i.e. chlorides, S-bearing alkali-carbonates, sodalite) and the absence of H2O-rich phases (i.e. serpentine, iowaite (Mg4Fe3+(OH)8OCl•3(H2O)) in unserpentinised samples, and (ii) the absence of alkali- and chlorine-enriched phases in the groundmass and characteristic olivine alteration (i.e. replacement by serpentine and/or iowaite) in serpentinised samples. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in olivine, monticellite, spinel and perovskite from unserpentinised and serpentinised kimberlite contain identical daughter phase assemblages that are dominated by alkali-carbonates, chlorides and sulphates/sulphides. This enrichment in alkalis, chlorine and sulphur in melt inclusions demonstrates that these elements were an intrinsic part of the parental magma. The paucity of alkali-carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of serpentinised Udachnaya-East kimberlite is attributed to their instability and removal during post-emplacement alteration. All evidence previously used in support of crustal and brine contamination of the Udachnaya-East kimberlite is thoroughly evaluated. We demonstrate that ‘contamination models’ are inconsistent with petrographic, geochemical and melt inclusion data. Our combined data suggest that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite crystallised from an essentially H2O-poor, Si-Na-K-Cl-S-bearing carbonate-rich melt.
DS201812-2771
2018
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thomspon, J., Kamenetsky,M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016 /jlithos.2018 .11.017 32p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
DS201902-0254
2019
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thompson, J., Kamenetsky, M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, Vol. 324-325, pp. 297-314.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel - magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
DS201902-0255
2019
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Giuliani, A., Rodemann, T., Spetsius, Z.V., Kamenetsky, M.Djerfisherite in kimberlites and their xenoliths: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 8 22p. Africa, South Africa, Russia, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Bultfontein, Roberts Victor, Udachnaya-East, Obnazhennaya, Vtorogodnitsa, Koala, Leslie

Abstract: Djerfisherite (K6(Fe,Ni,Cu)25S26Cl) occurs as an accessory phase in the groundmass of many kimberlites, kimberlite-hosted mantle xenoliths, and as a daughter inclusion phase in diamonds and kimberlitic minerals. Djerfisherite typically occurs as replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides (i.e. pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite), but can also occur as individual grains, or as poikilitic phase in the groundmass of kimberlites. In this study, we present new constraints on the origin and genesis of djerfisherite in kimberlites and their entrained xenoliths. Djerfisherite has extremely heterogeneous compositions in terms of Fe, Ni and Cu ratios. However, there appears to be no distinct compositional range of djerfisherite indicative of a particular setting (i.e. kimberlites, xenoliths or diamonds), rather this compositional diversity reflects the composition of the host kimberlite melt and/or interacting metasomatic medium. In addition, djerfisherite may contain K and Cl contents less than the ideal formula unit. Raman spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed that these K-Cl poor sulphides still maintain the same djerfisherite crystal structure. Two potential mechanisms for djerfisherite formation are considered: (1) replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides by djerfisherite, which is attributed to precursor sulphides reacting with metasomatic K-Cl bearing melts/fluids in the mantle or the transporting kimberlite melt; (2) direct crystallisation of djerfisherite from the kimberlite melt in groundmass or due to kimberlite melt infiltration into xenoliths. The occurrence of djerfisherite in kimberlites and its mantle cargo from localities worldwide provides strong evidence that the metasomatising/infiltrating kimberlite melt/fluid was enriched in K and Cl. We suggest that kimberlites originated from melts that were more enriched in alkalis and halogens relative to their whole-rock compositions.
DS201902-0294
2018
Abersteiner, A.Malyeshev, S.V., Pasenko, A.M., Ivanov, A.V., Gladkochub, D.P., Savatenkov, V.M., Meffre, S., Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Shcherbakov, V.D.Geodynamic significance of the Mesoproterozoic magmatism of the Udzha paleo-rift ( Northern Siberian craton) based in U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetic data.Minerals ( mdpi.com), Vol. 8, 12, 11p. PdfRussia, Siberiacraton

Abstract: The emplacement age of the Great Udzha Dyke (northern Siberian Craton) was determined by the U-Pb dating of apatite using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). This produced an age of 1386 ± 30 Ma. This dyke along with two other adjacent intrusions, which cross-cut the sedimentary units of the Udzha paleo-rift, were subjected to paleomagnetic investigation. The paleomagnetic poles for the Udzha paleo-rift intrusions are consistent with previous results published for the Chieress dyke in the Anabar shield of the Siberian Craton (1384 ± 2 Ma). Our results suggest that there was a period of intense volcanism in the northern Siberian Craton, as well as allow us to reconstruct the apparent migration of the Siberian Craton during the Mesoproterozoic.
DS201905-1014
2019
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Gornova, M.A.Polymineralic inclusions in kimberlite hosted megacrysts: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Lithos, doi.101016/j.lithos .2019.04.004 42p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Russiadeposit - Diavik, Jericho, Leslie, Udachnaya East

Abstract: Megacrysts are large (cm to >20?cm in size) mantle-derived crystals, which are commonly entrained by kimberlite magmas, comprising of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, phlogopite, garnet, ilmenite and zircon as common phases. Numerous studies have shown megacrysts to contain polymineralic inclusions, which have been interpreted to represent entrapped kimberlite melt. To constrain the origin of these inclusions in megacrysts and their relationship to kimberlite magmatism, we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of clinopyroxene and olivine megacrysts and their hosted inclusions from the Diavik, Jericho, Leslie (Slave Craton, Canada) and Udachnaya-East (Siberian Craton, Russia) kimberlites. The studied megacrysts are between 1 and 3?cm in size and representative of both the Cr-rich and Cr-poor suites. Megacrysts contain two types of inclusions: i. Large (<0.5-5?mm in size) round-to-irregular shaped polymineralic inclusions, which are composed of minerals similar to the host kimberlite groundmass, and consist of olivine, calcite, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite and apatite (± serpentine, alkali-carbonates, alkali-chlorides, barite). ii. Swarms/trails of ‘micro melt inclusions’ (MMI; <1-5?µm in size), which surround polymineralic inclusions, veins and fractures, thereby forming a ‘spongy’ texture. MMIs generally contain multiphase assemblages similar to polymineralic inclusions as well as various additional phases, such as alkali-carbonates or alkali-chlorides, which are typically absent in polymineralic inclusions and the surrounding kimberlite groundmass. Textural and geochemical evidence suggests that polymineralic inclusions in megacrysts crystallised from kimberlite melt, which infiltrated along fracture/vein networks. The polymineralic inclusion assemblages resulted from disequilibria reactions between the host megacryst and infiltrating kimberlite melt, which was likely enhanced by rapidly changing conditions during magmatic ascent. The connectivity of polymineralic inclusions to the kimberlite groundmass via network veins/fractures suggests that they are susceptible to infiltrating post-emplacement fluids. Therefore, the vast majority of polymineralic inclusions are unlikely to represent ‘pristine’ entrapped kimberlite melt. In contrast, MMIs are isolated within megacrysts (i.e. not connected to fractures/veins and therefore shielded from post-magmatic fluids) and probably represent entrapped remnants of the variably differentiated kimberlite melt, which was more enriched in alkalis-Cl-S-CO2 than serpentinised polymineralic inclusions and the host rocks exposed at Earth's surface as kimberlites.
DS201910-2259
2019
Abersteiner, A.Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I., Korsakov, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Abersteiner, A.Can primitive kimberlite melts be alkali-carbonate liquids: composition of the melt snapshots preserved in deepest mantle xenoliths.Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, in press available, 19p. PdfRussiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: The study of kimberlite rocks is important as they provide critical information regarding the composition and dynamics of the continental mantle and are the principal source of diamonds. Despite many decades of research, the original compositions of kimberlite melts, which are thought to be derived from depths > 150 km, remain highly debatable due to processes that can significantly modify their composition during ascent and emplacement. Snapshots of the kimberlite-related melts were entrapped as secondary melt inclusions hosted in olivine from sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East pipe (Siberian craton). These xenoliths originated from 180- to 220-km depth and are among the deepest derived samples of mantle rocks exposed at the surface. The crystallised melt inclusions contain diverse daughter mineral assemblages (>30 mineral species), which are dominated by alkali-rich carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides. The presence of aragonite as a daughter mineral suggests a high-pressure origin for these inclusions. Raman-mapping studies of unexposed inclusions show that they are dominated by carbonates (>65 vol.%), whereas silicates are subordinate (<13 vol.%). This indicates that the parental melt for the inclusions was carbonatitic. The key chemical features of this melt are very high contents of alkalis, carbon dioxide, chlorine, and sulfur and extremely low silica and water. Alkali-carbonate melts entrapped in xenolith minerals likely represent snapshots of the primitive kimberlite melt. This composition is in contrast with the generally accepted notion that kimberlites originated as ultramafic silicate water-rich melts. Experimental studies revealed that alkali-carbonate melts are a very suitable diamond-forming media. Therefore, our findings support the idea that some diamonds and kimberlite magmatism may be genetically related.
DS202003-0329
2020
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K.A genetic study of olivine crystallization in the Mark kimberlite ( Canada) revealed by zoning and melt inclusions.Lithos, In press available 46p. pdf.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Elucidating the composition of primary kimberlite melts is essential to understanding the nature of their source, petrogenesis, rheology, transport and ultimately the origin of diamonds. Kimberlite rocks are typically comprised of abundant olivine (~2560 vol%), which occurs as individual grains of variable size and morphology, and includes xenocrysts and zoned phenocrysts. Zoning patterns and inclusions in olivine can be used to decipher the petrogenetic history of kimberlites, starting from their generation in the mantle through to emplacement in the crust. This study examines well-preserved, euhedral, zoned olivine crystals from the Mark kimberlite (Lac de Gras, Canada). Olivine typically consists of xenocrystic cores, which are homogeneous in composition but vary widely between grains (Fo88.193.6). These cores are in turn surrounded by (in order of crystallisation) magmatic rims and Mg-rich rinds (Fo95.398.1). In addition, we document a new type of olivine zone (‘outmost rind’) that overgrows Mg-rich rinds. Crystal and melt/fluid inclusions are abundant in olivine and preserve a record of kimberlite melt evolution. For the first time in the studies of kimberlite olivine, we report primary melt inclusions hosted in Mg-rich olivine rinds. In addition, we observe that pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions are restricted to interior olivine zones (cores, rims) and are considered to have formed prior to rind formation. Pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions are inferred to have been entrapped at depth, as evidenced by measured densities in thermometric experiments of CO2 and decrepitation haloes, indicating a minimum entrapment pressure of ~200450 MPa (or ~615 km). Both primary and pseudosecondary melt inclusions in olivine have daughter minerals dominated by CaMg and K-Na-Ba-Sr-bearing carbonates, K-Na-chlorides along with subordinate silicates (e.g., phlogopite, monticellite), Fe-Mg-Al-Ti-spinel, perovskite, phosphates and sulphates/sulphides and periclase. In addition to phases reported in primary melt inclusions, pseudosecondary melt inclusions contain more diverse and exotic daughter mineral assemblages, where they contain phases such as tetraferriphlogopite Ba- or K-sulphates, kalsilite and Na-phosphates. The daughter mineral assemblages are consistent with a silica-poor, alkali dolomitic carbonatite melt. We demonstrate that the different types of inclusions in olivine can assist in constraining the timing of multi-stage olivine growth and the composition of the crystallising melt. The large variance in olivine zoning patterns, morphologies and Ni distribution (i.e. both coupling with and decoupling from Fo) indicates that olivine in the studied Mark kimberlite samples represent an accumulation of olivine, where olivine was derived from successive stages of the ascending magma and/or from multiple, but related pulses of magma. Primary and pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine indicate that a variably differentiated silica-poor, halogen-bearing, alkali-dolomitic melt crystallised and transported olivine in the Mark kimberlite.
DS202005-0754
2020
Abersteiner, A.Nosova, A.A., Kargin, A.V., Sazonova, L.V., Dubinina, E.O., Chugaev, A.V., Lebedeva, N.M., Yudin, D.S., Larionova, Y.O., Abersteiner, A., Gareev, B.I., Batalin, G.A.Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic systematic and geochronology of ultramafic alkaline magmatism of the southwestern margin of the Siberian craton: metasomatism of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle related to subduction and plume events.Lithos, Vol. 364-365, 21p. PdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Ilbokich, Chadobets

Abstract: To provide new insights into the origin and evolution of ultramafic lamprophyres (UMLs) and their mantle source, we examined two UML (aillikite and damtjernite) occurrences of different ages in the western portion of the Siberian Craton (Ilbokich and Chadobets). New age, mineral and rock geochemistry, along with Sr-Nd-Pb-C-O isotope data was obtained. Our new 206Pb/238U perovskite age (399 ± 4 Ma) confirms the previously published Early Devonian age of the Ilbokich aillikite. RbSr isochron and 40Ar/39Ar dating yielded a Middle Triassic age (243 ± 3 Ma and 241 ± 1 Ma, respectively) for the Chadobets aillikites, indicating post-Trap emplacement of these rocks. Both UMLs are characterized by incompatible elements, including light rare earth element (LREE) enrichments (La is up to ×200 chondrite concentration), and strong fractionation of REEs ((La/Yb)n: 33-84). Despite the close geochemical affinity of both UMLs, the Nd isotopic compositions of aillikites, as well as the Pb isotopic composition of Chadobets and Ilbokich UMLs, do not overlap and are distinctly different from each other. The initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Ilbokich UMLs fall in within a narrow 87Sr/86Sr0 range (0.7032-0.7042) and eNd(T) (4.03-3.97). Chadobets UMLs have a similar Sr isotopic signature (87Sr/86Sr0: 0.7031-0.7043) and a more depleted Nd isotopic signature (eNd(T) 4.09-5.08). The initial Pb isotope compositions of the Chadobets UMLs are moderately radiogenic, ranging between 206Pb/204Pb = 18.4-19.0, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.3-38.8, and are characterized by a narrow 207Pb/204Pb ratio between 15.5 and 15.6. The Ilbokich Pb isotope compositions are less variable and range between 206Pb/204Pb = 18.0-18.4, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.8-38.4 and 207Pb/204Pb ratios between 15.5 and 15.6. The oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate from both UMLs is characterized by highly variable d18O values from +12.1 and up to +20.5‰ (SMOW). The isotopic composition of d13C values range from -1.3‰ to -7.1. Based on the minor impact of crustal contamination in both aillikites, it is inferred that their radiogenic isotope composition reflects a mantle source signature. The mantle source of the Chadobets aillikites is likely to include carbonatitic magma as a metasomatic agent. In contrast, phlogopite-rich metasomes within the lithospheric mantle could have contributed more significantly to the Ilbokich aillikites. These metasomes could be formed during the Caledonian orogeny, which did not only affect the southwestern boundary of the Siberian Craton, but also expanded to the craton interior. This study provides additional support for the evolution of the south-western portion of the Siberian SCLM, ranging from mantle containing phlogopite enrichment domains during the Early Devonian to hydrous-phase reduced mantle in the Triassic due to the thermal impact of the Siberian Traps.
DS202006-0943
2020
Abersteiner, A.Novosa, A.A., Kargin, A.V., Sazonova, L.V., Dubinina, E.O., Chugaev, A.V., Lebedeva, N.M., Yudin, D.S., Larionova, Y.O., Abersteiner, A., Gareev, B.I., Batalin, G.A.Sr-N-Pb isotopic systematic and geochronology of ultramafic alkaline magmatism of the southwestern margin of the Siberian craton: metasomatism of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle related to subduction and plume events.Lithos, Vol. 364-365, 21p. PdfRussiaailikite, damjernite

Abstract: To provide new insights into the origin and evolution of ultramafic lamprophyres (UMLs) and their mantle source, we examined two UML (aillikite and damtjernite) occurrences of different ages in the western portion of the Siberian Craton (Ilbokich and Chadobets). New age, mineral and rock geochemistry, along with Sr-Nd-Pb-C-O isotope data was obtained. Our new 206Pb/238U perovskite age (399 ± 4 Ma) confirms the previously published Early Devonian age of the Ilbokich aillikite. RbSr isochron and 40Ar/39Ar dating yielded a Middle Triassic age (243 ± 3 Ma and 241 ± 1 Ma, respectively) for the Chadobets aillikites, indicating post-Trap emplacement of these rocks. Both UMLs are characterized by incompatible elements, including light rare earth element (LREE) enrichments (La is up to ×200 chondrite concentration), and strong fractionation of REEs ((La/Yb)n: 33-84). Despite the close geochemical affinity of both UMLs, the Nd isotopic compositions of aillikites, as well as the Pb isotopic composition of Chadobets and Ilbokich UMLs, do not overlap and are distinctly different from each other. The initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Ilbokich UMLs fall in within a narrow 87Sr/86Sr0 range (0.7032-0.7042) and eNd(T) (4.03-3.97). Chadobets UMLs have a similar Sr isotopic signature (87Sr/86Sr0: 0.7031-0.7043) and a more depleted Nd isotopic signature (eNd(T) 4.09-5.08). The initial Pb isotope compositions of the Chadobets UMLs are moderately radiogenic, ranging between 206Pb/204Pb = 18.4-19.0, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.3-38.8, and are characterized by a narrow 207Pb/204Pb ratio between 15.5 and 15.6. The Ilbokich Pb isotope compositions are less variable and range between 206Pb/204Pb = 18.0-18.4, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.8-38.4 and 207Pb/204Pb ratios between 15.5 and 15.6. The oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate from both UMLs is characterized by highly variable d18O values from +12.1 and up to +20.5‰ (SMOW). The isotopic composition of d13C values range from -1.3‰ to -7.1. Based on the minor impact of crustal contamination in both aillikites, it is inferred that their radiogenic isotope composition reflects a mantle source signature. The mantle source of the Chadobets aillikites is likely to include carbonatitic magma as a metasomatic agent. In contrast, phlogopite-rich metasomes within the lithospheric mantle could have contributed more significantly to the Ilbokich aillikites. These metasomes could be formed during the Caledonian orogeny, which did not only affect the southwestern boundary of the Siberian Craton, but also expanded to the craton interior. This study provides additional support for the evolution of the south-western portion of the Siberian SCLM, ranging from mantle containing phlogopite enrichment domains during the Early Devonian to hydrous-phase reduced mantle in the Triassic due to the thermal impact of the Siberian Traps.
DS202008-1365
2020
Abersteiner, A.Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Fedortchouk, Y., Ehrig, K., Kamenetsky, M.Evolution of kimberlite magmas in the crust: a case study of groundmass and mineral hosted inclusions in the Mark kimberlite ( Lac de Gras, Canada).Lithos, in press available, 55p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Kimberlites are the surface manifestation of deeply-derived (>150 km) and rapidly ascended magmas. Fresh kimberlite rocks are exceptionally rare, as most of them are invariably modified by pervasive deuteric and/or post-magmatic fluids that overprint the original mineralogy. In this study, we examined fresh archetypal kimberlite from the Mark pipe (Lac de Gras, Canada), which is characterised by well-preserved olivine and groundmass minerals. The sequence of crystallisation of the parental melt and its major compositional features, including oxygen fugacity, were reconstructed using textural relationships between magmatic minerals, their zoning patterns and crystal/melt/fluid inclusions. Crystal and multiphase primary, pseudosecondary and secondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine, Cr-diopside, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite/kinoshitalite, apatite and calcite preserve a record of different stages of kimberlite melt evolution. Melt/fluid inclusions are generally more depleted in silica and more enriched in alkalis (K, Na), alkali-earth (Ba, Sr) and halogens (Cl, F) relative to the whole-rock composition of the Mark kimberlite. These melt/fluid inclusion compositions, in combination with presence of elevated CaO (up to 1.73 wt%), in Mg-rich olivine rinds, crystallisation of groundmass kinoshitalite, carbonates (calcite, Sr-Ba-bearing) and alkali-enriched rims around apatite suggest that there was progressive enrichment in CO2, alkalis and halogens in the evolving parental melt. The Mark kimberlite groundmass is characterised by the following stages of in-situ crystallisation: (1) olivine rims around xenocrystic cores + Cr-spinel/TIMAC. (2) Mg-rich olivine rinds around olivine rims/cores + MUM-spinel (followed by pleonaste and Mg-magnetite) + monticellite (+ partial resorption of olivine, along with the formation of ferropericlase and CO2 as a result of decarbonation reactions) + perovskite + apatite. (3) Olivine outmost rinds, which are coeval with phlogopite/kinoshitalite + apatite + sulphides + carbonate (calcite, Ba-Sr-Na-bearing varieties). In addition, oxygen fugacity of the Mark kimberlite was constrained by olivine-chromite, perovskite and monticellite oxygen barometry and showed that the parental melt became progressively more oxidised in response to fractional crystallisation. (4) Deuteric (i.e. late-stage magmatic) and/or post-magmatic (i.e. external fluids) alteration of magmatic minerals (e.g., olivine, monticellite, ferropericlase) and crystallisation of mesostasis serpentine, K-bearing chlorite and brucite (i.e. replacement of ferropericlase). The absence of any alkali (Na, K) and halogen (F, Cl) rich groundmass minerals in the Mark kimberlite may be attributed to these elements becoming concentrated in the late-stage melt where they potentially formed unstable, water-soluble carbonates (such as those observed in melt inclusions). Consequently, these minerals were most likely removed from the groundmass by deuteric and/or post-magmatic alteration.
DS202008-1395
2019
Abersteiner, A.Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I., Korsakov, A.V., Abersteiner, A.Can primitive kimberlitic melts be alkali-carbonate liquids: composition of the melt snapshots preserved in deepest mantle xenoliths.Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5701 19p pdfRussiadeposit - Udachnaya-East

Abstract: The study of kimberlite rocks is important as they provide critical information regarding the composition and dynamics of the continental mantle and are the principal source of diamonds. Despite many decades of research, the original compositions of kimberlite melts, which are thought to be derived from depths > 150 km, remain highly debatable due to processes that can significantly modify their composition during ascent and emplacement. Snapshots of the kimberlite-related melts were entrapped as secondary melt inclusions hosted in olivine from sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East pipe (Siberian craton). These xenoliths originated from 180- to 220-km depth and are among the deepest derived samples of mantle rocks exposed at the surface. The crystallised melt inclusions contain diverse daughter mineral assemblages (>30 mineral species), which are dominated by alkali-rich carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides. The presence of aragonite as a daughter mineral suggests a high-pressure origin for these inclusions. Raman-mapping studies of unexposed inclusions show that they are dominated by carbonates (>65 vol.%), whereas silicates are subordinate (<13 vol.%). This indicates that the parental melt for the inclusions was carbonatitic. The key chemical features of this melt are very high contents of alkalis, carbon dioxide, chlorine, and sulfur and extremely low silica and water. Alkali-carbonate melts entrapped in xenolith minerals likely represent snapshots of the primitive kimberlite melt. This composition is in contrast with the generally accepted notion that kimberlites originated as ultramafic silicate water-rich melts. Experimental studies revealed that alkali-carbonate melts are a very suitable diamond-forming media. Therefore, our findings support the idea that some diamonds and kimberlite magmatism may be genetically related.
DS202008-1411
2020
Abersteiner, A.Korneeva, A.A., Nikolai, N.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Portnyagin, M.V., Savelyev, D.P., Krasheninnikov, S.P., Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Zelenski, M.E., Shcherbakov, V.D., Botcharnikov, R.E.Composition, crystallization conditions and genesis of sulfide saturated parental melts of olivine-phyric rocks from Kamchatsky Mys ( Kamchatka, Russia).Lithos, 10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105657Russia, Kamchatkapicrites

Abstract: Sulfide liquids that immiscibly separate from silicate melts in different magmatic processes accumulate chalcophile metals and may represent important sources of the metals in Earth's crust for the formation of ore deposits. Sulfide phases commonly found in some primitive mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) may support the occurrence of sulfide immiscibility in the crust without requiring magma contamination and/or extensive fractionation. However, the records of incipient sulfide melts in equilibrium with primitive high-Mg olivine and Cr-spinel are scarce. Sulfide globules in olivine phenocrysts in picritic rocks of MORB-affinity at Kamchatsky Mys (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia) represent a well-documented example of natural immiscibility in primitive oceanic magmas. Our study examines the conditions of silicate-sulfide immiscibility in these magmas by reporting high precision data on the compositions of Cr-spinel and silicate melt inclusions, hosted in Mg-rich olivine (86.9-90 mol% Fo), which also contain globules of magmatic sulfide melt. Major and trace element contents of reconstructed parental silicate melts, redox conditions (?QFM = +0.1 ± 0.16 (1s) log. units) and crystallization temperature (1200-1285 °C), as well as mantle potential temperatures (~1350 °C), correspond to typical MORB values. We show that nearly 50% of sulfur could be captured in daughter sulfide globules even in reheated melt inclusions, which could lead to a significant underestimation of sulfur content in reconstructed silicate melts. The saturation of these melts in sulfur appears to be unrelated to the effects of melt crystallization and crustal assimilation, so we discuss the reasons for the S variations in reconstructed melts and the influence of pressure and other parameters on the SCSS (Sulfur Content at Sulfide Saturation).
DS201706-1095
2017
Abert, C.Marshak, S., Domrois, S., Abert, C., Larson, T., Pavlis, G., Hamburger, M., Yang, X., Gilbert, H., Chen, C.The basement revealed: tectonic insight from a digital elevation model of the Great Unconformity, USA cratonic platform.Geology, Vol. 45, 5, pp. 391-394.United Statestectonics - Mid continent

Abstract: Across much of North America, the contact between Precambrian basement and Paleozoic strata is the Great Unconformity, a surface that represents a >0.4 b.y.-long hiatus. A digital elevation model (DEM) of this surface visually highlights regional-scale variability in the character of basement topography across the United States cratonic platform. Specifically, it delineates Phanerozoic tectonic domains, each characterized by a distinct structural wavelength (horizontal distance between adjacent highs) and/or structural amplitude (vertical distance between adjacent lows and highs). The largest domain, the Midcontinent domain, includes long-wavelength epeirogenic basins and domes, as well as fault-controlled steps. The pronounced change in land-surface elevation at the Rocky Mountain Front coincides with the western edge of the Midcontinent domain on the basement DEM. In the Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau domains, west of the Rocky Mountain Front, structural wavelength is significantly shorter and structural amplitude significantly higher than in the Midcontinent domain. The Bordering Basins domain outlines the southern and eastern edges of the Midcontinent domain. As emphasized by the basement DEM, several kilometers of structural relief occur across the boundary between these two domains, even though this boundary does not stand out on ground-surface topography. A plot of epicenters on the basement DEM supports models associating intraplate seismicity with the Midcontinent domain edge. Notably, certain changes in crustal thickness also coincide with distinct changes in basement depth.
DS201312-0003
2013
Abete, T.Abete, T.Deep carbonate recycling and metasomatic enrichment of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle inferred from mantle xenoliths of the East African Rift system.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractAfricaMetasomatism
DS201910-2240
2019
Abeykoon, S.Abeykoon, S., Frost, D.J., Laurenz, V., Miyajima, N.A new geothermometer based on the oxygen content of sulphide inclusions in diamonds.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Sulphides are the most common type of inclusions found in diamonds and are widely used to determine the timing and lithology of diamond formation. Typical inclusions are monosulfide solid solutions (MSS) in the Fe-Ni-S system with minor amounts of Cu, Co and Mo. Previous experimental studies show that oxygen partitions into sulphide melts but most importantly measurements of natural sulphide inclusions indeed show measureable oxygen concentrations. If the parameters that control sulphide oxygen concentration can be determined then they could be potentially used to understand formation conditions of diamonds. We performed a series of high pressure (3-11 GPa) and high temperature (1573-1973 K) experiments in order to parameterize the oxygen content in sulphides in equilibrium with a mantle peridotite assemblage relevant to diamond formation. Multi-anvil experiments were carried out in graphite capsules and a peridotite silicate composition was equilibrated with molten FeS for at least 5 hrs. Run products that contained mantle silicate minerals and quenched sulphide melts were analysed using the electron microprobe. In some cases Ir was added in sufficient quantities to saturate the sulphides and form an Fe-Ir alloy from which the oxygen fugacity could be accurately determined. We measured up to 16 weight % of FeO in our experimental sulphide melts at mantle conditions. Moreover, the content of oxygen in the sulphide is found to be not controlled by fO2 or fS2, which is in disagreement with previous experimental studies conducted at ambient pressure conditions. The experiments indicate that the oxygen concentration is mainly controlled by the FeO activity in coexisting silicate phases and the temperature. In order to fit the data and to account for the observed FeO dependence, we developed a thermodynamic model using an end-member equilibrium between olivine, pyroxene and FeO in the sulphide melt. Using this relationship with measurements of oxygen in natural sulphide inclusions in diamonds reveals temperatures for lithospheric diamond formation in the range of 1140 – 1410 ºC.
DS202006-0917
2020
Abeysinghe, B.Dushyantha, N., Batapola, N., Ilankoon, I.M.S.K., Rohitha, S., Premasiri, R., Abeysinghe, B., Ratnayake, N., Dissanayake, K.The story of rare earth elements ( REES): occurrences, global distribution, genesis, geology, mineralogy and global production.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 122, 17p. PdfGlobalREE

Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs) including fifteen lanthanides, yttrium and scandium are found in more than 250 minerals, worldwide. REEs are used in various high-tech applications across various industries, such as electrical and electronics, automotive, renewable energy, medical and defence. Therefore, the demand for REEs in the global market is increasing day by day due to the surging demand from various sectors, such as emerging economies, green technology and R&D sectors. Rare earth (RE) deposits are classified on the basis of their genetic associations, mineralogy and form of occurrences. The Bayan Obo, Mountain Pass, Mount Weld and China’s ion adsorption clays are the major RE deposits/mines in the world to date and their genesis, chronology and mineralogy are discussed in this review. In addition, there are other RE deposits, which are currently being mined or in the feasibility or exploration stages. Most of the RE resources, production, processing and supply are concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region. In this regard, China holds the dominancy in the RE industry by producing more than 90% of the current rare earth requirements. Thus, REEs are used as a powerful tool by China in trade wars against other countries, especially against USA in 2019. However, overwhelming challenges in conventional RE explorations and mining make secondary RE resources, such as electric and electronic waste (e-waste) and mine tailings as promising resources in the future. Due to the supply risk of REEs and the monopoly of the REEs market, REEs recycling is currently considered as an effective method to alleviate market fluctuations. However, economical and sustainable processing techniques are yet to be established to exploit REEs via recycling. Moreover, there are growing ecological concerns along with social resistance towards the RE industry. To overcome these issues, the RE industry needs to be assessed to maintain long-term social sustainability by fostering the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs).
DS201709-2067
2017
Abhinay, K.Upadhyay, D., Ranjan, S., Abhinay, K., Pruseth, K.L., Nanda, J.K.India-Antarica connection: constraints from deformed alkaline rocks and carbonatites.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: Deformed Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites (DARCs) are markers of suture zones where continents have rifted apart and later amalgamated [1]. Petrological and geochronological data indicates that parts of India and East Antarctica may have been involved in several episodes of collision and breakup during the assembly of past supercontinents [2]. DARCs at the eastern margin of the Eastern Ghats Province (EGP) in India preserve the record of these amalgamation and breakup events. It is thought that the Napier Complex of East Antarctica collided with the Dharwar Craton of India at ca. 1.60 Ga forming the central and eastern Indian shield [3]. New zircon U-Pb ages from DARCs at the EGP margin show that the alkaline complexes (Kamakhyanagar: 1350±14 Ma Rairakhol: 1379±6 Ma; Khariar: 1478±5 Ma; Koraput: 1387±34 Ma; Kunavaram: 1360±5 Ma; Jojuru: 1352±6 Ma) were emplaced in a narrow time interval. The alkaline magmatism marks an episode of rifting in the Indo-Antarctic continental fragment, correlatable with breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. Metamorphic zircon from the alkaline rocks furnish age populations at 917-950 Ma, 792- 806 Ma and 562-569 Ma. The 917-950 Ma ages are correlated with the closure of an oceanic basin between the Ruker Terrane of East Antarctica and the Indian Shield during the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. This led to the collision of the Ruker Terrane with the combined India-Napier Complex producing the Grenville-age EGPRayner Complex orogen [2, 3]. The 792-806 Ma ages record the disintegration of Rodinia when Greater India started to break away from East Antarctica [4]. In the early Paleozoic, India reconverged towards Antarctica and Australia during Gondwanaland assembly. The 562-569 Ma zircon ages date the resulting collisions during Pan-African orogenesis.
DS201710-2272
2017
Abhinay, K.Upadhyay, D., Ranjan, S., Abhinay, K., Pruseth, K.L., Nanda, J.K.India-Antarctica connection: constraints from deformed alkaline rocks and carbonatites.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractIndiacarbonatites

Abstract: Re-Os and platinum group element analyses are reported for peridotite xenoliths from the 533 Ma Venetia kimberlite cluster situated in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, the Neoarchaean collision zone between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. The Venetian xenoliths provide a rare opportunity to examine the state of the cratonic lithosphere prior to major regional metasomatic disturbance of Re-Os systematics throughout the Phanerozoic. The 32 studied xenoliths record Si-enrichment that is characteristic of the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle and can be subdivided into five groups based on Re-Os analyses. The most pristine group I samples (n = 13) display an approximately isochronous relationship and fall on a 3.28 ± 0.17 Ga (95 % conf. int.) reference line that is based on their mean TMA age. This age overlaps with the formation age of the Limpopo crust at 3.35-3.28 Ga. The group I samples derive from ~50 to ~170 km depth, suggesting coeval melt depletion of the majority of the Venetia lithospheric mantle column. Group II and III samples have elevated Re/Os due to Re addition during kimberlite magmatism. Group II has otherwise undergone a similar evolution as the group I samples with overlapping 187Os/188Os at eruption age: 187Os/188OsEA, while group III samples have low Os concentrations, unradiogenic 187Os/188OsEA and were effectively Re-free prior to kimberlite magmatism. The other sample groups (IV and V) have disturbed Re-Os systematics and provide no reliable age information. A strong positive correlation is recorded between Os and Re concentrations for group I samples, which is extended to groups II and III after correction for kimberlite addition. This positive correlation precludes a single stage melt depletion history and indicates coupled remobilisation of Re and Os. The combination of Re-Os mobility, preservation of the isochronous relationship, correlation of 187Os/188Os with degree of melt depletion and lack of radiogenic Os addition puts tight constraints on the formation and subsequent evolution of Venetia lithosphere. First, melt depletion and remobilisation of Re and Os must have occurred within error of the 3.28 Ga mean TMA age. Second, the refractory peridotites contain significant Re despite recording >40 % melt extraction. Third, assuming that Si-enrichment and Re-Os mobility in the Venetia lithospheric mantle were linked, this process must have occurred within ~100 Myr of initial melt depletion in order to preserve the isochronous relationship. Based on the regional geological evolution, we propose a rapid recycling model with initial melt depletion at ~3.35 Ga to form a tholeiitic mafic crust that is recycled at ~3.28 Ga, resulting in the intrusion of a TTG suite and Si-enrichment of the lithospheric mantle. The non-zero primary Re contents of the Venetia xenoliths imply that TRD model ages significantly underestimate the true depletion age even for highly depleted peridotites. The overlap of the ~2.6 Ga TRD ages with the time of the Kaapvaal-Limpopo collision is purely fortuitous and has no geological significance. Hence, this study underlines the importance of scrutiny if age information is to be derived from whole rock Re-Os analyses.
DS200712-0001
2007
Abo-Ezz, E.R.Abdelrahman, E.M., Abo-Ezz, E.R., Soliman, K.S., El-Araby, T.M., Essa, K.S.A least squares window curve method for interpretation of magnetic anomalies caused by dipping dikes.Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 164, 5, May pp. 1027-1044.CanadaGeophysics - airborne magnetics
DS2002-0007
2002
Aboriginal Community Development and the Mineral IndustryAboriginal Community Development and the Mineral IndustryAnnual conference proceedings Vol.s, 1993-2001 listing of conference proceedingsCanadaMineral development - partnerships, legal
DS1990-1386
1990
Abouassaleh, K.Sobolev, N.V., Abouassaleh, K., Kepezhinskas, K.B., ledneva, V.P.Lamprophyres of Cretaceous diatremes of the Syrian rift.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 314, No. 2, pp. 435-439SyriaLamprophyres, Diatremes
DS1992-0138
1992
Abouchami, W.Boher, M., Abouchami, W., Michard, A., Albarede, F., Arndt, N.T.Crustal growth in West Africa at 2.1 GaJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. B1, January 10, pp. 345-369GlobalGeophysics, Craton
DS1989-0002
1989
Abouchamy, W.Abouchamy, W., Boher, M., Michard, A., Albarede, E., et al.Crustal growth in West Africa at 2.1 Ga: preliminary resultsEos, Vol. 70, No. 15, April 11, p. 485. (abstract.)West Africa, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Ivory CoastGhana, Burkina Faso, Tectonics, Geochronology
DS1991-1095
1991
Abousetta, A.McClay, K.R., Waltham, D.A., Scott, A.D., Abousetta, A.Physical and seismic modelling of listric normal fault geometriesThe geometry of normal faults, editors Roberts, A.M., Yielding, G., No. 56, pp. 231-239GlobalStructure -faults, Fault geometry -listric
DS2001-0003
2001
Abraham, A.C.Abraham, A.C., Francis, D., Polve, M.Recent alkaline basalts as probes of the lithospheric mantle roots of the Northern Canadian Cordillera.Chemical Geology, Vol. 175, pp. 361-86.Yukon, British Columbia, CordilleraTectonics, Geochronology
DS2003-0423
2003
Abraham, A.C.Francis, D., Abraham, A.C.Interrogating the Cordillera lithosphere with mafic volcanics and mantle xenolithsGeological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyNorthwest TerritoriesXenoliths
DS200412-0577
2003
Abraham, A.C.Francis, D., Abraham, A.C.Interrogating the Cordillera lithosphere with mafic volcanics and mantle xenoliths.Geological Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Abstract onlyCanada, Northwest TerritoriesXenoliths
DS1994-0008
1994
Abraham, A.P.G.Abraham, A.P.G., Davis, D.W., Kamo, S.L., Spooner, E.T.C.Geochronlogical constraints on late Archean magmatism deformation and gold quartz vein mineralization AnialikCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 8, Aug. pp. 1365-1383Northwest TerritoriesGreenstone belt, gold, deformation, Anialik River
DS1995-0005
1995
Abraham, A.P.G.Abraham, A.P.G., Spooner, E.T.C.Late Archean regional deformation and structural controls on gold quartzvein mineralization Slave ProvinceCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 8, Aug. pp. 1132-1171Northwest TerritoriesGold, structure, tectonics, Anialik greenstone belt
DS1860-0529
1887
Abraham, F.Abraham, F.Die Diamant Gesellschaften SuedafrikasBerlin: Steinitz, 115P.Africa, South AfricaHistory, Economics
DS200412-1532
2003
AbrahamsenPersonen, L.J., Elming, Mertansen, Pisarvesky, D' Agrilla Filho, Meert, Schmidt, Abrahamsen, BylundPaleomagnetic configuration of continents during the Proterozoic.Tectonophysics, Vol. 375, 1-4, pp. 289-324.MantleMagnetics
DS201112-0280
2011
Abrajevitch, A.Dominguez, A.R., Van der Voo, R., Torsvik, T.H., Hendriks, B.W.H, Abrajevitch, A., Domeier, M., Larsen, B.T., Rousse, S.The ~270 Ma paleolatitude of Baltica and its significance for Pangea models.Geophysical Journal International, In press availableEurope, Baltic ShieldGeochronology
DS200612-1129
2006
Abramov, S.S.Rass, I.T., Abramov, S.S., Utenkov, V.A., Kozlovskii, V.M., Korpechkov, D.I.Role of fluid in the genesis of carbonatites and alkaline rocks: geochemical evidence.Geochemistry International, Vol. 44, 7. pp. 656-664.RussiaCarbonatite
DS202007-1121
2020
Abramov, S.S.Abramov, S.S., Rass, I.T., Kononkova, N.N.Fenites of the Miaskite carbonatite complex in the Vishnevye Mountains, southern Urals, Russia: origin of the metasomatic zoning and thermodynamic simulations of the processes.Petrology, Vol. 28, 3, pp. 298-323. pdfRussia, Uralscarbonatite

Abstract: Mineral zoning in fenites around miaskite intrusions of the Vishnevye Mountains complex can be interpreted as a magmatic-replacement zonal metasomatic aureole (in D.S. Korzhinskii’s understanding): the metasomatic transformations of the fenitized gneisses under the effect of deep alkaline fluid eventually resulted in the derivation of nepheline syenite eutectic melt. Based on the P-T-fO2 parameters calculated from the composition of minerals coexisting in the successive zones, isobaric-isothermal fO2-aSiO2 and µNa2O-µAl2O3 sections were constructed with the Perplex program package to model how the fenites interacted with H2O-CO2 fluid (in the Na-K-Al-Si-Ca-Ti-Fe-Mg-O-H-C system). The results indicate that the fluid-rock interaction mechanisms are different in the outer (fenite) and inner (migmatite) parts of the zonal aureole. Its outer portion was dominated by desilication of rocks, which led, first, to quartz disappearance from these rocks and then to an increase in the Al# of the coexisting minerals (biotite and clinopyroxene). In the inner part of the aureole, fenite transformations into biotite-feldspathic metasomatic rocks and nepheline migmatite were triggered by an increase in the Na and Al activities in the system alkaline H2O-CO2 fluid-rock. As a consequence, the metasomatites were progressively enriched in Al2O3 and alkalis, and these transformations led to the development of biotite in equilibrium with K-Na feldspar and calcite at the sacrifice of pyroxene. The further introduction of alkalis led to the melting of the biotite-feldspathic metasomatites and the origin of nepheline migmatites. The simulated model sequence of metasomatic zones that developed when the gneiss was fenitized and geochemical features of the successive zones (differences in the LILE and REE concentrations in the rocks and minerals of the fenitization aureole and the Sm-Nd isotope systematics of the rocks of the alkaline complex) indicate that the source of the fluid responsible for the origin of zonal fenite-miaskite complexes may have been carbonatite, a derivative of mantle magmas, whereas the miaskites were produced by metasomatic transformations of gneisses and subsequent melting under the effect of fluid derived from carbonatite magmas.
DS202010-1824
2020
Abramov, S.S.Abramov, S.S., Rass, I.T., Kononkova, N.N.Fenites of the Miasite-carbonatite complex in the Vishevye Mountains, southern Urals, Russia: origin of the metasomatic zoning and thermodynamic simulations of the processes.Petrology, Vol. 28, 3, pp. 263-286.Russia, Uralscarbonatite

Abstract: Mineral zoning in fenites around miaskite intrusions of the Vishnevye Mountains complex can be interpreted as a magmatic-replacement zonal metasomatic aureole (in D.S. Korzhinskii’s understanding): the metasomatic transformations of the fenitized gneisses under the effect of deep alkaline fluid eventually resulted in the derivation of nepheline syenite eutectic melt. Based on the P-T-fO2 parameters calculated from the composition of minerals coexisting in the successive zones, isobaric-isothermal fO2-aSiO2 and µNa2O-µAl2O3 sections were constructed with the Perplex program package to model how the fenites interacted with H2O-CO2 fluid (in the Na-K-Al-Si-Ca-Ti-Fe-Mg-O-H-C system). The results indicate that the fluid-rock interaction mechanisms are different in the outer (fenite) and inner (migmatite) parts of the zonal aureole. Its outer portion was dominated by desilication of rocks, which led, first, to quartz disappearance from these rocks and then to an increase in the Al# of the coexisting minerals (biotite and clinopyroxene). In the inner part of the aureole, fenite transformations into biotite-feldspathic metasomatic rocks and nepheline migmatite were triggered by an increase in the Na and Al activities in the system alkaline H2O-CO2 fluid-rock. As a consequence, the metasomatites were progressively enriched in Al2O3 and alkalis, and these transformations led to the development of biotite in equilibrium with K-Na feldspar and calcite at the sacrifice of pyroxene. The further introduction of alkalis led to the melting of the biotite-feldspathic metasomatites and the origin of nepheline migmatites. The simulated model sequence of metasomatic zones that developed when the gneiss was fenitized and geochemical features of the successive zones (differences in the LILE and REE concentrations in the rocks and minerals of the fenitization aureole and the Sm-Nd isotope systematics of the rocks of the alkaline complex) indicate that the source of the fluid responsible for the origin of zonal fenite-miaskite complexes may have been carbonatite, a derivative of mantle magmas, whereas the miaskites were produced by metasomatic transformations of gneisses and subsequent melting under the effect of fluid derived from carbonatite magmas.
DS1975-0218
1976
Abramov, V.A.Abramov, V.A., Popolitov, E.I.Geochemical Properties of Xenoliths of Upper Mantle RocksDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 231, No. 1-6, PP. 172-175.RussiaGeochemistry, Kimberlite, Garnet
DS202010-1843
2020
Abramova, V.D.Erofeeva, K.G., Samsonov, A.V., Stepanova, A.V., Larionova, Yu.O., Dubinina, E.O., Egorova, S.V., Arzamastesev, A.A., Kovalchuk, E.V., Abramova, V.D.Olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts as a proxy for the origin and crustal evolution of primary mantle melts: a case study of 2.40 Ga mafic sills in the Kola-Norwegian Terrane, northern Fennoscandia.Petrology, Vol. 28, 4, pp. 338-356. pdfEurope, Norway, Kola Peninsulamelting

Abstract: New petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and d18?) data on olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts provide constraints on the composition and crustal evolution of primary melts of Paleoproterozoic (2.40 Ga) picrodoleritic sills in the northwest Kola province, Fennoscandian Shield. The picrodolerites form differentiated sills with S-shaped compositional profiles. Their chilled margins comprise porphyritic picrodolerite (upper margin) and olivine gabbronorite (bottom) with olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Analysis of the available data allows us to recognize three main stages in the crystallization of mineral assemblages. The central parts of large (up to 2 mm) olivine phenocrysts (Ol-1-C) crystallized at the early stage. This olivine (Mg# 85-92) is enriched in Ni (from 2845 to 3419 ppm), has stable Ni/Mg ratio, low Ti, Mn and Co concentrations, and contains tiny (up to 10 µm) diopside-spinel dendritic lamella that probably originated due to the exsolution from high Ca- and Cr- primary magmatic olivine. All these features of Ol-1-C are typical of olivine from primitive picritic and komatiitic magmas (De Hoog et al., 2010; Asafov et al., 2018). Ol-1-C contains large (up to 0.25 mm) crystalline inclusions of high-Al enstatite (Mg# 80-88) and clinopyroxene (Mg# 82-90), occasionally in association with Ti-pargasite and chromian spinel (60.4 wt.% Al2O3). These inclusions are regarded as microxenoliths of wall rock that were captured by primary melt at depths more than 30 km and preserved due to the conservation in magmatic olivine. The second stage was responsible for the crystallization of Ol-1 rim (Ol-1-R), small (up to 0.3 mm) olivine (Ol-2, Mg# 76-85) grains, and central parts of large (up to 1.5 mm) clinopyroxene (Cpx-C) phenocrysts in the mid-crustal transitional magma chamber (at a depth of 15-20 km) at 1160-1350°C. At the third stage, Cpx-C phenocrysts were overgrown by low-Mg rims (Mg# 70-72) similar in composition to the groundmass clinopyroxene from chilled picrodolerite and gabbro-dolerite in the central parts of the sills. This stage likely completed the evolution of picrodoleritic magma and occurred in the upper crust at a depth of about 5 km. All stages of picrodoleritic magma crystallization were accompanied by contamination. Primary melts were contaminated by upper mantle and/or lower crust as recognized from xenocrystic inclusions in Ol-1-C. The second contamination stage is supported by the negative values of eNd(2.40) = -1.1 in clinopyroxene phenocrysts. At the third stage, contamination likely occurred in the upper crust when ascending melts filled gentle fractures. This caused vertical whole-rock Nd heterogeneity in the sills (Erofeeva et al., 2019), and difference in Nd isotopic composition of clinopyroxene phenocrysts and doleritic groundmass. It was also recognized that residual evolved melts are enriched in radiogenic strontium but have neodymium isotopic composition similar to other samples. It could be explained by the interaction of the melts with fluid formed via decomposition of biotite from surrounding gneisses under the effect of high-temperature melts.
DS1990-0102
1990
Abramovich, I.I.Abramovich, I.I., Klushin, I.G.Geodynamics and metallogeny of folded beltsA.a. Balkema Publ, 255pRussiaBook -ad, Metallogeny -folded belts
DS1986-0797
1986
Abramovich, M.G.Tauson, V.L., Abramovich, M.G.Polymorphism of crystals and phase dimensional effect: graphite- diamondtransformation. (Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 287, No. 1, pp. 201-205RussiaDiamond morphology
DS1987-0727
1987
Abramovitch, M.G.Tauson, V.L., Abramovitch, M.G.Polymorphism of crystals and the phase size effect: the graphite diamondtransitionDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 287, No. 1-6, pp. 148-152RussiaBlank
DS1997-0006
1997
Abramovitz, T.Abramovitz, T., Berthelsen, A., Thybo, H.Proterozoic sutures and terranes in the southeastern Baltic Shield interpreted from BABEL deep seismic data.Tectonophysics, Vol. 270, No. 3/4, March 15, pp. 259-278.Sweden, Norway, Baltic ShieldGeophysics - seismic BABEL, Tectonics
DS2002-0122
2002
Abramovitz, T.Bayer, U., Thybo, H., Abramovitz, T.Inter wedging and inversion structures around the trans European suture zone in the Baltic sea, a manifestation of compressive tectonic phases.Tectonophysics, Vol. 360, 1-4, pp. 265-80.Europe, Baltic SeaTectonics
DS1983-0527
1983
Abrams, G.Raab, P., Moss, C., Abrams, G.Aeromagnetic Dat a from Southeastern MissouriUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) GD 83-004, DOI/DF 83-005., GlobalMid Continent
DS1990-0103
1990
Abrams, G.A.Abrams, G.A., Grauch, V.J., Bankey, V.Complete bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Uinta and Piceance basins andvicinity, Utah and ColoradoUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. MF-2008-D, 1 : 500, 000Utah, Colorado PlateauGeophysics -gravity, Map
DS1994-0009
1994
Abrams, G.A.Abrams, G.A., Knepper, D.H.Complete bouguer gravity anomaly isostatic residual gravity, gradient and terrain mapsUnited States Geological Survey (USGS), GP-1009, 1: 1 M.ColoradoGeophysics -gravity, Map
DS1993-1808
1993
Abramson, E.H.Zaug, J.M., Abramson, E.H., Brown, J.M., Slutsky, L.J.Second velocites in olivine at earth mantle pressuresScience, Vol. 260, No. 5113, June 4, pp. 1487-1488.MantleOlivine
DS200812-0001
2008
Abrates, M.Abrates, M., Viererck-Goette, L., Ulyych, J., Munsel, D.Melilitic rocks of the CECIP examples from Vogtland W. Bohemia.Goldschmidt Conference 2008, Abstract p.A2.Europe, Germany, Czech RepublicMelilitite
DS2000-0350
2000
AbreuGorayeb, P.S.S., Moura, C.A.V., Gaudette, H.E., AbreuTransamazonic evolution of Sao Luis Craton and northwest Ceara Brasil - and its coerrelation with west Africa.Igc 30th. Brasil, Aug. abstract only 1p.Brazil, West AfricaCraton - tectonics, Magmatism
DS1983-0001
1983
Abreu, P.D.A.Abreu, P.D.A., Munhoz, D.T.V.A Paleogeographic Reconstruction and a Study of Heavy Minerals As An indicator of Primary Diamond Sources in the Serra Do Espinhaco, Minasgerais.(in Portugese).In: Geology of the Precambrian, Geological Society Brasil, Geol. Bol, Vol. 3, pp. 219-234BrazilHeavy Minerals, Alluvials
DS201709-1949
2017
Abritis, A.Abritis, A., McCook, A.Cash bonuses for peer reviewed papers go global. Overview citing Chin a excessive payments.Retraction Watch, Aug. 10, 3p.Global, Chinaresearch papers

Abstract: China is well known for the generous bonuses it pays scientists who land a peer-reviewed publication in a prestigious research journal. But scientists in many countries are reaping similar bounties. After spotting a discussion on a scholarship listserv about the topic, we dug further to find official documents on such payments from institutions named in the thread. Searching the internet using key terms such as “publishing cash incentives” and “schemes cash publishing” widened our net. We relied mostly on online documents in English, so we surely missed some policies. The numbers in the graphic below represent the maximum amounts we uncovered at a particular institution in a specific country. Even under those constraints, we documented publishing incentives from all corners of the globe, including at a number of U.S. institutions. Awards are primarily cash; some are as small as the $10 that Oakwood University in Huntsville, Alabama, bestows on authors when their papers are cited in the literature. Some institutions designate payments for faculty members, whereas others reward student authors.
DS2001-1057
2001
AbsarShanker, R., Nag, S., Ganguly, A., Absar, Rawat, SinghAre Majhgawan Hinota pipe rocks truly group I kimberlite?Indian Acad. Sciences Earth and Plan., Vol. 110, No. 1, pp. 63-76.IndiaKimberlite - classification, Deposit - Majhgawan
DS1998-1582
1998
Abson, J.P.Williams, C.M., Robey, J.A., Abson, J.P.Petrography and mineral chemistry of the Mwenezi - 01 kimberlite, Zimbabwe.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 955-7.ZimbabwePetrography, geothermometry, Deposit - Mwenezi-01
DS201312-0957
2013
Abson, J.P.Ward, J.D., De Wit, M.C., Revitt, A.W., Abson, J.P.Geological and economic aspects of the Proterozoic Umkondo Group diamond placer near Marange, Zimbabwe.Geoforum , 32ppt. AvailableAfrica, ZimbabweDeposit - Marange area
DS1989-0003
1989
Abstract volumeAbstract volumeMining environment in the '90s. 95th Annual ConventionNorthwest Mining Association, Dec. 6-8, 1989GlobalNorthwest Mining Convention, Mineral deposits
DS201112-1146
2011
Abt, D.Yuan, H., Romanowicz, B., Fischer, K., Abt, D.3-D shear wave radially and azimuthally anisotropic velocity model of the North American upper mantle.Geophysical Journal International, in press Jan. 17Canada, United StatesGeophysics - seismics
DS201012-0200
2010
Abt, D.L.Fischer, K.M., Ford, H.A., Abt, D.L., Rychert, C.A.The lithosphere asthenosphere boundary.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 38, pp. 551-575.MantleBoundary
DS201112-0334
2010
Abt, D.L.Ford, H.A., Fischer, K.M., Abt, D.L., Rychert, C.A., Elkins-Tanton, L.T.The lithosphere asthenosphere boundary and cratonic lithospheric layering beneath Australia from Sp wave imaging.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 300, 3-4, pp. 299-310.AustraliaGeophysics - seismics
DS201312-0004
2013
Abu-Alam, T.S.Abu-Alam, T.S., Santosh, M., Brown, M.,Stuwe, K.Gondwana collision.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 107, pp. 631-634.MantleKenoraland
DS1989-0004
1989
Abyzov, A.M.Abyzov, A.M., Smirnov, E.P.Chromatographic spectra of thermal-description of CO, CO2, and H2O from graphite and diamond.(Russian)Kinet. Catal., (Russian), Vol. 30, No. 4, Jul-Aug. pp. 796-802RussiaDiamond morphology, Chromatographic spectra
DS201012-0001
2010
Abzalov, M.Z.Abzalov, M.Z.Use of twinned drillholes in mineral resource estimation.Exploration and Mining Geology, Vol. 118, 1-4, pp. 13-23.TechnologyQuality control - not specific to diamonds
DS201809-2100
2018
Accardo, N.Tepp, G., Ebinger, C.J., Zal, H., Gallacher, R., Accardo, N., Shillington, D.J., Gaherty, J., Keir, D., Nyblade, A.A., Mbogoni, G.J., Chindandali, P.R.N., Ferdinand-Wambura, R., Mulibo, G.D., Kamihanda, G.Seismic anistrotropy of the Upper mantle below the western rfit, East Africa.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 123, 7, pp. 5644-5660.Africa, east Africageophysics - seismic

Abstract: Although the East African rift system formed in cratonic lithosphere above a large-scale mantle upwelling, some sectors have voluminous magmatism, while others have isolated, small-volume eruptive centers. We conduct teleseismic shear wave splitting analyses on data from 5 lake-bottom seismometers and 67 land stations in the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi rift zone, including the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP), and from 5 seismometers in the Kivu rift and Virunga Volcanic Province, to evaluate rift-perpendicular strain, rift-parallel melt intrusion, and regional flow models for seismic anisotropy patterns beneath the largely amagmatic Western rift. Observations from 684 SKS and 305 SKKS phases reveal consistent patterns. Within the Malawi rift south of the RVP, fast splitting directions are oriented northeast with average delays of ~1 s. Directions rotate to N-S and NNW north of the volcanic province within the reactivated Mesozoic Rukwa and southern Tanganyika rifts. Delay times are largest (~1.25 s) within the Virunga Volcanic Province. Our work combined with earlier studies shows that SKS-splitting is rift parallel within Western rift magmatic provinces, with a larger percentage of null measurements than in amagmatic areas. The spatial variations in direction and amount of splitting from our results and those of earlier Western rift studies suggest that mantle flow is deflected by the deeply rooted cratons. The resulting flow complexity, and likely stagnation beneath the Rungwe province, may explain the ca. 17 Myr of localized magmatism in the weakly stretched RVP, and it argues against interpretations of a uniform anisotropic layer caused by large-scale asthenospheric flow or passive rifting.
DS201212-0001
2012
Accredited Gemologists AssociationAccredited Gemologists AssociationThrough the looking glass - the future of diamonds. Panel discussion - Lucent new technology; HPHT diamond technology; Diamond supply? (Coopersmith)Conference Las Vegas May 31, Held May 31TechnologyPanel discussion
DS201702-0234
2016
Acededo, R.D.Presser, J.L.B., Farina-Dolsa, S., Larroza-Cristaldo, F.A., Rocca, M., Alonso, R.N., Acededo, R.D., Cabral-Antunez, N.D., Baller, L., Zarza-Lima, P.R., Sekatcheff, J.M.Modeled mega impact structures in Paraguay: II the eastern region. **PortBoletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Narural del Paraguay, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 205-213. pdf available in * PortSouth America, ParaguayImpact Crater

Abstract: We report here the discovery and study of several new modeled large impact craters in Eastern Paraguay, South America. They were studied by geophysical information (gravimetry, magnetism), field geology and also by microscopic petrography. Clear evidences of shock metamorphic effects were found (e.g., diaplectic glasses, PF, PDF in quartz and feldspar) at 4 of the modeled craters: 1) Negla: diameter:~80-81 km., 2) Yasuka Renda D:~96 km., 3) Tapyta, D: ~80 km. and 4) San Miguel, D: 130-136 km. 5) Curuguaty, D: ~110 km. was detected and studied only by geophysical information. Target-rocks range goes from the crystalline Archaic basement to Permian sediments. The modeled craters were in some cases cut by tholeiitic/alkaline rocks of Mesozoic age and partially covered by lavas of the basaltic Mesozoic flows (Negla, Yasuka Renda, Tapyta and Curuguaty). One of them was covered in part by sediments of Grupo Caacupé (age: Silurian/Devonian). Some of these modeled craters show gold, diamonds, uranium and REE mineral deposits associated. All new modeled large impact craters are partially to markedly eroded.
DS201707-1359
2017
Acevedo, R.D.Presser, J.L.B., Vladykin, N.V., Bitschene, P.R., Tondo, M.J., Acevedo, R.D., Alonso, R., Benitez, P.Olivine-lamproite from Ybtyruzu lamproite field, eastern Paraguay. *** In SpaPyroclastic Flow *** Spa, Vol. 7, 1, pp. 1-15.South America, Paraguaylamproite

Abstract: Numerous Mesozoic bodies of lamproite-like intrusions are located NE and E of the city of Villarrica, Guairá Department, in eastern Paraguay. This magmatic field, known as Ybytyruzú Field, lies immediately on the margin of the SW part of Paranapanemá cratonic-block, just of the Asunción rift backs-horst and so related to deep crustal/lithospheric fracture zones.Mostly of observed rocks are weathered, however fresh samples were collected in dykes from Acaty (=Yzu-2), Tacuarita (=Yzu-7); lava/breccias from Mbocayaty (=Yzu-3); and sill from Salto Boni (=Yzu-6). They intrude, both, the sediments (Independencia Group and Misiones Formation) and the tholeiitic basalts of the Paraná Basin. In the present study we have performed petrographic and mineral chemistry data to show that all of the study rocks, from the Ybytyruzú Field, are lamproites (leucite lamproite from Yzu-2/Yzu-3/Yzu-7 and sanidine lamproite from Yzu-6).With respect to Yzu-2, Yzu-3 and Yzu-6, the following analyzes show the lamproite character: -phenocrysts/microphenocrysts of: olivine (mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe)) 0.80-0.85), Al-poor diopside (Al2O3 0.53-2.09% and TiO2 0.65-1.61%), phlogopite/Al-poor-Ti phlogopite (mg# 0.76-0.85, TiO2 5.8-10.2% and Al2O3 12.7-13.9%), Mg-Ti magnetites and leucite (pseudomorphs). -and matrix phases of: Al-poor diopside (Al2O3 0.39-2.46% and TiO2 0.43-1.55%), Al-poor-Ti phlogopite/biotite (mg# 0.57-0.80, TiO2 5.6-10.2% and Al2O3 8.9-12.8%), Mg-Ti magnetites/Ti-magnetites; sanidine (0-4.0% Fe2O3, 0-2.6% BaO and 0-2.5% Na2O). And as accessory phases, ilmenite (0.2-5.7% MgO and 0.3-6.6% MnO), K and Ti-rich Feeckermanite/richterite (1.32-3.6% K2O and 4.7-9.0% TiO2), K-rich Fe-Mg-Mn amphiboles, apatite and quartz (Yzu-6). And so, Ybytyruzú lamproite-like intrusions authenticates the true lamproitic province in Paraguay. III; INTERNATIONAL, 2000 BRAZIL 2000; 3 1ST INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS; ABSTRACTS VOLUME
DS1995-0736
1995
Achache, J.Hamoudi, M., Achache, J., Cohen, Y.Global Magsat anomaly maps at ground levelEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 133, No. 3-4, July 15, pp. 533-548GlobalGeophysics -Magsat
DS1998-0570
1998
Achache, J.Hamoudi, M., Cohen, Y., Achache, J.Can the thermal thickness of the continental lithosphere be estimated from Magsat data.Tectonophysics, Vol. 284, No. 1-2, Jan. 15, pp. 19-29.MantleGeophysics - MAGSAT., Crustal thickness
DS201112-1026
2011
AchardTallaire, A., Barjon, J., Brinza, O., Achard, Silva, Mille, Issaoui, Tardieu, GicquelDislocations and impurities introduced from etch-pitts at the epitaxial growth resumption of diamond.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 20, 7, pp. 875-881.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS200612-1508
2005
Achard, J.Wang, W., Tallaire, A., Hall, M.S., Moses, T.M., Achard, J., Sussmans, R.S., Gicquel, A.Experimental CVD synthetic diamonds form LIMPH-CNRD France.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, 3, Fall, pp. 234244.TechnologySynthetic diamonds
DS200612-0875
2001
Acharya, G.R.Mathew, M.P., Ramachandra, H.M., Gouda, H.C., Singh, R.K., Acharya, G.R., Murthy, C.V.V.S., Rao, K.S.IGRF corrected regional aeromagnetic anomaly map of parts of Peninsular India - potential for mapping and mineral exploration.National Seminar on Exploration Survey, Geological Society of India Special Publication, No. 58, pp. 395-405.India, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, KeralaGeophysics - magnetics
DS1991-0002
1991
Acharya, S.Acharya, S., Anand, S., Reddy, B.R., Das, R.P.Processing of kimberlite tailings to recover magnesium as MgO or MgSO417th. International Mineral Proceedings Congress, Preprints, pp. 199-209.IndiaMineral processing, Kimberlite tailinsg -magnesiuM.
DS1991-1403
1991
Acharya, S.Reddy, B.R., Acharya, S., Anand, S., Das, R.P.Preparation and characterization of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate From kimberlite tailingsJournal of Thermal Analysis, Vol. 37, No. 5, May pp. 945-951GlobalMining, Mineral processing -tailings
DS1998-0006
1998
Acharyva, S.K.Acharyva, S.K.Break up of East Gondwana Indo-Australian continent: dispersal and accretionary history continental blocks.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 27, 1A, p. 2. AbstractGondwana, India, AustraliaTectonics, Accretion
DS1989-1371
1989
Acharyya, S.K.Sengupta, S., Acharyya, S.K., Van Den Hul, H.J., Chattopadhyay, B.Geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Naga Hillsophiolites,northeast India and their inferred tectonic settingJournal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 146, No. 3, May pp. 491-498IndiaHarzburgite, Tectonics
DS1990-1334
1990
Acharyya, S.K.Sengupta, S., Ray, K.K., Acharyya, S.K., de Smeth, J.B.Nature of ophiolite occurrences along the eastern margin of the Indian plate and their tectonicsignificanceGeology, Vol. 18, No. 5, May pp. 439-442IndiaOphiolites, Tectonics
DS2001-0979
2001
AchauerRitter, J.R.R., Jordan, M., Christensen, U.R., AchauerA mantle plume below the Eifel volcanic fields, GermanyEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 186, No. 1, pp. 7-14.GlobalTomography, Hot spot
DS1989-0324
1989
Achauer, U.Dahlheim, H.A., Davis, P., Achauer, U.Teleseismic investigation of the East African Rift- KenyaJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 2/3/4, pp. 461-470KenyaTectonics, Rifting
DS1991-0603
1991
Achauer, U.Green, W.V., Achauer, U., Meyer, R.P.A three dimensional seismic image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Kenya riftNature, Vol. 354, No. 6350, November 21, pp. 199-203KenyaMantle, Tectonics -rifting Kenya Rift
DS1992-0004
1992
Achauer, U.Achauer, U.A study of the Kenya rift using delay time tomography analysis and gravitymodelingTectonophysics, Vol. 209, pp. 197-207East Africa, KenyaTectonics, Geophysics -gravity
DS1995-0006
1995
Achauer, U.Achauer, U., Ritter, J.R.R.Upper mantle structure of the Kenya Rift based on joint interpretation of delay time tomography - bouguer dataGeological Society Africa 10th. Conference Oct. Nairobi, pp. 137-8. Abstract.KenyaTectonics, Geophysics -gravity
DS2003-0002
2003
Achchepkov, I.V.Achchepkov, I.V.Empirical garnet thermobarometer for mantle peridotitesGeological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.326.Russia, Northwest TerritoriesGeothermometry
DS200412-0002
2003
Achchepkov, I.V.Achchepkov, I.V.Empirical garnet thermobarometer for mantle peridotites.Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Nov. 2-5, Abstracts p.326.Russia, Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGeothermometry
DS201609-1734
2010
Acker, A.Olivier, D., Bornman, F., Roode, L., Acker, A.Finsch mine treatment plant upgrade project.The 4th Colloquium on Diamonds - source to use held Gabarone March 1-3, 2010, 14p.Africa, South AfricaDeposit - Finsch

Abstract: De Beers' Finsch Mine is situated in the Northern Cape ,province, 170 km northwest of Kimberley. The concentrator facility, designed and constructed by Bateman Engineering, was commissioned in 1967 and upgraded in 1979 using diamond liberation and extraction technology available at the time of design. Since then significant advances in diamond processing and technology have been made and these -have been incorporated into the new main treatment plant and recovery plant flowsheets, making diamond liberation and recovery from the Pre-1979 dumps a viable economic option at Finsch." Significant challenges were experienced as a result of the integration of new technology and its associated infrastructure into an existing plant. Major process flow changes were implemented during the execution phase of the project. The combined effect of these issues resulted in the project being overspent by 25% and the final handover to the Client was some 18 months later than originally planned." The paper highlights some of the difficulties experienced as a result of changes made during the execution phases of the project.
DS1910-0172
1911
Ackere, J. Van.Coppieters, D., Ackere, J. Van.La Regime Minier du Congo BelgeBrussels:, 288P.Democratic Republic of Congo, Central AfricaMining Industry, Kimberley
DS200912-0001
2009
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Walker, R.J., Puchtel, I.S., Pitcher, L., Jelinek, E., Strnad, L.Effects of melt percolation on highly siderophile elements and Os isotopes in subcontinental lithospheric mantle: a study of upper mantle profile central EuropeGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 73, 8, pp. 2400-2414.Europe, Czech RepublicGeochonology
DS201112-0002
2011
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Spacek, P., Svojtka, M.Pyroxenite xenoliths from Cenozoic alkaline basalts, Bohemian Massif.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.406.Europe, Bohemia, PolandBasanites, Foidites
DS201606-1076
2016
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Bizimis, M., Haluzova, E., Slama, J., Svojtka, M.Re-Os and Lu-Hf isotopic constraints on the formation and age of mantle pyroxenites from the Bohemian Massif.Lithos, Vol. 256-257, pp. 197-210.Europe, Czech Republic, AustriaPyroxenite

Abstract: We report on the Lu-Hf and Re-Os isotope systematics of a well-characterized suite of spinel and garnet pyroxenites from the Gföhl Unit of the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria). Lu-Hf mineral isochrons of three pyroxenites yield undistinguishable values in the range of 336-338 Ma. Similarly, the slope of Re-Os regression for most samples yields an age of 327 ± 31 Ma. These values overlap previously reported Sm-Nd ages on pyroxenites, eclogites and associated peridotites from the Gföhl Unit, suggesting contemporaneous evolution of all these HT-HP rocks. The whole-rock Hf isotopic compositions are highly variable with initial eHf values ranging from - 6.4 to + 66. Most samples show a negative correlation between bulk rock Sm/Hf and eHf and, when taking into account other characteristics (e.g., high 87Sr/86Sr), this may be explained by the presence of recycled oceanic sediments in the source of the pyroxenite parental melts. A pyroxenite from Horní Kounice has decoupled Hf-Nd systematics with highly radiogenic initial eHf of + 66 for a given eNd of + 7.8. This decoupling is consistent with the presence of a melt derived from a depleted mantle component with high Lu/Hf. Finally, one sample from Becváry plots close to the MORB field in Hf-Nd isotope space consistent with its previously proposed origin as metamorphosed oceanic gabbro. Some of the websterites and thin-layered pyroxenites have variable, but high Os concentrations paralleled by low initial ?Os. This reflects the interaction of the parental pyroxenitic melts with a depleted peridotite wall rock. In turn, the radiogenic Os isotope compositions observed in most pyroxenite samples is best explained by mixing between unradiogenic Os derived from peridotites and a low-Os sedimentary precursor with highly radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Steep increase of 187Os/188Os at nearly uniform 187Re/188Os found in a few pyroxenites may be connected with the absence of primary sulfides, but the presence of minor late stage sulfide-bearing veinlets likely associated with HT-HP metamorphism at crustal conditions.
DS201707-1300
2017
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Upadhyay, D., Kratky, O., Cejkova, B., Erban, V., Kochergina, Y.V., Hrstka, T.Contrasting petrogenesis of spatially related carbonatites from Samalpatti and Sevattur, Tamil Nadu, India.Lithos, Vol. 284-285, pp. 257-275.Indiacarbonatite - Samalpatti, Sevattur

Abstract: Two Neoproterozoic carbonatite suites of spatially related carbonatites and associated silicate alkaline rocks from Sevattur and Samalpatti, south India, have been investigated in terms of petrography, chemistry and radiogenic–stable isotopic compositions in order to provide further constraints on their genesis. The cumulative evidence indicates that the Sevattur suite is derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications through crustal contamination and hydrothermal overprint. The stable (C, O) isotopic compositions confirm mantle origin of Sevattur carbonatites with only a modest difference to Paleoproterozoic Hogenakal carbonatite, emplaced in the same tectonic setting. On the contrary, multiple processes have shaped the petrography, chemistry and isotopic systematics of the Samalpatti suite. These include pre-emplacement interaction with the ambient crustal materials with more pronounced signatures of such a process in silicocarbonatites. Calc-silicate marbles present in the Samalpatti area could represent a possible evolved end member due to the inability of common silicate rocks (pyroxenites, granites, diorites) to comply with radiogenic isotopic constraints. In addition, Samalpatti carbonatites show a range of C–O isotopic compositions, and d13CV-PDB values between + 1.8 and + 4.1‰ found for a sub-suite of Samalpatti carbonatites belong to the highest values ever reported for magmatic carbonates. These heavy C–O isotopic signatures in Samalpatti carbonatites could be indicative of massive hydrothermal interaction with carbonated fluids. Unusual high-Cr silicocarbonatites, discovered at Samalpatti, seek their origin in the reaction of pyroxenites with enriched mantle-derived alkali-CO2-rich melts, as also evidenced by mantle-like O isotopic compositions. Field and petrographic observations as well as isotopic constraints must, however, be combined with the complex chemistry of incompatible trace elements as indicated from their non-uniform systematics in carbonatites and their individual fractions. We emphasise that, beside common carriers of REE like apatite, other phases may be important for incompatible element budgets, such as mckelveyite–(Nd) and kosmochlor, found in these carbonatites. Future targeted studies, including in-situ techniques, could help further constrain temporal and petrologic conditions of formation of Sevattur and Samalpatti carbonatite bodies.
DS201710-2209
2017
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Slama, J., Haluzova, E., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Kochergin, Y., Upadhyay, D.Hafnium isotope systematics of carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks from south and west India.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractIndiadeposit - Amba Dongar
DS201801-0001
2017
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Upadhyay, D., Kratky, O., Cejkova, B., Erban, V., Kochergina, Y.V., Hrstka, T.Contrasting petrogenesis of spatially related carbonatites from Samalpatti and Sevattur, Tamil Nadu, India: insights from trace element and isotopic geochemistry.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 31-33.Indiadeposit - Samalpatti, Sevattur

Abstract: The Tamil Nadu region in southern India hosts several carbonatite bodies (e.g., Hogenakal, Samalpatti, Sevattur, Pakkanadu-Mulakkadu) which are closely associated with alkaline silicate rocks such as syenites, pyroxenites or dunites (e.g, Kumar et al., 1998; Schleicher et al., 1998; Srivastava, 1998). This is in contrast to the carbonatite occurrences in north-western India associated with the Deccan Trap basalts (e.g., Amba Dongar) or Proterozoic Newania dolomitic carbonatites. We have studied two, spatially related, Neoproterozoic carbonatite-silico(carbonatite) suites in association with alkaline silicate rocks (e.g., pyroxenite, gabbro) from Sevattur and Samalpatti in terms of petrography, chemistry and radiogenic-stable isotopic compositions in order to provide constraints on their genesis and evolution. In these two bodies, several different carbonatite types have been reported previously with striking differences in their trace element and isotopic compositions (Srivastava, 1998; Viladkar and Subramanian, 1995; Schleicher et al., 1998; Pandit et al., 2002). Collected data for previously poorly studied calcite carbonatites from the Sevattur representing the first carbonatite magmas on this locality, indicate similar geochemical characteristics to those of dolomitic carbonatites, such as high LREE/HREE ratios, very high Sr and Ba contents, large amounts of apatite and magnetite, identical Sr-Nd-C-O isotopic compositions. Thus, they were derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications through crustal contamination and hydrothermal overprint, in agreement with previous studies (e.g., Schleicher et al., 1998). Detailed microprobe analyses revealed that high levels of some incompatible elements (e.g., REE, Y, Sr, Ba) cannot be accounted by matrix calcite hosting only significant amounts of SrO (~0.6-1.2 wt.%). On the other hand, abundant micro- to nano-scale exsolution lamellae and/or inclusions of mckelveyite-(Nd) appear to host a significant fraction of LREE in parallel with apatite. Distribution of Sr is most likely influenced also by common but heterogeneously dispersed barite and strontianite. Newly acquired as well as detailed inspection of available geochemical data permits distinguish two different types of carbonatites in Samalpatti: (1) Type I similar to Sevattur carbonatites in terms of mineralogy, trace element and radiogenic-stable isotopic compositions and (2) Type II with remarkably low concentrations of REE and other incompatible trace elements, more radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions and extremely variable C–O isotopic values. The petrogenesis of the Type II seems to be intimately associated with the presence of silicocarbonatites and abundant silicate mineral domains. Instead of liquid immiscible separation from a silicate magma, elevated SiO2 contents observed in silico-carbonatites may have resulted from the interaction of primary carbonatitic melts and crustal rocks prior to and/or during magma emplacement. Arguments for such hypothesis include variable, but radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions correlated with SiO2 and other lithophile elements (e.g., Ti, Y, Zr, REE). Calc-silicate marbles present in the Samalpatti area could represent a possible evolved crustal end member for such process due to the inability of common silicate rocks (pyroxenites, granites, diorites) to comply with radiogenic isotopic constraints. The wide range of C-O isotopic compositions found in Samalpatti carbonatites belong to the highest values ever reported for magmatic carbonates and can be best explained by massive hydrothermal interaction with carbonated fluids. Unusual high-Cr silicocarbonatites were discovered at Samalpatti forming centimetre to decimetre-sized enclaves enclosed in pyroxenites with sharp contacts at hand specimen scale. Detailed microprobe analyses revealed peculiar chemical compositions of the Mgamphibole with predominantly sodic composition embaying and replacing Na-Cr-rich pyroxene (kosmochlor), accompanied by the common presence of Cr-spinel and titanite. Such association have been reported for hydrous metasomatism by Na-rich carbonatitic melts at upper mantle conditions (Ali and Arai, 2013). However, the mineralogy and the mode of occurrence of Samalpatti Mg–-r-rich silicocarbonatites argue against such origin. We explain the petrogenesis of these rocks through the reaction of pyroxenites with enriched mantle-derived alkali-CO2-rich melts, as also evidenced by mantle-like O and Hf isotopic compositions.
DS201801-0048
2017
Ackerman, L.Polak, L., Ackerman, L., Rapprich, V., Magna, T.Platinum group element and rhenium osmium geochemistry of selected carbonatites from India, USA and East africa.Carbonatite-alkaline rocks and associated mineral deposits , Dec. 8-11, abstract p. 22-23.India, United States, Africa, East Africacarbonatites

Abstract: Carbonatites and associated alkaline silicate rocks might have potential economic impact for a large variety of metals such as Cu, Ni, Fe and platinum-group elements (PGE - Os, Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt) as it is demonstrated in South Africa (Phalaborwa; Taylor et al. 2009) or Brazil (Ipanema; Fontana 2006). In addition, determined PGE contents along with Re-Os isotopic compositions may also provide important information about PGE fractionation during the genesis of upper mantle-derived carbonatitic melts and nature of their sources. Nevertheless, the existing PGE data for carbonatites are extremely rare, limited mostly to Chinese localities and they are not paralleled by Re-Os isotopic data (Xu et al. 2008). Therefore, in this study, we present the first complete PGE datasets together with Re-Os determinations for a suite of selected carbonatite bodies worldwide. We have chosen eight carbonatite sites with different alkaline rock association, age and geotectonic position. Among these, the youngest samples are from East African rift system and include Oldoinyo Dili, Tanzania with an age spanning from ~0 to 45 Ma; same as Tororo and Sukulu in Uganda (Woolley and Kjarsgaard 2008). These carbonatites are in association with pyroxenites and nepheline syenites. Another young carbonatitic complex is Amba Dongar in west India with Cretaceous age of ~65 Ma associated with alkaline volcanic rocks such as trachybasalts within Deccan Traps (Sukheswala and Udas 1963). Proterozoic bodies are represented by Iron Hill, USA carbonatites associated with pyroxenite, melitolite and ijolite with age ranging from ~520 to 580 Ma (Nash 1972). These carbonatites are famous for their intensive and varied fenitization. Last and the oldest carbonatites in this study comes from Samalpatti and Sevattur, South India having the age of ~800 Ma (Schleicher et al. 1997) and outcropping as small bodies within alkaline rocks such as pyroxenite, syenite and gabbro. The PGE concentrations and Re-Os isotopic ratios were determined by standard methods consisting of decarbonatization using HCl, decomposition of samples in Carius Tubes in the presence of reverse aqua regia and spikes (isotopic dilution), separation of Os by CHCl3 followed by N-TIMS measurements and Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt, Re isolation by anion exchange chromatography followed by ICP-MS measurements. All analysed carbonatites exhibit extremely low PGE contents (S PGE up to 1 ppb), even in the samples with high S contents (up to 1.5 wt. %). Such values are much lower than other determined so far for upper mantle-derived melts such as basalts, komatiites, etc. (Day et al. 2016). Such signatures indicate very low partitioning of PGE into carbonatitic melts and/or early separation of PGE-bearing fraction. Elements from iridium-group I-PGE; Os, Ir and Ru; mostly < 0.1 ppb) are distinctly lower compared to palladiumgroup elements and Re (PPGE; Pt, Pd, Re; mostly > 0.1 ppb) with some rocks being largely enriched in Re (up to ~6 ppb). Most of the analysed carbonatites exhibit progressive enrichment from Os to Re and consequently, PdN/ReN < 0.1 except south India carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks (> 0.30). Rocks analysed so far for Os have OsN/IrN up to 6.2 that might suggest that the carbonatites might concentrate Os over Ir. The highest HSEtot contents have been found in Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites from South India (up to 40 ppb) and taking into account their only slightly radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.14-0.57), these rocks represents mixture of CO2-rich alkaline mantle melts and country rocks. Very high concentrations of HSE have been also found in magnetite separated from Fe-carbonatite from Amba Dongar, India (0.2-0.5 ppb of I-PGE and 0.9-9 ppb of P-PGE). The 187Os/188Os ratios determined so far for carbonatites from South India vary from 0.24 to 6.5 and calculated ?Os values range from +100 up to +5000. Such wide range of values suggest extremely heterogenous source of the melts and/or possible contamination by 187Os-rich crustal materials.
DS201910-2241
2019
Ackerman, L.Ackerman, L., Polak, L., Magna, T., Rapprich, V., Jana, D., Upadhyay, D.Highly siderophile element geochemistry and Re-Os isotopic systematics of carbonatites: insights from Tamil Nadu, India.Earth and Planetary Science letters, Vol. 520, pp. 175-187.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: Carbonatite metasomatism has been widely implicated for worldwide mafic mantle suites but so far, no combined data have been available for highly siderophile element systematics (HSE - Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) and Re-Os isotopic compositions in carbonatites themselves. We present the first systematic survey of the HSE and Re-Os isotopic compositions in a suite of well-characterized Neoproterozoic carbonatites, silicocarbonatites and associated silicate rocks (pyroxenites, monzogabbros, syenites) from south India in order to place constraints on the HSE systematics in carbonatite magmas, anchoring possible mantle sources of carbonatites and relationship to the ambient crustal lithologies as well as preliminary constraints on carbonatite metasomatism in Earth's mantle. The most plausible explanation for generally low HSE contents in calciocarbonatites from Tamil Nadu (?HSE < 1.22 ppb) involves a low-degree (<1%) partial melting of the mantle source producing sulfur-saturated carbonatitic magmas leaving behind sulfide phases retaining HSE. The new data also indicate a strong FeO control on the distribution of Os and Pt during segregation of carbonatite melt from its enriched mantle source and/or melt differentiation. The combined 187Re/188Os values (from 0.10 to 217), 187Os/188Os ratios (0.186-10.4) and initial ?Os values back-calculated to 800 Ma (from +0.1 to +6052) predict that most Tamil Nadu calciocarbonatites were plausibly derived from a carbonated peridotite source with <10% recycled component. This model would thus provide significant constraints on the origin/source of carbonatites, irrespective of their post-emplacement history. The unusual, volumetrically rare, Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites (?HSE = 14-41 ppb) display almost identical HSE patterns with those of host pyroxenites and predominantly high Pt (up to 38 ppb), the origin of which remains unknown. Positive co-variations between Pt, Pd and Re, and the well-developed positive correlation between Pt and MgO in these Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites argue for a source coming predominantly from the upper mantle. The Re-Os isotopic systematics agree with direct incorporation of enriched mantle-derived material into parental melts but variable incorporation of potassium-rich crustal materials is evidenced by highly positive ?Os800 Ma values for a sub-suite of Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites, indicating intense fenitization. The highly radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of monzogabbros and a syenite argue for their derivation from crustal lithologies with no or only negligible contribution of mantle material. Collectively, low Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd contents found in the Tamil Nadu carbonatites appear to indicate the incapability to significantly modify the total budget of these elements in the Earth's mantle during carbonatite metasomatism. In contrast, very high Re/Os ratios found in some of the analyzed carbonatites, paralleled by extremely radiogenic 187Os/188Os signature, can produce large modification of the Re-Os isotopic composition of mantle peridotites during carbonatite melt percolation when high melt/rock ratios are achieved.
DS201910-2276
2019
Ackerman, L.Krmicek, L., Ackerman, L., Hruby, J., Kynicky, J.The highly siderophile elements and Re Os isotope geochemistry of Variscan lamproites from the Bohemian Massif: implications for regionally dependent metasomatism of orogenic mantle.Chemical Geology, doi: 10.1016/ j.chemgeo .2019.119290 46p. PdfEurope, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Austrialamproites

Abstract: Orogenic lamproites represent a group of peralkaline, ultrapotassic and perpotassic mantle-derived igneous rocks that hold the potential to sample components with extreme compositions from highly heterogeneous orogenic mantle. In our pilot study, we present highly siderophile element (HSE) and ReOs isotope systematics of Variscan orogenic lamproites sampled in the territories of the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland, i.e., from the termination of the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian zones of the Bohemian Massif. Orogenic lamproites of the Bohemian Massif are distinguished by variably high contents of SiO2, high Mg# and predominant mineral associations of K-rich amphibole and Fe-rich microcline. The HSE show (i) consistently very low contents in all investigated orogenic lamproites compared to the estimated concentrations in majority of mid-ocean ridge basalts, hotspot-related volcanic rocks (e.g., ocean island basalts, continental flood basalts, komatiites, some intraplate alkaline volcanic rocks such as kimberlites and anorogenic lamproites) and arc lavas, and (ii) marked differences in relative and absolute HSE abundances between the samples from the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian Zone. Such a regional dependence in HSE from mantle-derived melts is exceptional. Orogenic lamproites have highly variable and high initial suprachondritic 187Os/188Os values (up to 0.631) compared with rather chondritic to subchondritic Os isotope values of the young lithospheric mantle below the Bohemian Massif. The highly radiogenic Os isotope component in orogenic lamproites may be derived from preferential melting of metasomatised vein assemblages sitting in depleted peridotite mantle. This process appears to be valid generally in the petrogenesis of orogenic lamproites both from the Bohemian Massif and from the Mediterranean area. As a specific feature of the orogenic lamproites from the Bohemian Massif, originally ultra-depleted mantle component correlative with remnants of the Rheic Ocean lithosphere in the Moldanubian Zone was metasomatised by a mixture of evolved and juvenile material, whereas the lithospheric mantle in the Saxo-Thuringian Zone was enriched through the subduction of evolved crustal material with highly radiogenic Sr isotope signature. As a result, this led to observed unique regionally dependent coupled HSE, RbSr and ReOs isotope systematics.
DS201911-2538
2019
Ackerman, L.Krmicek, L., Ackerman, L.Regionally dependent metasomatism of orogenic mantle revealed by highly siderophile elements and Re-Os isotope geochemistry of Variscan lamproites: a pilot study from the Bohemian Massif.Geologica Carpathica *** In Eng, Vol. 70, pp. 9-11.Europelamproite

Abstract: Orogenic (high-silica) lamproites represent a group of post-collisional mantle-derived igneous rocks that hold the potential to sample components with extreme compositions from highly heterogeneous mantle. In our pilot study, we explore highly siderophile element (HSE) and Re-Os isotope systematics of Variscan orogenic lamproites sampled from the termination of the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian zones of the Bohemian Massif. Orogenic lamproites of the Bohemian Massif are distinguished by variably high contents of SiO2, high Mg# and predominant mineral associations of K-rich amphibole and Fe-rich microcline. The HSE show (i) consistently very low contents in all investigated orogenic lamproites compared to the estimated concentrations in majority of mid- ocean ridge basalts, hotspot-related volcanic rocks and arc lavas, and (ii) marked differences in relative and absolute HSE abundances between the samples from the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian Zone. Such a regional dependence in HSE from mantle-derived melts is exceptional. Orogenic lamproites have highly variable and high initial suprachondritic 187Os/188Os values (up to 0.631) compared with rather chondritic to subchondritic Os isotope values of the young lithospheric mantle below the Bohemian Massif. The highly radiogenic Os isotope component in orogenic lamproites may be derived from preferential melting of metasomatised vein assemblages sitting in depleted peridotite mantle. This process appears to be valid generally in the petrogenesis of orogenic lamproites both from the Bohemian Massif (Variscan lamproites) and from the Mediterranean area (Alpine lamproites). As a specific feature of the orogenic lamproites from the Bohemian Massif, originally ultra-depleted mantle component correlative with remnants of the Rheic Ocean lithosphere in the Moldanubian Zone was metasomatised by a mixture of evolved and juvenile material, whereas the lithospheric mantle in the Saxo-Thuringian Zone was enriched through the subduction of evolved crustal material with highly radiogenic Sr isotope signature. As a result, this led to observed unique regionally dependent coupled HSE, Rb-Sr and Re-Os isotope systematics.
DS202003-0346
2020
Ackerman, L.Krmicek, L., Ackerman, L., Hruby, J., Kynicky, J.The highly siderophile elements and Re-Os isotope geochemistry of Variscan lamproites from the Bohemian Massif: implications for regionally dependent metasomatism of orogenic mantle.Chemical Geology, Vol. 532, 11p. Available pdfEurope, Czech republic, Austria, Polandlamproites

Abstract: Orogenic lamproites represent a group of peralkaline, ultrapotassic and perpotassic mantle-derived igneous rocks that hold the potential to sample components with extreme compositions from highly heterogeneous orogenic mantle. In our pilot study, we present highly siderophile element (HSE) and ReOs isotope systematics of Variscan orogenic lamproites sampled in the territories of the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland, i.e., from the termination of the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian zones of the Bohemian Massif. Orogenic lamproites of the Bohemian Massif are distinguished by variably high contents of SiO2, high Mg# and predominant mineral associations of K-rich amphibole and Fe-rich microcline. The HSE show (i) consistently very low contents in all investigated orogenic lamproites compared to the estimated concentrations in majority of mid-ocean ridge basalts, hotspot-related volcanic rocks (e.g., ocean island basalts, continental flood basalts, komatiites, some intraplate alkaline volcanic rocks such as kimberlites and anorogenic lamproites) and arc lavas, and (ii) marked differences in relative and absolute HSE abundances between the samples from the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian Zone. Such a regional dependence in HSE from mantle-derived melts is exceptional. Orogenic lamproites have highly variable and high initial suprachondritic 187Os/188Os values (up to 0.631) compared with rather chondritic to subchondritic Os isotope values of the young lithospheric mantle below the Bohemian Massif. The highly radiogenic Os isotope component in orogenic lamproites may be derived from preferential melting of metasomatised vein assemblages sitting in depleted peridotite mantle. This process appears to be valid generally in the petrogenesis of orogenic lamproites both from the Bohemian Massif and from the Mediterranean area. As a specific feature of the orogenic lamproites from the Bohemian Massif, originally ultra-depleted mantle component correlative with remnants of the Rheic Ocean lithosphere in the Moldanubian Zone was metasomatised by a mixture of evolved and juvenile material, whereas the lithospheric mantle in the Saxo-Thuringian Zone was enriched through the subduction of evolved crustal material with highly radiogenic Sr isotope signature. As a result, this led to observed unique regionally dependent coupled HSE, RbSr and ReOs isotope systematics.
DS201805-0953
2018
Ackerman, M.Ivanov, A.V., Mukasa, S.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Ackerman, M., Demonterova, E.I., Pokrovsky, B.G., Vladykin, N.V., Kolesnichenko, M.V., Litasov, K.D., Zedgenizov, D.A.Origin of high-Mg melts by volatile fluxing without significant excess of temperature.Chemical Geology, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j .chemgeo. 2018.03.11Russiameimechites
DS1975-1226
1979
Ackermand, D.Smith, J.V., Hervig, R.L., Ackermand, D., Dawson, J.B.Potassium, Rubidium, and Barium in Micas from Kimberlite and Peridotitic xenoliths and Implications for Origin of Basaltic Rocks.International Kimberlite Conference SECOND., Vol. 1, PP. 241-251.South Africa, Canada, Ontario, QuebecBasaltic Rocks, Kiberlites, Mica
DS1975-1227
1979
Ackermans, D.Smith, J.V., Hervig, R.L., Ackermans, D., Dawson, J.B.Potassium, Rubidium and Barium in Micas from Kimberlites and Peridotitic xenoliths and Implications for Origin of Basaltic Rocks.Proceedings of Second International Kimberlite Conference, Proceedings Vol. 1, PP. 241-251.South AfricaMineralogy
DS201905-1045
2019
Ackerson, M.Ivanov, A.V., Mukasa, S.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Ackerson, M., Zedgenizov, D.A.Volatile concentrations in olivine hosted melt inclusions from meimechite and melanephenelinite lavas of the Siberian Trap Large Igneous Province: evidence for flux related high Ti, high Mg magmatism.Chemical Geology, Vol. 483, pp. 442-462.Russiameimechite
DS200512-0376
2005
Acocella, V.Gudmundsson, A., Acocella, V., De Natale, G.The tectonics and physics of volcanoes.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 144, 1-4, pp. 1-5.MantleVolcanoes
DS1960-0771
1967
Acquaah, G.H.M.Acquaah, G.H.M.The Diamond Industry in the Bonsa ValleyB.a. Thesis, University Cape Coast., Ghana, West AfricaProduction, History
DS1993-1223
1993
Acquah, P.C.Peters, J.W., Kesse, G.O., Acquah, P.C.Regional trends in African geology. Proceedings 9th. International Geol. Conference held Accra 1992Geological Society Africa/Ghana, 420pGhana, Uganda, Tanzania, Zaire, Togo, Ivory CoastGold, Tarkian, Birimian, Proterozoic, Mozambique, Book -Table of contents
DS1994-0010
1994
Acquah, P.C.Acquah, P.C.Government environmental regulations and implementation in the miningsectorNatural Resources forum, Vol. 18, No. 3, August pp. 193-206GlobalLegal, laws, Environment
DS200712-0125
2007
Acremont, E.Burov, E.,Guillou Frottier, L., Acremont, E., Le Pourthier, L., Cloetingh, S.Plume head lithosphere interactions near intra continental plate boundaries.Tectonophysics, Vol. 434, 1-4, pp. 15-38.MantleHotspots
DS2002-1193
2002
Acs, P.Ortner, H., Reiter, F., Acs, P.Easy handling of tectonic data: the program Tectonics VB for Mac and Tectonics FP for Windows.Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 28, 10, pp. 1193-1200.GlobalComputers, Program - Tectonics
DS1998-0476
1998
Acton, G.D.Garza, R.S.M., Acton, G.D., Geissman, J.W.Carboniferous through Jurassic paleomagnetic dat a and their bearing on rotation of the Colorado Plateau.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. B10, Oct. 10, pp. 24179-88.Colorado PlateauGeophysics - paleomagnetics, Tectonics
DS2000-0005
2000
Acton, G.D.Acton, G.D., Tessema, A., Bilham, R.The tectonic and geomagnetic significance of paleomagnetic observations from volcanic rocks centralEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 180, No. 3-4, pp. 225-42.AfricaTectonics, Volcanics
DS1992-0605
1992
Adam, .Green, T.H., Adam, ., Sie, S.H.Trace element partitioning between silicate minerals and carbonatite at 25Kbar and application to mantle MetasomatismMineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 179-184MantleSilicates, Metasomatism
DS201711-2497
2017
Adam, C.Adam, C., Caddick, M.J., King, S.D.Pyroxenite causes fat plumes and stagnant slabs.Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1003/ 2017GL072943Mantleplumes

Abstract: Conventional wisdom holds that there is a change in the pattern of mantle convection between 410 and at 660 km, where structural transformations convert olivine into its high-pressure polymorphs. In this regard, recent tomographic studies have been a complete surprise, revealing (i) rapid broadening of slow seismic anomalies beneath hotspots from hundreds of kilometers wide at shallow depths to 2000-3000 km wide deeper than ~800 km, and (ii) fast seismic anomalies associated with subducted lithosphere that appear to flounder at 800-1000 km. It is difficult to reconcile these observations with the conventional view of a mantle that experiences limited mineralogical change below 660 km. Here we propose that plumes and slabs contain significant proportions of lithologies that experience an entirely different suite of mineral reactions, demonstrating that both subducted basalt and pyroxenite upwelling in plumes experience substantial changes in mineralogy and thus physical properties at ~800 km depth. We show the importance of this for mantle rheology and dynamics and how it can explain hitherto puzzling mantle tomographic results.
DS1991-0602
1991
Adam, J.Green, T.H., Adam, J.Assessment of the garnet-clinopyroxene iron-magnesium exchange thermometer using new experimental dataJournal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 9, No. 3, May pp. 341-347AustraliaEclogites, Geothermetry
DS1992-0606
1992
Adam, J.Green, T.H., Adam, J., Sie, S.Trace element partitioning and mantle Metasomatism11th. Australian Geol. Convention Held Ballarat University College, Jan., Listing of papers to be given attempting to get volAustraliaGeochemistry, Mantle
DS1993-0574
1993
Adam, J.Green, T.H., Adam, J., Sie, S.H.Proton microprobe determined trace element partition coefficients betweenpargasite, augite and silicate of carbonatitic meltsEos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 74, No. 16, April 20, supplement abstract p. 340GlobalMineral chemistry, Carbonatite
DS2000-0359
2000
Adam, J.Green, T.H., Blundy, J.D., Adam, J., Yaxley, G.M.SIMS determination of trace element partition coefficients between clinopyroxene and basaltsLithos, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Sept. 1, pp. 165-87.GlobalPetrology - experimental, Garnet
DS2000-0360
2000
Adam, J.Green, T.H., Blundy, J.D., Adam, J., Yaxley, G.M.SIMS determination of trace element partion coefficients between garnet, clinopyroxene and basalticLithos, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Sept. pp. 165-87.GlobalPetrology - experimental, Gpa and Temp
DS2001-0004
2001
Adam, J.Adam, J., Green, T.Experimentally determined partition coefficients for minor and trace elements in peridotite minerals...European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 13, pp. 815-27.GlobalCarbonatite melt, relevance to natural Carbonatite, Microprobe ICP-MS
DS2001-0409
2001
Adam, J.Green, T., Adam, J.Partition co-efficients - modeling crust-mantle... carbonatite - a popular mantle metasomatic agent.Gemoc Annual Report 2000, p. 34-5.MantleCarbonatite, Geochemistry
DS200612-0001
2006
Adam, J.Adam, J., Green, T.Trace element partitioning between mica and amphibole bearing garnet lherzolite and hydrous basanitic melt: 1. experimental results and the investigation controlsContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Online, availableAustralia, TasmaniaPartitioning behaviour, melting
DS200612-0495
2006
Adam, J.Green, T.H., Hauri, E.H., Gaetani, G.A., Adam, J.New calculations on water storage in the upper mantle, and implications for mantle melting models.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, 18, 1, p. 215, abstract only.MantleWater
DS201212-0002
2012
Adam, J.Adam, J., Oberti, R., Camara, F., Green, T.H., Rushmer, T.The effect of water on equilibrium relations between clinopyroxenes and basanitic magmas: tracing water and non- volatile incompatible elements in the Earth's mantle.emc2012 @ uni-frankfurt.de, 1p. AbstractMantleMelting
DS201412-0864
2013
Adam, J.Sodoudi, F., Yuan, X., Kind, R., Lebedev, S., Adam, J., et al.Seismic evidence for stratification in composition and anisotropic fabric within the thick lithosphere of Kalahari craton.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 14, 12, pp. 5393-5412.Africa, South AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201605-0808
2016
Adam, J.Adam, J., Turner, M., Hauri, E.H., Turner, S.Crystal/melt partitioning of water and other volatiles during the near-solidus melting of mantle peridotite: comparisons with non-volatile incompatible elements and implications for the generation of intraplate magmatism.American Mineralogist, Vol. 101, pp. 876-888.MantleMagmatism - basanite, melting

Abstract: Concentrations of H2O, F, Cl, C, P, and S have been measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in experimentally produced peridotite phases (including clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, garnet, amphibole, and mica) and coexisting basanitic glasses. Because only two experiments produced glasses on quenching (with the melt phase in others reverting to felt-like crystallite masses) H2O concentrations in melts were also separately determined from mass-balance relationships and by assuming constant H2O/La in melts and starting materials. The resulting values were used to calculate mineral/melt partition coefficients (D values) for H2O [where DH2Ocrystal/melt = (mass fraction of H2O in crystal)/(mass fraction of H2O in melt)] for conditions of 1025-1190 °C and 1.0-3.5 GPa. These gave 0.0064-0.0164 for clinopyroxene, 0.0046-0.0142 for orthopyroxene, 0.0015-0.0016 for olivine, and 0.0016-0.0022 for garnet. Although less information was obtained for the other volatiles, F was found to be significantly more compatible than H2O during peridotite melting, whereas Cl is significantly less compatible. S also has small but appreciable solubilities in amphiboles and micas, but not in pyroxenes or olivine. The solubility of C in silicate minerals appears to be negligible, although C was present in coexisting melts (~0.5 wt% as CO2) and as residual graphite during experiments. The D values for H2O in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are positively correlated with ivAl but negatively correlated with the H2O concentrations of melts (when considered as wt%). These relationships are consistent with the broad trends of previously published partitioning data. Although some of the concentration dependence can be related to cross-correlation between ivAl in pyroxenes and H2O concentrations in melts (via the latter’s control of liquidus temperatures) this relationship is too inconsistent to be a complete explanation. A concentration dependence for DH2Omineral/melt can also be independently predicted from speciation models for H2O in silicate melts. Thus it is likely that DH2Opyx/melt is influenced by both ivAl and the absolute concentration of H2O in melts. DH2O/DCe for clinopyroxene is inversely correlated with M2 site radii. Because the latter decrease with increasing pressure and temperature, relatively hot and/or deeply derived melts should be enriched in Ce relative to H2O when compared to melts from cooler and shallower mantle sources. Conversely, melts from H2O-rich settings (e.g., subduction zones) should have higher H2O/Ce than their source rocks. When combined with previously obtained partitioning data for non-volatile elements (from the same experiments), our data are consistent with the enrichment of intraplate basalt sources in both volatile and non-volatile incompatible elements by small-degree melts derived from local mid-ocean ridge basalt sources. In this way, volatiles can be seen to play an active role (via their promotion of partial-melting and metasomatic processes) in the auto-regulation of incompatible element concentrations in the depleted upper mantle.
DS201808-1783
2018
Adam, J.Ravenna, M., Lebedev, S., Fullea, J., Adam, J.Shear wave velocity structure of Southern Africa's lithosphere: variations in the thickness and composition of cratons and their effect on topography.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 19, 5, pp. 1499-1518.Africa, South Africacraton

Abstract: Cratons, the ancient cores of continents, have an unusually thick lithosphere (the tectonic plate beneath them). At least ~200 km thick, it has a highly anomalous composition, making it less dense than the surrounding mantle. Cratonic lithosphere can thus be cooled to much lower temperatures than elsewhere. Variations in this delicate buoyancy balance probably give rise to variations in the surface elevation across the Earth's stable continents. Lithospheric thickness and composition are key parameters, but both are notoriously difficult to determine. Here we use very accurate measurements of seismic surface-wave velocities and determine deep structure beneath cratons in southern Africa. We discover an unexpectedly strong, gradual thickening of the lithosphere from the central Kaapvaal Craton to the neighboring Limpopo Belt (from 200 to 300 km thick). Curiously, surface elevation decreases monotonically with increasing lithospheric thickness. This demonstrates the effect of the deep lithosphere on topography and gives us new information on the composition of the deepest parts of lithosphere.
DS201810-2385
2018
Adam, J.Tuck-Martin, A., Adam, J., Eagles, G.New plate kinematic model and tectono-stratigraphic history of the East African and West Madagascar margins.Basin Research, doi:10.1111/bre.12294 23p.Africa, Madagascartectonics

Abstract: The continental margins of East Africa and West Madagascar are a frontier for hydrocarbon exploration. However, the links between the regional tectonic history of sedimentary basins and margin evolution are relatively poorly understood. We use a plate kinematic model built by joint inversion of seafloor spreading data as a starting point to analyse the evolution of conjugate margin segments and corresponding sedimentary basins. By correlating megasequences in the basins to the plate model we produce a margin-scale tectono-stratigraphic framework comprising four phases of tectonic development. During Phase 1 (183-133 Ma) Madagascar/India/Antarctica separated from Africa, first by rifting and later, after breakup (at ca. 170-165 Ma), by seafloor spreading in the West Somali and Mozambique basins and dextral strike-slip movement on the Davie Fracture Zone. Mixed continental/marine syn-rift megasequences were deposited in rift basins followed by shallow-marine early postrift sequences. In Phase 2 (133-89 Ma) spreading ceased in the West Somali basin and Madagascar became fixed to the African plate. However, spreading continued between the African and Antarctic plates and deposition of the early postrift megasequence continued. The onset of spreading on the Mascarene Ridge separated India from Madagascar in Phase 3 (89-60 Ma). Phase 3 was characterized by the onset of deposition of the late postrift megasequence with continued deep marine sedimentation. At the onset of Phase 4 (60 Ma onward) spreading on the Mascarene ridge ceased and the Carlsberg Ridge propagated south to form the Central Indian Ridge, separating India from the Seychelles and the Mascarene Plateau. Late postrift deposition continued until a major unconformity linked to the development of the East African Rift System marked the change to deposition of the modern margin megasequence.
DS201312-0529
2013
Adam, J.M-C.Lebedev, S., Adam, J.M-C., Meier, T.Mapping the Moho with seismic surface waves: a review, resolution analysis and recommended inversion strategies.Tectonophysics, Vol. 609, pp. 377-394.MantleMohorovic discontinuity
DS1992-0005
1992
Adamia, S.Adamia, S., et al.Geology of the Republic of Georgia: a reviewInternational Geology Review, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 447-476.Georgia, RussiaGeneral geology - not specific to diamonds, Gondwana
DS1992-0006
1992
Adamia, S.Adamia, S., Akhvlediani, K.T., Kilasonia, V.M., Nairn, A.E.M.Geology map of the Dubawnt Lake area, Northwest TerritoriesInternational Geology Review, Vol. 34, No. 5, May pp. 447-476Russia, GeorgiaGeology, Review
DS200612-1169
2006
Adamo, I.Rolandi, V., Brajkovic, A., Adamo, I., Landonio, M.Diamonds from Udachnaya pipe, Yakutia. Their morphology, optical and Raman characteristics, FTIR and CL features.Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 22, no. 9 Jan-Mar, pp.RussiaDiamond morphology
DS2000-0256
2000
AdamsEaton, D.W., Atkinson, Ferguson, Adams, Asudeh, JonesPOLARIS: an in depth look at Canada's subcontinental mantle and earthquakehazards.Geological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000 Conference, 4p. abstract.Ontario, Northwest TerritoriesGeophysics - seismics, lithospheric, Structure - Phanerozoic
DS200512-0113
2005
AdamsBrenker, F.E., Vincze, L., Velemans, Nasdala, Stachel, Vollmer, Kersten, Somogyi, Adams, Joswig, HarrisDetection of a Ca rich lithology in the Earth's deep ( >300km) convecting mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 236, 3-4, pp. 579-587.Africa, GuineaKankan, diamond inclusions, spectroscopy
DS201112-0003
2011
Adams, A.Adams, A., Nyblade, A.Shear wave velocity structure of the southern African upper mantle with implications for the uplift of southern Africa.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 186, 2, pp. 808-824,AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201112-0004
2011
Adams, A.Adams, A., Nyblade, A.Shear wave velocity structure of the southern African upper mantle with implications for the uplift of southern Africa.Geophysical Journal International, in press available,AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201212-0003
2012
Adams, A.Adams, A., Nyblade, A., Weeraratne, D.Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the East African Plateau: evidence for a deep plateauwide low velocity anomaly.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 189, 1, pp. 123-142.AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS201312-0662
2013
Adams, A.Odonnell, J.P., Adams, A., Nyblade, A.A., Mulibo, G.D., Tugume, F.The uppermost mantle shear wave velocty structure of eastern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography: constraints on rift evolution.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 194, 2, pp. 961-978.AfricaGeophysics - seismics
DS1998-0007
1998
Adams, A.E.Adams, A.E., MacKenzie, W.S.A colour atlas of carbonate sediments and rocks under the microscopeOxford University of Press, 192p. approx. $ 90.00GlobalBook - ad, Atlas - carbonate sediments
DS1992-0979
1992
Adams, C.Maclean, D., Adams, C.Diamonds in Canada odds of finding a mine are long, but favourable forWood Gundy Investment Research, June 24, 5pCanada, Northwest TerritoriesNews item, Promotional literature -background
DS1997-0007
1997
Adams, C.Adams, C.Financing exploration through Canadian markets: an updateAssaying and Reporting Conference Nov. 10-11, 1997 Singapore, 34 slide copies onlyCanadaSampling, assaying, ore reserves, discoveries, Geostatistics, gold, investment, economics, legal
DS201910-2254
2019
Adams, C.Dentith, M., Enkin, R.J., Morris, W., Adams, C., Bourne, B.Petrophysics and mineral exploration: a workflow for data analysis and a new interpretation framework. ( Not specific to diamonds)Geophysical Prospecting, htpps://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2478.12882Globalgeophysics - seismic

Abstract: As mineral exploration seeks deeper targets there will be a greater reliance on geophysical data and a better understanding of the geological meaning of the responses will be required, and this must be achieved with less geological control from drilling. Also, exploring based on the mineral system concept requires particular understanding of geophysical responses associated with altered rocks. Where petrophysical datasets of adequate sample size and measurement quality are available, physical properties show complex variations, reflecting the combined effects of various geological processes. Large datasets, analysed as populations, are required to understand the variations. We recommend the display of petrophysical data as frequency histograms as the nature of the data distribution is easily seen with this form of display. A petrophysical data set commonly contains a combination of overlapping sub-populations, influenced by different geological factors. To understand the geological controls on physical properties in hard rock environments it is necessary to analyse the petrophysical data not only in terms of the properties of different rock types. It is also necessary to consider the effects of processes such as alteration, weathering, metamorphism, and strain, and variables such as porosity and stratigraphy. To address this complexity requires that much more supporting geological information be acquired than is current practice. The widespread availability of field portable instruments means quantitative geochemical and mineralogical data can now be readily acquired, making it unnecessary to rely primarily on categorical rock classification schemes. The petrophysical data can be combined with geochemical, petrological and mineralogical data to derive explanations for observed physical property variations based not only on rigorous rock classification methods, but also in combination with quantitative estimates of alteration and weathering. To understand how geological processes will affect different physical properties it is useful to define three end-member forms of behaviour. Bulk behaviour depends on the physical properties of the dominant mineral components. Density and, to a lesser extent, seismic velocity show such behaviour. Grain and texture behaviour occur when minor components of the rock are the dominate controls on its physical properties. Grain size and shape control grain properties, and for texture properties the relative positions of these grains are also important. Magnetic and electrical properties behave in this fashion. Thinking in terms of how geological processes change the key characteristics of the major and minor mineralogical components allows the resulting changes in physical properties to be understood and anticipated.
DS201602-0189
2016
Adams, C.J.Augstsson, C., Wilner, A.P., Rusing, T., Niemeyer, H., Gerdes, A., Adams, C.J., Miller, H.The crustal evolution of South America from a zircon Hf-isotope perspective.Terra Nova, In press availableSouth AmericaGeochronology

Abstract: Hf-isotope data of greater than 1100 detrital zircon grains from the Palaeozoic, south-central Andean Gondwana margin record the complete crustal evolution of South America, which was the predominant source. The oldest grains, with crustal residence ages of 3.8-4.0 Ga, are consistent with complete recycling of existing continental crust around 4 Ga. We confirm three major Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic (Transamazonian) and late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic crust-addition phases as well as six igneous phases during Proterozoic to Palaeozoic time involving mixing of juvenile and crustally reworked material. A late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic, Grenville-age igneous belt can be postulated along the palaeo-margin of South America. This belt was the basement for later magmatic arcs and accreted allochthonous microcontinents as recorded by similar crustal residence ages. Crustal reworking likely dominated over juvenile addition during the Palaeozoic era, and Proterozoic and Archaean zircons were mainly crustally reworked from the eroding, thickened Ordovician Famatinian arc.
DS201604-0591
2016
Adams, C.J.Augustsson, C., Willner, A.P., Rusing, T., Niemeyer, H., Gerdes, A., Adams, C.J., Miller, H.The crustal evolution of South America from a zircon Hf-isotope perspective.Terra Nova, Vol. 28, 2, pp. 128-137.South AmericaTectonics

Abstract: Hf-isotope data of >1100 detrital zircon grains from the Palaeozoic, south-central Andean Gondwana margin record the complete crustal evolution of South America, which was the predominant source. The oldest grains, with crustal residence ages of 3.8-4.0 Ga, are consistent with complete recycling of existing continental crust around 4 Ga. We confirm three major Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic (Transamazonian) and late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic crust-addition phases as well as six igneous phases during Proterozoic to Palaeozoic time involving mixing of juvenile and crustally reworked material. A late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic, Grenville-age igneous belt can be postulated along the palaeo-margin of South America. This belt was the basement for later magmatic arcs and accreted allochthonous microcontinents as recorded by similar crustal residence ages. Crustal reworking likely dominated over juvenile addition during the Palaeozoic era, and Proterozoic and Archaean zircon was mainly crustally reworked from the eroding, thickened Ordovician Famatinian arc.
DS201412-0209
2014
Adams, D.Downes, P.J., Demeny, A., Czuppon, G., Jacques, A.L., Verrall, M., Sweetapple, M., Adams, D., McNaughton, N.J., Gwalani, L.G., Griffin, B.J.Stable H-C-O isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Cummins Range carbonatite complex, Kimberley region Western Australia: implications for hydrothermal REE mineralization, carbonatite evolution and mantle source regions.Mineralium Deposita, in press available 28p.AustraliaCarbonatite
DS201412-0210
2014
Adams, D.Downes, P.J., Demeny, A., Czuppon, G., Jaques, A.L., Verrall, M., Sweetapple, M., Adams, D., McNaughton, N.J., Gwalani, L.G., Griffin, B.J.Stable H-C-O isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Cummins Range carbonatite complex, Kimberley region western Australia: implications for hydrothermal REE mineralization, carbonatite evolution and mantle source regions.Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 49, p. 905-932.AustraliaCarbonatite
DS201603-0381
2016
Adams, D.Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Adams, D., Huang, J-X., Saunders, M.,Toledo, V., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y.Heaven on Earth: tistarite ( Ti203) and other nebular phases in corundum aggregates from Mt. Carmel volcanic rocks.Israel Geological Society, pp. 85-86. abstractEurope, IsraelMoissanite

Abstract: This ending talk, focused on the ongoing cooperative research of Prof. Griffin and his team at Macquarie University and Shefa Yamim, since January 2014, highlighting unique corundum species characteristics. Preliminary results of this research were presented in the IGS Annual Meeting of 2015, whereas this year Prof. Griffin has shared innovative findings only microscopically tracked within titanium-rich corundum aggregates. One of the more abundant minerals is Tistarite (Ti2O3), previously known only as a single grain in a primitive type of meteorite (!). An article has been submitted to a scientific journal detailing this first terrestrial occurrence. Several other minerals are common in meteorites, but unknown or extremely rare on Earth. About half of these minerals are unknown to science, and will be described as new minerals in the scientific literature. The first of these is a Titanium-Aluminium-Zirconium oxide, informally known as TAZ; it will be submitted to the International Mineralogical Association for recognition as a new mineral, ShefaTAZite. Using state of the art technologies such as Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Electron Microscopy Facility (EMF) that has three scanning electron microscopes, all with EBSD capability, and a transmission electron microscope - Prof. Griffin revealed spectacular imagery of minerals and rare compounds associated with titanium rich corundum aggregates.
DS201603-0382
2016
Adams, D.Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Adams, D., Toledo, V., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y.Deep-Earth methane, mantle dynamics and mineral exploration: insights from northern Israel, southern Tibet and Kamchatka.Israel Geological Society, pp. 87-88. abstractEurope, Israel, TibetMoissanite
DS1992-0007
1992
Adams, D.C.Adams, D.C., Keller, G.R.A geophysical investigation of possible southern extensions of The midcontinent rift systemGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstracts with programs, 1992 Annual, Vol. 24, No. 7, abstract p. A329MidcontinentGeophysics, Tectonic, rifting
DS1992-0835
1992
Adams, D.C.Keller, G.R., Adams, D.C.Thoughts on the nature and extent of Keweenawan rifting in North America based on recent results in other rift systemsEos Transactions, Vol. 73, No. 14, April 7, supplement abstracts p. 319MidcontinentKeweenawan Rift, Tectonics
DS1994-0011
1994
Adams, D.C.Adams, D.C., Keller, G.R.Possible extension of the Midcontinent Rift in West Texas and eastern NewMexico.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 4, April pp. 709-720.Texas, New MexicoTectonics, Midcontinent Rift
DS201610-1865
2016
Adams, D.T.Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Adams, D.T., Huang, J-X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., Pearson, N.J., O'Reilly, S.Y.First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite ( Ti2O3): ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel.Geology, Vol. 44, 10, pp. 815-818.Europe, IsraelMoissanite

Abstract: The minimum oxygen fugacity (fO2) of Earth's upper mantle probably is controlled by metal saturation, as defined by the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer reaction (FeO ? Fe + O). However, the widespread occurrence of moissanite (SiC) in kimberlites, and a suite of super-reduced minerals (SiC, alloys, native elements) in peridotites in Tibet and the Polar Urals (Russia), suggest that more reducing conditions (fO2 = 6-8 log units below IW) must occur locally in the mantle. We describe pockets of melt trapped in aggregates of corundum crystals ejected from Cretaceous volcanoes in northern Israel which contain high-temperature mineral assemblages requiring extremely low fO2 (IW < -10). One abundant phase is tistarite (Ti2O3), previously known as a single grain in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite (Mexico) and believed to have formed during the early evolution of the solar nebula. It is associated with other reduced phases usually found in meteorites. The development of super-reducing conditions in Earth's upper mantle may reflect the introduction of CH4 + H2 fluids from the deep mantle, specifically related to deep-seated volcanic plumbing systems at plate boundaries.
DS1860-0722
1892
Adams, F.D.Adams, F.D.On a Melilite Bearing Rock (alnoite) from St. Anne de Bellevue, Near Montreal.American Journal of Science, SER. 3, Vol. 43, PP. 269-279.Canada, QuebecMelilite, Alnoite
DS1900-0140
1903
Adams, F.D.Adams, F.D.The Montregian Hills- a Canadian Petrographic ProvinceJournal of GEOLOGY, Vol. 11, PP. 239-282.Canada, QuebecAlkaline rocks
DS1986-0001
1986
Adams, G.E.Adams, G.E., Bishop, F.C.The olivine-clinopyroxene geobarometer experimental results in the CEMS system and application to natural lherzolitesGeological Society of America (GSA) Abstract Volume, Vol. 18, No. 6, p. 522. (abstract.)GlobalLherzolite, Geobarometry, Thermobarome
DS1997-0167
1997
Adams, G.W.Carlson, S.M., Adams, G.W.The Diamondiferous SIX-PAK ultramafic lamprophyre diatreme, Kenosha, Wisconsin, USAInstitute Lake Superior Geology, 2p.WisconsinLamprophyre, Diamonds
DS1859-0072
1842
Adams, J.Adams, J.Memo on the Geology of Bundelk hand and JubbalporeAsiatic Soc. Bengal Journal, Vol. 11, PP. 392-411.IndiaRegional Geology
DS1983-0232
1983
Adams, J.Forsyth, D., Morel, P., Hasegawa, H., Wetmiller, R., Adams, J.Comparative Study of the Geophysical and Geological InformatAtomic Energy of Canada Research Limited., No. TR-238, 52P.Canada, OntarioTectonics
DS1989-0005
1989
Adams, J.Adams, J., Basham, P.The seismicity and seismotectonics of Canada east of the CordilleraGeoscience Canada, Vol. 16, No. 1, March pp. 3-16Appalachia, MidcontinentGeophysics, Seismics
DS1989-0547
1989
Adams, J.Grieve, R.A.F., Adams, J., Goodacre, A.K., Nevitt, L., TeskeyThe Canadian geophysical atlasGeological Society of Canada (GSC) Forum 1989, P. 12 abstractOntarioGeophysical atlas
DS1989-1687
1989
Adams, J.Zoback, M.L., Zoback, M.D., Adams, J., Assumpcao, M., et al.Global patterns of tectonic stressNature, Vol. 341, No. 6240, September 28, pp. 291-298GlobalTectonics, Rift
DS1993-0008
1993
Adams, J.Adams, J., Ckague, J.J.Neotectonics and large scale geomorphology of CanadaCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 248-63.CanadaGeomorphology, Gophysics - seismics
DS1993-0009
1993
Adams, J.Adams, J., Clague, J.J.Neotectonics and large scale geomorphology of CanadaPhysical Georgraphy, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.248-264CanadaGeomorphology, Tectonics, structure
DS1996-0004
1996
Adams, J.Adams, J.Paleoseismology in Canada: a dozen years of progressJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. 3, March 10, pp. 6193-6208.CanadaGeophysics -seismics, History
DS200512-0002
2005
Adams, M.G.Adams, M.G., Lentz, D.R., Shaw, C.S., Williams, P.F., Archibald, D.A., Cousens, B.Eocene shoshonitic mafic dykes intruding the Monashee Complex, British Columbia: a petrogenetic relationship with the Kam loops Group volcanic sequence.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 42, 1, pp. 11-24.Canada, British ColumbiaShoshonite
DS201012-0769
2010
Adams, N.Sullivan, D., Adams, N.Digging in: recent developments on conflict minerals.enoughproject.org, Jan. 14p.Africa, Democratic Republic of CongoNews item - legal
DS1981-0001
1981
Adams, R.C.G.Adams, R.C.G., Bielicki, T.A., Lang, A.R.Correlation of Electrostatic Charging Patterns with Internal Structure in Diamonds.Journal of MATERIALS SCIENCE., Vol. 16, No. 9, PP. 2369-2380.GlobalDiamond Morphology
DS200712-0002
2007
Adams, S.Adams, S.King of Bling: how a poor boy from London became diamond merchant to the world's super wealthy.Forbes.com, Vol. 180, 3, August 13, p. 84.Global, Europe, EnglandNews item - Laurence Graff
DS1975-0219
1976
Adams, W.T.Adams, W.T.Gem Stones; United States Bureau of Mines, 1976United States Bureau of Mines MINERALS YEARBOOK, Vol. 1, PP. 1-10.United States, Canada, Global, South AfricaBlank
DS1975-0904
1979
Adams, W.T.Adams, W.T.Diamond-industrialUnited States Bureau of Mines MINERAL COMMODITY PROFILE., JUNE 16P.United States, GlobalProduction, Supply, Exports, Resources, Reserves
DS1900-0606
1908
Adamson, F.Adamson, F.New Patent for Improved Diamond WasherSouth African Mining Journal, Vol. 6, PT. 2, SEPT. 12TH. P. 793.Africa, South AfricaMining Methods
DS1950-0442
1959
Adamson, R.J.Adamson, R.J.Some Account of the Diamond Mining Practices in Southern Africa.South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1, PP. 23-50.South Africa, Southwest Africa, NamibiaMining Methods, Diamond Recovery, Kimberlite Pipes
DS1960-0001
1960
Adamson, R.J.Adamson, R.J.Diamond Recovery in Southern AfricaSouth African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Journal, Vol. 61, SEPT., PP.South AfricaMining Methods, Diamond Recovery, Kimberlite Pipes
DS1960-0315
1963
Adamson, R.J.Adamson, R.J., Hodgson, H.F.The Re-treatment Plant at Premier Diamond MineSouth African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Journal, Vol. 64, SEPT. PP. 45-67.South AfricaDiamond Mining Recovery, Kimberlite Pipes
DS1920-0356
1928
Adar, D.A.Adar, D.A.Diamonds; Lippincott's Magazine, 1928Lippincott's Magazine., Vol. 47, P. 525.South AfricaCurrent Activities
DS200812-0193
2008
Adar, F.Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Medici, L., Hawthorne, F.C., Adar, F.Fluorine rich hibschite from silicocarbonatite, AfrikAnd a Complex, Russia: crystal chemistry and conditions of crystallization.Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 46, 4, August pp.RussiaCarbonatite
DS1980-0001
1980
Adcock, G.Adcock, G.Diamonds: a New Appraisal for Estate PlannersTrusts And Estates, Vol. 119, No. 1, PP. 52-55.GlobalInvestment
DS201012-0569
2010
Adcock, S.W.Paulen, R.C., Adcock, S.W., Spirito, W.A., Chorlton, L.B., McClenaghan, M.B., Oviatt, Budulan, RobinsonsInnovative methods to search, download and display indicator mineral data: a new Tri-Territorial Indicator Mineral Database.38th. Geoscience Forum Northwest Territories, Abstract pp. 75-76.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesGEM database
DS201312-0875
2013
Adcock, S.W.Spirito, W.A., Adcock, S.W., Paulen, R.C.Managing geochemical data: challenges and best practices.GSC Open file 7374 Ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca, pp. 21-26.TechnologyGeochemistry
DS200412-1664
2004
Addad, A.Ricolleau, A., Perrillat, J.P., Fiquet, G., Menguy, N., Daniel, I., Addad, A., Vanni, C.The fate of subducted basaltic crust in the Earth's lower mantle: an experimental petrological study.Lithos, ABSTRACTS only, Vol. 73, p. S93. abstractMantleSubduction
DS200812-0069
2008
Addad, A.Auzende, A-L., Badro, J., Ryerson, F.J., Weber, P.K., Fallon, S.J., Addad, A., Siebert, J., Fiquet, G.Element partitioning between magnesium silicate perovskite and ferropericlase: new insights into bulk lower mantle geochemistry.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 269, 1-2, May 15, pp. 164-174.MantleGeochemistry
DS200812-0892
2008
Addison, R.Petterson, M.G., Toila, D., Cronin, S.J., Addison, R.Communicating geoscience to indigenous people: examples from the Solomon Islands.Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 305, pp. 141-161.Asia, Solomon IslandsAboriginal
DS201212-0602
2012
Addoum, B.Roure, F., Casero, P., Addoum, B.Alpine inversion of the North Africa margin and delamination of its continental lithosphere.Tectonics, Vol. 31, 3, TC3006AfricaTectonics
DS200912-0604
2009
Adel, S.H.Purohit, M.K., Kathal, P.K., Adel, S.H.Discovery of micro-diamonds in beach sands of the Negapattinam and Vedaranniyam beaches, southern east coast of India.Current Science, Vol. 98, 6, March 25, pp.767-8.IndiaMicrodiamonds
DS2002-0008
2002
Adeoye, A.Adeoye, A.Remote sensing analysis of basement complex of southwestern Nigeria using radar imagery.16th. International Conference On Basement Tectonics '02, Abstracts, 2p., 2p.NigeriaStructure - lineaments
DS201012-0475
2010
Ader, M.Mata, J., Moreira, M., Doucelance, R., Ader, M., Silva, L.C.Noble gas and carbon isotopic signatures of Cape Verde oceanic carbonatites: implications for carbon provenance.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 291, 1-4, pp. 70-83.Europe, Cape Verde IslandsCarbonatite
DS200612-0002
2005
Adetoro, D.O.Adetoro, D.O.Examining mediation as the opportunity cost of litigation: can it be sustained in the long term?Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 20, 2, June pp. 28-35.GlobalLegal
DS201705-0872
2017
Adetunji, J.Rollinson, H., Adetunji, J., Lenaz, D., Szilas, K.Archean chromitites show constant Fe3+/Efe in Earth's asthenospheric mantle since 3.8 Ga.Journal of Petrology, in press available 42p.Europe, Greenland, Africa, ZimbabweMelting, Fiskenaesset Compex, Ujaragssuit, Limpopo belt
DS201809-2107
2018
Adhikari, A.Vadlamani, R., Bera, M.K., Samata, A., Mukherjee, S., Adhikari, A., Sarkar, A.Oxygen, Sr and Nd isotopic evidence from kyanite eclogite xenoliths ( KL-2 pipe, Wajrakarur) for pre 1.1 Ga mantle metasomatism in eastern Dharwar SCLM.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractIndiadeposit - KL-2

Abstract: Kyanite-eclogite xenoliths from Wajrakarur are considered as remnants of subducted ocean-floor crust. Here trace element concentration and isotopic data are presented in garnet (Grt) and kyanite (Ky) from xenoliths KL-2 E1-E4, characterized by. We use the precise 87Sr/86Sr host kimberlite groundmass perovskite ratio (0.70312-0.70333, as a proxy for the extent of kimberlitic magma infiltration at 1.1 Ga. The xenolithic Grt and Cr-rich (upto 1506 ppm) Ky have more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values than kimberlite, at 1.1 Ga, of 0.703829-0.705203 and 0.703811-0.704502, respectively. Furthermore, the Grt and Ky 143Nd/144Nd ratios, at 1.1 Ga, are 0.509321-0.511372 and 0.510951-0.511156, respectively, and are distinctly lower than those of the host kimberlite (0.511870-0.512290). This indicates that the infiltration of kimberlitic fluid has not altered the 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in the Grt and Ky, and therefore their isotope compositions must be inherited and predate the kimberlite magma generation event at 1.1 Ga. Trace elements in Grt and Ky indicate extreme metasomatism (Sr in Grt 104-296 ppm, in Ky 672-8713 ppm [limit Sr<2ppm] and Nb in Grt 0.64-1.78 ppm, in Ky 1.7-4.54 ppm [limit Nb<0.5ppm]). The xenoliths underwent at least one major melting event inferred from extreme depletions in Re, Os and 177Os/178Os ratios [5]. Their mantle-like d18O values (Grt 5.3-5.4‰, Ky 5.3-5.9‰), positive Eu anomalies in both Grt and Ky (similar to Group 1 HREE-depleted garnets of) suggests that the protolith likely was a chromite-bearing leucogabbro, emplaced as a high-pressure cumulate at the crust-mantle boundary, which was later eclogitized due to deep-seated subduction and underwent episodes of extreme melting and metasomatism before 1.1 Ga and at least before 1.7 Ga, as inferred from their youngest Re depletion dates.
DS201909-2100
2019
Adhikari, A.Vadlamani, R., Bera, M.K., Samanta, A., Mukherjee, S., Adhikari, A., Sarkar, A.Oxygen, Sr and Nd isotopic evidence from kyanite-eclogite xenoliths ( KL-2 pipe, Wajrakarur) for pre- 1.1 Ga mantle metasomatism in eastern Dharwar SCLM.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. AbstractIndiadeposit - KL-2

Abstract: Kyanite-eclogite xenoliths from Wajrakarur are considered as remnants of subducted ocean-floor crust [1]. Here trace element concentration and isotopic data are presented in garnet (Grt) and kyanite (Ky) from xenoliths KL-2 E1-E4, characterized by [2]). We use the precise 87Sr/86Sr host kimberlite groundmass perovskite ratio (0.70312-0.70333, [3]) as a proxy for the extent of kimberlitic magma infiltration at 1.1 Ga. The xenolithic Grt and Cr-rich (upto 1506 ppm) Ky have more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values than kimberlite, at 1.1 Ga, of 0.703829-0.705203 and 0.703811-0.704502, respectively. Furthermore, the Grt and Ky 143Nd/144Nd ratios, at 1.1 Ga, are 0.509321-0.511372 and 0.510951-0.511156, respectively, and are distinctly lower than those of the host kimberlite (0.511870-0.512290, [4]). This indicates that the infiltration of kimberlitic fluid has not altered the 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in the Grt and Ky, and therefore their isotope compositions must be inherited and predate the kimberlite magma generation event at 1.1 Ga. Trace elements in Grt and Ky indicate extreme metasomatism (Sr in Grt 104-296 ppm, in Ky 672-8713 ppm [limit Sr<2ppm] and Nb in Grt 0.64-1.78 ppm, in Ky 1.7-4.54 ppm [limit Nb<0.5ppm]). The xenoliths underwent at least one major melting event inferred from extreme depletions in Re, Os and 177Os/178Os ratios [5]. Their mantle-like d18O values (Grt 5.3-5.4‰, Ky 5.3-5.9‰), positive Eu anomalies in both Grt and Ky (similar to Group 1 HREE-depleted garnets of [1]) suggests that the protolith likely was a chromite-bearing leucogabbro, emplaced as a high-pressure cumulate at the crust-mantle boundary, which was later eclogitized due to deep-seated subduction and underwent episodes of extreme melting and metasomatism before 1.1 Ga and at least before 1.7 Ga, as inferred from their youngest Re depletion dates [5].
DS201701-0001
2016
Adhikary, D.Adhikary, D., Sahoo, R.K., Maurya, N.Petrography and geochemistry of new finding alkaline lamprophyre dyke in eastern margin of the eastern Dharwar craton, near Khammam, Telangana India.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 90, 1, p. 197. abstractIndiaLamprophyre
DS1995-0007
1995
Adisoma, G.S.Adisoma, G.S., Hester, M.G.Grade estimation and its precision in mineral resources: the jackknifeapproachAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Preprint, No. 95-59, 8pArizonaCopper, Geostatistics -jackknife
DS1996-0005
1996
Adisoma, G.S.Adisoma, G.S., Hester, M.G.Grade estimation and its precision in mineral resources: the jacknifeapproachMining Engineering, Vol. 48, No. 2, Feb. pp. 84-88United StatesOre reserves, geostatistics, Kriging, Jacknife approach
DS1992-0008
1992
Adjei, A.O.Adjei, A.O.The significance of northeast southwest parallel fractures in the West African CratonInternational Basement Tect., No. 7, pp. 49-60.GlobalCraton, Metallogeny - not specific to diamonds
DS201412-0300
2014
Adjerid, Z.Godard, G., Chabou, M.C., Adjerid, Z.First African diamonds discovered in Algeria by the ancient Arabo-Berbers: history and insight into the source rocks.Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Vol. 346, 7-8, pp. 179-189.Africa, AlgeriaHistory, lamproite
DS1988-0001
1988
Adkins-Heljeson, D.M.Adkins-Heljeson, D.M., Berendsen, P., McCafferty, A.E.Correlation of aeromagnetic and gravity dat a in the Joplin 2degree quadrangle of Kansas and Missouri to basement composition and structureGeological Society of America Abstracts with Program, Vol. 20, No. 2, January p. 89. Sth. Central, LawrenceGlobalMid continent, Tectonics
DS1990-0997
1990
Adkins-Heljeson, D.M.McCafferty, A.E., Adkins-Heljeson, D.M., Yarger, H.L.Complete bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Joplin Quadrangle Kansas andMissouriUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File No. 89-0283, 1 sheet 1: 250, 000 $3.25, GlobalGeophysics-gravity
DS201312-0005
2013
Adler, C.Adler, C.A new line of sight - Mellier CEO of De Beers.Optima, Dec. pp. 10-19.GlobalMellier discussion
DS1860-0072
1869
Adler, N.Adler, N.Diamanten in Sued-afrika Vaal RiverVerhandlungen der kk geologischen Reichsanstalt (WIEN), ALSO: NEUES JAHRB. MI, PP. 351-352; (1870 P. 485).Africa, South Africa, Cape ProvinceHistory
DS1991-0921
1991
Admakin, L.A.Kostrovitskii, S.I., Admakin, L.A.Occurrence of petrified wood in the Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipeSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 32, No. 11, pp. 70-71Russia, YakutiaFossil wood, Deposit -Obnazhennaya
DS1989-1338
1989
Admou, H.Saquaque, A., Admou, H., Karson, J., Hefferan, K., Reuber, I.Precambrian accretionary tectonics in the Bou-Azzer-El Graara region, Anti-Atlas, MoroccoGeology, Vol. 17, No. 12, December pp. 1107-1110MoroccoOphiolite, Late Proterozoic
DS2000-0401
2000
Admou, H.Hefferan, K.P., Admou, H., Saquaque, A.Anti-Atlas (Morocco) role in Neoproterozoic western GondwanaPrecambrian Research, Vol. 103, No. 1-2, Sept. pp.89-96.MoroccoTectonics, Gondwana
DS201805-0952
2017
Admou, H.Ikenne, M., Lahna, A.A., Soderlund, U., Tassinar, C.C.G., Ernst, R.E., Pin, Ch., Youbi, N., El Aouli, EH., Hafid, A., Admou, H., Mata, J., Bouougri, EH., Boumehdi, M.A.New Mesoproterozoic age constraints for the Taghdout Group, Anti-Atlas ( Morocco): toward a new lithostratigra[hic framework for the Precambrian in the NW margin of the West African Craton.The First West African Craton and Margins International Workshop WACMA, Held Apr. 24-29. 1p. AbstractAfrica, Moroccogeochronology
DS1993-1838
1993
Adodin, E.E.Zudin, N.G., Adodin, E.E.Preliminary classification, evaluation and reprocessing of diamondsDiamonds of Yakutia, pp. 177-180.Russia, YakutiaDiamond evaluation
DS1989-0006
1989
Adrian, J.Adrian, J., Winfield, G.M.Geochemical and mineralogical features of a re-enriched zone within the Goudini carbonatite complex Transvaal South AfricaXiii International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Rio 89 Brazilian Geochemical, p. 61-62. AbstractSouth AfricaCarbonatite, Goudini
DS201412-0002
2014
Adriao, A.Adriao, A., Conceicao, R., Carniel, L., Gervasoni, F.Chemical and isotopic evidences of mantle source heterogeneity in the RosaRio do Sul kimberlite province.Goldschmidt Conference 2014, 1p. AbstractSouth America, BrazilDeposit - RosaRio do Sul
DS1996-0006
1996
Adu-Anokye, S.Adu-Anokye, S., Cobblah, A., Mireku-Gyimah, D.Geostatistical mineral reserve estimation of a Diamondiferous deposit - acase study.Surface Mining, 1996, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM)., pp. 93-100.GhanaBirim diamond field, Diamond reserves, geostatistics
DS200412-0003
2004
Adushkin, V.V.Adushkin, V.V., Ovchinnikov, V.M.The mosaic in reflections from the Earth's solid core boundary.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 397, 6, July-August pp. 883-885.MantleGeophysics - seismics
DS2000-1014
2000
Ady, B.E.Whittaker, R.C., Karpuz, R., Wheeler, W., Ady, B.E.4D regional tectonic modeling: plate reconstruction using a geographic information systemGeological Association of Canada (GAC)/Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) 2000, 4p. abstract.Greenland, NorwayTectonics - GIS
DS200912-0002
2009
Aeh, A.Aeh, A., Gerdes, A., Barton, J.H.Archean accretion and crustal evolution of the Kalahari craton: the zircon age and Hf isotope record of granitic rocks- Barberton/Swaziland to Francistown Arc.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 50, 5, pp. 933-966.Africa, South AfricaGeochronology
DS200512-0025
2004
Aeolus Lee, C.T.Anser Li, Z.X., Aeolus Lee, C.T.The constancy of upper mantle fo2 through time inferred from V/Sc ratios in basalts.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 228, 3-4, pp. 483-493.MantlePetrology - basalts
DS200612-0003
2005
Aeoluslee, C.T.Aeoluslee, C.T., Leeman, W.P., Canil, D., Li, Z.X.Similar V/Sc systematics in MORB and Arc basalts: implications for the oxygen fugacities of their mantle source regions.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 46, 11, pp. 2313-2336.MantlePetrology
DS201012-0247
2010
AfanasevGrakhanov, S.A., Malanin, Yu.A., Pavlov, Afanasev, Pokhilenko, Gerasimchuk, LipashovaRhaetian diamond placers in Siberia.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 51, pp. 127-135.Russia, Yakutia, SakhaAlluvials
DS201612-2272
2016
Afanasev, A.Afanasev, A., Belyaeva, E.Linear stability analysis for hydrothermal alteration of kimberlitic rocks.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 205, 3, pp. 1874-1885.TechnologyAlteration

Abstract: The influx of groundwater into hot kimberlite deposits results in the reaction of water with olivine-rich rocks. The products of the reaction are serpentine and release of latent heat. The rise of temperature due to the heat release increases the rate of the reaction. Under certain conditions, this self-speeding up of the reaction can result in instabilities associated with a significantly higher final serpentinisation in slightly warmer regions of the kimberlite deposit. We conduct linear stability analysis of serpentinisation in an isolated volume of porous kimberlitic rocks saturated with water and an inert gas. There is a counteracting interplay between the heat release tending to destabilise the uniform distribution of parameters and the heat conduction tending to stabilise it by smoothing out temperature perturbations. We determine the critical spatial scale separating the parameters where one phenomenon dominates over another. The perturbations of longer-than-critical length grow, whereas the perturbations of shorter-than-critical length fade. The analytical results of the linear stability analysis are supported by direct numerical simulations using a full nonlinear model.
DS1983-0002
1983
Afanasev, B.P.Afanasev, B.P., Yangin, YU.T.Buried Primary Dispersion Streams of Kimberlite Bodies in The MalobuTo bin Skii Region.Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 24, No. 6, PP. 76-81.Russia, YakutiaGeochemistry, Sampling
DS200712-0471
2007
Afanasev, V.Izbekov, E., Podyachev, B., Afanasev, V.Signs of symmetric diamond concentration in the eastern Siberian Platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 411, 9, pp. 1339-1340.RussiaDiamond genesis
DS200712-0472
2007
Afanasev, V.Izbekov, E., Podyachev, B., Afanasev, V.Signs of symmetric diamond concentration in the eastern Siberian Platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 411, 9, pp. 1339-1340.RussiaDiamond genesis
DS200712-1018
2007
Afanasev, V.Sonin, V., Zhimulev, E., Afanasev, V., Fedorov, I., Cheperov, A.Diamond interaction with silicate melts in a hydrogen atmosphere.Geochemistry International, Vol. 45, 4, pp. 399-404.TechnologyMelting
DS200712-1019
2007
Afanasev, V.Sonin, V., Zhimulev, E., Afanasev, V., Fedorov, I., Cheperov, A.Diamond interaction with silicate melts in a hydrogen atmosphere.Geochemistry International, Vol. 45, 4, pp. 399-404.TechnologyMelting
DS201709-1981
2017
Afanasev, V.Egorova, E., Afanasev, V.Mineralogical features for determining age of kimberlites from Siberian craton by kimberlitic indicator minerals from placers. Mayat, Muna, Tychan, KenkemeGoldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Russia, Siberiageochemistry

Abstract: The history of kimberlite magmatism in the Siberian craton comprised the Middle Paleozoic (Late Devonian), Triassic, and Jurassic-Cretaceouse events. The Middle Paleozoic event produced greatest amounts of diamond-bearing kimberlites; diamond contents in the Triassic rocks are much lower, while the Jurassic-Cretaceous kimberlites are actually barren [1]. Minerals derived from kimberlites of different ages often coexist in placers and dispersion trains, which poses problems to the use of mineralogical methods for diamond exploration. The problem can be solved by knowing the morphological features of kimberlite indicator minerals typical of each magmatic event [2]. Garnets from Middle Paleozoic kimberlites have the following features: a) chemistry corresponding to diverse parageneses, including those of diamond assemblage; b) weak to strong wear; predominant medium and high wear degrees; c)signatures of dissolution in Late Devonian laterite weathering profiles. Garnets from Triassic kimberlites differ in a) lower paragenetic diversity; few or absent garnets of diamond assemblage; b) only low wear degree; strong wear restricted to garnets from Triassic kimberlites hosted by coastal sediments; c) no dissolution signatures. Jurassic-Cretaceous ages of kimberlites can be inferred from a) changes in paragenetic diversity as a result of deep metasomatism and predominance of shallow lherzolite varieties; no diamond assemblage garnets; b) weak wear; c) no dissolution signatures. The approach was used to estimate the ages of kimberlites in some kimberlite provinces. As a result, we inferred the existence of Middle Paleozoic kimberlites in the Kyutyungde graben, in the catchments of the Mayat, Billakh (Anabar area), and Muna rivers, in the MarkhaMorkoka interfluve, and in the Tychan diamond province (Krasnoyarsk region); Triassic kimberlites in the northern slope of the Olenek uplift and within the Bulkur uplift; and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous kimberlites in the Kenkeme catchment north of Yakutsk city.
DS1984-0001
1984
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Sobolev, N.V., Kharkiv, A.D.The Evolution of the Chemical Composition of Pyrope Associations in Old Dispersion Halos Around Kimberlite Bodies.Soviet Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 25, No. 2, PP. 130-135.RussiaGeochemistry
DS1984-0002
1984
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Varlamov, V.A., Garanin, V.K.The Abrasion of Minerals in Kimberlites in Relation to the Conditions and Distances of Their Transportation.Soviet Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 25, No. 10, OCTOBER PP. 112-117.RussiaMorphology, Petrography
DS1985-0001
1985
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N., Boris, E.I.Characteristics of concentration of a kimberlite material inancient sedimentary deposits of Yakutia. (in Russian)Rudn. Spets. Osad. Form. Sib. Dalnego Vostoka, (in Russian), pp. 129-133RussiaBlank
DS1986-0473
1986
Afanasev, V.P.Kvasnitsa, V.N., Vuiki, V.I., Tsymbal, Yu.S., Afanasev, V.P., et al.Crystal morphology and paragenesis of cut garnets fromkimberlites.(Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 30-44RussiaPyrope, Morphology
DS1987-0001
1987
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N.Minerogenesis of ancient placers of diamonds on the eastern edge of the Tunguska syncliseSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 79-84RussiaPlacers, Genesis
DS1989-0007
1989
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P.Technique for mapping of heavy mineral concentrate dispersion haloes In kimberlite bodiesSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 32-37RussiaGeochemistry, Prospecting/sampling
DS1989-0008
1989
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P.Prospecting based on heavy mineral seperates in the Yakutia Diamond bearing province.(Russian)Sov. Geol., (Russian), No. 1, pp. 24-33RussiaHeavy minerals, Prospecting
DS1991-0003
1991
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Sobolev, N.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Exogenous changes of the indicator minerals at the formation of mineralogical halos of kimberlite bodiesProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference held Araxa June 1991, Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM) Special, pp. 1-2RussiaAlluvial, Diamonds -mineralogy
DS1992-1446
1992
Afanasev, V.P.Sobolev, N.V., Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Kaminsky, F.V.Pyropes and diamonds of the Algerian Sahara.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 325, No. 2, pp. 367-373.AlgeriaIndicator minerals, Pyropes, diamonds
DS1993-1499
1993
Afanasev, V.P.Sobolev, N.V., Pokhilenko, N.P., Afanasev, V.P.Kimberlite pyropes and chromites morphology and chemistry as indicators of diamond grade in Yakutian and Arkangelsk Provinces.Mid-continent diamonds Geological Association of Canada (GAC)-Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC) Symposium ABSTRACT volume, held Edmonton May, pp. 63-70.Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), YakutiaMineral chemistry, Diamond morphology
DS1994-0012
1994
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Sobolev, N.V., Kirillov, E.A., Yusupov, I.S.Relative abrasive stability of pyrope and pyroilmenite -indicator minerals of kimberlite.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Nauk, Vol. 337, No. 3, July pp. 359-362.Russia, SiberiaMineralogy, Indicator minerals
DS1995-2000
1995
Afanasev, V.P.Vishnevsky, S.A., Afanasev, V.P., Koptil, V.I.Impact diamonds : their features, origin and significanceProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Abstracts, pp. 657-659.GlobalDiamonds -impact, Meteorites
DS1998-0008
1998
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N., Koptil, V.I.Diamond polygenesis: evidence for the native sources of placers of northeastern Siberian PlatformDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 361A, No. 6, pp. 761-4.Russia, SiberiaAlluvials, placers, Genesis, origin
DS1999-0001
1999
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N.Main lithodynamic types of dispersion haloes of index kimberlite mineral sand environments of their formationGeo. Ore Dep., Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 252-RussiaGeochemistry, Lithogeochemistry, indicator minerals
DS2000-0006
2000
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, Loginova, Zinchuk, EfimovaProblem of false kimberlite indicators: a new morphogenetic type Cr spinellide Diamondiferous areas.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol.41,12,pp.1676-89., Vol.41,12,pp.1676-89.RussiaGeochemistry - indicators, Chrome spinellide
DS2000-0007
2000
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, Loginova, Zinchuk, EfimovaProblem of false kimberlite indicators: a new morphogenetic type Cr spinellide Diamondiferous areas.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol.41,12,pp.1676-89., Vol.41,12,pp.1676-89.RussiaGeochemistry - indicators, Chrome spinellide
DS2001-0005
2001
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Zinchuk, Pkhilenko, Krivonos, YanyginKarst role in the formation of diamond placers of the Muno Markhinskii interfluve Yakutsk diamond provinceGeol. Ore Depos., Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 234-8.Russia, SiberiaAlluvials, Geomorphology
DS2002-1528
2002
Afanasev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, E.I., Afanasev, V.P., Chepurov, A.I.Genetic aspects of the diamond morphologyGeology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 44, 4, pp. 291-299.GlobalDiamond - morphology, genesis
DS200712-0473
2006
Afanasev, V.P.Izbekov, E.D., Podyachev, B.P., Afanasev, V.P.Signs of symmetric diamond concentration in the eastern Siberian platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 411, 9, Nov-Dec. pp. 1339-1340.Russia, SiberiaDiamond genesis
DS200712-1022
2007
Afanasev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, E.I., Afanasev, V.P., Fedorov, I.I., Chepurov, A.I.Diamond interaction with silicate melts in a hydrogen atmosphere.Geochemistry International, Vol. 45, 4, pp. 399-404.MantleDiamond genesis
DS200812-0002
2008
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Nikolenko, E.I., Tychikov, N.S., Titov, A.T., Tolstov, A.V., Kornilova, V.P., Sobolev, N.V.Mechanical abrasion of kimberlite indicator minerals: experimental investigations.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 49, 2, pp. 91-97.TechnologyMineralogy
DS200812-0798
2008
Afanasev, V.P.Nikolenko, E.I., Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.Garnets of crustal parageneses in alluvial deposits of the eastern Siberian platform: genesis and search significance.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 49, pp. 655-666.Russia, YakutiaMuna Markha drainage
DS201012-0002
2009
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N., Logvinova, A.M.Distribution of placer diamonds related to Precambrian sources.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 51, 8, pp. 675-683.RussiaAlluvials
DS201012-0541
2010
Afanasev, V.P.Nikolenko, E.I., Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.Pecularities of the composition of zoned picroilmenites from the Massadou field, (Guinea) and Dachanya pipe ( Yakutia) kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 434, 2, pp.1386-1389.Africa, Guinea, RussiaGeochemistry - Massadou, Dachanaya
DS201012-0590
2010
Afanasev, V.P.Pokhilenko, N.P., Afanasev, V.P., Vavilov, M.A.Behaviour of kimberlite indicator minerals during the formation of mechanical dispersion halos in glacial settings.Lithology and Mineral Resources, Vol. 45, 4, pp. 324-329.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - CL 25
DS201012-0741
2010
Afanasev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, E.I., Chepurov, A.I., Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.High pressure etching of diamond in chloride melt in the presence of aqueous fluid.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 434, 2, pp. 1359-1361.TechnologyUHP
DS201112-0005
2011
Afanasev, V.P.Afanasev, V.P., Lobanov, S.S., Pokhilenko, N.P., Koptil, Mityukhin, Gerasimchuk, Pomazanski, GorevPolygenesis of diamonds in Siberian Platform. Five groups of diamonds have been distinquished.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol.l 52, pp. 259-274.Russia, SiberiaDiamond placers, alluvials
DS201212-0523
2012
Afanasev, V.P.Nikolenko, E., Afanasev, V.P., Chepurov, A.Fe rich ilmenite and kimberlite melt interaction, experimental researchs.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, Africa, Angola, GuineaDeposit - Dachnaya, Catoca, Massadon
DS201212-0562
2012
Afanasev, V.P.Pokhilenko, N.P., Afanasev, V.P., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Kulgin, S.S., Pokhilenko, L.N., Golovin, A.V., Agashev, A.M.Kimberlite indicator minerals in terrigene sediments of lower part of Mackenzie River Basin, NWT, Canada: evidence of new craton with thick lithosphere.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry - KIMS
DS201312-0649
2012
Afanasev, V.P.Nikolenko, E.I., Afanasev, V.P., Chepurov, A.I., Sonin, V.M., Poikhilenko, N.P.Experimental study of the interaction between emoilmenite and kimberlite melt at a pressure of 2 Gpa.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 447, 2, pp. 1306-1309.Africa, GuineaDeposit - Massadou
DS201412-0308
2014
Afanasev, V.P.Goryainov, S.V., Likhacheva, A.Y., Rashchenko, S.V., Shubin, A., Afanasev,V.P., Poikilenko, N.P.Raman identification of lonsdalaeite in Popigai impactites.Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 45, 4, pp. 305-313.RussiaLonsdaleite
DS201612-2297
2016
Afanasev, V.P.Egorova, E.O., Afanasev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.Middle Paleozoic kimberlite magmatism in the northeastern Siberia.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 470, 2, pp. 1023-1026.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Billyakh River placers

Abstract: The mineral chemistry and crystal morphology of kimberlite pyropes from the Billyakh River placer in the northeastern Siberian craton are characterised in terms of the placer history. The pyropes bear signatures of chemical weathering (dissolution), presumably in a Middle Paleozoic laterite profile, and therefore were originally hosted by Middle Paleozoic kimberlites. The broad occurrence of placer pyropes with lateritic dissolution signatures points to the presence of Middle Paleozoic diamond-bearing kimberlites in the study area.
DS201212-0678
2012
Afanasev, V.P.D.Smith, E.M., Kopylova, M.G., Nowell, G.M., Pearson, D.G., Ryder, J., Afanasev, V.P.D., Beeby, A.The contrast in trace element chemistry and volatile composition between fluid inclusions n fibrous and octahedral diamonds.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractCanada, Ontario, WawaDiamond inclusions
DS201212-0419
2012
Afanasev, Z.L.Lokhov, K., Lukyanova, L., Antonev, A.V., Polekhovsky, I.N., Antonov, A.V., Afanasev, Z.L., Bogomolov, E.S., Sergeev, S.A.U Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic systems in zircons and Hf-Nd isotopic systemization of the Kimozero kimberlites, Karelia.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, Archangel, Kola PeninsulaDeposit - Kimozero
DS1975-0905
1979
Afanaseyev, V.P.Afanaseyev, V.P., Kharkiv, A.D., Sokolov, V.N.The Morphology and Morphogenesis of the Garnets in the Kimberlites of Yakutia.Soviet Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 20, No. 3, PP. 65-75.RussiaGenesis
DS1991-0004
1991
Afanaseyev, V.P.Afanaseyev, V.P.Regularities of evolution of kimberlite minerals and their associations during formation of concentrate haloesSoviet Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 78-84RussiaKimberlite geochemistry, Indicator mineralogy
DS200512-0036
2004
AfanasievAshchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, Rotman, Loginova, Afanasiev, Palessky, Saprykin, Anoshin, Kuchkin, KhmelnikovaMir and Internationalnaya kimberlite pipes - trace element geochemistry and thermobarometry of mantle minerals.Deep seated magmatism, its sources and their relation to plume processes., pp. 194-208.RussiaGeobarometry - Mir, International
DS200612-0047
2006
AfanasievAshchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, Sobolev, Pokhilenko, Rotman, Logvinova, Afanasiev, Pokhilenko, KarpenkoReconstruction of the mantle sequences and the structure of the feeding and vein magmatic systems beneath the kimberlite fields of Siberian platform.Vladykin: VI International Workshop, held Mirny, Deep seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, pp. 79-103.Russia, SiberiaDyke systems
DS200612-0048
2006
AfanasievAshchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, Sobolev, Pokhilenko, Rotman, Logvinova, Afanasiev, Pokhilenko, KarpenkoVariations of the oxygen conditions in mantle column beneath Siberian kimberlite pipes and it's application to lithospheric structure of feeding systems.Vladykin: VI International Workshop, held Mirny, Deep seated magmatism, its sources and plumes, pp. 125-144.Russia, SiberiaRedox
DS201012-0016
2010
AfanasievAshchepkov, I., Afanasiev, Vladykin, Pokhilenko, Ntaflos, Travin, Ionov, Palessky, Logvinova, Kuligin, MityukhinReasons of variations of the mineral compositions of the mantle rocks beneath the Yakutian kimberlite province.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 141.Russia, YakutiaGeothermometry
DS200412-0004
2004
Afanasiev, V.Afanasiev, V., et al.Interpreting diamond morphology. The shape and surface features of diamonds are characteristic of primary deposits. Assist explRough Diamond Review, No. 5, June, pp.RussiaDiamond morphology, placers
DS200512-0003
2004
Afanasiev, V.Afanasiev, V.Surface modifications to diamonds often occur from damage due to alluvial transportation and from chemical attack after growth. These features can contribute to characterisationRough Diamond Review, No.7, December pp.Diamond morphology, placers, characteristics
DS200912-0163
2009
Afanasiev, V.De Stefano, A., Kopylova, M.C., Cartigny, P., Afanasiev, V.Diamonds and eclogites of the Jericho kimberlite ( Northern Canada).Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 158, 3, Sept. pp. 295-315.Canada, NunavutDeposit - Jericho
DS201312-0006
2013
Afanasiev, V.Afanasiev, V., Agashev, A., Pokhilenko, N.Dispersion haloes of kimberlite indicator minerals in the Siberian Platform: history and formation conditions.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 256-264.RussiaMineral chemistry
DS201412-1007
2014
Afanasiev, V.Yelisseyev, A., Khrenov, A., Afanasiev, V., Pustavarov, V., Gromilov, S., Panchenko, A., Poikilenko, N., Litasov, K.Luminesence of impact diamonds from the Popigai astrobleme.V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences International Symposium Advances in high pressure research: breaking scales and horizons ( Courtesy of N. Poikilenko), Held Sept. 22-26, 2p. AbstractRussia, SiberiaDiamond luminescence
DS201502-0036
2015
Afanasiev, V.Afanasiev, V., Ashchekov, I., Nikolenko, E.Concentrates and mantle xenocrysts from the Lao River Guinea and reconstruction of the mantle structure. Economic Geology Research Institute 2015, Vol. 17,, # 2484, 1p. AbstractAfrica, GuineaKimberlite dykes
DS201502-0087
2015
Afanasiev, V.Nikolenko, E., Tychkov, N., Afanasiev, V.Mantle xenocrysts of the Chompolo kimberlite field, Aldan shield, south Yakutia.Economic Geology Research Institute 2015, Vol. 17,, # 2471, 1p. AbstractRussiaDeposit - Chompolinskoe
DS201509-0439
2015
Afanasiev, V.Yelisseyev, A., Khrenov, A., Afanasiev, V., Pustovarov, V., Gromilov, S., Panchenko, A., Pokhilenko, N., Litasov, K.Luminescence of natural carbon nanomaterial: impact diamonds from the Popigai crater.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 58, pp. 69-77.RussiaDeposit - Popigai

Abstract: Impact diamonds (IDs) from the Popigai crater are aggregates of nanoparticulate graphite and cubic and hexagonal diamonds. IDs demonstrate broad-band emissions at 3.05, 2.8, 2.3 and 2.0 eV, which are associated with structural defects and are similar to those in detonation ultra-dispersed diamonds and CVD diamond films. A doublet with components at 1.7856 and 1.7892 eV in some ID samples is related to R1,2 lines of Cr3 + ions in corundum inclusions. The presence of N3, H3, NV0 and NV- vibronic systems in some of the ID samples shows that (i) there is nitrogen impurity and (ii) samples underwent high temperature annealing that promoted vacancies and nitrogen diffusion and defect aggregation. The luminescence decay fits with a sum of two exponential components: lifetime of the fast one is in the 5 to 9 ns range. Parameters of the traps responsible for broad thermoluminescence peaks at 148, 180, 276 and 383 K were estimated.
DS201705-0884
2017
Afanasiev, V.Ugapeva, S., Goryainov, S., Afanasiev, V., Ponkratov, K.Raman mapping of mechanical stress field in diamond around a chromite inclusion.European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017, Vienna April 23-28, 1p. 11676 AbstractTechnologyDiamond inclusions
DS202002-0221
2020
Afanasiev, V.Yelisseyev, A., Gromilov, S., Afanasiev, V., Sildos, I., Kiisk, V.Effect of lonsdaleite on the optical properties of impact diamonds.Diamonds & Related Materials, Vol. 101, 107640, 13p. PdfRussiaPopigai

Abstract: The special features of impact diamonds are the orientation of the nanosized grains relative to each other, the presence of hexagonal diamond (lonsdaleite, L) in a large part of the samples and the increased wear resistance. Using Raman spectroscopy and XRD, two groups of translucent samples of Popigai impact diamonds (PIDs) were selected: with and without lonsdaleite and the effect of lonsdaleite on the optical properties of the samples was studied. In all L-containing PIDs there is a strong absorption band of about 1230 cm-1 in the one-phonon region, in the mid-IR. The absorption edge is blurred and described by the Urbach rule. The estimated value of Eg ~4 eV for L is consistent with the first principles calculations. Impurity nitrogen is found only in L-free PIDs: There are signals from nitrogen-vacancy complexes in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Variations in the number of nitrogen atoms (N = 1 to 4) in the structure of these centers indicate significant variations in the parameters of PID annealing. L-containing PIDs are characterized by large strains in the lattice and, as a consequence, there are problems with the defect diffusion. The narrow lines in PL spectra, uncommon for diamond, can be the result of several orders of magnitude higher concentrations of impurities in PIDs formed during the solid-phase transition. The broadened peaks of 180, 278 and 383 K are distinguishable in the curves of thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) for L-free PIDs, but in the presence of L the TSL glow becomes continuous as in natural IaA-type diamonds with platelets. In general, lonsdaleite deteriorates the optical properties of impact diamonds and makes it difficult to create certain types of impurity-vacancy complexes for different applications.
DS202010-1882
2020
Afanasiev, V.Ugapeva, S., Afanasiev, V., Pavlushin, A., Eliseev, A.Main features of Yakutites from Ebelyakh placer.World Multidisciplinary Earth Sciences Symposium ( researchgate), 7p. PdfRussialonsdaleite

Abstract: Yakutites (polycrystalline diamonds with lonsdaleite admixture) from the Ebelyakh placer (Yakutia, Russia) have been studied by optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and neutron diffraction in order to reveal their difference from tagamite-hosted diamonds of the Popigai impact crater. The yakutite aggregates are 2.0 mm to 13.0 mm in size and have a shapeless morphology or sometimes preserve hexagonal contours of primary graphite. Raman spectra are characterized by a broadened line in the region of cubic 3C diamond, which is interpreted as the sum of spectra from cubic 3C diamond and three peaks related to Lonsdaleite: 1338 (E1g), 1280 (A1g) and 1224 (E2g). On the surface of yakutites revealed the presence of a silicate glass film. The main elements are iron, silicon from the surrounding silicate matter. Neutron stress diffractometry showed the content of diamond and Lonsdaleite in the sample of yakutite by 50%, two cases of preferential orientation of two phases were recorded: (110) diamond // (110) Lonsdaleite; (111) diamond // (001) Lonsdaleite. Both yakutites and tagamite-hosted diamonds are of impact origin and share similarity in the phase composition consisting of more abundant diamond and subordinate amounts of lonsdaleite. Differences between them depend on the place of their formation. Yakutites were formed in the epicenter of the explosion and were thrown out of the crater at a distance of more than 550 km in radial directions, and from the vertical ejection - they got back to the crater. In tagamites, impact diamonds were formed simultaneously with the rock melting due to the shock wave that came from the epicenter. The presence of a silicate glass film on the surface of yakutites indicates that they were hardened after ejection from the crater. Yakutites represent distinct mineral fraction outside the crater. They are found as placers along with common diamonds and other detritus. Within the crater they are genetically related to suevites - tuffaceous component of the impactites and enter the crater placers due to the physical weathering of suevites. Tagamite diamonds practically do not occur in the crater placers, because tagamite is a very hard rock and in the absence of chemical weathering these diamonds can't be released. Thus, diamonds from tagamites and yakutites, having a common impact nature, differ in some properties determined by the place of formation and post-impact history.
DS200912-0839
2009
Afanasiev, V.A.P.A.Yelisseyev, A.A.P.A., Afanasiev, V.A.P.A., Ikorsky, V.A.N.A.Magnetic susceptibility of natural diamonds.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 425, 2, pp. 330-333.TechnologyDiamond morphology
DS1986-0495
1986
Afanasiev, V.P.Lipatova, V.A., Afanasiev, V.P.Mineralogical and palynological substantiation of the existence of remedial carboniferous intermediate reservoirs of kimberlite minerals in the northMalo-BotuobinskDoklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 288, No. 6, pp. 1453-1456RussiaBlank
DS1987-0002
1987
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N.Metallogeny of old diamond placers of eastern frame of theTunguskasyneclise.(Russian)Geol. Geofiz.(Russian), No. 1, January ppRussiaBlank
DS1995-0008
1995
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P.Geological mineralogical system of searching for diamond depositsProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstracts, pp. 1-3.Russia, Siberia, YakutiaHalo identification, Indicator minerals
DS1995-2149
1995
Afanasiev, V.P.Zinchuk, N.N., Afanasiev, V.P.Genetic types and main tendencies for Diamondiferous placers formationProceedings of the Sixth International Kimberlite Conference Almazy Rossii Sakha abstract, p. 36.Russia, YakutiaPlacers, alluvials, Deposit -Siberian Platform
DS1998-0009
1998
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Logvinova, A.M.Problem of false indicators for kimberlites and lamproites ( on the exampleof chromites).7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 7-8.Russia, Yakutia, ArkangelskMineralogy - chromium spinels
DS2003-1083
2003
Afanasiev, V.P.Pkhilenko, N.P., Zedgenizov, D.A., Afanasiev, V.P., Rylov, G.M., Milledge, H.J.Morphology and internal structure of diamonds from Snap Lake, King Lake kimberlite8ikc, Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 3, POSTER abstractNorthwest TerritoriesDiamonds - morphology, Deposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS200412-2181
2004
Afanasiev, V.P.Yelisseyev, A.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Steeds, J.W., Zedgenizov, D.A., Afanasiev, V.P.Features of coated diamonds from the Snap Lake/King Lake kimberlite dyke, Slave Craton, Canada, as revealed by optical topographLithos, Vol. 77, 1-4, Sept. pp. 83-97.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesCoated diamonds, absorption, luminescence, nickel, nitr
DS200512-0004
2004
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Griffin, W.L., Natapov, L.M., Zinchuk, N.N., Matukhin, R.G., Mikrtychiyan, G.A.Diamond prospects in the southwestern flank of the Tungusk synclise.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 47, 1, pp. 45-62.Russia, YakutiaDaldyn, Tychany, geochemistry
DS201112-0006
2010
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Tychkov, N.S., Pokhilenko, N.P., Ovchinnikov, Yu.I.About kimberlite indicator minerals in the Triassic tuffs of the Tunguska sineclise.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 435, 2, pp. 1555-1559.RussiaDiamond exploration
DS201112-0536
2011
Afanasiev, V.P.Kopylova, M.G., Afanasiev, V.P., Bruce, L.F., Thurston, P.C., Tyder, J.Metaconglomerate preserves evidence for kimberlite Diamondiferous root and medium grade terrane of a pre-2.7 Ga Southern Superior protocraton.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 312, 1-2, Dec. 1, pp. 213-235.Canada, OntarioMetaconglomerates
DS201212-0004
2012
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Poikilenko, N.P.Abrasion of diamond: an experimental study and field evidence.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractRussia, YakutiaDiamond morphology
DS201212-0371
2012
Afanasiev, V.P.Kopylova, M.G., Miller, C., Afanasiev, V.P., Bruce, L., Thurston, P., Ryder, J.Kimberlite derived harzburgitic diamonds from a >2.7 GA southern Superior Province, Protocraton.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractCanada, Ontario, WawaDiamond morphology
DS201212-0679
2012
Afanasiev, V.P.Smith, E.M., Kopylova, M.G., Nowell, G.M., Pearson, D.G., Ryder, J., Afanasiev, V.P.The contrast in trace element chemistry and volatile composition between fluid inclusions in fibrous and octahedral diamonds.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractCanada, Ontario, WawaDiamond - inclusions
DS201212-0806
2012
Afanasiev, V.P.Yelisseyev, A.P., Afanasiev, V.P., Kopylova, M.G., Bulbak, T.A.The effect of metamorphic annealing and Betairradiation in optical properties of type 1AA diamonds.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractCanada, Ontario, RussiaDiamond - metamorphism
DS201312-0007
2013
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Aschepkov, I.V., Verzhak, V.V., O'Brien, H., Palessky, S.V.PT conditions and trace element variations of picroilmenites and pyropes from placers and kimberlites in the Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 70, pp. 45-63.Russia, Kola Peninsula, ArchangelDeposit - Verkhotinskoe , Kepinskoe fields
DS201312-0008
2013
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Snegirev, O.V., Tychkov, N.S., Pokhilenko, N.P.Stability of kimberlite garnets exposed to chemical weathering: relationship with Cr contents.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 448, 1, pp. 103-105.TechnologyGarnet mineralogy
DS201312-0714
2013
Afanasiev, V.P.Pokhilenko, N.P., Afanasiev, V.P.New prospective for diamond deposits in Siberia.PDAC 2013, March 4, 1/2p. Abstract only as conflict in his scheduleRussiaOverview - Siberia
DS201312-0846
2013
Afanasiev, V.P.Smith, E.M., Kopylova, M.G., Frezzotti, M.L., Afanasiev, V.P.Nitrogen bubbles in the mantle: evidence from diamond inclusions.GAC-MAC 2013 SS4: Diamond: from birth in the mantle to emplacement in kimberlite, abstract onlyMantleDiamond inclusions
DS201312-0847
2013
Afanasiev, V.P.Smith, E.M., Kopylova, M.G., Frezzotti, M.L., Afanasiev, V.P.Diamond inclusions reveal fugitive mantle nitrogen.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleDiamond inclusions
DS201412-0695
2014
Afanasiev, V.P.Poikhilenko, N.P., Afanasiev, V.P., Agashev, A.M., Malkovets, V.G., Poikhilenko, L.N.New archean terranes with thick lithosphere of arctic regions of Siberia and North American ancient platforms: are they prospective for Diamondiferous kimberlites?30th. International Conference on Ore Potential of alkaline, kimberlite and carbonatite magmatism. Sept. 29-, Russia, CanadaKimberlite
DS201412-0696
2014
Afanasiev, V.P.Poikhilenko, N.P., Afanasiev, V.P., Poikhilenko, L.N.Polymict breccia xenolith from Noyabrskaya pipe.30th. International Conference on Ore Potential of alkaline, kimberlite and carbonatite magmatism. Sept. 29-, Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Noyabrskaya
DS201504-0219
2015
Afanasiev, V.P.Smith, E.M., Kopylova, M.G., Frezzotti, M.L., Afanasiev, V.P.Fluid inclusions in the Ebelyakh diamonds: evidence of CO2 liberation in eclogite and the effect of H2O on diamond habit.Lithos, Vol. 216-217, pp. 106-117.RussiaDeposit - Ebelyakh River
DS201606-1111
2016
Afanasiev, V.P.Samdanov, D.A., Afanasiev, V.P., Tychkov, N.S., Pokhilenko, N.P.Mineralogical zoning of the Diamondiferous areas: application experience of paragenetic analysis of garnets from kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 467, 1, pp. 228-231.Russia, YakutiaDeposit area - Muna-Markha

Abstract: Paragenetic analysis of pyropes from alluvial deposits of the Muna—Markha interfluve (Sakha-Yakutia Republic) made it possible to distinguish relatively uniform areas that are promising for the discovery of kimberlite bodies.
DS201608-1447
2016
Afanasiev, V.P.Ugapeva, S.S., Pavlushin, A.D., Goryainov, S.V., Afanasiev, V.P., Poikilenko, N.P.Comparative characteristics of diamonds with olivine inclusions from the Ebelyakh placer and kimberlite pipes of the Yakutian Diamondiferous province.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 468, 1, pp. 473-477.RussiaDeposit - Mir, Aykhal, Udachnaya, XXII Congress

Abstract: The results of morphological examination and the character of the structural orientation and estimation of residual pressure calculated from spectra of combination dispersion in olivine inclusions within diamonds of the Ebelyakh placer and kimberlite pipes of the Yakutian Diamondiferous Province are presented. The data analysis aimed at revealing indications of similarity and/or differences between diamonds from the pipes and the placer. Differences in the structural orientation and spectra of combination dispersion of the inclusions of olivine in dodecahedroids of placers of the northeastern part of the Siberian Platform support the assumption of their non-kimberlite nature.
DS201702-0258
2016
Afanasiev, V.P.Zhimulev, E.I., Sonin, V.M., Afanasiev, V.P., Chepuov, A.I., Pokhilenko, N.P.Fe-S melt as a likely solvent of diamond under mantle conditions.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 471, 2, pp. 1277-1279.MantleDiamond morphology

Abstract: The first results of experimental study of diamond dissolution in a S-bearing Fe melt at high P-T parameters are reported and the morphology of partially dissolved crystals is compared with that of natural diamonds. Our results show that under the experimental conditions (4 GPa, 1400°C), flat-faced octahedral diamond crystals are transformed into curve-faced octahedroids with morphological features similar to those of natural diamonds.
DS201705-0892
2017
Afanasiev, V.P.Zhimulev, E.I., Sonin, V.M., Afanasiev, V.P., Chepurov, A.I., Pokhilenko, N.P.Fe-S melt as a likely solvent of diamond under mantle conditions.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 471, 2, pp. 1277-1279.MantleDiamond morphology

Abstract: The first results of experimental study of diamond dissolution in a S-bearing Fe melt at high P-T parameters are reported and the morphology of partially dissolved crystals is compared with that of natural diamonds. Our results show that under the experimental conditions (4 GPa, 1400°C), flat-faced octahedral diamond crystals are transformed into curve-faced octahedroids with morphological features similar to those of natural diamonds.
DS201804-0740
2018
Afanasiev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, E.I., Pomazanskiy, B.S., Zemnuhov, A.L., Chepurov, A.A., Afanasiev, V.P., Chepurov, A.I.Morphological features of diamond crystals dissolved in Fe0.7 S0.3 melt at 4GPa and 1400.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 60, pp. 82-92.Technologydiamond morphology

Abstract: An experimental study of the dissolution of natural and synthetic diamonds in a sulfur-bearing iron melt (Fe0.7S0.3) with high P-T parameters (4 GPa, 1400°?) was performed. The results demonstrated that under these conditions, octahedral crystals with flat faces and rounded tetrahexahedral diamond crystals are transformed into rounded octahedroids, which have morphological characteristics similar to those of natural diamonds from kimberlite. It was suggested that, taking into account the complex history of individual natural diamond crystals, including the dissolution stages, sulfur-bearing metal melts up to sulfide melts were not only diamond-forming media during the early evolution of the Earth, but also natural solvents of diamond in the mantle environment before the formation of kimberlitic melts.
DS201810-2325
2018
Afanasiev, V.P.Gromilov, S.A., Afanasiev, V.P., Poikhilenko. N.P.Moissanites of the Popigai astrobleme.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 481, 2, pp. 997-999.Russiamoissanite

Abstract: Moissanites were found in tagamites of the Popigai meteorite crater along with impact diamonds. We have studied 55 samples including 49 individual polytypes and six intergrowths. The numbers of 6H, 15R, 4H, 6H/15R, and 6H/4H polytypes are 82, 7, 5, 4, and 2%, respectively. By the assemblage of polytypes, the moissanites of the Popigai astrobleme are distinct from kimberlite moissanites, as well as from synthetic SiC, which is characterized by the absence of the 4H polytype and the presence of more diverse inclusions (including Fe-bearing). The Popigai astrobleme is one of few objects with reliable natural moissanite. Technogenic contamination is excluded, since any researcher can find this mineral in tagamites.
DS201906-1315
2019
Afanasiev, V.P.Litasov, K.D., Kagi, H., Voropaev, S.A., Hirata, T., Ohfuji, H., Ishibashi., Makino, Y., Bekker, T.B., Sevastyanov, V.S., Afanasiev,V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.Comparison of enigmatic diamonds from the Tolbachik arc volcano ( Kamchatka) and Tibetan ophiolites: assessing the role of contamination by synthetic materials. Gondwana Research, in press available 38p.Russia, Asia, Tibetdeposit - Tolbachik

Abstract: The enigmatic appearance of cuboctahedral diamonds in ophiolitic and arc volcanic rocks with morphology and infrared characteristics similar to synthetic diamonds that were grown from metal solvent requires a critical reappraisal. We have studied 15 diamond crystals and fragments from Tolbachik volcano lava flows, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). FTIR spectra of Tolbachik diamonds correspond to typical type Ib patterns of synthetic diamonds. In TEM films prepared using focused ion beam technique, we find Mn-Ni and Mn-Si inclusions in Tolbachik diamonds. SRXRF spectra indicate the presence of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-Mn inclusions with Cr, Ti, Cu, and Zn impurities. LA-ICP-MS data show variable but significantly elevated concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu reaching up to 70?ppm. These transition metal concentration levels are comparable with those determined by LA-ICP-MS for similar diamonds from Tibetan ophiolites. Mn-Ni (+Fe) solvent was widely used to produce industrial synthetic diamonds in the former USSR and Russia with very similar proportions of these metals. Hence, it appears highly probable that the cuboctahedral diamonds recovered from Kamchatka arc volcanic rocks represent contamination and are likely derived from drilling tools or other hard instruments. Kinetic data on diamond dissolution in basaltic magma or in fluid phase demonstrate that diamond does not form under the pressures and temperature conditions prevalent within the magmatic system beneath the modern-day Klyuchevskoy group of arc volcanoes. We also considered reference data for inclusions in ophiolitic diamonds and compared them with the composition of solvent used in industrial diamond synthesis in China. The similar inclusion chemistry close to Ni70Mn25Co5 for ophiolitic and synthetic Chinese diamonds scrutinized here suggests that most diamonds recovered from Tibetan and other ophiolites are not natural but instead have a synthetic origin. In order to mitigate further dubious reports of diamonds from unconventional tectonic settings and source rocks, we propose a set of discrimination criteria to better distinguish natural cuboctahedral diamonds from those produced synthetically in industrial environments and found as contaminants in mantle- and crust-derived rocks.
DS201910-2242
2019
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Nikolenko, E.I., Glushkova, N.V., Zolnikov, I.D.The new Massadou diamondiferous kimberlite field in Guinea.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 61, 4, pp. 92-100.Africa, Guineadeposit - Massadou

Abstract: A new Massadou kimberlite field, was discovered in southeastern Guinea, near the town of Macenta. It consists of 16 poorly diamondiferous kimberlite dikes, ~1 m thick on average. The ore-controlling zone has a width of around 600 m, its orientation corresponds to the K-4 trend after S. Haggerty, and it is quite well detectable in satellite images. A thick laterite weathering profile has developed on the kimberlites. The main indicator minerals are pyrope, chromite, and ilmenite. Ilmenite grains have a zoned structure with a high-Fe core (hemoilmenite) overgrown by a parallel-columnar aggregate of Mg-ilmente rim resulting from interaction of the core phase with kimberlitic melt. The age of kimberlites is estimated as 140-145 Ma by analogy with those in adjacent areas. Dikes occur as an independent form of kimberlite magmatism in the Guinean-Liberian shield, rather than being roots of kimberlite pipes; therefore, the erosion cutout is relatively small and large-scale diamond placers should not be expected.
DS202005-0718
2020
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Egorova, E.O., Lindenblot, E.S.The most ancient diamond crystals of the Siberian platform. Lamproites Morgogor Creek .. Ebelyakh River.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 489, 2, pp. 1409-1412. pdf Russia, Siberiadiamond alluvials

Abstract: Based on a study of diamond grains from placers of the northeastern Siberian Platform, it is shown that certain types of diamonds (rounded dodecahedroids, diamonds of the II and V?VII varieties, according to the classification by Yu.L. Orlov) could have originated from Precambrian sources. “Ancient” diamonds also differ in terms of their sedimentological history: those of varieties V?VII, despite the maximum abrasion resistance, have the maximum degree of rounding, reflecting their more long-term sedimentological history, and, therefore, their ore bodies were likely the most ancient.
DS202006-0908
2020
Afanasiev, V.P.Afanasiev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Grinenko, V.S., Kostin, A.V., Malkovets, V.G., Oleinikov, O.B.Kimberlitic magmatism in the south western flank of the Vilui basin. ( pyrope from Kenkeme River catchment) Jurassic-Cretaceous barren kimberlites.Doklady Earth Science, Vol. 490, 2, pp. 51-54.Russiageochronology

Abstract: We have analyzed 141 grains of pyrope from Neogene sediments in a quarry of construction materials, in the Kenkeme River catchment, along its left-side tributary (Chakiya River), about 60 km northwest of Yakutsk city. The mineral chemistry patterns of pyropes are typical of Jurassic-Cretaceous barren kimberlites, like the pipes of Obnazhennaya or Muza, but are uncommon to diamondiferous Middle Paleozoic kimberlites. The results allow identifying the magmatic event and placing time constraints on kimberlite magmatism in the southeastern flank of the Vilui basin, which was part of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous tectonic-magmatic event in northeastern Asia.
DS202011-2029
2001
Afanasiev, V.P.Ashchepkov, I.V., Afanasiev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V., Vladykin, N.V., Saprykin, A.I., Khmelnikova, O.S., Anoshin, G.N.Small note on the composition of Brazilian mantle. *** NOTE DATERevista Brasileira de Geociencas*** ENG, Vol. 31, 4, pp. 653-660. pdfSouth America, Brazilkimberlites

Abstract: Garne ts from couc eru ratc from the vargcm l kimberl ite pipe show a long compos itional range and reveallong lincar tre nds within the lherzolite field in a Cr~Ol - CaO% dia gram (Sobolcv et til. 1974) (lip (0 11% MgO). fon ned by grains of different dimensions with fcw deviations to harzburg itcs . Larger grains (fraction +3) arc higher in CaO with less Cr~01 (to 5.5%). TIle Cr20 1 freq uen cy reduc es in hyperbo lic function for each fraction . IImenites reve;1142-56% Ti0 2l..'Olllpositionai range with linear FeO - MgO correhuions but 3(4) separate groups for A I ~01 suggest different proport ion of co-prccipimted gimlet , probably due to polybn ric Irncnonanon. lncreasing Cr~O l nnd r"t..-Q% conte nt (fractionation uegn:e ) with red ucing TiO~ is in accord with Ar c mod el.. Ganict xenolith fnnnldnin II pipe with large Ga r- Cpxgrains and fine Mica-Curb bearing mat rix refer to 60 kbcr and 35 mv/m2 gcothcrm . 11displays enr iched trace c lement pat ter ns but not completely equilibrated compositions for Ga r anti Cpx. sugges ting low degree me lting of rela tively fertile mantle. St udied uuuc rinlmay s uggcsrmcrasomu tized, relat ively fertile and irre gularly heated mantle bene ath Sombcrn Bra zil as found by (Carvalho & Lccnnrdos 1997).
DS1986-0263
1986
Afanasjev, V.P.Garanin, V.K., Kudryavtseva, G.P., Posukhova, T.V., Afanasjev, V.P.Morphology of kimberlite minerals: its usage for predicting and searchingfor diamond depositsProceedings of the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference, Held Perth, Australia, No. 16, pp. 457-459RussiaDiamond exploration
DS201803-0431
2017
Afanasyev, A.A.Afanasyev, A.A., Belyaeva, E.A.The stability of serpentization due to water flow in kimberlite.Journal of Appled Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 81, pp. 206-213.Russiadeposit - Mir

Abstract: A linear analysis of the stability of the course of serpentization, that is, of the exothermic hydration reaction, due to the flow of water in a kimberlite pipe is carried out, taking both the heat conduction and the convective heat transfer by the fluid saturating the pipe rocks into account. It is shown that two different serpentization processes exist: a homogeneous process and an inhomogeneous process associated with a loss of stability by the homogeneous process and a non-uniform reaction rate distribution. Dimensionless similarity parameters that determine the course of the reaction are proposed. It is shown that convective heat transfer promotes a stabilization of the flow and the formation of a homogeneous serpentinite distribution. Other conditions being equal, an increase in the convective heat flux leads to an increase in the wavelengths of the unstable perturbations and to a decrease in their amplitude. A critical value of the flow rate exists, and, when this is exceeded, instability does not develop and serpentinization takes place under homogeneous conditions.
DS1960-1058
1969
Afanasyev, G.D.Afanasyev, G.D., et al.Eclogite of the Front Range, Northern CaucasusDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 187, No. 1-6, PP. 164-166.RussiaKimberlite
DS201312-0995
2013
Afanasyev, V.Yelisseyev, A., Meng, G.S., Afanasyev, V., Pokhilenko, N., Pustovarov, V., Isakova, A., Lin, Z.S, Lin, H.Q.Optical properties of impact diamonds from the Popigai astroblemes.Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 37, pp. 8-16.Russia, SiberiaMeteortic diamonds
DS1970-0859
1974
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Ivaniv, I.N., Koptil, V.I., Kharkiv, A.D.Typomorphism of Diamonds from Kimberlite Veins and the Possible Bed Rock Sources of Diamond Bearing Placers in Northwestern Yakutia.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 214, No. 1-6, PP. 154-157.Russia, West Africa, GuineaMineralogy, Genesis
DS1981-0002
1981
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., et al.On the In homogeneity of Chrome Bearing Ilmenite from the Zimnyaya Kimberlite Pipe and its Genetic Significance.Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., Vol. 23, No. 2, PP. 44-57.RussiaPetrography
DS1986-0002
1986
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P.The mechanical wear of kimberlite minerals as shown by thinsections.(Russian)Soviet Geology (Russian), No. 10, pp. 81-87RussiaWeathering, Kimberlite
DS1986-0003
1986
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Gerasimov, A.Yu., Babenko, V.V.Self-limitation of picroilmenite during reduction processes as a resultof anistropy of the mechanicalproperties.(Russian)In: Mineralogical crystallography and its application to mineral, pp. 159-163RussiaMineralogy, Picroilmenite
DS1986-0004
1986
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Sibertsev, Y.M., Yegorov, A.Y.Minerals from kimberlites in ancient littoral reservoir rocks. (Russian)Izv. Vysshikh Uchn. Zaved. Geol. I Razveda (Russian), Vol. 2, pp. 48-54RussiaPetrology, Mineral chemistry
DS1986-0435
1986
Afanasyev, V.P.Kharkiv, A.D., Afanasyev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N.Mineralogical mapping of potential diamond territories; basic method For the exploration of diamond deposits.(Russian)In: Mineralogical crystallography and its application mineral, pp. 30-37RussiaOre guides
DS1987-0417
1987
Afanasyev, V.P.Lipitova, V.A., Afanasyev, V.P.Mineralogic and playnologic proof of the Pre-middle Carboniferous age of intermediate kimberlitic mineral reservoirs in the northern part of the MalayaDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 288, No. 1-6, pp. 102-105RussiaBlank
DS1988-0002
1988
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Babenko, V.V.Migration properties of kimberlite mineralsDokl. Acad. Sciences USSR Earth Science Section, Vol. 303, No. 6, pp. 141-144RussiaAlluvials, Modeling, kimberlite miner
DS1988-0003
1988
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Babenko, V.V.Migration properties of kimberlite minerals.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Akademy Nauk SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 303, No. 3, pp. 714-718RussiaMineralogy, Migration
DS1988-0708
1988
Afanasyev, V.P.Tsyganov, V.A., Zincguk, N.N., Afanasyev, V.P.Problem of evaluating a general population from non-random samples (as exemplified by the indicator properties of kimberlites)Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 301, No. 4, July-Aug, pp. 74-78RussiaSampling, Kimberlite minerals
DS1993-0010
1993
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Tsyganov, V.A., Choumirin, K.G.Methods of qualitative and quantitative processing and interpretation of heavy mineral data.Diamonds of Yakutia, Russia, Volume $ 115.00 Can., pp. 53-56.Russia, YakutiaMineralogy, Heavy minerals
DS1994-1654
1994
Afanasyev, V.P.Sobolev, N.V., Afanasyev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N., Kaminsky, F.Pyropes and diamonds from the Algerian SaharaDoklady Academy of Sciences USSR, Vol. 326, Oct. pp. 151-157.AlgeriaAlluvials, Geochemistry -garnets
DS200912-0003
2009
Afanasyev, V.P.Afanasyev, V.P., Agashev, A.M., Orihashi, Y., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Paleozoic U Pb age of rutile inclusions in diamonds of the V-VII variety from placers of the northeast Siberian platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 428, 1, pp. 1151-1155.RussiaDiamond inclusions
DS201812-2901
2018
Afanasyev, V.P.Yelisseyev, A.P., Afanasyev, V.P., Gromilov, S.A.Yakutites from the Popigai meteorite crater.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 89, pp. 10-17.Russiameteorite

Abstract: For the first time, 60 large diamond aggregates were found inside the Popigai meteorite crater during washing of alluvial deposits along the Dogoi river crossing the crater. These aggregates are similar in appearance to yakutites from the placers of Northern Yakutia (YPY), and we regard them as yakutites from the Popigai crater (YPC). The structure and optical properties of Popigai impact diamonds from the impact melt rocks (tagamites) in the crater (PIDT) and yakutites YPC/YPY were compared in detail. In all these cases, a polycrystalline structure consisting of nanoscale grains of cubic and twinned cubic diamond (lonsdaleite) was found. This is the result of a solid-phase graphite-diamond transition due to an impact event 35?million?years ago. The diamond aggregates show the following features: a red shift of the short-wave edge of the transmission, broadening of the diamond Raman peaks, signals from other diamond polytypes and numerous inclusions of other minerals in the Raman spectra, and a dominant broadband photoluminescence (PL). PL in the N3 system associated with N3V centers in PIDT diamonds indicates a high-temperature annealing of these aggregates with resulting aggregation of impurities during the prolonged cooling of large impact melt pockets and pools. It is assumed that some of the impact diamonds were ejected from the crater during the impact event and experienced rapid cooling. Some of these diamonds fell back into the crater (YPC yakutites), others have been deposited outside the crater and displaced during erosion (YPY yakutites). Difference in size and shape between the PIDTs and yakutites YPC/YPY is due to the difference in size of original graphite flakes or aggregates and/or due to the fundamentally different technologies of diamond extraction.
DS1996-0007
1996
Afanasyev. V.P., et al.Afanasyev. V.P., et al.Relative abrasion resistance of pyrope and picroilmenite, two indicator minerals in kimberlite.Doklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 342 No. 4, May, pp. 93-97.Russia, AlgeriaGeochemistry, Deposit - Malaya Botuobaya, Kyutyungda, Dyukunnakh
DS2003-1315
2003
Afanesev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, .I., Chepurov, A.I., Afanesev, V.P., Tomileno, A.A.Etching of diamond crystals in the system silicate melt C O H S fluid under a highGeochemistry International, Vol. 41, 7, pp. 688-93.GlobalDiamond - morphology
DS200412-1881
2003
Afanesev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, .I., Chepurov, A.I., Afanesev, V.P., Tomileno, A.A.Etching of diamond crystals in the system silicate melt C O H S fluid under a high pressure.Geochemistry International, Vol. 41, 7, pp. 688-93.TechnologyDiamond - morphology
DS200612-0046
2005
AfansievAshchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, Rotman, Afansiev, Loginova, Kuchkin, Palessky, Nikolaeva, Saprykin, AnoshinVariations of the mantle mineralogy and structure beneath Upper - Muna kimberlite field.Problems of Sources of Deep Magmatism and Plumes., pp. 170-187.RussiaMineralogy
DS200812-0051
2008
AfansievAshchepkov, I.V., Pokhilenko, Vladykin, Rotam, Afansiev, Logvinova, Kostrovitsky, Karpenko, KuliginReconstruction of mantle sections beneath Yakutian kimberlite pipes using monomineral thermobaraometry.Geological Society of London, Special Publication, SP 293, pp. 335-352.RussiaGeothermometry
DS200812-0052
2007
AfansievAshchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, Pkhilenko, Logvinova, Palessky, Afansiev, Alymova, Stegnitsky, Khmelnikova RotamanVariations of ilmenite compositions from Yakutian kimberlites and the problem of their origin.Vladykin Volume 2007, pp. 71-89.Russia, YakutiaIlmenite, kimberlite
DS200812-0053
2008
AfansievAshchepkov, Pokhilenko, Vladykon, Loginova, Rotman, Afansiev, Kuligin, Malygina, Alymova, Stegnitsky, KhmetnikovaPlume interaction and evolution of the continental mantle lithosphere.Deep Seated Magmatism, its sources and plumes, Ed. Vladykin, N.V., 2008 pp. 104-121.MantlePlume
DS201012-0018
2010
AfansievAshchepkov, I.V., Pokhilenko, Vladykin, Logvinova, Afansiev, Kuligin, Malygina, Alymova, KostrovitskyStructure and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath Siberian Craton, theromobarometric study.Tectonophysics, Vol. 485, pp. 17-41.RussiaGeothermometry
DS201012-0017
2010
Afansiev, V.Ashchepkov, I., Pokhienko, N., Afansiev, V., Logvinova, A., Pokhienko, L.I., Ntaflos, Ionov, Kuligin, MityukhinMonomineral thermobarometry for the diamond inclusions from Siberia: genetic links.International Mineralogical Association meeting August Budapest, abstract p. 184.RussiaThermobarometry - Mir, Alakite
DS1994-0957
1994
Afansiev, V.P.Kryuchkov, A.I., Leliukh, M.J., Krasinets, S.S., Afansiev, V.P.Two unusual Paleozoic kimberlite diatremes in the Daldyn-Alakit region Of the Siberian PlatformProceedings of Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 34-39.Russia, SiberiaDaldyn-Alakit, Kimberlite diatremes
DS200612-0045
2005
Afansiev, V.P.Ashchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, N.V., Pokhilenko, N.P., Rotman, A.Y., Afansiev, V.P., Logvinova, A.M.Using the monomineral thermobarometry for the reconstruction of the mantle sections.Problems of Sources of Deep Magmatism and Plumes., pp. 210-228.MantleGeothermometry
DS201112-0537
2011
Afansiev, V.P.Kopylova, M.G., Afansiev, V.P., Bruce, L., Ryder, J.Diamondiferous conglomerate preserves evidence for kimberlite and the deep cratonic root of the Mesoarchean southern Superior Craton.Goldschmidt Conference 2011, abstract p.1221.Canada, OntarioWawa
DS201112-0538
2011
Afansiev, V.P.Kopylova, M.G., Afansiev, V.P., Bruce, L.F., Ryder, J.Diamond exploration in orogenic settings: lessons from Wawa metaconglomerate.Yellowknife Geoscience Forum Abstracts for 2011, abstract p. 52-53.Canada, Ontario, WawaHeavy minerals
DS201412-0851
2014
Afansiev, V.P.Smith, E.M., Kopylova, M.G., Frezzotti, M.L., Afansiev, V.P.N-rich fluid inclusions in octahedrally-grown diamond.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 393, pp. 39-48.Canada, Ontario, WawaDiamond inclusions
DS201610-1919
2016
Afansiev, V.P.Yelisseyev, A.P., Afansiev, V.P., Panchenko, A.V., Gromilov, S.A., Kaichev, V.V., Sarasev, A.A.Yakutites: are they impact diamonds from the Popigai crater?Lithos, in press available 14p.RussiaImpact diamonds

Abstract: Yakutites are coarse (up to 15 mm or larger) aggregates dispersed for more than 500 km around the Popigai meteorite crater. They share many features of similarity with impact diamonds found inside the crater, in elemental and phase compositions, texture, and optical properties as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy (Raman, absorption, luminescence and microscopic) studies. The N3 vibronic system appearing in the luminescence spectra of Popigai impact diamonds (PIDs) indicates a presence of nitrogen impurity and a high-temperature annealing of diamonds that remained in the crater after solid-phase conversion from graphite. Yakutites lack nitrogen-vacancy centers as signatures of annealing, which may indicate quenching at the time of ejection. Thus, both PIDs and yakutites originated during the Popigai impact event and yakutites were ejected to large distances.
DS1998-1382
1998
Afasev, V.P.Sonin, V.M., Chepurov, A.I., Afasev, V.P., Zinchuk, N.N.The origin of discoid sculptures on diamond crystalsDoklady Academy of Sciences, Vol. 361, No. 5, pp. 635-7.GlobalDiamond morphology
DS1988-0709
1988
Afasyev, P.Tsyganov, V.A., Zinchuk, N.N., Afasyev, P., Ovichinnikov, L.N.Express estimation of open and semi-open regions with complexTheory Practice of Geoch. Explor.Modern Conditions, IV All Union Meet, Vol. 7, pp. 140-141. (Russian)RussiaGeochemistry, Kimberlites
DS1988-0390
1988
Afasyev, V.P.Kvasnitsa, V.N., Krochuk, m V.M., Afasyev, V.P., Tsymbal, Yu.S.Crystal morphology of kimberlite chrome spinel.(Russian)Mineral. Zhurn., (Russian), Vol. 10, No. 3, June pp. 45-51RussiaMineralogy, Spinel
DS1995-0009
1995
Affaton, P.Affaton, P., Trompette, R., Uhlein, A., Boudzoumou, F.The Panafrican Brasiliano Aracuai West Congo fold belt in the framework Of western Gondwana aggregation 600MaGeological Society Africa 10th. Conference Oct. Nairobi, p. 20. AbstractWest Africa, BrazilTectonics, Rodinia Supercontinent
DS1997-0050
1997
Affaton, P.Attoh, K., Dallmeyer, R.D., Affaton, P.Chronology of nappe assembly in the Pan-African Dahomeyide orogen, WestAfrica: evidence from 40 Ar 39Precambrian Research, Vol. 82, No. 1-2, March pp. 153-172West Africa, GhanaGeochronology, Orogeny
DS200712-0242
2006
Affaton, P.Deynoux, M., Affaton, P., Trompette, R., Villeneuve, M.Pan-African tectonic evolution and glacial events registered in Neoproterozoic to Cambrian cratonic and foreland basins of West Africa.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, 5, Dec. pp. 397-426.Africa, West AfricaTectonics
DS201212-0534
2012
Affaton, P.Owona, S., Tichomirowa, M., Ratschbacher, L., Ondoa, J.M., Youmen, D., Pfander, J., Tchoua, F.M., Affaton, P., Ekodeck, G.E.New igneous zircon Pb/Pb and metamorphic Rb/Sr ages in the Yaounde Group, Cameroon, Central Africa): implications for the Central African fold belt evolution close to the Congo Craton.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 101, 7, pp. 1689-1703.Africa, CameroonGeochronology
DS201212-0535
2012
Affaton, P.Owona, S., Tichomirowa, M., Ratschbacher, L., Ondoa, W.J., Youmen, D., Pfander, J., Tchoua, F.M., Affaton, P., Ekodeck, G.E.New igneous zircon Pb/Pb and metamorphic Rb/Sr ages in the Yaounde Group ( Cameron, Central Africa): implications for the Central African fold belt evolution close to the Congo Craton.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 101, pp. 1689-1703.Africa, CameroonGeochronology
DS200512-0005
2005
AfgemAfgemThe new Afgem.... overview of company, Rex and three kimberlite mines.Mineweb, August 21, 2p.Africa, South AfricaNews item - Rex
DS1988-0367
1988
Afilaka, J.O.Kogbe, C.A., Afilaka, J.O.Review of Africa's solid mineral resource potentialJournal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 589-600AfricaDiamonds pp. 597-598. chart p. 599, Brief description
DS201506-0271
2015
Afiri, A.Gueydan, F., Pitra, P., Afiri, A., Poujol, M., Essaifi, A., Paquette, J-L.Oligo-Miocene thinning of the Beni Bousera peridotites and their Variscan crustal host rocks, Internal Rif, Morocco.Tectonics, Vol. 34, pp.1244-1268.Africa, MoroccoPeridotite
DS200512-0006
2005
Afonso, J.C.Afonso, J.C., Ranali, G., Fernandez, M.Thermal expansivity and elastic properties of the lithospheric mantle: results from mineral physics of composites.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 149, 3-4, April 15, pp. 279-306.MantleGeothermometry
DS200912-0266
2009
Afonso, J.C.Griffin, W.L., Begg, G., O'Reilly, S.Y., Afonso, J.C.Paleo-Archean generation of the continental lithosphere.Goldschmidt Conference 2009, p. A466 Abstract.MantleKimberlite xenoliths
DS200912-0268
2009
Afonso, J.C.Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Afonso, J.C., Begg, G.C.The composition and evolution of lithospheric mantle: a re-evaluation and its tectonic implications.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 50,no. 7,. pp. 1185-1204.MantleTectonics
DS201012-0003
2010
Afonso, J.C.Afonso, J.C., Ranalli, G., Fernandez, M., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Faul, U.On the VpVs-Mg# correlation in mantle peridotites: implications for the identification of thermal and compositional anomalies in the upper mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 289, 3-4, pp. 606-618.MantleChemistry
DS201012-0197
2010
Afonso, J.C.Fernadez, M., Afonso, J.C., Ranalli, G.The deep lithospheric structure of the Namibian volcanic margin.Tectonophysics, Vol.481, 1-4, pp. 68-81.Africa, NamibiaTectonics
DS201112-0481
2011
Afonso, J.C.Jemenez-Munt, I., Fernandez, M., Verges, J., Garcia-Castellanos, D., Fullea, J., Perez-Gussinye, M., Afonso, J.C.Decoupled crust mantle accommodation of Africa-Eurasia convergence in the NW Moroccan margin.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, B08403, 12p.Africa, MoroccoGeophysics - density
DS201312-0009
2013
Afonso, J.C.Afonso, J.C., Fullea, J., Connolly, J., Rawlinson, N., Yang, Y., Jones, A.G.Multi observable thermochemical tomography: a new framework in integrated studies of the lithosphere.Goldschmidt 2013, AbstractMantleGeothermometry
DS201606-1090
2016
Afonso, J.C.Griffin, W.L., Afonso, J.C., Belousova, E.A., Gain, S.E., Gong, X-H., Gonzalez-Jiminez, J.M., Howell, D., Huang, J-X., McGowan, N., Pearson, N.J., Satsukawa, T., Shi R., Williams, P., Xiong, Q., Yang, J-S., Zhang, M., O'Reilly, S.Y.Mantle recycling: transition zone metamorphism of Tibetan ophiolitic peridotites and its tectonic implications.Journal of Petrology, in press available, 30p.Asia, China, TibetPeridotite

Abstract: Large peridotite massifs are scattered along the 1500?km length of the Yarlung-Zangbo Suture Zone (southern Tibet, China), the major suture between Asia and Greater India. Diamonds occur in the peridotites and chromitites of several massifs, together with an extensive suite of trace phases that indicate extremely low fO2 (SiC, nitrides, carbides, native elements) and/or ultrahigh pressures (UHP) (diamond, TiO2 II, coesite, possible stishovite). New physical and isotopic (C, N) studies of the diamonds indicate that they are natural, crystallized in a disequilibrium, high-T environment, and spent only a short time at mantle temperatures before exhumation and cooling. These constraints are difficult to reconcile with previous models for the history of the diamond-bearing rocks. Possible evidence for metamorphism in or near the upper part of the Transition Zone includes the following: (1) chromite (in disseminated, nodular and massive chromitites) containing exsolved pyroxenes and coesite, suggesting inversion from a high-P polymorph of chromite; (2) microstructural studies suggesting that the chromitites recrystallized from fine-grained, highly deformed mixtures of wadsleyite and an octahedral polymorph of chromite; (3) a new cubic Mg-silicate, with the space group of ringwoodite but an inverse-spinel structure (all Si in octahedral coordination); (4) harzburgites with coarsely vermicular symplectites of opx + Cr-Al spinel ± cpx; reconstructions suggest that these are the breakdown products of majoritic garnets, with estimated minimum pressures to?>?13?GPa. Evidence for a shallow pre-metamorphic origin for the chromitites and peridotites includes the following: (1) trace-element data showing that the chromitites are typical of suprasubduction-zone (SSZ) chromitites formed by magma mixing or mingling, consistent with Hf-isotope data from magmatic (375?Ma) zircons in the chromitites; (2) the composition of the new cubic Mg-silicate, which suggests a low-P origin as antigorite, subsequently dehydrated; (3) the peridotites themselves, which carry the trace element signature of metasomatism in an SSZ environment, a signature that must have been imposed before the incorporation of the UHP and low-fO2 phases. A proposed P-T-t path involves the original formation of chromitites in mantle-wedge harzburgites, subduction of these harzburgites at c. 375?Ma, residence in the upper Transition Zone for >200 Myr, and rapid exhumation at c. 170-150?Ma or 130-120?Ma. Os-isotope data suggest that the subducted mantle consisted of previously depleted subcontinental lithosphere, dragged down by a subducting oceanic slab. Thermomechanical modeling shows that roll-back of a (much later) subducting slab would produce a high-velocity channelized upwelling that could exhume the buoyant harzburgites (and their chromitites) from the Transition Zone in?
DS201709-1998
2017
Afonso, J.C.Henry, H., Afonso, J.C., Satsukawa, T., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Kaczmarek, M-A., Tilhac, R., Gregoire, M., Ceuleneer, G.The unexplored potential impact of pyroxenite layering on upper mantle seismic properties.Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Europe, Spain, United States, Californiageophysics - seismics

Abstract: It is now accepted that significant volumes of pyroxenites are generated in the subduction factory and remain trapped in the mantle. In ophiolites and orogenic massifs the geometry of pyroxenite layers and their relationships with the host peridotite can be observed directly. Since a large part of what is known about the upper mantle structure is derived from the analysis of seismic waves, it is crucial to integrate pyroxenites in the interpretations. We modeled the seismic properties of a peridotitic mantle rich in pyroxenite layers in order to determine the impact of layering on the seimsic properties. To do so, EBSD data on deformed and undeformed pyroxenites from the Cabo Ortegal complex (Spain) and the Trinity ophiolite (California, USA) respectively are combined with either A or B-type olivine fabrics in order to model a realistic pyroxenite-rich upper mantle. Consideration of pyroxeniterich domains within the host mantle wall rock is incorporated in the calculations using the Schoenberg and Muir group theory [1]. This quantification reveals the complex dependence of the seismic signal on the deformational state and relative abundance of each mineral phase. The incorporation of pyroxenites properties into geophysical interpretations in understanding the lithospheric structure of subduction zones will lead to more geologically realistic models.
DS201801-0017
2017
Afonso, J.C.Giuliani, A., Campeny, M., Kamenetsky, V.S., Afonso, J.C., Maas, R., Melgarejo, J.C., Kohn, B.P., Matchen, E.L., Mangas, J., Goncalves, A.O., Manuel, J.Southwestern Africa on the burner: Pleistocene carbonatite volcanism linked to deep mantle upwelling in Angola.Geology, Vol. 45, 11, pp. 971=974.Africa, Angolacarbonatite - Catanda

Abstract: The origin of intraplate carbonatitic to alkaline volcanism in Africa is controversial. A tectonic control, i.e., decompression melting associated with far-field stress, is suggested by correlation with lithospheric sutures, repeated magmatic cycles in the same areas over several million years, synchronicity across the plate, and lack of clear age progression patterns. Conversely, a dominant role for mantle convection is supported by the coincidence of Cenozoic volcanism with regions of lithospheric uplift, positive free-air gravity anomalies, and slow seismic velocities. To improve constraints on the genesis of African volcanism, here we report the first radiometric and isotopic results for the Catanda complex, which hosts the only extrusive carbonatites in Angola. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages of Catanda aillikite lavas indicate eruption at ca. 500-800 ka, more than 100 m.y. after emplacement of abundant kimberlites and carbonatites in this region. The lavas share similar high-µ (HIMU)-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope compositions with other young mantle-derived volcanics from Africa (e.g., Northern Kenya Rift; Cameroon Line). The position of the Catanda complex in the Lucapa corridor, a long-lived extensional structure, suggests a possible tectonic control for the volcanism. The complex is also located on the Bié Dome, a broad region of fast Pleistocene uplift attributed to mantle upwelling. Seismic tomography models indicate convection of deep hot material beneath regions of active volcanism in Africa, including a large area encompassing Angola and northern Namibia. This is strong evidence that intraplate late Cenozoic volcanism, including the Catanda complex, resulted from the interplay between mantle convection and preexisting lithospheric heterogeneities.
DS202002-0219
2020
Afonso, J.C.Tilhac, R., Oliveira, B., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Schaefer, B.F., Alard, O., Ceuleneer, G., Afonso, J.C., Gregoire, M.Reworking of old continental lithosphere: unradiogenic Os and decoupled Hf-Nd isotopes in sub-arc mantle pyroxenites.Lithos, Vol. 354-355, 19p. pdfEurope, Spainpyroxenites

Abstract: Mantle lithologies in orogenic massifs and xenoliths commonly display strikingly different Hf- and Nd-isotope compositions compared to oceanic basalts. While the presence of pyroxenites has long been suggested in the source region of mantle-derived magmas, very few studies have reported their combined HfNd isotope compositions. We here report the first LuHf data along with ReOs data and S concentrations on the Cabo Ortegal Complex, where the pyroxenite-rich Herbeira massif has been interpreted as remnants of a delaminated arc root. The pyroxenites, chromitites and their host harzburgites show a wide range of whole-rock 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os (0.16-1.44), indicating that Re was strongly mobilized, partly during hydrous retrograde metamorphism but mostly during supergene alteration that preferentially affected low-Mg#, low Cu/S pyroxenites. Samples that escaped this disturbance yield an isochron age of 838 ± 42 Ma, interpreted as the formation of Cabo Ortegal pyroxenites. Corresponding values of initial 187Os/188Os (0.111-0.117) are relatively unradiogenic, suggesting limited contributions of slab-derived Os to primitive arc melts such as those parental to these pyroxenites. This interpretation is consistent with radiogenic Os in arc lavas being mostly related to crustal assimilation. Paleoproterozoic to Archean Os model ages confirm that Cabo Ortegal pyroxenites record incipient volcanic arc magmatism on the continental margin of the Western African Craton, as notably documented by zircon UPb ages of 2.1 and 2.7 Ga. LuHf data collected on clinopyroxene and amphibole separates and whole-rock samples are characterized by uncorrelated 176Lu/177Hf and 176Hf/177Hf (0.2822-0.2855), decoupled from Nd-isotope compositions. This decoupling is ascribed to diffusional disequilibrium during melt-peridotite interaction, in good agreement with the results of percolation-diffusion models simulating the interaction of an arc melt with an ancient melt-depleted residue. These models notably show that HfNd isotopic decoupling such as recorded by Cabo Ortegal pyroxenites and peridotites (??Hf(i) up to +97) is enhanced during melt-peridotite interaction by slow diffusional re-equilibration and can be relatively insensitive to chromatographic fractionation. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that arc-continent interaction may provide preferential conditions for such isotopic decoupling and propose that its ubiquitous recognition in peridotites reflects the recycling of sub-arc mantle domains derived from ancient, reworked SCLM.
DS202004-0525
2019
Afonso, J.C.Kumar, A., Fernandez, M., Jimenez-Munt, I., Torne, M., Verges, J., Afonso, J.C.LitMod2D_2.0: an improved integrated geophysical petrological modeling took for the physical interpretation of upper mantle anomalies.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 10.1029/2019GC008777. 19p.Mantlegeophysics

Abstract: LitMod2D integrates geophysical and petrological data sets to produce the thermal, density, and seismic velocity structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. We present a new LitMod2D_2.0 package with improvements focused on (i) updated anelastic attenuation correction for anharmonic seismic velocities, (ii) chemical composition in the sublithospheric mantle, and (iii) incorporation of sublithospheric mantle anomalies. Sublithospheric mantle anomalies can be defined with different chemical composition, temperature, seismic velocities, and a combination of them, allowing the application of LitMod2D_2.0 to regions affected by mantle upwelling, subduction, delamination, and metasomatism. We demonstrate the potential application of LitMod2D_2.0 to such regions and the sensitivity of thermal and compositional anomalies on density and seismic velocities through synthetic models. Results show nonlinearity between the sign of thermal and seismic velocity anomalies, and that S wave velocities are more sensitive to temperature whereas P wave velocities are to composition. In a synthetic example of subduction, we show the sensitivity of sublithospheric mantle anomalies associated with the slab and the corner flow on surface observables (elevation, geoid height, and gravity anomalies). A new open-source graphic user interface is incorporated in the new package. The output of the code is simplified by writing only the relevant physical parameters (temperature, pressure, material type, density, and seismic velocities) to allow the user using predefined post-processing codes from a toolbox (flexure, mineral assemblages, synthetic passive seismological data, and tomography) or designing new ones. We demonstrate a post-processing example calculating synthetic seismic tomography, Rayleigh surface-wave dispersion curves, and P wave receiver functions from the output file of LitMod2D_2.0.
DS200912-0235
2009
Afonso, L.A.D.Fullea, J.J.C., Afonso, L.A.D., Connolly, M., et al.LitMod3D: an interactive 3-D software to model the thermal, compositional, density, seismological, and rheological structure of the lithosphere and sublithosGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G3, Vol. 10, QO8019TechnologyModels
DS1997-0008
1997
Africa FocusAfrica FocusHandbook og African stock exchangesAfrica Focus, $ 40.00 United StatesAfricaLegal - stock exchanges, Book - ad
DS201012-0004
2010
African AnalystAfrican AnalystBreaking the curse... a case for transparent taxation.African Analyst, Vol. 5, 1, pp. 34-52.AfricaEconomics - taxation
DS1994-0013
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentANGOLA. #1African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 32p.AngolaCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0014
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentBOTSWANA, 1994; African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 20p.BotswanaCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0015
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentGHANAAfrican Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 36p.GhanaCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0016
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentIVORY COASTAfrican Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 10p.GlobalCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0017
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentBURKin a FASO. (in French)African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 13p.GlobalCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0018
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentMali Africa project planned...Niger River south.African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 34p.GlobalCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0019
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentGUINEA. (in French)African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 18p.GuineaCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0020
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentNAMIBIA (1994)African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 4p.NamibiaCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0021
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentSIERRA LEONE 1994African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 18p.Sierra LeoneCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0022
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentTANZANIA (1994)African Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 24p.TanzaniaCountry profile, Diamond production
DS1994-0023
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentZAMBIAAfrican Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 36p.ZambiaCountry profile
DS1994-0024
1994
African Conference Mining InvestmentAfrican Conference Mining InvestmentZIMBABWEAfrican Conference Mining Investment, June 8-9, 10p.ZimbabweCountry profile, Diamonds
DS2002-0009
2002
African ExchangeAfrican ExchangeTrends in mining laws and regulation among the developing nationsAfrican Exchange, Feb. pp. 53-55.AfricaList of countries, taxes, law, legal
DS1991-1183
1991
Aftab Khan, M.Moon, C.J., Aftab Khan, M.Mineral exploration... review in various countriesMining Annual Review, June 1991, pp. 175-195GlobalMineral exploration, Review 1990
DS1992-0009
1992
Aftab Khan, M.Aftab Khan, M., Maguire, P.K.H., Swain, C.J.Geophysical models of the Kenya riftTectonophysics, Vol. 209, pp. 209-211. Extended abstractEast Africa, KenyaTectonics, Geophysics -gravity, seismics
DS1984-0473
1984
Agafanov, L.V.Makeev, A.B., Agafanov, L.V., Goncharenko, A.I.The Relation of the Chemical Composition to the Physical Properties of Chrome Spinels in Alpinotypic Ultrabasites.Soviet Geology And Geophysics, Vol. 25, No. 2, PP. 125-129.RussiaMineral Chemistry
DS1975-0001
1975
Agafonov, L.V.Agafonov, L.V., et al.Deep Seated Inclusions in Alkalic Basaltoids of the Shavaryin Tsaram Pipe, Mongolian People's Republic.Doklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section., Vol. 224, No. 1-6, PP. 130-132.RussiaKimberlite, Pyrope
DS201312-0154
2013
Agafonov, L.V.Chepurov, A.I., Zhimulev, E.I., Agafonov, L.V., Sonin, V.M., Chepurov, A.A., Tomilenko, A.A.The stability of ortho- and clinopyroxenes, olivine and garnet in kimberlitic magma.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 406-415.RussiaMineral chemistry
DS200712-0223
2007
Agafonov, V.Davydov, V.A., Rakhmanina, A.V., Rols, S., Agafonov, V., Pulikkathara, M.X., Wal, R.V., Khabashesku, V.N.Size dependent phase transition of diamond to graphite at high pressures.Journal of Physical Chemistry , Vol. 111, no. 35, pp. 12918-12925. Ingenta 1074185621TechnologyUHP
DS201012-0744
2010
Agakhanov, A.A.Spiridonov, E.M., Paulov, L.A., Sokolova, E.L., Vorobev, E.I., Agakhanov, A.A.Chlorine bearing lizardite from metakimberlite of the Udachanaya East pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 431, 1, pp. 403-405.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya East
DS201904-0763
2019
Agangi, A.Olierook, H.K.H., Agangi, A., Plavsa, D., Reddy, S.M., Yao, W., Clark, C., Occipinti, S.A., Kylander-Clark, A.R.C.Neoproterozoic hydrothermal activity in the west Australian craton related to Rodinia assembly or breakup?Gondwana Research, Vol 68, 1, pp. 1-12.Australiacraton

Abstract: The timing of final assembly and initiation of subsequent rifting of Rodinia is disputed. New rutile ages (913?±?9?Ma, 900?±?8?Ma and 873?±?3?Ma) and published zircon, monazite, titanite, biotite, muscovite and xenotime geochronology from the Capricorn Orogen (West Australian Craton) reveal a significant early Neoproterozoic event characterized by very low to low metamorphic grade, abundant metasomatism, minor leucogranitic and pegmatitic magmatism and NW-SE fault reactivation episodes between ca. 955 and 830?Ma. Collectively, these are termed the ca. 955-830?Ma Kuparr Tectonic Event. An age range of ca. 955-830?Ma is concomitant with the final stages of Rodinia assembly and the initial stages of its attempted breakup. Very low- to low-grade metamorphic and structural geological evidence favor a distal north-south compressional regime as the driver for hydrothermal activity during ca. 955-830?Ma. Nearby continental collision or accretion from the west (e.g., South China and/or Tarim) are ruled out. The cessation of metasomatism and magmatism in the West Australian Craton after ca. 830?Ma is concomitant with the emplacement of the Gairdner-Amata dyke swarm and associated magmatic activity in South China and Laurentia, the inception of the Adelaide Rift Complex and the deposition of the Centralian Superbasin. We posit that the cessation of hydrothermal activity in the Capricorn Orogen was caused by a tectonic switch from compressional to extensional at ca. 830?Ma. Magmatic and hydrothermal fluids were transferred away from the Capricorn Orogen to the incipient Adelaide Rift Complex, terminating metasomatism in the West Australian Craton. Ultimately, the Kuparr Tectonic Event marked the final stages of Rodinia assembly and its cessation marks the initial stages of its attempted breakup.
DS200712-0003
2007
Agar, B.Agar, B., Coulter, D.Remote sensing for mineral exploration - a decade perspective 1997-2007. ( not specific to diamonds)... good review.Proceedings of Exploration 07 edited by B. Milkereit, pp. 109-136.TechnologyRemote sensing - review
DS1994-0025
1994
Agar, R.A.Agar, R.A.Geoscan airborne multi-spectral scanners as exploration tools for Western Australian diamond and gold deposits.University of Western Australia, Publishing No. 26, pp. 435-447.AustraliaRemote sensing, Deposit -Aries
DS1994-0026
1994
Agar, R.A.Agar, R.A.Geoscan airborne multi-spectral scanners as applied to exploration for western Australian diamond and gold.Tenth Thematic conference on geologic remote sensing, held May, 1994, Vol. 10, pp. II.651-666.AustraliaRemote sensing, Geoscan
DS1990-0846
1990
Agar, S.M.Knipe, R.J., Ritter, E.H., Agar, S.M., Prior, D.J., Law, R.D.Deformation mechanisms, rheology and tectonicsGeological Society of London Special Publication, No. 54, 520pGlobalRock deformation, fracture, faulting, flow mechanisms, Flow laws, rock fabrics, tectonics
DS201412-0003
2014
Agard, P.Agard, P., Zuo, X., Funiciello, F., Bellahsen, N., Faccenna, C., Savva, D.Obduction: why, how and where. Clues from analog models.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 393, pp. 132-145.MantleSubduction
DS201812-2772
2018
Agard, P.Agard, P., Plunder, A., Angiboust, S., Bonnet, G., Ruh, J.The subduction plate interface: rock record and mechanical coupling ( from long to short timescales).Lithos, Vol. 320-321, pp. 537-566.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Short- and long-term processes at or close to the subduction plate interface (e.g.,mineral transformations, fluid release, seismicity and more generally deformation) might be more closely related than previously thought. Increasing evidence from the fossil rock record suggests that some episodes of their long geological evolution match or are close to timescales of the seismic cycle. This contribution uses rocks recovered (episodically) from subduction zones, together with insights from thermomechanical modelling, to provide a new dynamic vision of the nature, structure and properties of the plate interface and to bridge the gap between the mechanical behavior of active subduction zones (e.g.,coupling inferred from geophysical monitoring) and fossil ones (e.g.,coupling required to detach and recover subducted slab fragments). Based on critical observations and an exhaustive compilation of worldwide subducted oceanic units (for which the presence near the plate interface, rock types, pressure, temperature, T/P gradients, thickness and timing of detachment can be assessed), the present study demonstrates how long-term mechanical coupling exerts a key control on detachment from the slab and potential rock recovery. Critical assessment of rock T/P characteristics indicates that these fragments can indeed be used as natural probes and provide reliable information on subduction interface dynamics down to ~2.8?GPa. Rock clusters are identified at depths of 30, 5560 and 80?km, with some differences between rock types. Data also reveal a first-order evolution with subduction cooling (in the first ~5?Myr), which is interpreted as reflecting a systematic trend from strong to weak mechanical coupling, after which subduction is lubricated and mostly inhibits rock recovery. This contribution places bounds on the plate interface constitution, regular thickness (<300?m; i.e. where/when there is no detachment), changing geometry and effective viscosity. The concept of ‘coupled thickness' is used here to capture subduction interface dynamics, notably during episodes of strong mechanical coupling, and to link long- and short-term deformation. Mechanical coupling depends on mantle wedge rheology, viscosity contrasts and initial structures (e.g.,heterogeneous lithosphere, existence of décollement horizons, extent of hydration, asperities) but also on boundary conditions (convergence rates, kinematics), and therefore differs for warm and cold subduction settings. Although most present-day subduction zone segments (both along strike and downdip) are likely below the detachment threshold, we propose that the most favorable location for detachment corresponds to the spatial transition between coupled and decoupled areas. Effective strain localization involves dissolution-precipitation and dislocation creep but also possibly brittle fractures and earthquakes, even at intermediate depths.
DS1984-0394
1984
Agarwal, A.Karkare, S.G., Agarwal, A.The alkalic ultramafic carbonatitic complex of Kala DoohgarKachchh, District Gujrat and the problem of basement toJurassicsIndian Journal of GeocheM., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 11-26IndiaCamptonite, Carbonatite
DS1999-0002
1999
Agarwal, B.N.P.Agarwal, B.N.P., Das, L.K., Shaw, R.K.Gravity anomalies, tectonics and ore deposits: a predictive genetic mode lover Aravallis, India.Global Tectonics and Met., Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. pp. 47-52.IndiaGeophysics - gravity, Model - not specific to diamonds
DS1999-0003
1999
Agarwal, B.N.P.Agarwal, B.N.P., Das, L.K., Shaw, R.K.Tectonics and metallogeny over Central Indian Shield: a geophysicalanalysis.Global Tectonics and Met., Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. pp. 41-46.IndiaGeophysics - gravity, Tectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS1999-0004
1999
Agarwal, B.N.P.Agarwal, B.N.P., Shaw, R.K.Three dimensional configuration of Moho discontinuity over some parts Of india from gravity field data.Global Tectonics and Met., Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. pp. 13-14.IndiaLithosphere, Structure - MOHO discontinuty
DS1980-0050
1980
Agarwal, K.Banerjee, P.K., Agarwal, K.History of Diamond Mining With Special Reference to PannaTranscript of Paper From Diamond Seminar, Bombay, 9P.India, Madhya PradeshHistory
DS2002-0010
2002
Agarwal, K.K.Agarwal, K.K., Singh, I.B., Sharma, M., Sharma, S., Rajagopalan, G.Extensional tectonic activity in the cratonward parts ( peripheral bulge) of the Ganga Plain foreland basin, India.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 91, 5, pp. 897-905.IndiaTectonics - not specific to diamonds
DS1960-0586
1965
Agarwal, M.K.Patel, A.G., Agarwal, M.K.Microstructure of Panna DiamondsAmerican Mineralogist., Vol. 50, No. 1/2, PP. 124-131.India, PannaDiamond Morphology
DS1970-0894
1974
Agarwal, Y.K.Chaudhuri, R., Banerji, K.C., Agarwal, Y.K.The Interactions of Coal and Mica PeridotiteIndia Sci. Congr. 61st. Session Proceedings, No. 3, PP. 147-148.IndiaBlank
DS201312-0006
2013
Agashev, A.Afanasiev, V., Agashev, A., Pokhilenko, N.Dispersion haloes of kimberlite indicator minerals in the Siberian Platform: history and formation conditions.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 256-264.RussiaMineral chemistry
DS201502-0100
2015
Agashev, A.Shchukina, E., Agashev, A., Pokhilenko, N.Multistage metasomatism in lithospheric mantle beneath V. Grib pipe ( Arkhangelsk Diamondiferous province, Russia): evidence from REE patterns in garnet xenocrysts.Economic Geology Research Institute 2015, Vol. 17,, # 1940, 1p. AbstractRussia, Kola Peninsula, ArchangelDeposit - Grib
DS201708-1590
2017
Agashev, A.Agashev, A.Geochemistry of eclogite xenoliths from kimberlite pipe Udachnaya: section of Archean oceanic crust sampled?11th. International Kimberlite Conference, OralRussia, Siberiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: A suite of 17 unique big (1 to 20 kg) and fresh ecligite xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe have been studied for their whole-rock and minerals major and trace elements composition.Whole rock major elements composition of the Udachnaya eclogite xenoliths suite have a great variability in their MgO contents (9-19Wt%). Based on major elements composition Udachnaya eclogites can be subdivided in two subsets, high magnesian (Mg# 68.8-81.9) and low magnesian (Mg# 56.8-59). High variations also shown by Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations and high Mg# samples tend to contain less of those oxides then low Mg# samples with some exceptions. Two eclogitic groups are clearly different in style of inter-elements correlations. FeO and CaO contents are positively correlate with MgO in low Mg# group of eclogites but negatively in high Mg# group. The same relations present between Al2O3 contents of eclogite group with their Mg#. Compared to present day MORB composition eclogite samples have similar contents of most of elements with some depletion in TiO2 and P2O5 and enrichment in MgO and K2O. The variability of these elements concentrations can be related to melt extraction while elevated K2O can indicate late metasomatic enrichment. In terms of trace elements composition Udachnaya eclogites are enriched over PM but comparable to that of MORB composition, except significant enrichment in LILE elements (Rb, Ba, K, Sr). The records of both subduction related processes and mantle metasomatism could be find in geochemical features of these rocks. Most of the eclogites show positive Eu anomaly which is direct evidence of plagioclase accumulation in eglogites protolith. Variation of La/Yb ratio (1-11), in majority of samples are the range 2-4 indicates different degrees of samples metasomatic enrichment in LREE. Udachnaya eclogites have range of Sm/Nd ratio from 0.25 to 0.5 (MORB is 0.32) which positive covariates with Nd content. This trend could not be a result of melt extraction nor metasomatic enrichment rather it could reflect heterogeneity of oceanic crust composition and/or mixing with peridotite component during subduction.
DS201708-1591
2017
Agashev, A.Agashev, A.Geochemistry of Mirny field kimberlites, Siberia.11th. International Kimberlite Conference, PosterRussia, Siberiadeposit - Mirny
DS201909-2077
2019
Agashev, A.Pokhilenko, N., Agashev, A., Pokhilenko, L.Features of metasomatic treatment of the lithosphere mantle depleted peridotites in relation with scale and diamond grade of kimberlite magmatism.Goldschmidt2019, 1p. Poster abstractSouth America, Brazildeposit - RosaRio-6

Abstract: Three main cycle of kimberlite magmatism are known for the Siberian Platform (SP) to date: Middle Paleozoic (D3), and two Mesozoic (T2-3 and J3). All economic highgrade kimberlites are of Middle Paleozoic (MP) age, and this feature is related with influence of melts/fluids of Permian-Triassic Siberian Super Plume produced huge changes in structure and composition of the SP Lithospheric Mantle (LM) including its enrichment by basaltic components, thinning, increase of fo2 and resorption of diamonds. Nevertheless, there are incredible differences in amounts of kimberlite bodies and their average diamond grade between different kimberlite fields of MP age, and these features are connected with intensity of carbonatite and silicate types of metasomatic treatment of the most deep-seated SP LM depleted peridotites especially of Lithosphere-Asthenosphere (LA) interaction zone. U-type lithospheric diamond formation is related with initial stage of carbonatite metasomatism, and its increase produce wehrlitezation and then carbonation of initial Cr-pyrope harzburgites and dunites but not related with diamond formation. Minor scale of silicate metasomatism of these modified LM peridotites produced conditions for generation of insignificant amount of kimberlite melts which form kimberlite fields with few bodies, but significant part of them are presented by high-grade kimberlite. And in case of significant scale of both carbonatite and silicate metasomatism of the LM peridotites produce large volume of kimberlite melt and hundreds of kimberlite bodies in fields with minor amonts of high grade ones.
DS1998-0010
1998
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Fomin, A.S., Watanabe, T., Pokhilenko, N.Preliminary age determination of recently discovered kimberlites of the Siberian kimberlite province.7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 9-10.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology, Deposit - Sredne-Marxz, Botuobinskaya, Nurbinskaya
DS1998-0011
1998
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Watanabe, T., Kuligin, S.S., PokhilenkoStrontium neodymium isotopes in the garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Siberian kimberlites: a new insight into lithospheric..7th International Kimberlite Conference Abstract, pp. 11-13.Russia, SiberiaGarnet pyroxenite, mantle, Geochemistry
DS2000-0008
2000
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Orihashi, Watanabe, Pkhilenko, SerenkoIsotope geochemical features of the Siberian Platform kimberlites in connection with problem of their origin.Russ. Geol. and Geophys., Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 87-97.Russia, SiberiaGeochemistry, geochronology, Genesis
DS2001-0006
2001
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, McDonald, Takazawa, VavilovA unique kimberlite carbonatite primary association in the Snap lake dyke system: evidence from geochemical..Slave-Kaapvaal Workshop, Sept. Ottawa, 2p. abstractNorthwest TerritoriesGeochemistry, geochronology, Slave Craton, Deposit - Snap Lake
DS2001-0007
2001
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Watanabe, Bydaev, Pokhilenko, FominGeochemistry of kimberlites from the Nakyn field, Siberia: evidence for unique source composition.Geology, Vol. 29, No. 3, Mar. pp. 267-70.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology, geochemistry
DS2001-0008
2001
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Watanabe, T., Kuligin, S.S., PokhilenkoRubidium-Strontium and Samarium-neodymium isotopes in garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Siberian kimberlites: an insight into lith. mantleJournal of Mineralogy and Petrology. Sciences, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 7-18.Russia, SiberiaGeochronology, Lithospheric - xenoliths
DS2003-1090
2003
Agashev, A.M.Pokhilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., McDonald, J.A., Sobolev, N.V., MityukhinKimberlites of the Nakyn field, Siberia and the Snap Lake King Lake dyke system8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractNorthwest TerritoriesDeposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS2003-1091
2003
Agashev, A.M.Pokhilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Clark, D.B..Kimberlites and carbonatites of the Snap Lake King Lake dyke system: structural8 Ikc Www.venuewest.com/8ikc/program.htm, Session 7, POSTER abstractNorthwest TerritoriesDeposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS200412-1561
2003
Agashev, A.M.Pokhilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., McDonald, J.A., Sobolev, N.V., Mityukhin, S.I., Vavilov, M.A., Yanygin, Y.T.Kimberlites of the Nakyn field, Siberia and the Snap Lake King Lake dyke system, Slave Craton, Canada: a new variety of kimberli8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesKimberlite petrogenesis Deposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS200412-1562
2003
Agashev, A.M.Pokhilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Clark, D.B., Wright, K.J.Kimberlites and carbonatites of the Snap Lake King Lake dyke system: structural setting, petrochemistry and petrology of a uniqu8 IKC Program, Session 7, POSTER abstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesKimberlite petrogenesis Deposit - Snap Lake, King Lake
DS200512-0007
2004
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Tolstov, A.V., Polyanichko, Malkovets, SobolevNew age dat a on kimberlites from the Yakutian Diamondiferous Province.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 399, 8, pp.1142-1145.Russia, YakutiaGeochronology
DS200612-0004
2006
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Malkovets, V.G., Sobolev, N.V.Sm Nd isotopic system in garnet megacrysts from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia) and petrogenesis of kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 407A, 3, pp. 491-494.Russia, YakutiaGeochronology - Udachnaya
DS200812-0003
2008
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Kuligan, S.S., Orihashi, Y., Pokhilenko, N.P., Vavilov, M.A., Clarke, D.Ages of zircons from Jurassic sediments of Bluefish River slope, NWT and the possible age of kimberlite activity in the Lena West property.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 421, 1, pp. 751-754.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Lena West, geochronology
DS200812-0004
2008
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Takazawa, E., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Watanabe, T., Sobolev, N.V.Primary melting sequence of a deep ( >250 km) lithospheric mantle as recorded in the geochemistry of kimberlite carbonatite assemblages, Snap Lake dyke system, Canada.Chemical Geology, Vol. 255, 3-4, pp. 317-328.Canada, Northwest TerritoriesDeposit - Snap Lake
DS200912-0003
2009
Agashev, A.M.Afanasyev, V.P., Agashev, A.M., Orihashi, Y., Pokhilenko, N.P., Sobolev, N.V.Paleozoic U Pb age of rutile inclusions in diamonds of the V-VII variety from placers of the northeast Siberian platform.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 428, 1, pp. 1151-1155.RussiaDiamond inclusions
DS201012-0005
2010
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Cherepanova, Yu.V., Golovin, A.V.Geochemical evolution of rocks at the base of the lithospheric mantle: evidence from study of xenoliths of deformed peridotites from kimberlite of UdachnayaDoklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 432, 2, pp. 746-749.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201112-1063
2011
Agashev, A.M.Tychkov, N.S., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Bzhan, I.S.Estimation of the refertilization grade of lithosphere roots by the chemical composition of garnets from Siberian kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 439, 2, pp.1175-1178.Russia, SiberiaGeochemistry - garnets
DS201212-0005
2012
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Ionov, D.A., Pokhilenko, N.P., Golovin, A.V., Surgutonova, E.A., Sharygin, I.S.Metasomatism in cratonic mantle root: insight from geochemistry of deformed peridotite xenoliths of Udachnaya pipe.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201212-0006
2012
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Orihashi, Y., Rotman, A.Ua., Pokhilenko, N.P., erov, I.V., Tolstov, A.V.Rutile and titanite as the minerals for dating kimberlite emplacement age: an example of Amakinskaya and Taezhnaya pipes of Mirny field, Siberia10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, YakutiaDeposit - Mirny field
DS201212-0562
2012
Agashev, A.M.Pokhilenko, N.P., Afanasev, V.P., McDonald, J.A., Vavilov, M.A., Kulgin, S.S., Pokhilenko, L.N., Golovin, A.V., Agashev, A.M.Kimberlite indicator minerals in terrigene sediments of lower part of Mackenzie River Basin, NWT, Canada: evidence of new craton with thick lithosphere.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Feb. 6-11, Bangalore India, AbstractCanada, Northwest TerritoriesGeochemistry - KIMS
DS201212-0739
2012
Agashev, A.M.Tychkov, N.S., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P.Refertilisation grade estimations of lithosphere roots by the chemical composition of garnets from Siberian kimberlites.10th. International Kimberlite Conference Held Bangalore India Feb. 6-11, Poster abstractRussia, SiberiaGarnet
DS201312-0010
2013
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Ionov, D.A., Pkhilenko, N.P., Golovin, A.V., Cherepanova, Yu., Sharygin, I.S.Metasomatism in lithospheric mantle roots: constraints from whole rock and mineral chemical composition of deformed peridotite xenoliths from kimberlite pipe Udachnaya.Lithos, Vol. 160-161, pp. 201-215.Mantle, Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201312-0045
2013
Agashev, A.M.Ashchepkov, I.V., Ntaflos, T., Kuligin, S.S., Malygina, E.V., Agashev, A.M., Logvinova, A.M., Mitukhin, S.I., Vladykin, N.V.Deep seated xenoliths from the brown breccia of the Udachnaya pipe, Siberia.Proceedings of the 10th International Kimberlite Conference, Vol. 1, Special issue of the Journal of Geological Society of India, Vol. 1, pp. 59-73.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201412-0022
2014
Agashev, A.M.Ashchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, N.N., Ntaflos, T., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Prokopiev, S.A., Downes, H., Smelov, A.P., Agashev, A.M., Logvinova, A.M., Kuligin, S.S., Tychkov, N.S., Salikhov, R.F., Stegnitsky, Yu.B., Alymova, N.V., Vavilov, M.A., Minin, V.A., BabusLayering of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Siberian Craton: modeling using thermobarometry of mantle xenolith and xenocrysts. Tectonophysics, Vol. 634, 5, pp. 55-75.Russia, YakutiaDaldyn, Alakit, Malo-Botuobinsky fields
DS201412-0373
2014
Agashev, A.M.Howarth, G.H., Barry, P.H., Pernet-Fisher, J.F., Baziotis, I.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Poikhilenko, L.N., Bodnar, R.L., Taylor, L.A., Agashev, A.M.Superplume metasomatism: evidence from Siberian mantle xenoliths.Lithos, Vol. 184-187, pp. 209-224.RussiaMetasomatism
DS201412-0695
2014
Agashev, A.M.Poikhilenko, N.P., Afanasiev, V.P., Agashev, A.M., Malkovets, V.G., Poikhilenko, L.N.New archean terranes with thick lithosphere of arctic regions of Siberia and North American ancient platforms: are they prospective for Diamondiferous kimberlites?30th. International Conference on Ore Potential of alkaline, kimberlite and carbonatite magmatism. Sept. 29-, Russia, CanadaKimberlite
DS201412-0718
2014
Agashev, A.M.Ragozin, A.L., Zedgenizov, D.A., Shatskii, V.S., Orihashi, Y., Agashev, A.M., Kagi, H.U Pb age of rutile from the eclogite xenolith of the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 457, 1, pp. 861-864.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201412-0937
2014
Agashev, A.M.Tychkov, N.S., Agashev, A.M., Malygina, E.V., Nikolenko, E.I., Pokhilenko, N.P.Thermal pertubations in the lithospheric mantle as evidenced from P-T equilibrium conditions of xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 454, 1, pp. 84-88.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201412-1013
2014
Agashev, A.M.Yudin, D.S., Tomilenko, A.A., Travin, A.V., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Orihashi, yu.The age of the Udachnaya-East kimberlite: U/Pb and 40 Ar/39Ar data.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 455, 1, pp. 288-290.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya
DS201502-0091
2015
Agashev, A.M.Poikilenko, N.P., Agashev, A.M., Litasov, K.D., Pokhilenko, L.N.Carbonatite metasomatism of peridotite lithospheric mantle: implications for diamond formation and carbonatite-kimberlite magmatism.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 56, 1, pp. 280-295.MantleCarbonatite
DS201504-0183
2015
Agashev, A.M.Barry, P.H., Hilton, D.R., Day, J.M.D., Pernet-Fisher, J.F., Howarth, G.H., Magna, T., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P., Opkhilenko, L.N., Taylor, L.A.Helium isotope evidence for modification of the cratonic lithosphere during the Permo-Triassic Siberian flood basalt event.Lithos, Vol. 216-217, pp. 73-80.Russia, SiberiaDeposit - Udachnaya, Obnazhennaya

Abstract: Major flood basalt emplacement events can dramatically alter the composition of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The Siberian craton experienced one of the largest flood basalt events preserved in the geologic record — eruption of the Permo-Triassic Siberian flood basalts (SFB) at ~250 Myr in response to upwelling of a deep-rooted mantle plume beneath the Siberian SCLM. Here, we present helium isotope (3 He/ 4 He) and concentra-tion data for petrologically-distinct suites of peridotitic xenoliths recovered from two temporally-separated kim-berlites: the 360 Ma Udachnaya and 160 Ma Obnazhennaya pipes, which erupted through the Siberian SCLM and bracket the eruption of the SFB. Measured 3 He/ 4 He ratios span a range from 0.1 to 9.8 R A (where R A = air 3 He/ 4 He) and fall into two distinct groups: 1) predominantly radiogenic pre-plume Udachnaya samples (mean clinopyroxene 3 He/ 4 He = 0.41 ± 0.30 R A (1s); n = 7 excluding 1 outlier), and 2) 'mantle-like' post plume Obnazhennaya samples (mean clinopyroxene 3 He/ 4 He = 4.20 ± 0.90 R A (1s); n = 5 excluding 1 outlier). Olivine separates from both kimberlite pipes tend to have higher 3 He/ 4 He than clinopyroxenes (or garnet). Helium con-tents in Udachnaya samples ([He] = 0.13–1.35 µcm 3 STP/g; n = 6) overlap with those of Obnazhennaya ([He] = 0.05–1.58 µcm 3 STP/g; n = 10), but extend to significantly higher values in some instances ([He] = 49– 349 µcm 3 STP/g; n = 4). Uranium and thorium contents are also reported for the crushed material from which He was extracted in order to evaluate the potential for He migration from the mineral matrix to fluid inclusions. The wide range in He content, together with consistently radiogenic He-isotope values in Udachnaya peridotites suggests that crustal-derived fluids have incongruently metasomatized segments of the Siberian SCLM, whereas high 3 He/ 4 He values in Obnazhennaya peridotites show that this section of the SCLM has been overprinted by Permo-Triassic (plume-derived) basaltic fluids. Indeed, the stark contrast between pre-and post-plume 3 He/ 4 He ra-tios in peridotite xenoliths highlights the potentially powerful utility of He-isotopes for differentiating between various types of metasomatism (i.e., crustal versus basaltic fluids).
DS201507-0336
2015
Agashev, A.M.Shchukina, E.V., Agashev, A.M., Golovin, N.N., Pokhilenko, N.P.Equigranualr eclogites from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe: evidence for Paleoproterozoic subduction on the territory of the Arkangelsk Diamondiferous province.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 462, 1, pp. 497-501.Russia, Archangel, Kola PeninsulaDeposit - Grib
DS201602-0237
2015
Agashev, A.M.Shchukina, E.V., Agashev, A.M., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Pokhilenko, N.P.Metasomatic processes in the lithospheric mantle beneath the V. Grib kimberlite pipe ( Arkangelsk Diamondiferous province, Russia).Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 56, pp. 1701-1716.RussiaDeposit - Grib

Abstract: New data on metasomatic processes in the lithospheric mantle in the central part of the Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province (ADP) are presented. We studied the major- and trace-element compositions of minerals of 26 garnet peridotite xenoliths from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe; 17 xenoliths contained phlogopite. Detailed mineralogical, petrographic, and geochemical studies of peridotite minerals (garnet, clinopyroxene, and phlogopite) have revealed two types of modal metasomatic enrichment of the lithospheric-mantle rocks: high temperature (melt) and low-temperature (phlogopite). Both types of modal metasomatism significantly changed the chemical composition of the peridotites. Low-temperature modal metasomatism manifests itself as coarse tabular and shapeless phlogopite grains. Two textural varieties of phlogopite show significant differences in chemical composition, primarily in the contents of TiO2, Cr2O3, FeO, Ba, Rb, and Cs. The rock-forming minerals of phlogopite-bearing peridotites differ in chemical composition from phlogopite-free peridotites, mainly in higher FeO content. Most garnets and clinopyroxenes in peridotites are the products of high-temperature mantle metasomatism, as indicated by the high contents of incompatible elements and REE pattern in these minerals. Fractional-crystallization modeling gives an insight into the nature of melts (metasomatic agents). They are close in composition to picrites of the Izhmozero field, basalts of the Tur’ino field, and carbonatites of the Mela field of the ADP. The REE patterns of the peridotite minerals make it possible to determine the sequence of metasomatic enrichment of the lithospheric mantle beneath the V. Grib kimberlite pipe.
DS201606-1095
2016
Agashev, A.M.Ilyina, O.V., Tychkov, N.S., Agashev, A.M., Golovin, A.V., Izokh, A.E., Kozmenko, O.A., Poikilanko, N.P.PGE distribution in deformed lherzolites of the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe ( Yakutia).Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 467, 2, pp. 408-411.Russia, YakutiaDeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: The results of the first study of the PGE distribution in deformed lherzolites of the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia) are presented here. The complex character of evolution of the PGE composition in the Deformed lherzolites is assumed to be the result of silicate metasomatism. At the first stage, growth in the amount of clinopyroxene and garnet in the rock is accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of the compatible PGE (Os, Ir). During the final stage, the rock is enriched with incompatible PGE (Pt, Pd) and Re possible due to precipitation of submicron-sized particles of sulfides in the interstitial space of these mantle rocks.
DS201612-2336
2016
Agashev, A.M.Shchukina, E.V., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, N.P.Metasomatic origin of garnet xenocrysts from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe, Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia.Geoscience Frontiers, in press availableRussia, Archangel, Kola PeninsulaDeposit - Grib

Abstract: This paper presents new major and trace element data from 150 garnet xenocrysts from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe located in the central part of the Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province (ADP). Based on the concentrations of Cr2O3, CaO, TiO2 and rare earth elements (REE) the garnets were divided into seven groups: (1) lherzolitic “depleted” garnets (“Lz 1”), (2) lherzolitic garnets with normal REE patterns (“Lz 2”), (3) lherzolitic garnets with weakly sinusoidal REE patterns (“Lz 3”), (4) lherzolitic garnets with strongly sinusoidal REE patterns (“Lz 4”), (5) harzburgitic garnets with sinusoidal REE patterns (“Hz”), (6) wehrlitic garnets with weakly sinusoidal REE patterns (“W”), (7) garnets of megacryst paragenesis with normal REE patterns (“Meg”). Detailed mineralogical and geochemical garnet studies and modeling results suggest several stages of mantle metasomatism influenced by carbonatite and silicate melts. Carbonatitic metasomatism at the first stage resulted in refertilization of the lithospheric mantle, which is evidenced by a nearly vertical CaO-Cr2O3 trend from harzburgitic (“Hz”) to lherzolitic (“Lz 4”) garnet composition. Harzburgitic garnets (“Hz”) have probably been formed by interactions between carbonatite melts and exsolved garnets in high-degree melt extraction residues. At the second stage of metasomatism, garnets with weakly sinusoidal REE patterns (“Lz 3”, “W”) were affected by a silicate melt possessing a REE composition similar to that of ADP alkaline mica-poor picrites. At the last stage, the garnets interacted with basaltic melts, which resulted in the decrease CaO-Cr2O3 trend of “Lz 2” garnet composition. Cr-poor garnets of megacryst paragenesis (“Meg”) could crystallize directly from the silicate melt which has a REE composition close to that of ADP alkaline mica-poor picrites. P-T estimates of the garnet xenocrysts indicate that the interval of ~60-110 km of the lithospheric mantle beneath the V. Grib pipe was predominantly affected by the silicate melts, whereas the lithospheric mantle deeper than 150 km was influenced by the carbonatite melts.
DS201701-0034
2016
Agashev, A.M.Surgutanova, E.A., Agashev, A.M., Demonterova, E.I., Golovin, A.V., Pokhilenko, N.P.Sr and Nd isotope composition of deformed peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 471, 1, pp. 1104-1207.RussiaDeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: New results of Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope analyses have been obtained on samples of deformed peridotite xenoliths collected from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia). The data obtained imply two main stages of metasomatic alteration of the lithospheric mantle base matter in the central part of the Siberian Craton. Elevated ratios of Sr isotopes may be considered as evidence of an ancient stage of metasomatic enrichment by a carbonatite melt. The acquired Nd isotope composition together with the geochemistry of the deformed peridotite xenoliths suggests that the second stage of metasomatic alteration took place shortly before formation of the kimberlite melt. The metasomatic agent of this stage had a silicate character and arrived from an asthenosphere source, common for the normal OIB type (PREMA) and the Group-I kimberlite.
DS201709-2000
2017
Agashev, A.M.Ilyina, O.V., Pokhilenko, L.N., Agashev, A.M.Characteristics of platinum group elements ( PGE) distribution in mantle xenoliths from kimberlite Udachnaya pipe ( Yakutia).Goldschmidt Conference, abstract 1p.Russia, Yakutiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: We report PGE data in xenoliths of the deformed and granular peridotites. The deformed peridotites are the most deep-seated rocks and represent a narrow range of depth (180-220 km) while granular peridotites are located throughout the section of the lithospheric mantle. PGE distribution in the deformed peridotites [1] generally corresponds to that in our granular peridotites and xenoliths from Lesotho [2]. But in contrast with broad range of PGE concentrations in granular peridotites, the deformed peridotites show nearly flat pattern from Os to Pt, except of Pd (Fig.1). Granular peridotites show good positive correlation between PGE and Fe2O3. We suppose that they enriched in PGE by iron phase during its evolution. As for deformed peridotites we propose that they were depleted in Ir and Os followed by the increase of Ga and Cpx on the first stage of mantle metasomatism. On the last stage the enrichment of Pt, Pd and Re was probably a result of submicron sulphide phase’s presipitation in the interstices of mantle rocks.
DS201807-1477
2018
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, L.N., Pokhilenko, N.P., Shchukina, E.V.Geochemistry of eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe: section of ancient oceanic crust sampled.Lithos, DOI:10.1016 /j.lithos.2018 .05.027 available 52p.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: A suite of seventeen unique, large, and fresh eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya pipe have been studied for their whole-rock and mineral major- and trace-element compositions. Based on their major-element compositions, the Udachnaya eclogites can be subdivided in two groups: high magnesian (Mg# 68.8-81.9) and low magnesian (Mg# 56.8-59). The two eclogite groups are clearly different in the style of correlation between major elements. Positive correlations of FeO and CaO with MgO are observed in the low-magnesian group, whereas these correlations are negative in the high-magnesian group. In terms of trace element composition, the Udachnaya eclogites are enriched over Primitive Mantle, but comparable to mid-ocean-ridge basalt composition, except for significant enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE; Rb, Ba, K, Sr). Most of the samples show a positive Eu anomaly, irrespective of group. Reconstructed whole-rock composition from clinopyroxene and garnet modal abundances contains much less incompatible elements (LILE, light rare earth elements, high field strength elements) than measured composition. Approximately 60 to 100% of the middle rare earth elements, Zr, and Hf, and nearly 100% of the heavy rare earth elements, Co, V, and Sc of the whole-rock budget are concentrated in Gar and Cpx. Variations in major element compositions cover a full section of the modern and Archaean oceanic crust, from troctolite, through gabbroic rocks, to basalts. The low-Mg# eclogites could have formed from upper oceanic crust protoliths, being a mixture of basalts and gabbro, whereas the high-Mg# eclogites are originated from gabbro-troctolite section of the lower oceanic crust. Concordant variations of Eu anomaly with the Lu/Sr ratio and the V and Ni contents in the eclogite compositions are in agreement with the fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine in their low-pressure precursor rocks. Negative correlations of SiO2 and MgO, and a low Nd/YbNMORB ratio, in the low-Mg# eclogites are in agreement with partial melt loss, but the presence of accessory quartz limits the degree of melting to 13%. Major and trace element compositions suggest that the high-Mg# eclogites, and, consequently, the lower oceanic crust, could not have experienced significant melt loss, and subduction in the Archaean may have been essentially dry, compared to the present day.
DS201808-1722
2018
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Nakai, S., Serov, I.V., Tolstov, A.V., Garanin, K.V., Kovalchuk, O.E.Geochemistry and origin of the Mirny field kimberlites, Siberia.Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org/10.1007/s00710-018-06174 12p.Russia, Siberiadeposit - Mirny

Abstract: Here we present new data from a systematic Sr, Nd, O, C isotope and geochemical study of kimberlites of Devonian age Mirny field that are located in the southernmost part of the Siberian diamondiferous province. Major and trace element compositions of the Mirny field kimberlites show a significant compositional variability both between pipes and within one diatreme. They are enriched in incompatible trace elements with La/Yb ratios in the range of (65-00). Initial Nd isotope ratios calculated back to the time of the Mirny field kimberlite emplacement (t?=?360 ma) are depleted relative to the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR) model being 4 up to 6 ?Nd(t) units, suggesting an asthenospheric source for incompatible elements in kimberlites. Initial Sr isotope ratios are significantly variable, being in the range 0.70387-0.70845, indicating a complex source history and a strong influence of post-magmatic alteration. Four samples have almost identical initial Nd and Sr isotope compositions that are similar to the prevalent mantle (PREMA) reservoir. We propose that the source of the proto-kimberlite melt of the Mirny field kimberlites is the same as that for the majority of ocean island basalts (OIB). The source of the Mirny field kimberlites must possess three main features: It should be enriched with incompatible elements, be depleted in the major elements (Si, Al, Fe and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements (REE) and it should retain the asthenospheric Nd isotope composition. A two-stage model of kimberlite melt formation can fulfil those requirements. The intrusion of small bodies of this proto-kimberlite melt into lithospheric mantle forms a veined heterogeneously enriched source through fractional crystallization and metasomatism of adjacent peridotites. Re-melting of this source shortly after it was metasomatically enriched produced the kimberlite melt. The chemistry, mineralogy and diamond grade of each particular kimberlite are strongly dependent on the character of the heterogeneous source part from which they melted and ascended.
DS201808-1775
2017
Agashev, A.M.Paquette, J.L., Ionov, D.A., Agashev, A.M., Gannoun, A., Nikolenko, E.I.Age, provenance and Precambrian evolution of the Anabar shield from U Pb and Lu Hf isotope dat a on detrital zircons, and the history of the northern and central Siberian craton.Precambrian Research, Vol. 301, pp. 134-144.Russiacraton

Abstract: The Anabar shield in northern Siberia is one of the world’s least studied Precambrian areas, and provides a ‘window’ into the crustal basement of the central and northern Siberian craton. We report U-Pb and Hf isotope data for detrital zircons sampled in a profile across its major structural units. They define a U-Pb age range from 1.8 to 3.4 Ga with three main periods: 1.8-2.0 Ga, 2.4-2.8 Ga and 3.0-3.4 Ga. The oldest zircons yield super-chondritic eHf(t) implying that the parental magmas of their source rocks were juvenile, i.e. formed from depleted mantle (DM). Thus, the crustal basement of the Anabar shield, and probably the whole central and northern Siberian craton, started to form in the mid-Paleoarchean, and included no recycled crust. Zircons with 2.5-2.7 Ga ages define two eHf(t) intervals. One is super-chondritic (+2 to +7) implying juvenile sources, the other is sub-chondritic (-3 to -12) indicative of recycled crust, probably formed at 3.2-3.4 Ga, in magma sources. Nearly all 1.8-2.0 Ga zircons have sub-chondritic eHf(t) (-2 to -29) implying derivation from sources dominated by recycled crust formed at ~2.6 Ga and ~3.4 Ga and little or no juvenile addition. These events accompanied amalgamation of the entire craton by welding of Archean domains. The Bekelekh unit of the Daldyn series has the highest proportion of ~2.6 Ga zircons and may be the oldest ‘nucleus’ of the Anabar shield, whereas the Kilegur unit of the same series is essentially Proterozoic (1.95 Ga). The largest amount of 3.1-3.4 Ga zircons, as well as common 2.6-2.7 Ga zircons, occur in the Ambardakh unit of the Upper Anabar series. Our data suggest alternation of areas with dominant ages of 1.95 Ga and ~2.6 Ga, with the younger zircons coming from granites and granulites, and the older ones from gneisses. They show no evidence for significant ages differences for the Anabar and Olenek provinces. The final amalgamation of the entire Siberian craton by welding of Archean blocks, may have taken place at around 1954 ± 6 Ma.
DS201903-0501
2019
Agashev, A.M.Chepurov, A., Faryad, S.W., Agashev, A.M.Experimental crystallization of a subcalcic Cr-rich pyrope in the presence of REE bearing carbonatite.Chemical Geology, carbonatite

Abstract: This paper focuses on formation of subcalcic Cr-rich garnet (up to 14.25?wt% Cr2O3) in the model ultramafic system corresponding to natural harzburgite with the presence of REE-bearing fluid phase. The experiments were carried out using a “split-sphere” type multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus (BARS) at a pressure of 5?GPa and a temperature of 1300?°C. Natural serpentine, chromite, corundum and REE-carbonatite were used as starting components. Crystallization of garnet occurred in subsolidus conditions by the reaction of orthopyroxene and spinel in the presence of fluid phase. Composition of fluid was controlled by interaction of water released by decomposition of serpentine with carbonate. By using different amounts of carbonatite (0.5 and 1.5?wt%) as a source of calcium and REE, subcalcic Cr-rich garnets with up to 3.5?wt% CaO were crystallized, which are typical for inclusions of harzburgitic paragenesis in natural diamonds. The experiments demonstrated that the rare earth elements (REE) released from the initial carbonatite were transported by the fluid and were incorporated into the newly formed garnet. The distribution of REE in garnet revealed a vivid enrichment toward the heavy REE (HREE), showing the pattern with a very steep slope. These results confirmed high partitioning of HREE into garnet. The present study indicates that the mantle carbonatites, which contain very high proportions of light REE (LREE) to HREE, can play an important role as source material in formation of REE-rich fluids to crystallize garnets with typical REE patterns in mantle peridotites.
DS201909-2014
2019
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M.Geochemistry of garnet megacrysts from the Mir kimberlite pipe ( Yakutia) and the nature of protokimberlite melts.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 486, 2, pp. 675-678.Russiadeposit -Mir

Abstract: The chemical compositions of garnets from a megacryst association of the Mir kimberlite pipe have been studied. By petrogenic elements, the garnet megacrysts can be classified as high-Ti and low-Cr pyrope. The megacryst TiO2 contents of the Mir pipe correlate inversely with the MgO and Cr2O3 contents. Modeling of the composition of garnets through a fractional crystallization process showed that the most suitable composition of the melts parental for the garnets of the megacryst association is picrite. The composition of garnets crystallized from the kimberlite does not correspond to the composition of the natural garnets from the Mir pipe. The kimberlites contain less Ti, Zr, Y, and HREEs, but are more enriched with strongly incompatible elements (LREEs, Th, U, Nb, Ta, and Ba) than the model composition of the melt suitable for crystallization of the garnet megacrysts.
DS201909-2074
2019
Agashev, A.M.Pernet-Fisher, J.F., Barry, P.H., Day, J.M.D., Pearson, D.G., Woodland, S., Agashev, A.M., Pokhilenko, L.N., Pokhilenko, N.P.Heterogeneous kimberlite metasomatism revealed from a combined He-Os isotope study of Siberian megacrustalline dunite xenoliths.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 45p. PdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Udachnaya East
DS201909-2087
2019
Agashev, A.M.Shchukina, E.V., Agashev, A.M., Soloshenko, N.G., Streletskaya, M.V.Origin of the V. Grib pipe eclogites ( Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia): geochemistry, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopes and relation to regional Precambrian tectonics.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 20p. PdfRussia, Archangeldeposit - Grib

Abstract: In this paper, new main and trace elements and isotopic data are presented for 14 coarse-grained eclogite xenoliths from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe in the central part of the Arkhangelsk Diamondiferous Province. Based on reconstructed whole rock MgO content, this suite is divided into high-MgO and low-MgO varieties. Eclogitic groups have a similar range of variations in the trace element compositions of garnet, clinopyroxene and reconstructed whole rock. All eclogites show positive Eu anomalies in garnet and Sr anomalies in the whole rock. The negative correlation between the Mg#, Sr/Lu ratio and HREE in a whole rock points to upper and lower oceanic crustal rocks as a protolith for eclogites with high and low whole rock HREEs, respectively. Low-MgO eclogites with higher whole rock HREEs have the basaltic upper oceanic crustal protolith, whereas the protoliths of eclogites with lower whole rock HREEs could be of gabbroic composition from the lower oceanic crust. High-MgO eclogites could represent MgO-rich portions of oceanic crustal rocks: picritic/MgO basalt portions in the upper oceanic crust and troctolite portions in the lower oceanic crust. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a complex history of eclogites during their residence in the lithospheric mantle. Similarities in the Nd isotope compositions and two-point Sm-Nd isochron ages are evidence for re-equilibration of the Sm-Nd isotope system between the eclogite garnet and clinopyroxene via a pre-kimberlite thermal event at 396?±?24 Ma. The subset of clinopyroxenes from four eclogites has a Sr isotope composition that plots on the isochron at an age of 2.84 Ga, which reflects the time of the subduction event and emplacement into the lithosphere and corresponds to the time of the Belomorian Eclogite Province of Baltic Shield formation.
DS202005-0719
2020
Agashev, A.M.Agashev, A.M., Chervyakovskaya, M.V., Serov, I.V., Tolstov, A.V., Agasheva, E.V., Votyakov, S.L.Source rejuvenation vs. re-heating: constraints on Siberian kimberlite origin from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope compositions and geochemistry of mantle zircons. ( Silurian, Devonian, Triassic, Jurassic)Lithos, Vol. 364-365, 10p. PdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Druzhba, Choumurdakh

Abstract: We have studied a suite of mantle zircons from several differently aged pipes of the Siberian kimberlite province via UPb and LuHf isotope analyses and trace element compositions. The UPb ages we obtained confirmed four main episodes (Silurian, Devonian, Triassic and Jurassic) of kimberlite activity on the Siberian craton. The Druzhba pipe had two populations of zircons dating from the Silurian and Devonian, respectively. The geochemical features of our suite of mantle zircons show low concentrations of U, Th and heavy rare earth elements (REEs), positive Ce anomalies, and weak or absent Eu anomalies, which is in accord with the mantle-derived nature of the zircon. Despite having broadly similar geochemistry, zircons from differently aged kimberlites had some clear differences arising from variations in the composition of the protokimberlite metasomatic melt and from peculiarities of fractional crystallization. The Th/U ratios were highest in the Silurian zircons and sharply decreased toward the Devonian. The Triassic zircons had elevated and highly variable Ce/Nb ratios with low and nearly constant Th/U ratios. Zircons from Siberian kimberlites with different UPb ages showed systematic variations in their initial Hf isotope compositions. The oldest Silurian kimberlite field, Chomurdakh, had two zircon populations: Silurian zircons, with ?Hft values in the range of +2.8 to +5.9 units, and Devonian zircons, with ?Hft values in the range of +1.6 to +2.0 units. Zircons from the Devonian field kimberlites were in the range of +5.6 to +9.6 ?Hft units. The Triassic kimberlitic zircons had the most juvenile Hf isotope composition, at +9.3 to +11.2 ?Hft units, while the Jurassic zircons had +6.9 ?Hft units. The combination of the UPb and LuHf isotope data suggests a periodic rejuvenation of the lithospheric mantle roots by low-volume melts from the asthenospheric mantle, resulting shortly after in kimberlite emplacements. Some Devonian and Jurassic kimberlites may have been melted by re-heating the Silurian and Triassic age sources, respectively, about 60 Myr after they were formed.
DS201112-1062
2011
Agashev, N.Tychkov, N., Agashev, N., Poikilenko, N., Bazhan, I.Estimation of the refertilization grade of lithosphere roots by the chemical composition of garnets from Siberian kimberlites.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 439, 2, pp. 1175-1178.Russia, SiberiaGarnet geochemistry
DS202005-0719
2020
Agasheva, E.V.Agashev, A.M., Chervyakovskaya, M.V., Serov, I.V., Tolstov, A.V., Agasheva, E.V., Votyakov, S.L.Source rejuvenation vs. re-heating: constraints on Siberian kimberlite origin from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope compositions and geochemistry of mantle zircons. ( Silurian, Devonian, Triassic, Jurassic)Lithos, Vol. 364-365, 10p. PdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Druzhba, Choumurdakh

Abstract: We have studied a suite of mantle zircons from several differently aged pipes of the Siberian kimberlite province via UPb and LuHf isotope analyses and trace element compositions. The UPb ages we obtained confirmed four main episodes (Silurian, Devonian, Triassic and Jurassic) of kimberlite activity on the Siberian craton. The Druzhba pipe had two populations of zircons dating from the Silurian and Devonian, respectively. The geochemical features of our suite of mantle zircons show low concentrations of U, Th and heavy rare earth elements (REEs), positive Ce anomalies, and weak or absent Eu anomalies, which is in accord with the mantle-derived nature of the zircon. Despite having broadly similar geochemistry, zircons from differently aged kimberlites had some clear differences arising from variations in the composition of the protokimberlite metasomatic melt and from peculiarities of fractional crystallization. The Th/U ratios were highest in the Silurian zircons and sharply decreased toward the Devonian. The Triassic zircons had elevated and highly variable Ce/Nb ratios with low and nearly constant Th/U ratios. Zircons from Siberian kimberlites with different UPb ages showed systematic variations in their initial Hf isotope compositions. The oldest Silurian kimberlite field, Chomurdakh, had two zircon populations: Silurian zircons, with ?Hft values in the range of +2.8 to +5.9 units, and Devonian zircons, with ?Hft values in the range of +1.6 to +2.0 units. Zircons from the Devonian field kimberlites were in the range of +5.6 to +9.6 ?Hft units. The Triassic kimberlitic zircons had the most juvenile Hf isotope composition, at +9.3 to +11.2 ?Hft units, while the Jurassic zircons had +6.9 ?Hft units. The combination of the UPb and LuHf isotope data suggests a periodic rejuvenation of the lithospheric mantle roots by low-volume melts from the asthenospheric mantle, resulting shortly after in kimberlite emplacements. Some Devonian and Jurassic kimberlites may have been melted by re-heating the Silurian and Triassic age sources, respectively, about 60 Myr after they were formed.
DS1996-1301
1996
Agata, T.Shibata, K., Suwa, K., Agata, T.Excess Argon in biotites from Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya: implications for tectonothermal..Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 3, Oct. 1, pp. 433-442KenyaArchean, Mozambique belt
DS2001-0009
2001
Agbossoumonde, Y.Agbossoumonde, Y., Menot, R.P., Guillot, S.Metamorphic evolution of Neoproterozoic eclogites from south To go (West Africa)Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol.33,2,Aug.pp.227-44.Togo, West AfricaEclogites, Metamorphism
DS1989-1572
1989
Agee, C.Walker, D., Agee, C.Partioning "equilibrium",temperature gradients, and constraints on earthdifferentiationEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 96, pp. 49-60GlobalMantle petrogenesis -experimental petrology, Perovskites
DS1989-0009
1989
Agee, C.B.Agee, C.B., Walker, D.Comments on constraints on element partition coefficients between MgSiO3perovskite and liquid determined by direct measurementsEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 94, pp. 160-163GlobalMantle, Petrogenesis
DS1990-0104
1990
Agee, C.B.Agee, C.B.A new look at differentiation of the earth from melting experiments on the Allende meteoriteNature, Vol. 346, No. 6287 August 30, pp. 834-837GlobalMeteorite
DS1993-0011
1993
Agee, C.B.Agee, C.B.Petrology of the mantle transition zoneAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 21, pp. 19-42MantlePetrology
DS1993-0012
1993
Agee, C.B.Agee, C.B., Walker, D.Olivine flotation in mantle meltEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 114, No. 2/3, January pp. 315-324MantleGeochemistry, Olivine
DS1996-0840
1996
Agee, C.B.Li, J., Agee, C.B.Geochemistry of mantle core differentiation at high pressuresNature, Vol. 381, No. 6584, June 20, pp. 686-688.MantleGeochemistry
DS1998-0012
1998
Agee, C.B.Agee, C.B.Phase deformations and seismic structure in the Upper Mantle and transitionzone.Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 37, pp. 165-204.MantleGeophysics - seismics, Geodynamics - boundary
DS2001-0682
2001
Agee, C.B.Li, J., Agee, C.B.Element partitioning constraints on the light element composition of the Earth's core.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan. pp.81-4.MantleGeochemistry - core
DS200612-0358
2006
Agee, C.B.Dwarzski, R.E., Draper, D.A., Shearer, C.K., Agee, C.B.Experimental insights on crystal chemistry of high Ti garnets from garnet melt partitioning of rare earth and high field strength elements.American Mineralogist, Vol. 91, 9, pp. 1536-1546.TechnologyPetrology - crystal chemistry
DS200812-0005
2008
Agee, C.B.Agee, C.B.Compressibility of water in magma and the prediction of density crossovers in mantle differentiation.Philosophical Transactions Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 366, no. 1883, pp. 4239-4252.MantleMagmatism
DS201212-0726
2012
Agee, C.B.Thoma, C.W., Liu, Q., Agee, C.B., Asimov, P.D., Lange, R.A.Multi-technique equation for Fe2SiO4 melt and the density of Fe bearing silicate melts from 0 to 161 Gpa.Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, 18p. B10206TechnologyMantle mineralogy
DS1980-0002
1980
Agee, J.Agee, J., Garrison, J.R.JR., Taylor, L.A.Kimberlites: a Window Into the Mantle Beneath the Southeastern Appalachians #1Geological Society of America (GSA), Vol. 12, No. 4, P. 169. (abstract.).Appalachia, VirginiaGeology
DS1980-0003
1980
Agee, J.J.Agee, J.J., Garrison, J.R.JR., Taylor, L.A.Kimberlites: a Window Into the Mantle Beneath the Southeastern Appalachians #2Eos, Vol. 61, No. 17, P. 412, (abstract.).Appalachia, KentuckyGeology
DS1982-0001
1982
Agee, J.J.Agee, J.J., Garrison, J.R.JR., Taylor, L.A.Petrogenesis of Oxide Minerals in Kimberlite, Elliott County, Kentucky.American Mineralogist., Vol. 67, No. 1-2, PP. 28-42.GlobalIlmenite, Petrography, Microprobe
DS1988-0480
1988
Ageeva, L.I.Mogarovskii, V.V., Davydova, Z.M., Ageeva, L.I.Tungsten in alkaline basaltic rocks of southern Tien-Shan andPamirs.(Russian)Doklady Academy of Sciences Nauk Tadzh. SSSR, (Russian), Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 542-544RussiaAlkaline rocks
DS1987-0272
1987
Agena, W.F.Hamilton, R.M., Agena, W.F., McKeown, F.A.Deep structure of the new Madrid Seismic zone interpreted from seismic reflection profilesEos, Vol. 68, No.44, November 3, p. 1355. abstract onlyArkansas, MissouriGeophysics
DS1989-0010
1989
Agena, W.F.Agena, W.F., Lee, M.W., Grow, J.A.Reprocessing of the COCORP dat a recorded across the Wichita Mountain Uplift and the Anadarko Basin in southern OklahomaUnited States Geological Survey (USGS) Open File, No. 89-0357, 20p. $ 3.50GlobalGeophysics, Tectonics -COCORP
DS1990-1043
1990
Agena, W.F.Milkereit, B., Green, A.G., Lee, M.W., Agena, W.F., Spencer, C.Pre- and post stack migration of Glimpce reflection dataTectonophysics, Vol. 174, No. 1/2, March 1, pp. 1-14Ontario, MichiganGeophysics -Seismics, Glimpce
DS1990-1175
1990
Agena, W.F.Perry, W.J., Agena, W.F.Structural interpretations of the Ouachita frontal zone near HartshorneOklahoma, based on reprocessed seismic reflection dataGeological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Abstracts, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. A231GlobalTectonics, Geophysics -seismics
DS1994-1764
1994
Agenbacht, A.L.D.Thomas, R.J., Agenbacht, A.L.D., Cornell, D.H., Moore, J.M.The Kibaran of southern Africa: tectonic evolution and metallogenyOre Geology Reviews, Vol. 9, pp. 131-160South Africa, Ontario, NamaqualandSEDEX, metallogeny, Copper, nickel, VMS
DS1993-0013
1993
Ager, D.Ager, D.The new catastrophism... rare event in geological historyCambridge Press, 278p. $ 35.00GlobalBook -ad, CatastrophisM.
DS1994-0027
1994
Ager, D.Ager, D.The new catastrophism... rare event .Cambridge University of press, 231p. $ 25.00GlobalCatastrophisM., Book -ad
DS1993-1151
1993
Aggarwal, H.Oberbeck, V.R., Marshall, J.R., Aggarwal, H.Impacts, tillites and the breakup of GondwanalandJournal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 1, January, pp. 1-19Craters, Rifting
DS1993-1152
1993
Aggarwal, H.Oberbeck, V.R., Marshall, J.R., Aggarwal, H.Impacts, tillites and the breakup of GondwanalandJournal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 1, January pp. 1-19.Tectonics, Rifting
DS2002-1371
2002
Aggrawal, S.K.Roy, A., Sarkar, A., Jeyakumar, S., Aggrawal, S.K., Ebihara, M.Sm Nd age and mantle source characteristics of the Dhanjori volcanic rocks, eastern India.Geochemical Journal, Vol. 36, 5, pp. 503-18.IndiaGeochronology, magmatism
DS200512-0915
2004
Aggrawal, S.K.Roy, A., Sarkar, A., Jeyakumar, S., Aggrawal, S.K., Ebihara, M., Satoh, H.Late Archean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian Craton: evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr Nd O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes.Proceedings National Academy of Sciences India , Vol. 113, 4, pp. 649-666. Ingenta 1045680437IndiaMetasomatism, geochemistry
DS200512-0916
2004
Aggrawal, S.K.Roy, A., Sarkar, A., Jeyakumar, S., Aggrawal, S.K., Ebihara, M., Satoh, H.Late Archean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr Nd O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes.Proceedings National Academy of Sciences India , Vol. 113, 4, pp. 649-665.India, AsiaPeridotite, harzburgite, geochronology
DS1990-1073
1990
Aggrey, K.E.Muenow, D.W., Garcia, M.O., Aggrey, K.E., Bednarz, U., SchminckeVolatiles in submarine glasses as a discriminant of tectonic origin:application to the Troodos ophioliteNature, Vol. 343, No. 6254, January 11, pp. 159-161CyprusOphiolite, Tectonic origin
DS201902-0314
2019
Aghajani, H.Roshanravan, B., Aghajani, H., Yousefi, M., Kreuzer, O.An improved prediction-area plot for prospectivity analysis of mineral deposits ( not specific to diamonds).Natural Resources Research, doi.org/10.1007/s11053-018-9439-7 17p.Iranchromite

Abstract: In this paper an improved prediction-area plot has been developed. This type of plot includes performance measures similar to other existing methods (receiver operating characteristics, success-rate curves and ordinary prediction-area plots) and, therefore, offers a reliable method for evaluating the performance of spatial evidence maps and prospectivity models. To demonstrate the reliability of the improved prediction-area plot proposed, we investigated the benefits of augmented targeting criteria through remotely sensed exploration features, compared to only geological map-derived criteria, for mineral prospectivity analysis using as an example the podiform chromite deposits of the Sabzevar Ophiolite Belt, Iran. The application of the newly developed improved prediction-area plot to the prospectivity models generated in this study indicated that the augmented targeting criteria by using remote sensing data perform better than non-updated geological map-derived criteria, and that model effectiveness can be improved by using an integrated approach that entails geologic remote sensing.
DS1980-0004
1980
AgidAgidProspects for Production Cooperation Between India and GhanaA.g.i.d. News, No. 24, JULY, PP. 30-31.India, Ghana, West AfricaDiamond Production
DS200912-0107
2009
Agnard, F.Chardon, D., Capais, D., Agnard, F.Flow of ultra hot orogens: a review from the Precambrian, clues for the Phanerozoic.Tectonophysics, Vol. 477, pp. 105-118.MantleUHP, orogens
DS1996-0008
1996
Agnerian, H.Agnerian, H.Survey of mineral property transactions July 1994- to June 1996Preprint from author, 11pGlobalRange of the values of mineral property transactions, Economics
DS201112-0007
2011
Agnew, J.Agnew, J., Daniels, A.Safe by accident. BooksafeByaccident.com, $ 21.95 USGlobalBook - on safety for mining industry
DS1998-0997
1998
Agnon, A.Meriaux, C., Agnon, A., Lister, J.R.The thermal signature of subducted lithospheric slabs at the core mantleboundary.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 160, No. 3-4, Aug. 1, pp. 551-562.MantleSubduction, Boundary
DS1999-0472
1999
Agnon, A.Meriaux, C., Lister, J.R., Agnon, A.Dike propagation with distributed damage of the host rockEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 165, No. 2, Jan. 30, pp. 177-86.GlobalDike, Tectonics
DS1992-0860
1992
Agoshkov, V.M.Khodyrev, O.Yu., Agoshkov, V.M., Slutskiy, A.B.The system peridotite-aequeous fluid at upper mantle parametersDoklady Academy of Science USSR, Earth Science Section, Vol. 312, No. 1-3, June pp. 255-258MantleModel, Peridotite
DS201902-0289
2018
Agostinetti, N.P.Lamarque, G., Agostinetti, N.P., Julia, J., Evain, M.Joint interpretation of SKS-splitting measurements and receiver function data for detecting seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle: feasibility and limitations.AGU, 1p. abstract Mantlegeophysics -seismic

Abstract: Measuring seismic anisotropy within the Earth is essential as it constitutes a proxy for inferring upper mantle deformation related to mantle flow, that develops preferred orientations of the minerals in response to tectonic strain. The most-used method to detect anisotropy beneath a seismic station is the measurement of teleseismic SKS wave splitting on two horizontal recordings, i.e. measuring the delay time (dt) between two fast- and slow- polarized shear-waves and the orientation of polarization (F). This technique allows a integrative measurement (SKS data, hereinafter) that estimates the average F and dt along the entire SKS ray-path. Despite its importance for large-scale anisotropy within the upper mantle, the analysis of SKS data suffers from several limitations : (1) SKS data become difficult to interpret in regions where several anisotropic layers occur; (2) SKS waves fail to provide robust information about anisotropy related to thin layers; and (3) SKS data can investigate rock volumes with an horizontal symmetry axis only. During the last decade a new method, called harmonic decomposition of teleseismic Receiver Functions (RFs) has been developed in order to detect more complex anisotropic layering. This methodology is based on the extraction of back-azimuth harmonics of the RF dataset. Briefly, it constitutes a tool to appreciate the value of F and dt at every depth-level affording a detailed study of the rock anisotropy with both plunging and horizontal symmetry axis. RFs studies are however commonly limited to the first 10-15s of the signal and do not sample the deepest anisotropy. In this work we investigate in details both SKS data and RFs harmonic decomposition for a pool of stations deployed in northeastern Brasil, in order to understand how results from the analysis of these two observables can be jointly interpreted. We focus our study on the permanent station RCBR and on temporary seismic stations deployed in the area. We show that comparison and/or joint interpretation is not straightforward as both results can vary according to the amount of data available and their distribution in back-azimuth, and filtering. However, tacking into account those issues, the integration of these two observables represent a great step-forward for robust detection of upper mantle anisotropy.
DS200512-1095
2005
Agostini, S.Tonarini, S., Agostini, S., Innocent, F., Manetti, P.d11B as tracer of slab dehydration and mantle evolution in western Anatolia Cenozoic magmatism.Terra Nova, Vol. 17, 3, pp. 259-264.MantleMagmatism - not specific to diamonds
DS201612-2318
2016
Agostini, S.Lustrino, M., Agostini, S., Chalal, Y., Fedele, L., Stagno, V., Colombi, F., Bouguerra, A.Exotic lamproites or normal ultrapotassic rocks? The Late Miocene volcanic rocks from Kef Hahouner, NE Algeria, in the frame of the circum-Mediterranean lamproites.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, in press available 15p.Africa, AlgeriaLamproite

Abstract: The late Miocene (11-9 Ma) volcanic rocks of Kef Hahouner, ~ 40 km NE of Constantine (NE Algeria), are commonly classified as lamproites in literature. However, these rocks are characterized by an anhydrous paragenesis with plagioclase and Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts, set in a groundmass made up of feldspars, pyroxenes and opaque minerals. Thus, we classify the Kef Hahouner rocks as ultrapotassic shoshonites and latites, having K2O > 3 wt.%, K2O/Na2O > 2.5, MgO > 3-4 wt.%, SiO2 < 55-57 wt.% and SiO2/K2O < 15. All the investigated samples show primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns typical of orogenic (arc-type) magmas, i.e. enriched in LILE (e.g. Cs, Rb and Ba) and LREE (e.g. La/Yb = 37-59) with respect to the HFSE, peaks at Pb and troughs at Nb and Ta. Initial isotopic ratios are in the range of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70874-0.70961, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51222-0.51223, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.54-18.60, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.62-15.70 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.88-39.16. The Kef Hahouner volcanic rocks show multi-element patterns similar to the other circum-Mediterranean lamproites and extreme Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions. Nevertheless, the abundant plagioclase, the presence of Al-rich augite coupled with high Al2O3 whole rock compositions (9.6-21.4 wt.%), and the absence of phlogopite are all at inconsistent with the definition of lamproite. We reviewed the rocks classified as lamproites worldwide, and found that many of these rocks, as for the Kef Hahouner samples, should be actually defined as "normal" potassic to ultrapotassic volcanic rocks. Even the grouping of lamproites into "orogenic" and "anorogenic" types appears questionable.
DS201902-0293
2019
Agostini, S.Lustrino, M., Fedele, L., Agostini, S., Prelevic, D., Salari, G.Leucitites within and around the Mediterranean area. Lithos, Vol. 324-325, pp. 216-233.Europeleucitites

Abstract: Leucite-bearing volcanic rocks are commonly found within and around the Mediterranean area. A specific type of this rock group are leucitites. They are found both in a hinterland position of active and fossil subduction systems as well as in foreland tectonic settings, but none have been found in the Maghreb (N Africa) and Mashreq (Middle East) areas. Here a review of the main leucitite occurrences in the circum-Mediterranean area is presented, with new whole-rock, mineral chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios on key districts, with the aim of clarifying the classification and genesis of this rock type. Many of the rocks classified in literature as leucitites do not conform to the IUGS definition of leucitite (i.e., rocks with >10?vol% modal leucite and with foids/(foids + feldspars) ratio?>?0.9, with leucite being the most abundant foid). Among circum-Mediterranean rocks classified as leucitites in the literature, we distinguish two types: clinopyroxene-olivine-phyric (COP) and leucite- phyric (LP) types. Only the second group can be truly classified as leucitite, being characterized by the absence or the very rare presence of feldspars, as well as by ultrapotassic composition. The COP group can be distinguished from the LP group on the basis of lower SiO2, Na2O?+?K2O, K2O/Na2O, Al2O3, Rb and Ba, and higher MgO, TiO2, Nb, Cr and Ni. The LP group shows multi-elemental patterns resembling magmas emplaced in subduction-related settings, while COP rocks are much more variable, showing HIMU-OIB-like to subduction-related-like incompatible element patterns. COP rocks are also characterized generally by more homogeneous isotopic compositions clustering towards low Sr and high Nd isotopic ratios, while LP leucitites plot all in the enriched Sr-Nd isotopic quadrant. LP rocks usually have lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher 207Pb/204Pb. This study shows that the geochemical signal of mantle melts does not always reflect the tectonic setting of magma emplacement, suggesting paying extreme attention in proposing geodynamic reconstructions on the basis of chemical data only.
DS202009-1615
2020
Agostini, S.Cannao, E., Scambelluri, M., Bebout, G.E., Agostini, S., Pettke, T., Godard, M., Crispini, L.Ophicarbonate evolution from seafloor to subduction and implications for deep-Earth C cycling.Chemical Geology, Vol. 546, 119626 29p. PdfMantlecarbon, subduction

Abstract: The chemical and physical processes operating during subduction-zone metamorphism can profoundly influence the cycling of elements on Earth. Deep-Earth carbon (C) cycling and mobility in subduction zones has been of particular recent interest