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Sheahan Diamond Literature Technical Reference Compilation 2020


The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
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Monthly Sheahan Diamond Newsletters for 2020
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April 2020 August 2020 December 2020
2020 Technical Reference Compilation
Posted/
Published
AuthorTitleSourceRegionKeywords
DS202005-0717
2020
Abdel Halim, A.H., Helmy, H.H., Elhaddad, M.A., El-Mahallawi, M., Mogessie, A.Petrology of a Neoproteroxoic mantle peridotite-chromitite association from Abu Dahr area, eastern Egypt Desert, Egypt: infiltration of boninitic melt in highly depleted harzburgite.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 165, 18p. PdfAfrica, EgyptBoninite

Abstract: Peridotites of Abu Dahr represent the main litho-unit of a Neoproterozoic dismembered ophiolite sequence and are among the best-preserved and well-exposed mantle rocks in South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Here, we present new geochemical and mineral chemical data for peridotites and associated pyroxenites and for chromitites and their platinum-group minerals to constrain their petrogenesis and geotectonic setting. The Abu Dahr ophiolite mantle section consists mainly of harzburgites, cut by pyroxenite dykes and containing dunite-chromitite lenses. The harzburgites are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel and minor clinopyroxene (?1.0 vol %) and amphibole. Olivine from harzburgites is highly magnesian (Fo 91-93) and Cr-spinel shows a wide-range of Cr2O3 and Al2O3 contents. The enstatite component of orthopyroxene decreases from harzburgite (En = 90-91) to orthopyroxenite (En = 84-87). Amphiboles are represented by magnesiohornblende and tschermakite. The chromitites are massive to disseminated and composed of magnesiochromite with high Cr# (83-93) and Mg# (66-79), and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt%) content. Solid inclusions in chromite include olivine, orthopyroxene and hornblende. Laurite (RuS2) is the most common PGM detected in the investigated chromitite samples and forms micrometer-size inclusions in fresh chromite. Various Ni-sulfides are found both in fresh chromite and along serpentine veinlets. Harzburgites have a refractory composition with a very low Al2O3 (0.4-0.8 wt%) and CaO (0.2-1.6 wt%) contents and high bulk-rock Mg# (89-92). Geochemical data suggest that the Abu Dahr peridotites are highly depleted SSZ peridotites formed in a forearc mantle wedge setting by high degrees of hydrous partial melting and emplaced as a result of the collision of the intra-oceanic arc with the Beitan gneisses. The podiform chromitites and orthopyroxenites were formed due to impregnation of mantle wedge harzburgites by boninitic melt. The highly depleted nature of the harzburgite is responsible for the small reserves of chromite ore at Abu Dahr and in the South Eastern Desert in general.
DS202007-1120
2020
Abe, N., Surour, A.A., Madani, A.A., Arai, S.Metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from the Cretaceous rift related Natash volcanics and their bearing on the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern part of the eastern desert of Egypt.Lithos, in press available , 47p. PdfAfrica, Asia, Egyptperidotites

Abstract: Highly carbonated mantle xenoliths have been found in rift-related alkaline basalts at the Wadi Natash area in the southern part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Although all olivine and most orthopyroxene was replaced by carbonate and/or quartz, textural and mineral chemical features show that they are plagioclase-free spinel peridotites (lherzolite to harzburgite). Cr and Mg numbers (Cr#, Mg#) of Cr-spinel vary from 0.06 to 0.45 and 0.73 to 0.81, respectively. The correlation between Cr# and Mg# of the Cr-spinel in the studied xenoliths is weakly negative and its TiO2 content is slightly higher than in abyssal peridotite that was not affected by melt injection. The chemistry of ortho- and clinopyroxene suggests enstatite and chromian diopside compositions, respectively, with distinct signatures of a sub-continental mantle source. In particular, the Na2O contents (>1.0?wt%) and AlVI/AlIV ratios (1.2-2.6) of chromian diopside suggest such an origin. Two-pyroxene geothermometry indicates a temperature of about 900?°C, which is slightly lower than that of ordinary spinel peridotite xenoliths from other rift zones. It is evident that the studied peridotite xenoliths had experienced mantle processes (e.g. decompression melting, magma upwelling and metasomatism) at higher pressure than abyssal peridotites. The trace-element chemistry of clinopyroxene, e.g. high LREE/HREE ratios {(Ce/Yb)n?=?7}, high LREE contents (>3.6?ppm and up to 30.0?ppm Ce) and high Sr between >85.6?ppm and 466?ppm, indicates metasomatic alteration of the peridotite. Clinopyroxene in one sample has very low Ti/Eu and high LREE/HREE ratios. Clinopyroxene with (Ce/Yb)n higher than 3-4 and Ti/Eu ratio lower than 1500 may have experienced carbonatite or carbonate-rich melt metasomatism prior to their incorporation into the host basalt. The basalt itself is almost devoid of any carbonatization and hence the studied mantle peridotites were carbonatized before the generation of the basaltic magma but following an earlier event of K-metasomatism as indicated by the presence of phlogopite. The studied peridotites from the Wadi Natash area were altered by a carbonate-rich melt during a rifting stage. The results of the present paper indicate that the Natash basalts with their peridotite xenoliths extruded along transversal fractures of the NW-trending Nuqra-Kom Ombo-Kharit continental rift on its western shoulder in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt.
DS202003-0329
2020
Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K.A genetic study of olivine crystallization in the Mark kimberlite ( Canada) revealed by zoning and melt inclusions.Lithos, In press available 46p. pdf.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Elucidating the composition of primary kimberlite melts is essential to understanding the nature of their source, petrogenesis, rheology, transport and ultimately the origin of diamonds. Kimberlite rocks are typically comprised of abundant olivine (~2560 vol%), which occurs as individual grains of variable size and morphology, and includes xenocrysts and zoned phenocrysts. Zoning patterns and inclusions in olivine can be used to decipher the petrogenetic history of kimberlites, starting from their generation in the mantle through to emplacement in the crust. This study examines well-preserved, euhedral, zoned olivine crystals from the Mark kimberlite (Lac de Gras, Canada). Olivine typically consists of xenocrystic cores, which are homogeneous in composition but vary widely between grains (Fo88.193.6). These cores are in turn surrounded by (in order of crystallisation) magmatic rims and Mg-rich rinds (Fo95.398.1). In addition, we document a new type of olivine zone (‘outmost rind’) that overgrows Mg-rich rinds. Crystal and melt/fluid inclusions are abundant in olivine and preserve a record of kimberlite melt evolution. For the first time in the studies of kimberlite olivine, we report primary melt inclusions hosted in Mg-rich olivine rinds. In addition, we observe that pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions are restricted to interior olivine zones (cores, rims) and are considered to have formed prior to rind formation. Pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions are inferred to have been entrapped at depth, as evidenced by measured densities in thermometric experiments of CO2 and decrepitation haloes, indicating a minimum entrapment pressure of ~200450 MPa (or ~615 km). Both primary and pseudosecondary melt inclusions in olivine have daughter minerals dominated by CaMg and K-Na-Ba-Sr-bearing carbonates, K-Na-chlorides along with subordinate silicates (e.g., phlogopite, monticellite), Fe-Mg-Al-Ti-spinel, perovskite, phosphates and sulphates/sulphides and periclase. In addition to phases reported in primary melt inclusions, pseudosecondary melt inclusions contain more diverse and exotic daughter mineral assemblages, where they contain phases such as tetraferriphlogopite Ba- or K-sulphates, kalsilite and Na-phosphates. The daughter mineral assemblages are consistent with a silica-poor, alkali dolomitic carbonatite melt. We demonstrate that the different types of inclusions in olivine can assist in constraining the timing of multi-stage olivine growth and the composition of the crystallising melt. The large variance in olivine zoning patterns, morphologies and Ni distribution (i.e. both coupling with and decoupling from Fo) indicates that olivine in the studied Mark kimberlite samples represent an accumulation of olivine, where olivine was derived from successive stages of the ascending magma and/or from multiple, but related pulses of magma. Primary and pseudosecondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine indicate that a variably differentiated silica-poor, halogen-bearing, alkali-dolomitic melt crystallised and transported olivine in the Mark kimberlite.
DS202008-1365
2020
Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Fedortchouk, Y., Ehrig, K., Kamenetsky, M.Evolution of kimberlite magmas in the crust: a case study of groundmass and mineral hosted inclusions in the Mark kimberlite ( Lac de Gras, Canada).Lithos, in press available, 55p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Mark

Abstract: Kimberlites are the surface manifestation of deeply-derived (>150 km) and rapidly ascended magmas. Fresh kimberlite rocks are exceptionally rare, as most of them are invariably modified by pervasive deuteric and/or post-magmatic fluids that overprint the original mineralogy. In this study, we examined fresh archetypal kimberlite from the Mark pipe (Lac de Gras, Canada), which is characterised by well-preserved olivine and groundmass minerals. The sequence of crystallisation of the parental melt and its major compositional features, including oxygen fugacity, were reconstructed using textural relationships between magmatic minerals, their zoning patterns and crystal/melt/fluid inclusions. Crystal and multiphase primary, pseudosecondary and secondary melt/fluid inclusions in olivine, Cr-diopside, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite/kinoshitalite, apatite and calcite preserve a record of different stages of kimberlite melt evolution. Melt/fluid inclusions are generally more depleted in silica and more enriched in alkalis (K, Na), alkali-earth (Ba, Sr) and halogens (Cl, F) relative to the whole-rock composition of the Mark kimberlite. These melt/fluid inclusion compositions, in combination with presence of elevated CaO (up to 1.73 wt%), in Mg-rich olivine rinds, crystallisation of groundmass kinoshitalite, carbonates (calcite, Sr-Ba-bearing) and alkali-enriched rims around apatite suggest that there was progressive enrichment in CO2, alkalis and halogens in the evolving parental melt. The Mark kimberlite groundmass is characterised by the following stages of in-situ crystallisation: (1) olivine rims around xenocrystic cores + Cr-spinel/TIMAC. (2) Mg-rich olivine rinds around olivine rims/cores + MUM-spinel (followed by pleonaste and Mg-magnetite) + monticellite (+ partial resorption of olivine, along with the formation of ferropericlase and CO2 as a result of decarbonation reactions) + perovskite + apatite. (3) Olivine outmost rinds, which are coeval with phlogopite/kinoshitalite + apatite + sulphides + carbonate (calcite, Ba-Sr-Na-bearing varieties). In addition, oxygen fugacity of the Mark kimberlite was constrained by olivine-chromite, perovskite and monticellite oxygen barometry and showed that the parental melt became progressively more oxidised in response to fractional crystallisation. (4) Deuteric (i.e. late-stage magmatic) and/or post-magmatic (i.e. external fluids) alteration of magmatic minerals (e.g., olivine, monticellite, ferropericlase) and crystallisation of mesostasis serpentine, K-bearing chlorite and brucite (i.e. replacement of ferropericlase). The absence of any alkali (Na, K) and halogen (F, Cl) rich groundmass minerals in the Mark kimberlite may be attributed to these elements becoming concentrated in the late-stage melt where they potentially formed unstable, water-soluble carbonates (such as those observed in melt inclusions). Consequently, these minerals were most likely removed from the groundmass by deuteric and/or post-magmatic alteration.
DS202007-1121
2020
Abramov, S.S., Rass, I.T., Kononkova, N.N.Fenites of the Miaskite carbonatite complex in the Vishnevye Mountains, southern Urals, Russia: origin of the metasomatic zoning and thermodynamic simulations of the processes.Petrology, Vol. 28, 3, pp. 298-323. pdfRussia, Uralscarbonatite

Abstract: Mineral zoning in fenites around miaskite intrusions of the Vishnevye Mountains complex can be interpreted as a magmatic-replacement zonal metasomatic aureole (in D.S. Korzhinskii’s understanding): the metasomatic transformations of the fenitized gneisses under the effect of deep alkaline fluid eventually resulted in the derivation of nepheline syenite eutectic melt. Based on the P-T-fO2 parameters calculated from the composition of minerals coexisting in the successive zones, isobaric-isothermal fO2-aSiO2 and µNa2O-µAl2O3 sections were constructed with the Perplex program package to model how the fenites interacted with H2O-CO2 fluid (in the Na-K-Al-Si-Ca-Ti-Fe-Mg-O-H-C system). The results indicate that the fluid-rock interaction mechanisms are different in the outer (fenite) and inner (migmatite) parts of the zonal aureole. Its outer portion was dominated by desilication of rocks, which led, first, to quartz disappearance from these rocks and then to an increase in the Al# of the coexisting minerals (biotite and clinopyroxene). In the inner part of the aureole, fenite transformations into biotite-feldspathic metasomatic rocks and nepheline migmatite were triggered by an increase in the Na and Al activities in the system alkaline H2O-CO2 fluid-rock. As a consequence, the metasomatites were progressively enriched in Al2O3 and alkalis, and these transformations led to the development of biotite in equilibrium with K-Na feldspar and calcite at the sacrifice of pyroxene. The further introduction of alkalis led to the melting of the biotite-feldspathic metasomatites and the origin of nepheline migmatites. The simulated model sequence of metasomatic zones that developed when the gneiss was fenitized and geochemical features of the successive zones (differences in the LILE and REE concentrations in the rocks and minerals of the fenitization aureole and the Sm-Nd isotope systematics of the rocks of the alkaline complex) indicate that the source of the fluid responsible for the origin of zonal fenite-miaskite complexes may have been carbonatite, a derivative of mantle magmas, whereas the miaskites were produced by metasomatic transformations of gneisses and subsequent melting under the effect of fluid derived from carbonatite magmas.
DS202005-0718
2020
Afanasiev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Egorova, E.O., Lindenblot, E.S.The most ancient diamond crystals of the Siberian platform. Lamproites Morgogor Creek .. Ebelyakh River.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 489, 2, pp. 1409-1412. pdf Russia, Siberiadiamond alluvials

Abstract: Based on a study of diamond grains from placers of the northeastern Siberian Platform, it is shown that certain types of diamonds (rounded dodecahedroids, diamonds of the II and V?VII varieties, according to the classification by Yu.L. Orlov) could have originated from Precambrian sources. “Ancient” diamonds also differ in terms of their sedimentological history: those of varieties V?VII, despite the maximum abrasion resistance, have the maximum degree of rounding, reflecting their more long-term sedimentological history, and, therefore, their ore bodies were likely the most ancient.
DS202006-0908
2020
Afanasiev, V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P., Grinenko, V.S., Kostin, A.V., Malkovets, V.G., Oleinikov, O.B.Kimberlitic magmatism in the south western flank of the Vilui basin. ( pyrope from Kenkeme River catchment) Jurassic-Cretaceous barren kimberlites.Doklady Earth Science, Vol. 490, 2, pp. 51-54.Russiageochronology

Abstract: We have analyzed 141 grains of pyrope from Neogene sediments in a quarry of construction materials, in the Kenkeme River catchment, along its left-side tributary (Chakiya River), about 60 km northwest of Yakutsk city. The mineral chemistry patterns of pyropes are typical of Jurassic-Cretaceous barren kimberlites, like the pipes of Obnazhennaya or Muza, but are uncommon to diamondiferous Middle Paleozoic kimberlites. The results allow identifying the magmatic event and placing time constraints on kimberlite magmatism in the southeastern flank of the Vilui basin, which was part of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous tectonic-magmatic event in northeastern Asia.
DS202005-0719
2020
Agashev, A.M., Chervyakovskaya, M.V., Serov, I.V., Tolstov, A.V., Agasheva, E.V., Votyakov, S.L.Source rejuvenation vs. re-heating: constraints on Siberian kimberlite origin from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope compositions and geochemistry of mantle zircons. ( Silurian, Devonian, Triassic, Jurassic)Lithos, Vol. 364-365, 10p. PdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Druzhba, Choumurdakh

Abstract: We have studied a suite of mantle zircons from several differently aged pipes of the Siberian kimberlite province via UPb and LuHf isotope analyses and trace element compositions. The UPb ages we obtained confirmed four main episodes (Silurian, Devonian, Triassic and Jurassic) of kimberlite activity on the Siberian craton. The Druzhba pipe had two populations of zircons dating from the Silurian and Devonian, respectively. The geochemical features of our suite of mantle zircons show low concentrations of U, Th and heavy rare earth elements (REEs), positive Ce anomalies, and weak or absent Eu anomalies, which is in accord with the mantle-derived nature of the zircon. Despite having broadly similar geochemistry, zircons from differently aged kimberlites had some clear differences arising from variations in the composition of the protokimberlite metasomatic melt and from peculiarities of fractional crystallization. The Th/U ratios were highest in the Silurian zircons and sharply decreased toward the Devonian. The Triassic zircons had elevated and highly variable Ce/Nb ratios with low and nearly constant Th/U ratios. Zircons from Siberian kimberlites with different UPb ages showed systematic variations in their initial Hf isotope compositions. The oldest Silurian kimberlite field, Chomurdakh, had two zircon populations: Silurian zircons, with ?Hft values in the range of +2.8 to +5.9 units, and Devonian zircons, with ?Hft values in the range of +1.6 to +2.0 units. Zircons from the Devonian field kimberlites were in the range of +5.6 to +9.6 ?Hft units. The Triassic kimberlitic zircons had the most juvenile Hf isotope composition, at +9.3 to +11.2 ?Hft units, while the Jurassic zircons had +6.9 ?Hft units. The combination of the UPb and LuHf isotope data suggests a periodic rejuvenation of the lithospheric mantle roots by low-volume melts from the asthenospheric mantle, resulting shortly after in kimberlite emplacements. Some Devonian and Jurassic kimberlites may have been melted by re-heating the Silurian and Triassic age sources, respectively, about 60 Myr after they were formed.
DS202007-1122
2020
Amsellem, E., Moynier, F., Betrand, H., Bouyon, A., Mata, J., Tappe, S., Day, J.M.D.Calcium isotopic evidence for the mantle source of carbonatites.Science Adavances, Vol. 6, 63 eaba3269 6p. PdfMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: The origin of carbonatites—igneous rocks with more than 50% of carbonate minerals—and whether they originate from a primary mantle source or from recycling of surface materials are still debated. Calcium isotopes have the potential to resolve the origin of carbonatites, since marine carbonates are enriched in the lighter isotopes of Ca compared to the mantle. Here, we report the Ca isotopic compositions for 74 carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from continental and oceanic settings, spanning from 3 billion years ago to the present day, together with O and C isotopic ratios for 37 samples. Calcium-, Mg-, and Fe-rich carbonatites have isotopically lighter Ca than mantle-derived rocks such as basalts and fall within the range of isotopically light Ca from ancient marine carbonates. This signature reflects the composition of the source, which is isotopically light and is consistent with recycling of surface carbonate materials into the mantle.
DS202007-1123
2020
Anzolini, C., Siva-Jothy, W., Locock, A.J., Nestola, F., Balic-Zunic, T., Alvaro, M., Stachel, T., Pearson, D.G.Heamanite-(Ce) (K0.5Ce0.5)Ti03 Mineralogical Magazine reports CNMNC Newsletter , No. 55, Vol. 84, https://doi.org/ 10.1180/mgm. 2020.39Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Gahcho Kue
DS202008-1366
2020
Artyushkov, E.V., Kolka, V.V., Chekhovich, P.A.The occurrence of lower viscosity layer in the crust of old cratons as a cause of the strongly differentiated character of postglacial uplift.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 492, pp. 351-355.Europe, Fennoscandia, Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Canadacraton

Abstract: Rapid glacio-isostatic rebound in Fennoscandia and Canada that is nonuniform in time and space indicates that there is a layer with strongly decreased viscosity at shallow crustal depths. The upper boundary of the layer is near the depth of 15 km, which corresponds to the maximum depth of earthquake hypocenters in the Precambrian cratons of the Kola Peninsula and Karelia. The position of the lower boundary is less distinct; however, most likely it is located near the base of the crust. The formation of such a layer in the Pliocene-Quaternary occurred due to infiltration of a large volume of mantle fluids into the crust. In many regions, this has led to retrograde metamorphism with rock expansion and a strong decrease in rocks viscosity.
DS202007-1124
2020
Ashchepkov, I.V., Vladykin, N.V., Kalashnyk, H.A., Medvedev, N.S., Saprykin, A.I., Downes, H., Khmelnikova, O.S.Incompatible element enriched mantle lithosphere beneath kimberlitic pipes in Priazovie Ukrainian shield: volatile enriched focused melt flow and connection to mature crust?International Geology Review, in press available 24p. PdfEurope, Ukrainedeposit - Priazovie

Abstract: Major, minor and trace element compositions of mantle xenocrysts from Devonian kimberlite pipes in the Priazovie give an insight into the mantle structure beneath the SE Ukranian Shield and its evolution. Garnets yield low temperature conditions as determined by monomineral thermobarometry. The mantle lithosphere is sharply divided at 4.2 GPa, marked by a high temperature Cpx-Ilm-Phl trend, eclogites and changes in pyrope geochemistry. Seven layers are detected: Ist layer at 2.5-1 GPa is enriched mantle (Fe#Ol ~ 0.11 - 0.14) with Gar- pyroxenites and Sp peridotites; IInd at 2.5-3.2 GPa - Gar-Sp (Fe#Ol 0.08 - 0.10) peridotite. IIId at 4.3-3.2 GPa is formed of Archaean- Proterozoic peridotites with Fe#Ol ~0.07 - 0.095. IVth at 3.2-5 GPa- contains pyroxenitic Gar with higher Ca, eclogites, Chr and Cpx (Fe#Ol ~0.10 - 0.125); Vth at 5.8 - 5 GPa is marked by sub-Ca garnets, Cr-rich chromites and Mg-Cr ilmenites; VIth layer at 5.8-6.8 GPa contains Fe-enriched pyropes, almandines and Cr-Mg ilmenites near the lithosphere base; VIIth layer > 6.8 GPa consists of ‘hot’ Fe-rich garnets. Garnets show increasing enrichment in LREE, LILE, Hf, Zr with decreasing pressure. Primitive garnets have round REE patterns; depleted ones have S-type patterns inflected at Nd. Garnets from 6.5 to 3 GPa show increasing La/Ybn, Zr-Hf, LILE. Peridotitic clinopyroxenes have inclined linear trace element patterns rounded from La to Pr with high LILE and HFSE levels. The Fe-rich group (reacted with eclogites) shows bell-shaped irregular patterns with LILE close to the LREE levels. A possible reason for LILE (HFSE and) enrichment of the upper part of the mantle is subduction metasomatsm in Archaean times (with participation of mature continental sediments) activated by plumes at 1.8 Ga and earlier which produced pervasive focused melt flow with remelting of mica-amphibole metasomatites giving continuous REE and LILE enrichment in mantle lithologies from 5.8 to 2.5 GPa.
DS202004-0497
2020
Ashfold, M.N.R., Goss, J.P., Green, B., May, P.W., Newton, M.E., Peaker, C.V.Nitrogen in diamond.Chemical Reviews, Vol. 120, 4, 10.1021/ acs.chemrev.9b00578 50p. PdfGlobalHPHT, CVD, synthetics

Abstract: Nitrogen is ubiquitous in both natural and laboratory-grown diamond, but the number and nature of the nitrogen-containing defects can have a profound effect on the diamond material and its properties. An ever-growing fraction of the supply of diamond appearing on the world market is now lab-grown. Here, we survey recent progress in two complementary diamond synthesis methods: high pressure high temperature (HPHT) growth and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), how each is allowing ever more precise control of nitrogen incorporation in the resulting diamond, and how the diamond produced by either method can be further processed (e.g., by implantation or annealing) to achieve a particular outcome or property. The burgeoning availability of diamond samples grown under well-defined conditions has also enabled huge advances in the characterization and understanding of nitrogen-containing defects in diamond alone and in association with vacancies, hydrogen, and transition metal atoms. Among these, the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) defect in diamond is attracting particular current interest in account of the many new and exciting opportunities it offers for, for example, quantum technologies, nanoscale magnetometry, and biosensing.
DS202001-0001
2019
Ashwal, L.D.Wandering continents of the Indian ocean.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 122, 4, pp. 397-420.IndiaGondwana

Abstract: On the last page of his 1937 book "Our Wandering Continents" Alex Du Toit advised the geological community to develop the field of "comparative geology", which he defined as "the study of continental fragments". This is precisely the theme of this paper, which outlines my research activities for the past 28 years, on the continental fragments of the Indian Ocean. In the early 1990s, my colleagues and I were working in Madagascar, and we recognized the need to appreciate the excellent geological mapping (pioneered in the 1950s by Henri Besairie) in a more modern geodynamic context, by applying new ideas and analytical techniques, to a large and understudied piece of continental crust. One result of this work was the identification of a 700 to 800 Ma belt of plutons and volcanic equivalents, about 450 km long, which we suggested might represent an Andean-type arc, produced by Neoproterozoic subduction. We wondered if similar examples of this magmatic belt might be present elsewhere, and we began working in the Seychelles, where late Precambrian granites are exposed on about 40 of the >100 islands in the archipelago. Based on our new petrological, geochemical and geochronological measurements, we built a case that these ~750 Ma rocks also represent an Andean-type arc, coeval with and equivalent to the one present in Madagascar. By using similar types of approaches, we tracked this arc even further, into the Malani Igneous Province of Rajasthan, in northwest India. Our paleomagnetic data place these three entities adjacent to each other at ~750 Ma, and were positioned at the margins, rather than in the central parts of the Rodinia supercontinent, further supporting their formation in a subduction-related continental arc. A widespread view is that in the Neoproterozoic, Rodinia began to break apart, and the more familiar Gondwana supercontinent was assembled by Pan-African (~500 to 600 Ma) continental collisions, marked by the highly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the East African Orogen. It was my mentor, Kevin Burke, who suggested that the present-day locations of Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites (called "ARCs") and their Deformed equivalents (called "DARCs"), might mark the outlines of two well-defined parts of the Wilson cycle. We can be confident that ARCs formed originally in intracontinental rift settings, and we postulated that DARCs represent suture zones, where vanished oceans have closed. We also found that the isotopic record of these events can be preserved in DARC minerals. In a nepheline syenite gneiss from Malawi, the U-Pb age of zircons is 730 Ma (marking the rifting of Rodinia), and that of monazites is 522 Ma (marking the collisional construction of Gondwana). A general outline of how and when Gondwana broke apart into the current configuration of continental entities, starting at about 165 Ma, has been known for some time, because this record is preserved in the magnetic properties of ocean-floor basalts, which can be precisely dated. A current topic of active research is the role that deep mantle plumes may have played in initiating, or assisting, continental fragmentation. I am part of a group of colleagues and students who are applying complementary datasets to understand how the Karoo (182 Ma), Etendeka (132 Ma), Marion (90 Ma) and Réunion (65 Ma) plumes influenced the break-up of Gondwana and the development of the Indian Ocean. Shortly after the impingement of the Karoo plume at 182 Ma, Gondwana fragmentation began as Madagascar + India + Antarctica separated from Africa, and drifted southward. Only after 90 Ma, when Madagascar was blanketed by lavas of the Marion plume, did India begin to rift, and rapidly drifted northward, assisted by the Marion and Deccan (65 Ma) plumes, eventually colliding with Asia to produce the Himalayas. It is interesting that a record of these plate kinematics is preserved in the large Permian - Eocene sedimentary basins of western Madagascar: transtensional pull-apart structures are dextral in Jurassic rocks (recording initial southward drift with respect to Africa), but change to sinistral in the Eocene, recording India’s northward drift. Our latest work has begun to reveal that small continental fragments are present in unexpected places. In the young (max. 9 Ma) plume-related, volcanic island of Mauritius, we found Precambrian zircons with ages between 660 and 3000 Ma, in beach sands and trachytic lavas. This can only mean that a fragment of ancient continent must exist beneath the young volcanoes there, and that the old zircons were picked up by ascending magmas on their way to surface eruption sites. We speculate, based on gravity inversion modelling, that continental fragments may also be present beneath the Nazareth, Saya de Malha and Chagos Banks, as well as the Maldives and Laccadives. These were once joined together in a microcontinent we called “Mauritia”, and became scattered across the Indian Ocean during Gondwana break-up, probably by mid-ocean ridge “jumps”. This work, widely reported in international news media, allows a more refined reconstruction of Gondwana, suggests that continental break-up is far more complex than previously perceived, and has important implications for regional geological correlations and exploration models. Our results, as interesting as they may be, are merely follow-ups that build upon the prescient and pioneering ideas of Alex Du Toit, whose legacy I appreciatively acknowledge.
DS202004-0498
2019
Ashwal, L.D.Wandering continents of the Indian Ocean. DARC's.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 122, 4, pp. 397-420.Indiaalkaline, carbonatites

Abstract: On the last page of his 1937 book “Our Wandering Continents” Alex Du Toit advised the geological community to develop the field of “comparative geology”, which he defined as “the study of continental fragments”. This is precisely the theme of this paper, which outlines my research activities for the past 28 years, on the continental fragments of the Indian Ocean. In the early 1990s, my colleagues and I were working in Madagascar, and we recognized the need to appreciate the excellent geological mapping (pioneered in the 1950s by Henri Besairie) in a more modern geodynamic context, by applying new ideas and analytical techniques, to a large and understudied piece of continental crust. One result of this work was the identification of a 700 to 800 Ma belt of plutons and volcanic equivalents, about 450 km long, which we suggested might represent an Andean-type arc, produced by Neoproterozoic subduction. We wondered if similar examples of this magmatic belt might be present elsewhere, and we began working in the Seychelles, where late Precambrian granites are exposed on about 40 of the >100 islands in the archipelago. Based on our new petrological, geochemical and geochronological measurements, we built a case that these ~750 Ma rocks also represent an Andean-type arc, coeval with and equivalent to the one present in Madagascar. By using similar types of approaches, we tracked this arc even further, into the Malani Igneous Province of Rajasthan, in northwest India. Our paleomagnetic data place these three entities adjacent to each other at ~750 Ma, and were positioned at the margins, rather than in the central parts of the Rodinia supercontinent, further supporting their formation in a subduction-related continental arc. A widespread view is that in the Neoproterozoic, Rodinia began to break apart, and the more familiar Gondwana supercontinent was assembled by Pan-African (~500 to 600 Ma) continental collisions, marked by the highly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the East African Orogen. It was my mentor, Kevin Burke, who suggested that the present-day locations of Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites (called “ARCs”) and their Deformed equivalents (called “DARCs”), might mark the outlines of two well-defined parts of the Wilson cycle. We can be confident that ARCs formed originally in intracontinental rift settings, and we postulated that DARCs represent suture zones, where vanished oceans have closed. We also found that the isotopic record of these events can be preserved in DARC minerals. In a nepheline syenite gneiss from Malawi, the U-Pb age of zircons is 730 Ma (marking the rifting of Rodinia), and that of monazites is 522 Ma (marking the collisional construction of Gondwana). A general outline of how and when Gondwana broke apart into the current configuration of continental entities, starting at about 165 Ma, has been known for some time, because this record is preserved in the magnetic properties of ocean-floor basalts, which can be precisely dated. A current topic of active research is the role that deep mantle plumes may have played in initiating, or assisting, continental fragmentation. I am part of a group of colleagues and students who are applying complementary datasets to understand how the Karoo (182 Ma), Etendeka (132 Ma), Marion (90 Ma) and Réunion (65 Ma) plumes influenced the break-up of Gondwana and the development of the Indian Ocean. Shortly after the impingement of the Karoo plume at 182 Ma, Gondwana fragmentation began as Madagascar + India + Antarctica separated from Africa, and drifted southward. Only after 90 Ma, when Madagascar was blanketed by lavas of the Marion plume, did India begin to rift, and rapidly drifted northward, assisted by the Marion and Deccan (65 Ma) plumes, eventually colliding with Asia to produce the Himalayas. It is interesting that a record of these plate kinematics is preserved in the large Permian - Eocene sedimentary basins of western Madagascar: transtensional pull-apart structures are dextral in Jurassic rocks (recording initial southward drift with respect to Africa), but change to sinistral in the Eocene, recording India’s northward drift. Our latest work has begun to reveal that small continental fragments are present in unexpected places. In the young (max. 9 Ma) plume-related, volcanic island of Mauritius, we found Precambrian zircons with ages between 660 and 3000 Ma, in beach sands and trachytic lavas. This can only mean that a fragment of ancient continent must exist beneath the young volcanoes there, and that the old zircons were picked up by ascending magmas on their way to surface eruption sites. We speculate, based on gravity inversion modelling, that continental fragments may also be present beneath the Nazareth, Saya de Malha and Chagos Banks, as well as the Maldives and Laccadives. These were once joined together in a microcontinent we called "Mauritia", and became scattered across the Indian Ocean during Gondwana break-up, probably by mid-ocean ridge "jumps". This work, widely reported in international news media, allows a more refined reconstruction of Gondwana, suggests that continental break-up is far more complex than previously perceived, and has important implications for regional geological correlations and exploration models. Our results, as interesting as they may be, are merely follow-ups that build upon the prescient and pioneering ideas of Alex Du Toit, whose legacy I appreciatively acknowledge.
DS202008-1367
2020
Aulbach, S.Temperature dependent rutile solubility in garnet and clinopyroxene from mantle eclogite: implications for continental crust formation and V-based oxybarometry. ( kimberlite)Journal of Petrology, , https://doi.org/10. 1093/petrology/egaa065Mantleoxygen fugacity

Abstract: Despite its accessory mineral status in metabasaltic rocks, rutile controls the whole-rock Ti, Nb and Ta budget. These are key elements used to trace fluid- and melt-mediated mass transfer across the mantle-crust boundary. Rutile also contains significant amounts of the redox-sensitive element V, which is increasingly used to estimate oxygen fugacity. Kimberlite-borne mantle eclogite xenoliths, which are frequently rutile-bearing, have been interpreted as residues from the extraction of silicic partial melt similar in composition to the average continental crust. Published mineral compositions for eclogite xenoliths from various cratons combined with geothermobarometrical calculations show that TiO2 contents in garnet and clinopyroxene increase with increasing temperature of last residence in the lithospheric mantle, while apparent clinopyroxene-garnet distribution coefficients decrease. This implies that (1) increasing TiO2 contents in eclogitic garnet or clinopyroxene are not a signature of increasing metasomatism with depth, (2) whole-rock eclogites reconstructed without rutile will increasingly underestimate TiO2, Nb and Ta contents with decreasing temperature, and (3) low-temperature eclogites are more likely to contain free rutile. Only about a third of the ~250 samples considered here would have whole-rock TiO2 contents (reconstructed with calculated rutile modes) required for rutile saturation during subduction and partial melting. If there is a role for subducting oceanic crust now sampled as mantle eclogite, the characteristic Ti-Nb-Ta depletion in continental crust may require fluid-dominated processes, where these elements are not efficiently mobilised.
DS202004-0499
2020
Aulbach, S., Masuyeau, M., Gerdes, A., Garber, J.M.Ultramafic carbonated melt- and-auto -metasomatism in mantle eclogites: compositional effects and geophysical consequences.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, in press available, 41p. PdfMantleeclogites
DS202006-0909
2020
Aulbach, S., Symes, C., Chacko, T.Elemental and radiogenic isotope perspective on formation and transformation of cratonic lower crust: Central Slave craton ( Canada).Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 278, pp. 78-83.Canada, Northwest Territorieskimberlites

Abstract: Kimberlite-borne granulite xenoliths provide rare insights into the age, chemical composition and tectonothermal evolution of the otherwise largely inaccessible deep cratonic crust. The formation and transformation of the lower continental crust (LCC) beneath the central Slave craton (Canada) is here illuminated using whole-rock trace-element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of nine metabasaltic (MBG), one gabbroic (MGG) and two metasedimentary/hybrid (MSG) granulite xenoliths. On the one hand, published sulphide Re-Os and a few zircon U-Pb data indicate that at least a portion of the LCC beneath the central Slave craton has a Palaeoarchaean origin (~3.3?Ga), which apparently coincides with a period of juvenile crust and deep lithospheric mantle formation during plume impingement beneath the pre-existing cratonic nucleus. On the other hand, enrichment in Li, Sr, LREE, Pb and Th, but relative depletion in Ti, Hf and HREE, suggest formation of (picro)basaltic protoliths by partial melting of a subduction-modified garnet-bearing source, Crystallisation in the crust after fractionation of plagioclase is inidicated by their Sr and Eu negative anomalies, which are complementary to the positive anomalies in the MGG. Samarium-Nd isotopes in MBG and MGG show large scatter, but fall on Neo- or Mesoarchaean age arrays. These elemental systematics are suggested to fingerprint deserpentinisation fluids plus small amounts of sedimentary melt as the main contaminants of the mantle source, supporting the operation of at least regional and transient subduction at 3.3?Ga. Evidence for quasi-coeval plume impingement and subduction beneath the central Slave craton in the Mesoarchaean is reconcilable in a dynamic regime where vertical tectonics, though waning, was still active and plate interactions became increasingly important. Unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (down to 0.7017) is consistent with significant loss of Rb and probably other heat-producing elements (K, Th, U) plus H2O during Neoarchaean metamorphism, which helped to enhance LCC viscosity and stabilise the cratonic lithosphere.
DS202006-0910
2020
Aulbach, S., Viljoen, K.S., Gerdes, A.Diamondiferous and barren eclogites and pyroxenites from the western Kaapvaal craton record subduction processes and mantle metasomatism respectively.Lithos, in press available 52p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Doomkloof-Sover

Abstract: Mineral major and trace elements combined with Sr isotopes of clinopyroxene are used to unravel the origins and evolution of mantle eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Doornkloof-Sover orangeite dike (western Kaapvaal craton), and to investigate the generation and destruction of diamond in these rocks. Two different eclogite types are present: (1) MgO-poor eclogites (MgO?=?7.3 to 14.5?wt%; n?=?43) with accessory diamond ± corundum and kyanite; garnet grossular content (median Ca#?=?0.25) and clinopyroxene jadeite content (0.39). Reconstructed bulk rocks are LREE-depleted (median La 0.29?ppm) and have low median Cr2O3 (0.06?wt%) and incompatible trace-element contents (e.g. Sr, Zr, Ba, Pb, Th), and high Li and transition metal abundances. Some are characterised by stepped REE patterns or steep slopes in the MREE, similar to eclogites affected by interaction with dehydration fluids generated in subduction zones. These fluids may also have deposited diamond in typically reducing eclogite assemblages at diamond-stable pressures. (2) MgO-rich eclogites and pyroxenites (MgO?=?14.0 to 20.0?wt%; n?=?29), which are barren and enriched in LREE (median La 1.39?ppm), Cr2O3 (0.25?wt%) and incompatible trace elements, with lower Li and transition metal abundances than the MgO-poor group. These are typical signatures of carbonated ultramafic melt metasomatism in the mantle lithosphere. Strontium isotopic compositions vary widely in both groups, but high Cr2O3 and Ba contents are dominantly associated with 87Sr/86Sr?>?0.7055. This reflects interaction with metasomatic agents remobilised from ancient lithospheric metasomes, which eventually gave rise to regional orangeite magmatism. The presence of strong positive Eu anomalies in both groups, including two pyroxenites, requires low-pressure igneous protoliths, presumably derived from a ca. 3?Ga spreading ridge, as reported for other eclogite materials from the western Kaapvaal craton. Based on the proportions of MgO-poor and -rich eclogites and pyroxenites, approximately 40% of the diamond inventory were destroyed by mantle metasomatism centred at ~135?±?15?km depth, overlapping a low-velocity anomaly (mid-lithospheric discontinuity). Two diamondiferous orangeites =20?km from Doornkloof-Sover contain significantly different eclogite xenolith populations: At Newlands, MgO-poor diamondiferous eclogites are present in addition to barren MgO-rich ones and pyroxenite, suggesting that the host orangeite sampled a source region equally affected by diamond-destructive mantle metasomatism, whereas at Bellsbank, all eclogites are MgO-poor and LREE-depleted. This may explain higher diamond grades reported for this locality compared to Newlands or Doornkloof-Sover.
DS202008-1368
2019
Aulbach, S., Woodand, A.B., Stern, R.A., Vasileyev, P., Heaman, L.M., Viljoen, K.S.Evidence for a dominantly reducing Archean ambient mantle from two redox proxies, and low oxygen fugacity of deeply subducted oceanic crust. Nature Research Scientific Reports, Vol. 9:20190 doir.org/10.38 /s41598-019-55743-1, 11p. PdfMantleeclogite

Abstract: Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) is an intensive variable implicated in a range of processes that have shaped the Earth system, but there is controversy on the timing and rate of oxidation of the uppermost convecting mantle to its present ƒO2 around the fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffer. Here, we report Fe3+/SFe and ƒO2 for ancient eclogite xenoliths with oceanic crustal protoliths that sampled the coeval ambient convecting mantle. Using new and published data, we demonstrate that in these eclogites, two redox proxies, V/Sc and Fe3+/SFe, behave sympathetically, despite different responses of their protoliths to differentiation and post-formation degassing, seawater alteration, devolatilisation and partial melting, testifying to an unexpected robustness of Fe3+/SFe. Therefore, these processes, while causing significant scatter, did not completely obliterate the underlying convecting mantle signal. Considering only unmetasomatised samples with non-cumulate and little-differentiated protoliths, V/Sc and Fe3+/SFe in two Archaean eclogite suites are significantly lower than those of modern mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), while a third suite has ratios similar to modern MORB, indicating redox heterogeneity. Another major finding is the predominantly low though variable estimated ƒO2 of eclogite at mantle depths, which does not permit stabilisation of CO2-dominated fluids or pure carbonatite melts. Conversely, low-ƒO2 eclogite may have caused efficient reduction of CO2 in fluids and melts generated in other portions of ancient subducting slabs, consistent with eclogitic diamond formation ages, the disproportionate frequency of eclogitic diamonds relative to the subordinate abundance of eclogite in the mantle lithosphere and the general absence of carbonate in mantle eclogite. This indicates carbon recycling at least to depths of diamond stability and may have represented a significant pathway for carbon ingassing through time.
DS202002-0161
2019
Aulbach, S., Woodland, A.B., Stern, R.A., Vasilyev, P., Heaman, L.M., Viljoen, K.S.Evidence for a dominantly reducing Archaean ambient mantle from two redox proxies, and low oxygen fugacity of deeply subducted oceanic crust.Nature Research Scientific Reports, https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41598-019-55743-1 11p. PdfMantlemelting, redox

Abstract: Privacy Policy. You can manage your preferences in 'Manage Cookies'. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) is an intensive variable implicated in a range of processes that have shaped the Earth system, but there is controversy on the timing and rate of oxidation of the uppermost convecting mantle to its present fO2 around the fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffer. Here, we report Fe3+/SFe and ƒf2 for ancient eclogite xenoliths with oceanic crustal protoliths that sampled the coeval ambient convecting mantle. Using new and published data, we demonstrate that in these eclogites, two redox proxies, V/Sc and Fe3+/SFe, behave sympathetically, despite different responses of their protoliths to differentiation and post-formation degassing, seawater alteration, devolatilisation and partial melting, testifying to an unexpected robustness of Fe3+/SFe. Therefore, these processes, while causing significant scatter, did not completely obliterate the underlying convecting mantle signal. Considering only unmetasomatised samples with non-cumulate and little-differentiated protoliths, V/Sc and Fe3+/SFe in two Archaean eclogite suites are significantly lower than those of modern mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), while a third suite has ratios similar to modern MORB, indicating redox heterogeneity. Another major finding is the predominantly low though variable estimated fO2 of eclogite at mantle depths, which does not permit stabilisation of CO2-dominated fluids or pure carbonatite melts. Conversely, low-fO2 eclogite may have caused efficient reduction of CO2 in fluids and melts generated in other portions of ancient subducting slabs, consistent with eclogitic diamond formation ages, the disproportionate frequency of eclogitic diamonds relative to the subordinate abundance of eclogite in the mantle lithosphere and the general absence of carbonate in mantle eclogite. This indicates carbon recycling at least to depths of diamond stability and may have represented a significant pathway for carbon ingassing through time.
DS202004-0500
2020
Ba, M.H., Ibough, H., Lo, K., Youbi, N., Jaffal, M., Ernst, R.E., Niang, A.J., Dia, I., Abdeina, E.H., Bensalah, M.K., Boumehdi, M.A., Soderlund, U.Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Precambrian mafic dyke swarms in northern Mauritania ( West African Craton): analysis and results fro remote sensing interpretation, geographical information systems ( GIS), Google Earth TM images, and regionaArabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 13, , 209 orchid.org/ 0000-002-3287-9537Africa, Mauritaniacraton

Abstract: We used remote sensing, geographical information systems, Google Earth™ images, and regional geology in order to (i) improve the mapping of linear structures and understand the chronology of different mafic dyke swarms in the Ahmeyim area that belongs to the Archean Tasiast-Tijirit Terrane of the Reguibat Shield, West African craton, NW Mauritania. The spatial and temporal distributions with the trends of the dyke swarms provide important information about geodynamics. The analysis of the mafic dyke swarms map and statistical data allow us to distinguish four mafic dyke swarm sets: a major swarm trending NE-SW to NNE-SSW (80%) and three minor swarms trending EW to ENE-WSW (9.33%), NW-SE to WNW-ESE (9.06%), and NS (1.3%). The major swarms extend over 35 km while the minor swarms do not exceed 13 km. The Google Earth™ images reveal relative ages through crossover relationships. The major NE-SW to NNE-SSW and the minor NS swarms are the oldest generations emplaced in the Ahemyim area. The NW-SE-oriented swarm dykes which are cutting the two former swarms are emplaced later. The minor E-W to WSW-ENE swarms are probably the youngest. A precise U-Pb baddeleyite age of 2733?±?2 Ma has been obtained for the NNE-SSW Ahmeyim Great Dyke. This dyke is approximately 1500 m wide in some zone and extends for more than 150 km. The distinct mafic dyke swarms being identified in this study can potentially be linked with coeval magmatic events on other cratons around the globe to identify reconstructed LIPs and constrain continental reconstructions.
DS202003-0330
2019
Badukhinov, L.D., Spetius, Z.V.. Kislov, E.V., Ivanov, A.S., Monkhorov, R.V.Parageneses of garnet inclusions in diamonds from Yakutia kimberlites based on Raman and IR spectroscopy data. Udachnaya, Zapolyarnaya, Komolskaya, Yuibeyana, Aikhal, Mir, Mayskaya.Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 61, 7, pp. 606-612. pdfRussia, Yakutiadiamond inclusions
DS202001-0002
2019
Ball, P.Black diamonds.Nature Materials, Vol. 18, pp. 1266-1277.Globalnanodiamond
DS202002-0162
2020
Barras, C.New signs of a shielding magnetic field found in Earth's oldest rock crystals ( zircons) Tarduno researcherScience, doi:101126/science.aba9499Mantlegeophysics - magnetics
DS202001-0003
2019
Barron, L.M., Barron, B.J., Sutherland, F.L.Re-appraisal of published nitrogen aggregation results in diamonds from Copeton, New South Wales.Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 67, 1, pp. 151-152.Australia, New South Walesdeposit - Copeton
DS202005-0720
2019
Bateman , M.The Handbook of Luminescence Dating. ...dating techniques, including optically and infrared simulated luminescence and thermoluminescence applications.Whiitles Publishing Dunbeith Scotland ( Reviewed in Geoscience Canada Vol. 46, pp. 195-196., 416p. $ 163.00 GlobalLuminescence

Abstract: Luminescence dating is now widely applied by scientists working in Quaternary geology and archaeology to obtain ages for events as diverse as past earthquakes, desertification and cave occupation sites. Using quartz or feldspar minerals found in almost ubiquitous sand and finer sediments, luminescence can provide ages from over 500,000 years ago to modern. Written by some of the foremost experts in luminescence dating from around the world, this book takes a new approach. It explains what luminescence can and can’t do, what and where to sample, types of measurements available and how to interpret and analyse ages once they are measured. It is accordingly for scientists who require luminescence ages for their research rather than those scientists developing the luminescence technique or making their own luminescence measurements. The background to the technique is explained in simple terms so that the range of potential applications, limits and issues can be understood. The book helps scientists plan where and what to sample to optimise the successful application of luminescence and stemming from that the chronologies that can be constructed. The Handbook sets out the challenges and limitations when applying luminescence dating in different environmental and archaeological settings and gives practical advice on how issues might be avoided in sampling, or mitigated by requesting different laboratory measurement approaches or analysis. Guidance is provided on how luminescence ages can be interpreted and published as well as how they can be used within chronological frameworks. With luminescence dating continuing to develop, information on more experimental approaches is given which may help expand the range of chronological challenges to which luminescence dating can be routinely applied
DS202006-0911
2020
Baudouin, C., France, L., Boulanger, M., Dalou, C., Devidal, J-L.Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and alkaline magmas: parametrization and role of M1 site on HREE enrichment in clinopyroxenes.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 15p. PdfAfrica, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Trace element partitioning between minerals and liquids provides crucial constraints on igneous processes. We quantified trace element concentrations in clinopyroxene (Cpx) phenocrysts and their phonolite melt inclusions from the 2007-08 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), and report Cpx-melt partition coefficients (D) and corresponding partitioning equations for rare earth elements (REE) and high field strength elements (HFSE) in alkaline magmas. Heavy REE (HREE: Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) are enriched relative to middle REE in alkaline Cpx and display a specific partitioning behavior that is characteristic of alkaline systems. HFSE (Ti, Zr, Hf) and HREE have similar D values (DHf?=?0.25; DLu?=?0.4) that are significantly higher than MREE (DSm?=?0.06). High DHREE/DMREE are strongly correlated with the high values of DZr and DHf relative to the low DMREE values. In this study, REE partitioning between phonolite melt and Cpx is not consistent with standard models assuming incorporation of all REE in the Cpx M2 site, but rather highlights HREE substitution in both the M1 and M2 sites. Here we highlight the preferential incorporation of HREE in the VI-coordinated M1 site, whereas light REE and MREE remain mostly distributed in the VIII-coordinated M2 site. REE partitioning is strongly dependent on Cpx chemistry: the ideal ionic radius and HREE incorporation in the M1 site increase with increasing Fe3+ content and decrease with increasing Mg2+ and AlVI content. In our study, we focus on alkaline evolved magmas, and update existing models to obtain adequate DHREE for alkaline evolved melts. We provide equations to quantify REE and HFSE partitioning, and HREE enrichment in Cpx that are based on Cpx major element composition and temperature. We propose a new model based on the lattice strain approach that predicts HREE partitioning between Cpx and alkaline magmas. The knowledge of the melt composition or of the trace element contents is not required to obtain DREE from the new model. An improved parameterization of HFSE partitioning between Cpx and phonolite and trachy-phonolite melts is also provided herein. We discuss the potential implications of the new data on our understanding of REE deposits that are commonly associated with igneous alkaline complexes.
DS202005-0721
2020
Bauer, A.M., Reimink, J.R., Chacko, T., Foley, B.J., Shirey, S.B., Pearson, D.G.Hafnium isotopes in zircons document the gradual onset of mobile-lid tectonics. ( Pilbara, Zimbabwe, Slave, Singhbhum, Rae, Wyoming, Jack HillsGeochemical Perspectives Letters, Vol. 14, pp. 1-6.GlobalTectonics

Abstract: The tectonic regime of the early Earth has proven enigmatic due to a scarcity of preserved continental crust, yet how early continents were generated is key to deciphering Earth’s evolution. Here we show that a compilation of data from 4.3 to 3.4 Ga igneous and detrital zircons records a secular shift to higher 176Hf/177Hf after ~3.8-3.6 Ga. This globally evident shift indicates that continental crust formation before ~3.8-3.6 Ga largely occurred by internal reworking of long-lived mafic protocrust, whereas later continental crust formation involved extensive input of relatively juvenile magmas, which were produced from rapid remelting of oceanic lithosphere. We propose that this secular shift in the global hafnium isotope record reflects a gradual yet widespread transition from stagnant-lid to mobile-lid tectonics on the early Earth.
DS202004-0501
2020
BBC NewsDiamond samples in Canada reveal size of lost continent. Chidliak and UBC Kopylovabbc.com, March 20, 1/2p.Canada, Baffin Islandcraton
DS202002-0163
2019
Beard, C.D., van Hinsberg, V.J., Stix, J., Wilke, M.Clinopyroxene melt trace element partitioning in sodic alkaline magmas.Journal of Petrology, in press available 92p. PdfEurope, Canary IslandsREE

Abstract: Clinopyroxene is a key fractionating phase in alkaline magmatic systems, but its impact on metal enrichment processes, and the formation of REE + HFSE mineralisation in particular, is not well understood. To constrain the control of clinopyroxene on REE + HFSE behaviour in sodic (per)alkaline magmas, a series of internally heated pressure vessel experiments was performed to determine clinopyroxene-melt element partitioning systematics. Synthetic tephriphonolite to phonolite compositions were run H2O-saturated at 200?MPa, 650-825?C with oxygen fugacity buffered to log f O2 ˜ ?QFM + 1 or log f O2 ˜ ?QFM +5. Clinopyroxene-glass pairs from basanitic to phonolitic fall deposits from Tenerife, Canary Islands, were also measured to complement our experimentally-derived data set. The REE partition coefficients are 0.3-53, typically 2-6, with minima for high-aegirine clinopyroxene. Diopside-rich clinopyroxenes (Aeg5-25) prefer the MREE and have high REE partition coefficients (DEuup to 53, DSmup to 47). As clinopyroxene becomes more Na- and less Ca-rich (Aeg25-50), REE incorporation becomes less favourable, and both the VIM1 and VIIIM2 sites expand (to 0.79 Å and 1.12 Å), increasing DLREE/DMREE. Above Aeg50 both M sites shrink slightly and HREE (VIri= 0.9 Å ˜ Y) partition strongly onto the VIM1 site, consistent with a reduced charge penalty for REE3+ ? Fe3+ substitution. Our data, complemented with an extensive literature database, constrain an empirical model that predicts trace element partition coefficients between clinopyroxene and silicate melt using only mineral major element compositions, temperature and pressure as input. The model is calibrated for use over a wide compositional range and can be used to interrogate clinopyroxene from a variety of natural systems to determine the trace element concentrations in their source melts, or to forward model the trace element evolution of tholeiitic mafic to evolved peralkaline magmatic systems.
DS202002-0164
2020
Belley, P.M., Groat, L.A.Metamorphosed carbonate platforms and controls on the genesis of sapphire, gem spinel, and lapis Lazuli: insight from the Lake Harbour Group, Nunavut, Canada and implications for gem exploration.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 116, 10p. PdfCanada, Nunavutgemstones

Abstract: Baffin Island's Lake Harbour Group (LHG), a Paleoproterozoic granulite facies metasedimentary sequence rich in carbonates, contains occurrences of the gemstones sapphire (corundum), spinel (including vivid blue, cobalt-enriched spinel), and lapis lazuli (haüyne-bearing rock). Most occurrences of these gem minerals are uniquely metasedimentary (carbonates and calc-silicate rock), while a few spinel occurrences formed from metasomatic reactions between Si-Al-rich rock (syenogranite or gneiss) and marble. The metasedimentary corundum, spinel, and haüyne occurrences have similar protoliths: primarily dolomitic marls with a high Al/Si relative abundance (interpreted as sandy mud to clay siliciclastic fraction in the protolith). Kimmirut-type sapphire deposits formed via a multi-step metamorphic process under three different and specific P-T conditions. Lapis lazuli formation required the presence of evaporites to provide Na and possibly S for the blue mineral haüyne. In addition to high Al/Si calc-silicate rocks, spinel also occurs in impure dolomitic marbles with very low K/Al. Potential for Kimmirut-type sapphire deposits is expected to be restricted to metacarbonate sequences proximal to the thrust fault separating the LHG from the Narsajuaq Arc, where retrograde upper amphibolite facies mineralization is most pervasive. Spinel and Kimmirut-type sapphire deposits are expected to be found in dolomitic marble sequences rich in calc-silicate layers. The potential occurrence of lapis lazuli is more difficult to predict but deposits could be identified thanks to large geographical footprints and their color. Similar gem occurrences or deposits to those in the LHG may be found in other metacarbonate-bearing terranes with similar metamorphic conditions (and for Kimmirut-type sapphire, a similar metamorphic history). Aerial hyperspectral and photographic surveys are well-suited to gemstone exploration on southern Baffin Island thanks to excellent rock exposure with minimal sediment or plant/lichen cover. Spectral mapping of dolomite-, diopside-, phlogopite-, and scapolite-rich domains in LHG metacarbonate sequences using airborne hyperspectral data is expected to provide exploration targets. Remote sensing exploration could be used in other metacarbonate-bearing, upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic terranes found in polar climates, arid climates, or at high elevation in mountainous regions where such rocks are well exposed with minimal vegetative cover.
DS202008-1369
2020
Benoaouda, R., Kraemer, D., Sitnikova, M., Goldmann, S., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Errami, A., Mouttaqi, A., Bau, M.Discovery of high grade REE-Nb-Fe mineralization associated with calcio-carbonatite in south Morocco.Ore Geology Reviews, in press available, 43p. PdfAfrica, Moroccocarbonatite

Abstract: The recently discovered REE and Nb mineralization in the Twihinat area in the western part of the Oulad Dlim Massif (Adrar Souttouf) in South Morocco is linked to a Cretaceous calciocarbonatite intrusion which was likely formed in an intracontinental rift setting and crops out locally within a ring structure that mainly consists of massive Fe-oxide mineralization and silica breccia. The carbonatite shows intensively metasomatized zones, which contain bastnaesite and pyrochlore-group minerals as the main REE and Nb ore minerals. They are usually associated with apatite, quartz and Fe-oxides, or trapped in calcite voids, suggesting a secondary ore formation. Within the associated Fe-oxide mineralization, pyrochlore and monazite-(Ce) are the main ore minerals occurring closely associated with quartz and magnetite or hematite. The silica breccia also shows significant subsequent infill of barite, bastnaesite-(Ce) and hydrated ceriopyrochlore, which was identified by EPMA and Raman spectroscopy. Bastnaesite commonly forms prismatic aggregates whereas pyrochlore and ceriopyrochlore usually display subhedral grains along tiny fractures. Structural and textural relationships clearly indicate epigenetic ore formation induced by multiple stages of hydrothermal fluid flow and fracturing. Ore precipitation likely resulted from interaction between low-pH mineralizing hydrothermal fluids and the wall-rock. The latter efficiently buffered the acidity of the fluids and allowed significant amounts of REE and Nb ore minerals to precipitate. Trace element ICP-MS analyses show very high REE and Nb concentrations of up to 0.76 wt% SREE and 0.21 wt% Nb in carbonatite and up to 3 wt% SREE and 1.3 wt% Nb in the associated silica and Fe-oxide mineralization. The results clearly demonstrate that the Twihinat REE-Nb deposits are significant and represent a potential new high-grade resource for these critical metals.
DS202007-1125
2020
Berkesi, M., Bali, E., Bodnar, R.J., Szabo, A., Guzmics, T.Carbonatite and highly peralkaline nephelinitie melts from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania: the role of natrite-normative fluid degassing.Gondwana Research, Vol. 85, pp. 76-83. pdfAfrica, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Oldoinyo Lengai, located in the Gregory Rift in Tanzania, is a world-famous volcano owing to its uniqueness in producing natrocarbonatite melts and because of its extremely high CO2 flux. The volcano is constructed of highly peralkaline [PI = molar (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 > 2-3] nephelinite and phonolites, both of which likely coexisted with carbonate melt and a CO2-rich fluid before eruption. Results of a detailed melt inclusion study of the Oldoinyo Lengai nephelinite provide insights into the important role of degassing of CO2-rich vapor in the formation of natrocarbonatite and highly peralkaline nephelinites. Nepheline phenocrysts trapped primary melt inclusions at 750-800 °C, representing an evolved state of the magmas beneath Oldoinyo Lengai. Raman spectroscopy, heating-quenching experiments, low current EDS and EPMA analyses of quenched melt inclusions suggest that at this temperature, a dominantly natritess-normative, F-rich (7-14 wt%) carbonate melt and an extremely peralkaline (PI = 3.2-7.9), iron-rich nephelinite melt coexisted following degassing of a CO2 + H2O-vapor. We furthermore hypothesize that the degassing led to re-equilibration between the melt and liquid phases that remained and involved 1/ mixing between the residual (after degassing) alkali carbonate liquid and an F-rich carbonate melt and 2/ enrichment of the coexisting nephelinite melt in alkalis. We suggest that in the geological past similar processes were responsible for generating highly peralkaline silicate melts in continental rift tectonic settings worldwide.
DS202002-0165
2019
Bezada, M.J., Smale, J.Lateral variations in lithospheric mantle structure control the location of intracontinental seismicity in Australia.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 22, pp. 12862-12869.Australiageophysics - seismic

Abstract: Despite decades of study, the mechanisms that lead to the localization of intracontinental seismicity remain vigorously debated. We find a very strong correlation between the attenuation of teleseismic P waves and the occurrence of intraplate seismicity in Australia. The regions with the highest attenuation host ~2 orders of magnitude more earthquakes per unit of area than the least attenuating regions. We argue that the attenuation we observe is produced by lateral variations in the thickness and/or viscosity of the lithospheric mantle and further suggest that the correlation we document implies that lithospheric mantle structure exerts first-order controls on the localization of intraplate seismicity.
DS202005-0722
2020
Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Kumar, T.V., Screeenivas, B., Babu, E.V.S.S.K.A review of Paleo- to Neoarchean crust evolution in the Dharwar craton, southern India and the transition towards a plate tectonic regime.Episodes ( IUGS), Vol. 43, 1, pp. 51-68.Indiacraton

Abstract: An emerging view is that Earth’s geodynamic regime witnessed a fundamental transition towards plate tectonics around 3.0 Ga (billion years). However, the manifestations of this change may have been diachronous and craton-specific. Here, we review geological, geophysical and geochronological data (mainly zircon U-Pb age-Hf isotope compositions) from the Dharwar craton representing over a billion year-long geologic history between ~3.5 and 2.5 Ga. The Archean crust comprises an oblique section of ~12 km from middle to deep crust across low- to mediumgrade granitegreenstone terranes, the Western and Eastern Dharwar Cratons (WDC and EDC), and the highgrade Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT). A segment of the WDC preserving Paleo- to Mesoarchean gneisses and greenstones is characterised by ‘dome and keel’ structural pattern related to vertical (sagduction) tectonics. The geology of the regions with dominantly Neoarchean ages bears evidence for convergent (plate) tectonics. The zircon U-Pb age-Hf isotope data constrain two major episodes of juvenile crust accretion involving depleted mantle sources at 3.45 to 3.17 Ga and 2.7 to 2.5 Ga with crustal recycling dominating the intervening period. The Dharwar craton records clear evidence for the operation of modern style plate tectonics since ~2.7 Ga.
DS202002-0166
2019
Blundy, J.Carbon - beautiful, essential, deadly.Elements, Vol. 15, p. 367 1p.Globalcarbon
DS202006-0912
2020
Bodnar, R.J., Frezzotti, M.L.Microscale chemistry: raman analysis of fluid and melt inclusions.Elements, Vol. 16, pp. 93-98.Mantlemelt inclusions

Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is a commonly applied nondestructive analytical technique for characterizing fluid and melt inclusions. The exceptional spatial resolution (~1 µm) and excellent spectral resolution (=1 cm-1) permits the characterization of micrometer-scale phases and allows quantitative analyses based on Raman spectral features. Data provided by Raman analysis of fluid and melt inclusions has significantly advanced our understanding of complex geologic processes, including preeruptive volatile contents of magmas, the nature of fluids in the deep crust and upper mantle, the generation and evolution of methane-bearing fluids in unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Anticipated future advances include the development of Raman mass spectroscopy and the use of Raman to monitor reaction progress in synthetic and natural fluid inclusion microreactors.
DS202002-0167
2019
Bohm, C.O., Hartlaub, R.P., Heaman, L.M., Cates, N., Guitreau, M., Bourdon, B., Roth, A.S.G., Mojzsis, S.J., Blichert-Toft, J.The Assean Lake Complex: ancient crust at the northwestern margin of the Superior craton, Manitoba, Canada. ( not specific to diamonds)Earth's Oldest Rocks, Chapter 28, 20p. Pdf.Canada, Manitobacraton
DS202006-0913
2020
Boxer, G.Grant is teaching workshops for geologists on how to use QGIS - free GIS program - great for students to learn GIS."https://qgisforgeos .thinkific.com/"., GIS programGlobalGIS on line
DS202008-1370
2020
Bracco Gartner, A.J.J., Davies, G.R., Koornneef, J.M.Sub-nanogram Pb isotope analysis of individual melt inclusions.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractMantlemagmatism

Abstract: Precise analysis of 20xPb/204Pb ratios is challenging when the amount of Pb is limited by sample volume or elemental concentration. The current precision impedes meaningful analyses of analytes with sub-nanogram Pb contents, such as individual melt inclusions with typical diameters (<100 µm). Decreasing this lower limit whilst maintaining precision and accuracy is crucial for studies aiming to understand the composition and heterogeneity of melt source regions, and the effects of magma transport from the Earth’s interior. The preferred method for precise analysis of sub-nanogram Pb samples combines miniaturised ion-exchange separation, a Pb double spike, and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) with 10^13 O amplifier technology. This approach allows for interference-free, instrumental mass fractionation-corrected isotope measurements, and therefore provides precision superior to in situ measurements. As a result, reliable analyses can be conducted on samples which contain only a few hundred picograms of Pb. The principal obstacle at the lower limit is the analytical blank, which usually adds a few pg Pb—and thus up to a few percent—to the sample of interest. This contribution may differ for the 207Pb-204Pb-spiked and unspiked runs of one sample, which in turn convolutes the algebraic inversion of the spike. It is therefore imperative to evaluate the magnitude, isotope composition, and homogeneity of the blanks, and constrain how the uncertainty and potential variability within these parameters affect the inversion. Here, we describe the optimised analytical techniques, and discuss the present feasibility and limitations in obtaining precise Pb isotope compositions of rock reference materials and olivine-hosted melt inclusions with sub-nanogram Pb contents. In addition, we discuss the effect of different blank contributions on double-spike analyses using numerical simulations, and evaluate the potential of accurate blank corrections. We find that the optimised technique allows accurate Pb analyses to be conducted on melt inclusions with >200 pg Pb, which will ultimately help to better constrain mantle heterogeneity beneath mid-ocean ridges, oceanic islands, and volcanic arcs.
DS202002-0168
2020
Braunger, S., Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Chmyz, L., Azzone, R.G., Markl, G.Do carbonatites and alkaline rocks reflect variable redox conditions in their upper mantle source? ( metasomatism)Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 533, 11p. PdfMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: A detailed investigation on seven carbonatites and associated alkaline rock complexes (Kaiserstuhl, Sokli, Kovdor, Palabora, Oka, Magnet Cove, Jacupiranga), together with a world-wide comparison between carbonatites, alkaline silicate rocks and mantle xenoliths, implies peculiar redox conditions for carbonatite-bearing alkaline complexes: Carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks in continental settings crystallize from relatively oxidized magmas, on average 1.4 log units () and 1.3 log units () above the synthetic fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. In contrast, alkaline rocks in continental settings that lack associated carbonatites reveal rather reduced conditions (mean ; ). The calculated redox conditions for carbonatites and associated silicate rocks demonstrate that these crystallize from relatively oxidized mantle-derived melts compared to the general range found for alkaline rocks in continental settings.
DS202008-1371
2018
Brook, M.C.The Botswana pipeline - "prospecting to jewellery"Botswana Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 43-57. pdfAfrica, Botswanaprospecting, markets

Abstract: In this paper I describe the different components that make up the Botswana Diamond Pipeline today, which means the supply chain of diamonds, that ranges from diamond prospecting to mining, to diamond processing and recovery, to rough diamond sorting, valuation, sales and marketing, to diamond polishing and cutting, and finally to diamond jewellery manufacturing and retail. In Botswana, we can now truly witness the journey of the diamond from “Rough to Finger” or from “Mine to Store” (Fig. 1). Today, Botswana is the world’s second largest producer of diamonds by value and volume after Russia, and there are currently twelve known kimberlite fields (Fig. 2) and eight operating diamond mines. Botswana’s diamonds are cut and polished into beautiful diamond jewellery locally and across the globe.
DS202003-0331
2020
Brooks, K.Perovskite.Geology Today, Vol. 36, 1, pp. 33-38. pdfMantleperovskite

Abstract: How many people, even those interested in the Earth sciences, have heard of perovskite? Yet minerals with the perovskite structure are the most abundant minerals on the Earth with a corresponding importance for our understanding of the origin, development and functioning of our planet. Furthermore, they play important roles in modern technology, including the storage of nuclear waste, in solar cells and as superconductors.
DS202003-0332
2020
Broom-Fendley, S., Smith, M.P., Andrade, M.B., Ray, S., Banks, D.A., Loye, E., Antencio, D., Pickles, J.P., Wall, F.Sulfur bearing monzazite (Ce) from the Eureka carbonatite, Namibia: oxidation state, substitution mechanism, and formation conditions.Mineralogical Magazine, pp. 1-14, pdfAfrica, Namibiacarbonatite, REE

Abstract: Sulfur-bearing monazite-(Ce) occurs in silicified carbonatite at Eureka, Namibia, forming rims up to ~0.5 mm thick on earlier-formed monazite-(Ce) megacrysts. We present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrating that sulfur is accommodated predominantly in monazite-(Ce) as sulfate, via a clino-anhydrite-type coupled substitution mechanism. Minor sulfide and sulfite peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, however, also indicate that more complex substitution mechanisms incorporating S2 and S4+ are possible. Incorporation of S6+ through clino-anhydrite-type substitution results in an excess of M2+ cations, which previous workers have suggested is accommodated by auxiliary substitution of OH for O2. However, Raman data show no indication of OH, and instead we suggest charge imbalance is accommodated through F substituting for O2. The accommodation of S in the monazite-(Ce) results in considerable structural distortion that may account for relatively high contents of ions with radii beyond those normally found in monazite-(Ce), such as the heavy rare earth elements, Mo, Zr and V. In contrast to S-bearing monazite-(Ce) in other carbonatites, S-bearing monazite-(Ce) at Eureka formed via a dissolutionprecipitation mechanism during prolonged weathering, with S derived from an aeolian source. While large S-bearing monazite-(Ce) grains are likely to be rare in the geological record, formation of secondary S-bearing monazite-(Ce) in these conditions may be a feasible mineral for dating palaeo-weathering horizons.
DS202005-0723
2020
Brown, M., Johnson, T., Gardiner, N.J.Plate tectonics and the Archean Earth.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 48, 30p. pdfMantlesubduction, metamorphism

Abstract: If we accept that a critical condition for plate tectonics is the creation and maintenance of a global network of narrow boundaries separating multiple plates, then to argue for plate tectonics during the Archean requires more than a local record of subduction. A case is made for plate tectonics back to the early Paleoproterozoic, when a cycle of breakup and collision led to formation of the supercontinent Columbia, and bimodal metamorphism is registered globally. Before this, less preserved crust and survivorship bias become greater concerns, and the geological record may yield only a lower limit on the emergence of plate tectonics. Higher mantle temperature in the Archean precluded or limited stable subduction, requiring a transition to plate tectonics from another tectonic mode. This transition is recorded by changes in geochemical proxies and interpreted based on numerical modeling. Improved understanding of the secular evolution of temperature and water in the mantle are key targets for future research. 1) Higher mantle temperature in the Archean precluded or limited stable subduction, requiring a transition to plate tectonics from another tectonic mode. 2) Plate tectonics can be demonstrated on Earth since the early Paleoproterozoic (since c. 2.2 Ga), but before the Proterozoic Earth's tectonic mode remains ambiguous. 3) The Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic (3.2-2.3 Ga) represents a period of transition from an early tectonic mode (stagnant or sluggish lid) to plate tectonics. 4) The development of a global network of narrow boundaries separating multiple plates could have been kick-started by plume-induced subduction.
DS202007-1126
2020
Brown, M., Johnson, T., Gardiner, N.J.Plate tectonics and the Archean Earth.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 48, 1, pp. 291-320.Mantletectonics

Abstract: If we accept that a critical condition for plate tectonics is the creation and maintenance of a global network of narrow boundaries separating multiple plates, then to argue for plate tectonics during the Archean requires more than a local record of subduction. A case is made for plate tectonics back to the early Paleoproterozoic, when a cycle of breakup and collision led to formation of the supercontinent Columbia, and bimodal metamorphism is registered globally. Before this, less preserved crust and survivorship bias become greater concerns, and the geological record may yield only a lower limit on the emergence of plate tectonics. Higher mantle temperature in the Archean precluded or limited stable subduction, requiring a transition to plate tectonics from another tectonic mode. This transition is recorded by changes in geochemical proxies and interpreted based on numerical modeling. Improved understanding of the secular evolution of temperature and water in the mantle is a key target for future research.
DS202005-0724
2020
Brown, M., Kirkland, C.L., Johnson, T.E.Evolution of geodynamics since the Archean: significant change at the dawn of the Phanerozoic.Geology, Vol. 48, 5, pp. 488-492.Globalgeodynamics

Abstract: A time-series analysis of thermobaric ratios (temperature/pressure [T/P]) for Paleoarchean to Cenozoic metamorphic rocks identified significant shifts in mean T/P that may be related to secular change in the geodynamics on Earth. Thermobaric ratios showed significant (>95% confidence) change points at 1910, 902, 540, and 515 Ma, recording drops in mean T/P, and at 1830, 604, and 525 Ma, recording rises in mean T/P. Highest mean T/P occurred during the Mesoproterozoic, and lowest mean T/P occurred from the Cambrian to the Oligocene. Correlated changes were seen between T/P and global data sets of time-constrained hafnium (Hf) and oxygen (O) isotope compositions in zircon. The range of correlated variation in T/P, Hf, and O was larger during the formation of Rodinia than Columbia. Large changes and a wide range for these variables continued through the Phanerozoic, during which a statistically significant 83 m.y. frequency of T/P excursions recorded the high tempo of orogenic activity associated with the separation, migration, and accretion of continental terranes during the formation of Pangea. Since the early Tonian, the decreasing mean T/P of metamorphism, widespread appearance of blueschist and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism, and wide fluctuations in Hf and O isotope compositions document a change to the modern plate-tectonic regime, characterized by widespread continental subduction and deeper slab breakoff than in the Proterozoic.
DS202002-0169
2019
Buchan, K.L., Ernst, R.E.Giant circumferential dyke swarms: catalogue and characteristics.Dyke Swarms of the World: a modern perspective. Ed. Srivastava Springer, 49p. PdfMantledyke swarms

Abstract: Giant circumferential dyke swarms have a primary geometry that is quasi-circular or quasi-elliptical. Examples and possible examples described previously or identified in this study have outer diameters that range from ~450 to ~2500 km. There has been little study of these features. Here, we present a global catalogue of giant circumferential dyke swarms and discuss their characteristics. All of the identified giant circumferential swarms are of mafic composition. Many, but not all, are associated with a roughly coeval giant radiating dyke swarm whose focus is at or near the centre of the circumferential system. As giant radiating swarms are usually interpreted to focus above mantle plume centres and form a key component of the plumbing system of large igneous provinces (LIPs), it is likely that giant circumferential swarms linked to radiating systems are also plume and LIP related. The largest giant circumferential swarms have diameters comparable to the diameters postulated for the flattened heads of plumes that have risen from the core-mantle boundary, suggesting that they may be associated with the outer edge of a flattening or flattened mantle plume head. Smaller giant circumferential swarms could be linked with small plumes from the mid-mantle or with the edge of a magmatic underplate above a plume head. Giant circumferential dyke swarms on Earth may be analogues of coronae on Venus and similar features on Mars. Coronae are large tectono-magmatic features that typically consist of a quasi-circular or quasi-elliptical graben-fissure system and associated topography (central uplift or depression, and circular rim or moat). In some instances, they are linked to a giant radiating graben-fissure system and LIP-scale volcanism. Both radiating and circumferential graben on Venus and Mars have been interpreted to be underlain by dykes.
DS202003-0333
2020
Burness, S., Smart, K.A., Tappe, S., Stevens, G., Woodland, A.B., Cano, E.Sulphur rich mantle metasomatism of Kaapvaal craton eclogites and its role in redox controlled platinum group element mobility. Xenoliths from Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley ( Kamfersdam), PremierChemical Geology, in press available 57p.Africa, South Africametasomatism

Abstract: Eclogite mantle xenoliths from various kimberlite occurrences on the Kaapvaal craton show evidence for depth- and redox-dependent metasomatic events that led to variable base metal sulphide and incompatible element enrichments. Eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley (Kamfersdam) and Premier kimberlites were investigated for their silicate and base metal sulphide geochemistry, stable oxygen isotope compositions and oxybarometry. The variably metasomatised eclogites had basaltic, picritic and gabbroic protolith compositions and have garnet d18O values that range from +3.3 to +7.9‰, which, when coupled with the trace element characteristics, indicate oceanic lithosphere protoliths that had undergone variable degrees of seawater alteration. The deepest equilibrated eclogites (175220?km depth) from near the base of the Kaapvaal craton lithosphere are the most refractory and feature significant light rare earth element (LREE) depletions. They show the most oxidised redox compositions with ?logƒO2 values of FMQ-3.9 to FMQ-1.5. Subtle metasomatic overprinting of these eclogites resulted in base metal sulphide formation with relatively depleted and highly fractionated HSE compositions. These deepest eclogites and their included base metal sulphides suggest interaction with relatively oxidised melts or fluids, which, based on their HSE characteristics, could be related to precursor kimberlite metasomatism that was widespread within the Kaapvaal craton mantle lithosphere. In contrast, eclogites that reside at shallower, “mid-lithospheric” depths (140180?km) have been enriched in LREE and secondary diopside/phlogopite. Importantly, they host abundant metasomatic base metal sulphides, which have higher HSE contents than those in the deeper eclogites at the lithosphere base. The mid-lithospheric eclogites have more reducing redox compositions (?logfO2?=?FMQ-5.3 - FMQ-3.3) than the eclogites from the lowermost Kaapvaal lithosphere. The compositional overprint of the shallower mantle eclogites resembles basaltic rather than kimberlitic/carbonatitic metasomatism, which is also supported by their relatively reducing redox state. Base metal sulphides from the mid-lithospheric eclogites have HSE abundances and distributions that are similar to Karoo flood basalts from southern Africa, suggesting a link between the identified shallow mantle metasomatism of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere and the Karoo large igneous event during the Mesozoic. The sulphide-hosted platinum group element abundances of the mid-lithospheric eclogites are higher compared with their analogues from the deeper lithospheric eclogites, which in combination with their contrasting oxidation states, may imply redox-controlled HSE mobility during sulphur-rich metasomatism of continental mantle lithosphere.
DS202008-1372
2020
Burness, S., Smart, K.A., Tappe, S., Stevens, G., Woodland, A.B., Cano, E.Sulphur rich mantle metasomatism of Kaapvaal craton eclogites and its role in redox controlled platinum group element mobility.Chemical Geology, Voll. 542, 119476 23p. pdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley, Kamfersdam, Premier

Abstract: Eclogite mantle xenoliths from various kimberlite occurrences on the Kaapvaal craton show evidence for depth- and redox-dependent metasomatic events that led to variable base metal sulphide and incompatible element enrichments. Eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein, Kimberley (Kamfersdam) and Premier kimberlites were investigated for their silicate and base metal sulphide geochemistry, stable oxygen isotope compositions and oxybarometry. The variably metasomatised eclogites had basaltic, picritic and gabbroic protolith compositions and have garnet d18O values that range from +3.3 to +7.9‰, which, when coupled with the trace element characteristics, indicate oceanic lithosphere protoliths that had undergone variable degrees of seawater alteration. The deepest equilibrated eclogites (175-220 km depth) from near the base of the Kaapvaal craton lithosphere are the most refractory and feature significant light rare earth element (LREE) depletions. They show the most oxidised redox compositions with ?logƒO2 values of FMQ-3.9 to FMQ-1.5. Subtle metasomatic overprinting of these eclogites resulted in base metal sulphide formation with relatively depleted and highly fractionated HSE compositions. These deepest eclogites and their included base metal sulphides suggest interaction with relatively oxidised melts or fluids, which, based on their HSE characteristics, could be related to precursor kimberlite metasomatism that was widespread within the Kaapvaal craton mantle lithosphere. In contrast, eclogites that reside at shallower, “mid-lithospheric” depths (140-180 km) have been enriched in LREE and secondary diopside/phlogopite. Importantly, they host abundant metasomatic base metal sulphides, which have higher HSE contents than those in the deeper eclogites at the lithosphere base. The mid-lithospheric eclogites have more reducing redox compositions (?logfO2 = FMQ-5.3 - FMQ-3.3) than the eclogites from the lowermost Kaapvaal lithosphere. The compositional overprint of the shallower mantle eclogites resembles basaltic rather than kimberlitic/carbonatitic metasomatism, which is also supported by their relatively reducing redox state. Base metal sulphides from the mid-lithospheric eclogites have HSE abundances and distributions that are similar to Karoo flood basalts from southern Africa, suggesting a link between the identified shallow mantle metasomatism of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere and the Karoo large igneous event during the Mesozoic. The sulphide-hosted platinum group element abundances of the mid-lithospheric eclogites are higher compared with their analogues from the deeper lithospheric eclogites, which in combination with their contrasting oxidation states, may imply redox-controlled HSE mobility during sulphur-rich metasomatism of continental mantle lithosphere.
DS202008-1373
2020
Buyse, F., Dewaele, S., Decree, S., Mees, F.Mineralogical and geochemical study of the rare earth element mineralization at Gakara ( Burundi).Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 124, 103659 10p. PdfAfrica, BurundiREE

Abstract: The rare earth element (REE) mineralization of Gakara (Burundi) has first been discovered in 1936 and has periodically been the subject of geological studies, at times when the exploitation of bastnäsite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce) was economically interesting. This study focuses on the establishment of a mineral paragenesis for Gakara, with special attention to the REE-bearing phases, to understand the formation history of the deposit. The paragenesis can be subdivided into 3 stages: primary ore deposition, brecciation stage and supergene alteration. Evidence for fenitization processes (i.e. pinkish-red cathodoluminescence of K-feldpar, brecciation stage) and the strong enrichment of light REEs in bastnäsite and monazite substantiate the hypothesis of a structurally controlled hydrothermal mineralization with a strong carbonatitic affinity. This likely confirms the association of the Gakara REE deposit with the Neoproterozoic alignment of alkaline complexes and carbonatites along the present-day Western Rift. It suggests a direct link with a - currently unidentified - carbonatitic body at depth, possibly derived from a predominantly metasomatized lithospheric mantle.
DS202008-1374
2020
Campbell, D., Zurevinski, S., Elliott, B.Geochemistry and glacial dispersal patterns of kimberlitic indicator minerals in the South Slave Province, NT.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesgarnets

Abstract: The geochemistry and distribution of garnets in the southern Slave Province could have considerable implications for drift prospecting and diamond potential. Presented here is a study interpretting geochemistry in dispersal trains of the Slave Province. Over one-hundred-thousand garnets have been sampled from the northern Slave Province with quantitative analyses conducted on each sample, and the data has been compiled for public release (NTGS Data Hub, 2018). A smaller subset of samples have been collected in the southern Slave Province by this study and the NTGS within recent years. Data from the NTGS is used in this study to construct regional maps showing dispersal trains of indicator minerals and chemistry of indicator garnets throughout the region. The variation in dispersal train pattern, size, mineralogy, and chemistry are being utilized to assess the southern Slave for it’s kimberlite potential. The geochemistry of garnets is used to make further observations into the diamond potential of the area using the garnet classifications G3D, G4D, G5D, and G10D (Grutter et al., 2004). It has been observed that there is an abundance of Na2O rich (>0.07 wt %) garnets in the northern Slave Province and a deficit of Na2O (<0.07 wt %) in garnets of the south. There is also a visible discrepency in olivine in the north and south, with the north Slave showing olivine in dispersal trains and the south lacking any olivine. These discrepancies in Na2O could be indicative of pressure/temperature conditions that coincide with diamond formation in the north (Grutter et al., 2004). The olivine dispersal may be the product of glacial dispersal in conjunction with the facies/mineralogy of kimberlites in the immediate area.
DS202008-1375
2019
Campbell, J.A.H.Financing diamond projects.The Journal of the Southern African Insitute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 119, Feb. 6p. PdfGlobalfinancing

Abstract: Investment in diamond exploration has been declining over the past decade, in spite of positive long-term industry fundamentals and a growing interest in diamonds as an investment category. The lack of new significant discoveries in recent years has eroded investor confidence, yet no new discoveries are possible without investment in exploration. Junior ‘mine finders’ have been the hardest hit. Their agility, tenacity, and appetite for risk are not sufficient to attract the funding required, even at the greenfield stage. Developing new discoveries into mineral resources can be crippling without solid financial support. Junior incubators could play a crucial role, especially at the project evaluation stage - but where are they? Alternatives to traditional funding mechanisms have become available, many still untested in the junior diamond exploration space. Valuable lessons can be drawn from the past and used to inform emerging new strategies.
DS202008-1376
2018
Campbell, J.A.H., Jooste, V.The AK6 kimberlite - discovery through to production: learning the lessons of history.Botswana Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 13-28. pdfAfrica, Botswanadeposit - AK6

Abstract: The AK6 kimberlite in north-eastern Botswana, better known as Karowe, is today one of the world?s top diamond producers by value. Its potential, however, was not recognised when AK6 was first discovered some fifty years ago. This paper traces the history of Karowe from the discovery of AK6 through to evaluation and production, reflecting on the interplay of economic, technical and corporate elements and highlighting some of the lessons learnt along this journey. Karowe Mine has been operating since 2012 and is fully owned by Lucara Diamond Corporation. In 2015, Karowe yielded the second largest diamond ever found, the 1,109ct Lesedi La Rona (Fig. 1).
DS202007-1127
2020
Cannao, E., Tiepolo, M., Bebout, G.E., Scambelluri, M.Into the deep and beyond: carbon and nitrogen subduction recycling in secondary peridotites. Gagnone metaperidotitesEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 543, 116328 14p. PdfEurope, Switzerland, Alpsboron diamonds

Abstract: Understanding the volatile cycles at convergent margins is fundamental to unravel the Earth's evolution from primordial time to present. The assessment of fluid-mobile and incompatible element uptake in serpentinites via interaction with seawater and subduction-zone fluids is central to evaluate the global cycling of the above elements in the Earth's mantle. Here, we focus on the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and C isotope compositions of chlorite harzburgites and garnet peridotites deriving from subduction-zone dehydration of former oceanic dehydration of serpentinite - i.e., metaperidotites (Cima di Gagnone, Swiss Central Alps) with the aim of evaluating the contribution of these rocks to the global C-N cycling. These ultramafic rocks, enclosed as lenses in a metasedimentary mélange, represent the destabilization of antigorite and chlorite at high-pressure/temperature (P/T) along a slab-mantle interface. Chlorite- and garnet-bearing rocks have similar ranges in C concentration ([C] = 210 - 2465 ppm and 304 - 659 ppm, respectively), with one magnesite-bearing chlorite harzburgite hosting 11000 ppm C. The average N concentrations ([N]) of the garnet peridotites (54 ± 15 ppm, one standard deviation indicated) are higher than those of the chlorite harzburgites (29 ± 6 ppm). The C of total C (TC) and total organic C (TOC) values of the Gagnone metaperidotites range from -12.2 to -17.8‰ and from -27.8 to -26.8‰, respectively, excluding the magnesite-bearing chlorite harzburgites with higher values of -7.2‰ (TC) and -21.2‰ (TOC). The [C] of these rocks are comparable to those of serpentinites form modern and ancient oceanic environments and with [C] of high-P serpentinites. However, the lack of preserved serpentinite precursors makes it difficult to determine whether release of H2O during high-P breakdown of antigorite and chlorite is coupled with significant C release to fluids. The C values appear to reflect mixing between seawater-derived carbonate and a reduced C source and a contribution from the host metasedimentary rocks ([C] = 301 ppm; [N] = 33 ppm; TC C = -24.4‰; TOC C = -27.0‰) cannot be completely excluded. The C-O isotope composition of the carbonate in magnesite-bearing chlorite harzburgites is compatible with progressive devolatilization at oxidized conditions, whereas the signatures of the majority of the other Gagnone samples appear to reflect different degree of interaction with sedimentary fluids. The [N] of the Gagnone metaperidotites are higher than those of oceanic and subducted serpentinites and show a range similar to that of high-P antigorite-serpentinites from mantle wedges. This enrichment is compatible with fluid-mediated chemical exchange with the surrounding metasedimentary rocks leading to strong modification of the Gagnone metaperidotites' geochemistry during prograde subduction along the slab-mantle interface. Comparing the C data reported in this study with published C values for diamonds, we suggest that the volatile recycling via Gagnone-like metaperidotites in subduction zones could contribute to deep-Earth diamond genesis and in particular to the formation of blue boron (B)-bearing diamonds. Our results highlight that the subduction of secondary peridotites evolved along the slab-mantle interface is a viable mechanism to inject volatiles into the deep mantle, particularly in hotter geothermal regimes such as the ones active during the early Earth's history.
DS202003-0334
2019
Carlson, R.W., Garcon, M., O'Neil, J., Reimink, J.,Rizo, H.The nature of the Earth's crust.Chemical Geology, Vol. 530, 25p. Available pdfMantleArchean geology

Abstract: Recycling of crust into the mantle has left only small remnants at Earth’s surface of crust produced within a billion years of Earth formation. Few, if any, of these ancient crustal rocks represent the first crust that existed on Earth. Understanding the nature of the source materials of these ancient rocks and the mechanism of their formation has been the target of decades of geological and geochemical study. This traditional approach has been expanded recently through the ability to simultaneously obtain U-Pb age and initial Hf isotope data for zircons from many of these ancient, generally polymetamorphic, rocks. The addition of information from the short-lived radiometric systems 146Sm-142Nd and 182Hf-182W allows resolution of some of the ambiguities that have clouded the conclusions derived from the long-lived systems. The most apparent of these is clear documentation that Earth experienced major chemical differentiation events within the first tens to hundreds of millions of years of its formation, and that Earth’s most ancient crustal rocks were derived from these differentiated sources, not from primitive undifferentiated mantle. Eoarchean rocks from the North Atlantic Craton and the Anshan Complex of the North China Craton have sources in an incompatible-element-depleted mantle that dates to 4.44.5 Ga. Hadean/Eoarchean rocks from two localities in Canada show the importance of remelting of Hadean mafic crust to produce Eoarchean felsic crust. The mafic supracrustal rocks of the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt are a possible example of the Hadean mafic basement that is often called upon to serve as the source for the high-silica rocks that define continental crust. Many, but not all, ancient terranes show a shift in the nature of the sources for crustal rocks, and possibly the physical mechanism of crust production, between 3.03.6 Ga. This transition may reflect the initiation of modern plate tectonics. Eoarchean/Hadean rocks from some terranes, however, also display compositional characteristics expected for convergent margin volcanism suggesting that at least some convergent margin related magmatism began in the Hadean. The persistence of isotopic variability in 142Nd/144Nd into the mid-Archean, and the eventual reduction in that variability by the end of the Archean, provides new information on the efficiency by which mantle convection recombined the products of Hadean silicate-Earth differentiation. The rate of crust production and recycling in the Hadean/Archean, however, is not resolved by these data beyond the observation that extreme isotopic compositions, such as expected for Hadean evolved, continent-like, crust are not observed in the preserved Eoarchean rock record. The lack of correlation between 142Nd/144Nd and 182W/184W variation in Archean rocks suggests that these two systems track different processes; the Sm-Nd system mantle-crust differentiation while Hf-W is dominated by core formation. The major silicate differentiation controlling Sm/Nd fractionation occurred at ~4.4 Ga, possibly as a result of the Moon-forming impact, after the extinction of 182Hf.
DS202005-0725
2020
Castillo-Oliver, M., Giuliani, A., Griffin, W.L., Drsydale, Rn.New constraints on the source, composition, and post-emplacement modification of kimberlites from in situ C-O-Sr-isotope analyses of carbonates from the Benfontein sills ( South Africa).Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 21p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: Primary carbonates in kimberlites are the main CO2 carriers in kimberlites and thus can be used to constrain the original carbon and oxygen-isotope composition of kimberlite melts and their deep mantle sources. However, the contribution of syn- and post-emplacement processes to the modification of the C-O-isotope composition of kimberlites is yet to be fully constrained. This study aims to shed new light on this topic through a detailed textural, compositional (major and trace elements), and in situ C-O-Sr isotopic characterisation of carbonates in the Benfontein kimberlite sills (Kimberley, South Africa). Our multi-technique approach not only reveals the petrographic and geochemical complexity of carbonates in kimberlites in unprecedented detail, but also allows identification of the processes that led to their formation, including: (1) magmatic crystallisation of Sr-rich calcite laths and groundmass; (2) crystallisation of late groundmass calcite from hydrothermal fluids; and (3) variable degrees of crustal contamination in carbonate-rich diapirs and secondary veins. These diapirs most likely resulted from a residual C-O-H fluid or carbonate melt with contributions from methane-rich fluids from the Dwyka shale wall rock, leading to higher 87Sr/86Sr and d18O, but lower d13C values than in pristine magmatic calcite. Before coalescing into the diapiric segregations, these fluids/melts also variably entrained early formed calcite laths and groundmass phases. Comparison between in situ and bulk-carbonate analyses confirms that O isotopic analyses of bulk carbonates from kimberlite rocks are not representative of the original isotopic signature of the kimberlite magma, whereas bulk C-isotope compositions are similar to those of the pristine magmatic carbonates. Calcite laths and most groundmass grains at Benfontein preserve isotopic values (d18O?=?6-8‰ and d13C?=?-?4 to -?6‰), similar to those of unaltered carbonatites worldwide, which, therefore, probably correspond to those of their parental melts. This narrow range suggests kimberlite derivation from a mantle source with little contribution from recycled crustal material unless the recycled material had isotopic composition indistinguishable from typical mantle values.
DS202004-0502
2020
Cawood, P.A., Wang, W., Zhao, T., Xu, Y., Mulder, J.A., Pisarevsky, S.A., Zhang, L., Gan, C., He, H., Liu, H., Qi, L., Wang, Y., Yao, J., Zhao, G., Zhou, M-F., Zi, J-W.Deconstructing south China and consequences for reconstructing Nuna and Rodinia.Earth-Science Reviews, in press available, 70p. PdfChinatectonics

Abstract: Contrasting models for internal and external locations of South China within the Nuna and Rodinia supercontinents can be resolved when the current lithotectonic associations of Mesoproterozoic and older rocks units that constitute the craton are redefined into four lithotectonic domains: Kongling, Kunming-Hainan, Wuyi, and Coastal. The Kongling and Kunming-Hainan domains are characterized by isolated Archean to early Paleoproterozoic rock units and events and crop out in northern and southern South China, respectively. The Kunming-Hainan Domain is preserved in three spatially separated regions at Kunming (southwestern South China), along the Ailaoshan shear zone, and within Hainan Island. Both domains were affected by late Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal events, indicating their likely juxtaposition by this time to form the proto-Yangtze Block. Late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic sedimentary and igneous rock units developed on the proto-Yangtze Block, especially in its southern portions, and help link the rock units that formed along the shear zone at Ailaoshan and on Hainan Island into a single, spatially unified unit prior to Paleozoic to Cenozoic structural disaggregation and translation. The Wuyi Domain consists of late Paleoproterozoic rock units within a NE-SW trending, fault-bounded block in eastern South China. The Coastal Domain lies east of the Wuyi domain and is inferred to constitute a structurally separate block. Basement to the domain is not exposed, but zircon Hf model ages from Mesozoic granites suggest Mesoproterozoic basement at depth. The Archean to Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal record of the Kongling and Kunming-Hainan domains corresponds closely with that of NW Laurentia, suggesting all were linked, probably in association with assembly and subsequent partial fragmentation of the Nuna supercontinent. Furthermore, the age and character of Mesoproterozoic magmatism and detrital zircon signature of sedimentary rocks in the proto-Yangtze Block matches well with western Laurentia and eastern Australia-Antarctica. In particular, the detrital zircon signature of late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic sedimentary units in the block (e.g. Dongchuan Group) share a similar age spectrum with the Wernecke Supergroup of northwest Laurentia. This, together with similarities in the type and age of Fe-Cu mineralization in the domain with that in eastern Australia-Antarctica, especially northeast Australia, suggests a location adjacent to northwest Laurentia, southern Siberia, and northeast Australia within the Nuna supercontinent. The timing and character of late Paleoproterozoic magmatic activity in the Wuyi domain along with age of detrital zircons in associated sedimentary rocks matches the record of northern India. During rifting between Australia-Antarctica and Laurentia in the late Mesoproterozoic, the proto-Yangtze Block remained linked to northeast Australia. During accretionary orogenesis in the early Neoproterozoic, the proto-Yangtze Block assembled with the Wuyi Domain along the northern margin of India. The Coastal domain likely accreted at this time forming the South China Craton. Displacement of the Hainan and Ailaoshan assemblages from southwest of the Kunming assemblage likely occurred in the Cenozoic with the activation of the Ailaoshan-Red River fault system but could have begun in the early to mid-Paleozoic based on evidence for tectonothermal events in the Hainan assemblage.
DS202001-0004
2019
Cecchi, V.M., Rossi, M., Ghiara, M.R., Franza, A.An unrevealed treasure: a new Italian meteorite from the Royal Mineralogical Museum of Naples.Geology Today, Vol. 35, 6, pp. 212-216.Europe, Italymeteorite

Abstract: Naturalistic and geo-mineralogical museum collections are one of the most relevant sources for research on meteorites the world over. Here, we present the description of a new Italian meteorite that has been recently discovered at the Royal Mineralogical Museum of Naples in Italy.
DS202008-1377
2020
Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Giri, R.K., Pandey, A.Kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres from the Indian shield: highlights of researches during 2016-2019.Proceedings Natural Science Academy, Vol. 86, 1, pp. 301-311.Indiakimberlite, lamproites

Abstract: Highlights of researches on kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres (and their entrained xenoliths) during 2016-2019 from the Indian context are presented. A few previously unknown occurrences have been brought to light, and a wealth of petrological, geochemical and isotopic data on these rocks became available. All these studies provided new insights into the nomenclatural as well as geodynamic aspects such as subduction-tectonics, mantle metasomatism, lithospheric thickness, supercontinent amalgamation, and break-up and nature of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle from the Indian shield.
DS202007-1128
2020
Chanturia, V.A., Dvoichenkova, G.P., Morozov, V.V., Kovalchuk, O.E., Pdkamennyi, Yu.A., Yakovlev, V.N.Selective attachment of luminophore bearing emulsion at diamonds - mechanism analysis and mode selection. X-rayJournal of Mining Science, Vol. 56, 1, pp. 96-103. pdfGloballuminescence

Abstract: The authors present an efficient modification method of X-ray fluorescence separation with mineral and organic luminophores used to adjust spectral and kinetic characteristics of anomalously luminescent diamonds. The mechanism of attachment of luminophores at diamonds and hydrophobic minerals is proved, including interaction between the organic component of emulsions and the hydrophobic surface of a treated object and the concentration of insoluble luminophore grains at the organic and water interface. Selective attachment of the luminophore-bearing organic phase of emulsion at the diamond surface is achieved owing to phosphatic dispersing agents. Tri-sodium phosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate added to emulsion reduce attachment of the luminophore-bearing organic phase at the surface of kimberlite minerals. It is shown that phosphate concentration of 1.0-1.5 g/l modifies and stabilizes spectral and kinematic parameters of kimberlite mineral on the level of initial values. This mode maintains the spectral and kinematic characteristics of anomalously luminescent diamonds at the wanted level to ensure extraction of diamonds to concentrate.
DS202004-0503
2020
Chasse, M., Blanchard, M., Cabaret, D., Vantelon, D., Juan, A., Calas, G.First principles modeling of X-ray absorption spectra enlightens the process of scandium sequestration by iron oxides.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, 7, 10.2138/am-2020-730Globalscandium

Abstract: Scandium is often associated with iron oxides in the environment. Despite the use of scandium as a geochemical tracer and the existence of world-class supergene deposits, uncertainties on speciation obscure the processes governing its sequestration and concentration. Here, we use first-principles approaches to interpret experimental K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of scandium either incorporated in or adsorbed on goethite and hematite, at concentrations relevant for the environment. This modeling helps to interpret the characteristic spectral features, providing key information to determine scandium speciation when associated with iron oxides. We show that scandium is substituted into iron oxides at low concentration without modifying the crystal structure. When scandium is adsorbed onto iron oxide surfaces, the process occurs through outer-sphere complexation with a reduction in the coordination number of the hydration shell. Considering available X-ray absorption spectra from laterites, the present results confirm that scandium adsorption onto iron oxides is the dominant mechanism of sequestration in these geochemical conditions. This speciation explains efficient scandium recovery through mild metallurgical treatments of supergene lateritic ores. The specificities of scandium sorption mechanisms are related to the preservation of adsorbed scandium in million-years old laterites. These results demonstrate the emerging ability to precisely model fine X-ray absorption spectral features of trace metals associated with mineral phases relevant to the environment. It opens new perspectives to accurately determine trace metals speciation from high-resolution spatially-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy in order to constrain the molecular mechanisms controlling their dynamics.
DS202005-0726
2020
Chattopadhyay, A., Bhownik, S. K., Roy, A.Tectonothermal evolution of the Central Indian tectonic zone and its implications for Proterozoic supercontinent assembly: the current status.Episodes ( IUGS), Vol. 43, 1, pp. 132-144.Indiacraton

Abstract: The Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) is a major E-W striking mobile belt dissecting the Indian Craton along which the northern and southern Indian cratonic blocks have joined to make the Greater Indian Landmass (GIL). CITZ has a long evolutionary history spanning over 1000 Myrs (2.1-0.9 Ga), overlapping with the assembly and dispersal of two supercontinents - Columbia and Rodinia. Despite a lot of recent work carried out on the CITZ, several outstanding issues remain, especially on the nature and timing of different orogenic events identified in the southern part of this mobile belt. The present contribution attempts to summarize the major petrological, structural and geochronological studies carried out in the CITZ and reappraise the tectonic models in the context of the current database. It is surmised that, while the northern part of CITZ records Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) orogenic events, the southern part is dominated by a late Palaeoproterozoic-early Mesoproterozoic (ca.1.6-1.5 Ga) collision, followed by crustal extension, and finally a late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic (ca. 1.04-0.93 Ga) collision that led to the final stitching of the North and South Indian cratonic blocks. Tectonic evolution of the CITZ is discussed in the context of the Proterozoic supercontinent cycle.
DS202008-1378
2020
Chaves, M.L.de Sa.C., Caldas, J.P.de P., Andrade, K.W., Barbosa, M.S.C.Diamonds from the Santo Antonio River ( Delfinopolis Minas Gerais): probable relationship with the Canastra-3 kimberlite.REM, Int. Journal Ouro Preto, Vol. 73, 1, pp. 51-58. pdfSouth America, Brazil, Minas Geraisdeposit - Canastra-3

Abstract: The study identifies the Canastra-3 Kimberlite magnetic anomaly as the likely primary source of the alluvial diamonds recovered by "garimpeiros" in the Santo Antônio River basin (Delfinópolis, southwestern Minas Gerais). This conclusion is based on cumulative geophysical, hydrographic, metallogenical and mineral geochemistry evidences. The study area is located within fertile ground in the border of the São Francisco craton, close to other diamond primary sources and secondary deposits. This kimberlitic target is the only known in the Santo Antônio River basin. In addition, the known mineralized gravels of this river, worked in the past by "garimpeiros", have evidence of a short transport (angular pebbles and blocks), further evidence of a nearby source. The original data collected in the "Minas Gerais Aerogeophysical Survey Program" was processed and analyzed with the Euler Deconvolution method, implemented in software Oasis Montaj. With the exception of the Canastra-3 body anomaly, all others in the study were classified as non-kimberlitic. Recent sampling work on the weathered top of the Canastra-3 Kimberlite recovered indicator minerals, notably a high proportion of pyrope garnets of the G-10 type, which is unusual among the kimberlites of the region.
DS202006-0914
2020
Chayka, I.F., Sobolev, A.V., Izokh, A.E., Batanova, V.G., Krasheninnikov, S.P., Chervyakovskaya, M.V., Kontonikas-Charos, A., Kutyrev, A.V., Lobastov, B.M., Chervyakovskiy, V.S.Fingerprints of kamafugite-like magmas in Mesozoic lamproites of the Aldan Shield: evidence from olivine and olivine-hosted inclusions.Minerals, Vol. 10, 4, 30p.Russia, Siberiadeposit - Ryabinoviy

Abstract: Mesozoic (125-135 Ma) cratonic low-Ti lamproites from the northern part of the Aldan Shield do not conform to typical classification schemes of ultrapotassic anorogenic rocks. Here we investigate their origins by analyzing olivine and olivine-hosted inclusions from the Ryabinoviy pipe, a well preserved lamproite intrusion within the Aldan Shield. Four types of olivine are identified: (1) zoned phenocrysts, (2) high-Mg, high-Ni homogeneous macrocrysts, (3) high-Ca and low-Ni olivine and (4) mantle xenocrysts. Olivine compositions are comparable to those from the Mediterranean Belt lamproites (Olivine-1 and -2), kamafugites (Olivine-3) and leucitites. Homogenized melt inclusions (MIs) within olivine-1 phenocrysts have lamproitic compositions and are similar to the host rocks, whereas kamafugite-like compositions are obtained for melt inclusions within olivine-3. Estimates of redox conditions indicate that “lamproitic” olivine crystallized from anomalously oxidized magma (?NNO +3 to +4 log units.). Crystallization of "kamafugitic" olivine occurred under even more oxidized conditions, supported by low V/Sc ratios. We consider high-Ca olivine (3) to be a fingerprint of kamafugite-like magmatism, which also occurred during the Mesozoic and slightly preceded lamproitic magmatism. Our preliminary genetic model suggests that low-temperature, extension-triggered melting of mica- and carbonate-rich veined subcontitental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) generated the kamafugite-like melts. This process exhausted carbonate and affected the silicate assemblage of the veins. Subsequent and more extensive melting of the modified SCLM produced volumetrically larger lamproitic magmas. This newly recognized kamafugitic "fingerprint" further highlights similarities between the Aldan Shield potassic province and the Mediterranean Belt, and provides evidence of an overlap between "orogenic" and "anorogenic" varieties of low-Ti potassic magmatism. Moreover, our study also demonstrates that recycled subduction components are not an essential factor in the petrogenesis of low-Ti lamproites, kamafugites and leucitites.
DS202007-1129
2020
Chen, Y., Gu, Y/.J., Heaman, L.M., Wu, L., Saygin, E., Hung, S-H.Reconciling seismic structures and Late Cretaceous kimberlite magmatism in northern Alberta, Canada.Geology, Vol. 48, in press available, 5 p. pdfCanada, Albertadeposit - Birch Mountain, Mountain Lake

Abstract: The Late Cretaceous kimberlites in northern Alberta, Canada, intruded into the Paleoproterozoic crust and represent a nonconventional setting for the discovery of diamonds. Here, we examined the origin of kimberlite magmatism using a multidisciplinary approach. A new teleseismic survey reveals a low-velocity (-1%) corridor that connects two deep-rooted (>200 km) quasi-cylindrical anomalies underneath the Birch Mountains and Mountain Lake kimberlite fields. The radiometric data, including a new U-Pb perovskite age of 90.3 ± 2.6 Ma for the Mountain Lake intrusion, indicate a northeast-trending age progression in kimberlite magmatism, consistent with the (local) plate motion rate of North America constrained by global plate reconstructions. Taken together, these observations favor a deep stationary (relative to the lower mantle) source region for kimberlitic melt generation. Two competing models, mantle plume and slab subduction, can satisfy kinematic constraints and explain the exhumation of ultradeep diamonds. The plume hypothesis is less favorable due to the apparent age discrepancy between the oldest kimberlites (ca. 90 Ma) and the plume event (ca. 110 Ma). Alternatively, magma generation may have been facilitated by decompression of hydrous phases (e.g., wadsleyite and ringwoodite) within the mantle transition zone in response to thermal perturbations by a cold slab. The three-dimensional lithospheric structures largely controlled melt migration and intrusion processes during the Late Cretaceous kimberlite magmatism in northern Alberta.
DS202007-1130
2020
Cheperov, A.I., Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, E.I., Cheperov, A.A.Preservation conditions of CLIPPIR diamonds in the Earth's mantle in a heterogeneous metal-sulphide-silicate medium ( experimental modeling).Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, Vol. 115, pp. 236-246. pdfMantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: The genesis of CLIPPIR diamonds (Cullinan-like, large, inclusion-poor, pure, irregular, and resorbed) have attracted much interest due to their possible crystallization from metal melt in deep horizons of the earth’s mantle. These diamonds usually show a pronounced resorption and irregular morphology. The present paper reports new experimental data on the dissolution of diamond crystals at high P-T parameters in Fe-S melt containing large amounts of silicate components (5-20 wt%). The experiments were performed using a split-sphere multi-anvil apparatus (BARS) at a pressure of 4 GPa and a temperature of 1450 °C. The samples consisted of natural diamond crystals placed in mixtures of Fe, S, and kimberlite. Wide variations in dissolution rates of diamond crystals were obtained. The absence of diamond dissolution in a heterogeneous medium indicates that the amount of solid silicate phases present in metal melt plays a role in the preservation of diamonds. This study demonstrated how diamonds can be stored in natural environments due to the heterogeneity of the medium composition which could insulate diamonds from the metal-sulphide melt. The obtained results improve our understanding of processes that lead to preservation of CLIPPIR diamonds in the deep mantle.
DS202008-1379
2020
Chepurov, A.I., Tomilenko, A.A., Sonin, V.M., Zhimulev, E.I., Bulbak, T.A., Cheperov, A.A., Sobolev, N.V.Interaction of an Fe-Ni melt with anthracene ( C14H10) in the presence of olivine at 3 Gpa: fluid phase composition.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 492, pp. 333-337.MantleUHP, diamond

Abstract: The first results on the interaction between an Fe-Ni melt and anthracene (?14?10) in the presence of olivine at 3 GPa and 1500°? and on the study of the component composition of the fluid generated in this process are presented. The stability of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the implemented conditions is confirmed experimentally. It is established that, under these conditions, crystallization of high-magnesian olivines occurs (Fo = 97-98 mol %). The composition of the fluid is similar to the composition of the fluid from inclusions in synthetic diamonds. The conditions implemented in the experiment might have occurred at the early stages of the Earth’s evolution.
DS202004-0504
2020
Chernykh, S.V., Chernykh, A.V., Tarelkin, S., Didenko, S. ,Kondakov, M.N., Shcherbachev, K.D., Trifonova, E.V., Drozdova, T.E., Troschiev, S.Y., Prikhodko, D.D., Glybin, Y.N., Chubenko, A.P., Britvich, G.I., Kiselev, D.A., Polushin, N.I., Rabinovich, O.IHPHT single crystal diamond type IIa characterization for particle detectors.Physicsa Status Solidi , doi:10.1002/pssa.201900888GlobalHPHT

Abstract: Various samples of multisectoral high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) single-crystal diamond plate (IIa type) (4?×?4?×?0.53?mm) are tested for particle detection applications. The samples are investigated by X-ray diffractometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and visible/ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. High crystalline perfection and low impurity concentration (in the {100} growth sector) are observed. To investigate detector parameters, circular 1.0 and 1.5?mm diameter Pt Schottky barrier contacts are created on {111} and {100} growth sectors. On the backside, a Pt contact (3.5?×?3.5?mm) is produced. The {100} growth sector is proved to be a high-quality detector: the full width at half maximum energy resolution is 0.94% for the 5.489?MeV 226Ra a-line at an operational bias of +500?V. Therefore, it is concluded that the HPHT material {100} growth sector is used for radiation detector production, whose quality is not worse than the chemical vapor deposition method or specially selected natural diamond detectors.
DS202007-1131
2020
Chisenga, C., Van der Meijde, M., Yan, J., Fadel. I., Atekwana, E.A., Steffen, R., Ramotoroko, C.Gravity derived crustal thickness model of Botswana: its implication for the Mw 6.5 April 3, 2017, Botswana earthquake. Tectonophysics, Vol. 787, 228479 12p. PdfAfrica, Botswanageophysics - gravity

Abstract: Botswana experienced a Mw 6.5 earthquake on 3rd April 2017, the second largest earthquake event in Botswana's recorded history. This earthquake occurred within the Limpopo-Shashe Belt, ~350 km southeast of the seismically active Okavango Rift Zone. The region has no historical record of large magnitude earthquakes or active faults. The occurrence of this earthquake was unexpected and underscores our limited understanding of the crustal configuration of Botswana and highlight that neotectonic activity is not only confined to the Okavango Rift Zone. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a regularized inversion algorithm to the Bouguer gravity data to construct a high-resolution crustal thickness map of Botswana. The produced crustal thickness map shows a thinner crust (35-40 km) underlying the Okavango Rift Zone and sedimentary basins, whereas thicker crust (41-46 km) underlies the cratonic regions and orogenic belts. Our results also show localized zone of relatively thinner crust (~40 km), one of which is located along the edge of the Kaapvaal Craton within the MW 6.5 Botswana earthquake region. Based on our result, we propose a mechanism of the Botswana Earthquake that integrates crustal thickness information with elevated heat flow as the result of the thermal fluid from East African Rift System, and extensional forces predicted by the local stress regime. The epicentral region is therefore suggested to be a possible area of tectonic reactivation, which is caused by multiple factors that could lead to future intraplate earthquakes in this region.
DS202008-1380
2020
Choi, E., Fiorentini, M.L., Giuliani, A., Foley, S.F., Maas, R., Taylor, W.R.Subduction related petrogenesis of late Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres in the Yilgarn craton, western Australia.Precambrian Research, Vol. 338, 105550, 18p. PdfAustralialamprophyres

Abstract: We present a comprehensive petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical study of calc-alkaline lamprophyres (CAL) from the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Previous studies have shown that the emplacement age of CAL from the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton is ~2684 to ~2640 Ma. A new Rb/Sr mica age for a CAL sample in the Western Yilgarn is ~2070 Ma. Both Archean and Proterozoic CAL analysed in this study display porphyritic textures and contain phenocrysts of amphibole, minor clinopyroxene and biotite in a fine-grained groundmass dominated by feldspar. High MgO, Ni and Cr abundances (up to 11.9 wt%, 373 and 993 ppm. respectively) are consistent with derivation of primitive magmas from a mantle source. Enrichment in H2O, reflected in the abundance of magmatic amphibole and mica, combined with high whole-rock LILE, Th/Yb ratios and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in trace element patterns are consistent with a source that was metasomatised by hydrous fluids analogous to those generated by Phanerozoic subduction-related processes. Chondritic ?Nd and ?Hf signatures and Archean mantle-like Sr isotope signatures of the Late Archean CAL indicate that the fluid metasomatism required to explain their volatile and trace-element enriched composition shortly preceded partial melting (i.e. there was insufficient time to develop enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures). The concurrence of apparently juvenile radiogenic isotopes and fluid-related trace element compositions requires a geodynamic scenario whereby dehydration of a subducted slab triggered metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge. Our findings therefore support a subduction setting at ~2.6-2.7 Ga along the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton. The CAL from the Western Yilgarn have similar compositions but enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes compared to those in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane. This signature is consistent with melting of lithospheric mantle domains previously enriched by subduction-related metasomatism. Hence, our study suggests the presence of a subduction setting in the Western Yilgarn during the Archean, which is consistent with previous geodynamic reconstructions. However, the geodynamic trigger for the early Proterozoic event that generated CAL magmatism in the Western Yilgarn is currently unclear.
DS202007-1132
2020
Choi, F.M., Fiorentini, M.L., Giuliani, A., Foley, S.F., Maas, R., Taylor, W.R.Subduction related tetrogenesis of late Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres in the Yilgarn craton ( Western Australia).Precambrian Research, Vol. 338, 105550Australialamprophyres

Abstract: We present a comprehensive petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical study of calc-alkaline lamprophyres (CAL) from the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Previous studies have shown that the emplacement age of CAL from the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton is ~2684 to ~2640 Ma. A new Rb/Sr mica age for a CAL sample in the Western Yilgarn is ~2070 Ma. Both Archean and Proterozoic CAL analysed in this study display porphyritic textures and contain phenocrysts of amphibole, minor clinopyroxene and biotite in a fine-grained groundmass dominated by feldspar. High MgO, Ni and Cr abundances (up to 11.9 wt%, 373 and 993 ppm. respectively) are consistent with derivation of primitive magmas from a mantle source. Enrichment in H2O, reflected in the abundance of magmatic amphibole and mica, combined with high whole-rock LILE, Th/Yb ratios and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in trace element patterns are consistent with a source that was metasomatised by hydrous fluids analogous to those generated by Phanerozoic subduction-related processes. Chondritic ?Nd and ?Hf signatures and Archean mantle-like Sr isotope signatures of the Late Archean CAL indicate that the fluid metasomatism required to explain their volatile and trace-element enriched composition shortly preceded partial melting (i.e. there was insufficient time to develop enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures). The concurrence of apparently juvenile radiogenic isotopes and fluid-related trace element compositions requires a geodynamic scenario whereby dehydration of a subducted slab triggered metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge. Our findings therefore support a subduction setting at ~2.6-2.7 Ga along the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton. The CAL from the Western Yilgarn have similar compositions but enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes compared to those in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane. This signature is consistent with melting of lithospheric mantle domains previously enriched by subduction-related metasomatism. Hence, our study suggests the presence of a subduction setting in the Western Yilgarn during the Archean, which is consistent with previous geodynamic reconstructions. However, the geodynamic trigger for the early Proterozoic event that generated CAL magmatism in the Western Yilgarn is currently unclear.
DS202008-1381
2020
Choudhary, B.R., Santosh, M., Ravi, S., Babu, EVSSKIndicator mineral ( spinel) from the Wajrakarur kimberlites, southern India: implications for diamond potential and prospectivity.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractIndiadeposit - Wajraarur, Kalandurg

Abstract: P-5 and Kl-4 Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1110 Ma) kimberlites from the Wajrakarur and Kalyandurg clusters, Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), southern India are intruded into the diamondiferous cratonic roots. The spinel compositions is straddling between magnesian ulvöspinel (Group-1 kimberlite) and titanomagnetite (Group-2 kimberlite), comparable with orangeite and lamproites. These Ti-rich minerals have orangeitic affinity, as in the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, and reflect the high Ti-, high Ca- and the low Al-bearing nature of the parent magma (Group II kimberlites). Larger chrome spinel macrocrysts/xenocrysts show >500 µm of size with distinctly high chromium (Cr2O3 up to 59.62 wt%), and TiO2-poor (<1.19 wt%). The high chromium spinel macrocrysts represent fragments of mantle xenocrysts and their composition falls within the diamond stability field. The groundmass spinel has been replaced by Ti- schorlomite. The schorlomite garnet represents solid solution of schorlomite -pyrope -almandine-grossular and Crrich schorlomite -pyrope -almandine- uvarovite solid solution. These associations recommend that the schorlomite formed through the replacement of spinel through interaction of late residual fluids/melts in the final stages of crystallization of the kimberlite magma and enrichment in Fe and Ti in schorlomite suggests the involvement of metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Present study may have useful application in diamond prospectivity.
DS202005-0727
2020
Chu, J.Origins of Earth's magnetic field remains a mystery. ( Jack Hills)MIT News, 4p. PdfAustraliaGeophysics - magnetics

Abstract: Microscopic minerals excavated from an ancient outcrop of Jack Hills, in Western Australia, have been the subject of intense geological study, as they seem to bear traces of the Earth’s magnetic field reaching as far back as 4.2 billion years ago. That’s almost 1 billion years earlier than when the magnetic field was previously thought to originate, and nearly back to the time when the planet itself was formed. But as intriguing as this origin story may be, an MIT-led team has now found evidence to the contrary. In a paper published today in Science Advances, the team examined the same type of crystals, called zircons, excavated from the same outcrop, and have concluded that zircons they collected are unreliable as recorders of ancient magnetic fields. In other words, the jury is still out on whether the Earth’s magnetic field existed earlier than 3.5 billion years ago.
DS202007-1133
2020
Cimen, O., Corcoran, L., Kuebler, C., Simonetti, S.S., Simonetti, A.Geochemical, stable ( O, C, and B) and radiogenic ( Sr, Nd, Pb) isotopic data from the Eskisehir-Kizulxaoren ( NW-Anatolia) and the Malatya-Kuluncak ( E- central Anatolia) F-REE-Th deposits, Turkey: implications for nature of carbonate-hosted mineralizatiTurkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, doe:10.3906/yer-2001-7 18p. PdfEurope, TurkeyREE
DS202002-0170
2019
Coldebella, B.Intensive (P-T-fO2) crystallization paramenters of Alto Paranaiba kimberlites and diamond instability: Tres Ranchos IV and Limeira I intrusions. ***PortThesis, University of Sao Paulo, August 53p. pdfSouth America, Brazildeposit - Tres Rabchos IV and limeira I

Abstract: Temperature (T), Pressure (P) and Oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions were established for the Três Ranchos IV (diamond-bearing) and Limeira I (sterile) kimberlites of the Coromandel-Três Ranchos kimberlite field (Minas Gerais and Goiás, Brazil), Alto Paranaíba Alkaline Province (APAP), in order to draw a possible correlation between these intensive crystallization parameters and diamond instability. Both Três Ranchos IV and Limeira I are classified as coherent macrocrystic kimberlites, with an inequigranular texture formed by partially-to-fully altered olivine, phlogopite megacrysts up to 1 cm wide, macrocrysts (0.5-10 mm-sized), and crustal xenoliths set in a very fine groundmass composed mainly by perovskite, olivine, phlogopite, spinel, serpentine and carbonates identified in both intrusions. Apatite, ilmenite and monticellite are also present, but only in LM-I. Garnet macrocrysts and centimetric pyroxene xenocrysts phases are also present in Três Ranchos IV and Limeira I, respectively. The samples, strongly enriched in incompatible elements, are all MgO-rich, with high Mg# content. In order to apply different geotherm-and-oxybarometers in the calculation of P-T-fO2 conditions and to characterize the compositional variation of TR-IV and LM-I kimberlites, major, minor and trace-element concentrations of the main mineral phases were obtained by electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS. Olivine cores of Limeira I present higher NiO, CaO and lower Cr2O3 contents than those from Três Ranchos IV. Mg# [(Mg/Mg+FeT), mol.%) ranges from 87 to 92 mol.% in TR-IV and from 83 to 92 mol.% in LM-I. The trace-element contents of olivine are similar in both kimberlites, the concentrations of Li, Zn and Mn appearing to be higher at olivine rims. In olivines from both intrusions, a pattern of enrichment in Zr, Ga, Nb, Sc, V, P, Al, Ti, Cr, Ca, and Mn in rims regions, is observed in the "melt trend" whereas enrichment in Zn, Co, Ni and possibly Na in cores regions, is found in the "mantle trend." In monticellite specimens from Limeira I, Mg# ranges from 72 to 93.8, while Ca/(Ca+Mg) ratios range from 35 to 58 mol.%. The perovskite composition in both LM-I and TR-IV remains close to the ideal CaTiO3, perovskite, but a variation from core endmembers (average Lop16 and Prv78) towards the rims (average Lop13 and Prv81) can be noticed in TR-IV samples. The highest concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE), Nb, and Fe3+ are also observed in perovskites from the TR-IV kimberlite. Macrocrystic spinels of TR-IV kimberlite are Al-rich, whereas the groundmass crystals range from magnesiochromite to chromite. Ilmenites from LM-I are characterized by high MgO values at a given TiO2, with a large variation in Cr2O3. Pyrope garnets (62 to 73 mol.%) are present only in TR-IV, with Mg# ranging from 72 to 79 mol.%, being classified as lherzolitic (G9) and pyroxenitic (G4, G5). Diopside occurs as xenocrysts in LM-I and as microphenocrysts in TR-IV, with Mg# ranging from 85 to 91 and from 87 to 92, respectively. Xenocrystic diopsides from LM-I present higher MgO and FeO concentrations with monticellite grains along crystal rims and fractures. Temperature estimates for the LM-I kimberlite, obtained from the composition of diopside xenocrysts and Al-in olivine concentrations, ranging from 718 to 985 °C. Pressure ranges from 34 to 47 Kbar, as calculated using an empirical curve from a 37-mW/m2 geotherm proposed in the literature for Alto Paranaíba magmas. For TR-IV, temperature values ranging from 975 to 1270°C were obtained from Al-in olivine and Ni-in garnet concentrations. Pressures in the range from 18 to 34 Kbar were obtained from major element composition of garnet samples from TR-IV kimberlite. The fO2 of the TR-IV constrained by perovskite (kimberlite cognate phase) oxygen barometry ranges from NNO-7 to NNO+4, while for LM-I values range from NNO+6 to NNO-4. For the LM-I intrusion, monticellite, another cognate phase used as an oxybarometer, yielded a value range of NNO-4 to NNO+2. A change in the oxygen fugacity from cores towards rim recorded in the perovskites and the monticellite crystals is also noticed. The oxygen fugacity estimates of this work are the first ever calculated for magmas of the Alto Paranaíba Alkaline Province. All P-T-fO2 values obtained are consistent with literature data on the APAP. Clinopyroxene xenocrysts from LM-I were classified as garnet-facies clinopyroxene, according to the compositions obtained in this work. Such results, along with pressure, and temperature data from and the presence of Mg-ilmenite in LM-I (known to be sterile), indicate that the kimberlite magma might have at least crossed the diamond stability field. The variation in oxygen fugacity observed in both kimberlites possibly reflects the instability of diamonds in these magmas since LM-I presents slightly higher oxidation conditions.
DS202007-1134
2020
Coldebella, B., Azzone, R.G., Chmyz, L., Ruberti, E., Svisero, D.P.Oxygen fugacity of Alto Paranaiba kimberlites and diamond stability: Tres Ranchos IV and Limeira I intrusions.Brazilian Journal of Geology, Vol. 50, 1, 15p.South America, Brazildeposit - Tres Ranchos IV

Abstract: Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) conditions were established for Três Ranchos IV (TR-IV, diamond-bearing) and Limeira I (LM-I, barren) kimberlite intrusions, in Alto Paranaíba Alkaline Province, to constrain a possible correlation between fO2 and diamond instability. Temperature and pressure estimates obtained from the xenocryst assemblage composition are compatible up to garnet lherzolite levels. It suggests that both intrusions could cross the diamond-stability field. The ƒO2 of the TR-IV constrained by perovskite oxygen barometry presents an average value of -2.4 for ?NNO, with standard deviation of 1.30 (n = 120), whereas those calculations for LM-I have an average value of -1.31 for ?NNO, with standard deviation of 1.38 (n = 81). Considering these uncertainties, there is an important superposition of fO2 values for both intrusions, in which there is higher tendency of more reduced conditions for TR-IV. For the LM-I, an oxybarometer based on the composition of monticellite yielded a similar ?NNO range: -4.2 and +2.5. Some crystals and samples present trends towards more reduced conditions, while others display more oxidized conditions for each intrusion. Due to the superposition of ranges and absence of a preferential trend, the influence of fO2 for the possible instability of diamonds in the study area remains uncertain.
DS202005-0728
2020
Conceicao, F.T., Vasconcelos, P.M., Godoy, L.H., Navarro, G.R.B.40Ar/40Ar geochronological evidence for multiple magmatic events during the emplacement of Tapira alkaline-carbonatite complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 97, 102416, 7p. PdfSouth America, Brazil, Minas Geraiscarbonatite

Abstract: The Alto Parnaíba Igneous Province (APIP) is a voluminous magmatic province composed of various alkaline-carbonatite complexes emplaced in the Brasilia Mobile Belt during the Cretaceous. Relative timing of emplacement of silicate and carbonate magmas in most of these complexes remains mostly unresolved due to conflicting geochronological results. To determine the duration of magmatism and to test the possible existence of multiple magmatic events, we employ 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite single crystal dating to determine the history of magma emplacement at the Tapira alkaline-carbonatite complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new single crystal data indicate at least two magmatic events during the emplacement of this complex, the first at > 96.2 ± 0.8 Ma and the second at 79.15 ± 0.6 Ma. The first igneous event was responsible for emplacement of the silicate plutonic series, while the second event corresponds to the emplacement of primarily carbonatitic magmas, generating metasomatic phlogopite alteration in bebedourites. The ages of intrusion and cooling of the alkaline-carbonatite complexes in the APIP must be investigated in other complexes to determine if intrusion intervals of ~17 Ma or more are common regionally. Protracted intrusive events, if related to magma generation by passage of South America over a stationary Trindade plume, requires complex ponding and lateral magma flow below a slow-moving continent.
DS202008-1382
2020
Conceicao, R.V., Marcon, V.H., Souza, M.R.W., Carniel, L.C., Quinteiro, R.V.S., Rovani, P., Mizusaki, A.M.P., Spitzenberger, M.S.Carbonatite/lamproite liquid imissibility in the Earth's mantle through the nefeline-diopside-kalsilite+-CO2, CH4, H2O diagram.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractMantlelamproite

Abstract: The presence and speciation of volatile C-H-O elements in the silicate systems play an important role in the genesis of magmas on the Earth’s mantle, due to the fact that these elements, mainly in the form of H2O, CO2, CH4 and CxHy, decrease the solidi temperatures of source rocks, making magmatism possible in Earth’s present day thermal conditions [1]. Among those elements, carbon is the only element that changes its valence according to the oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions of the environment, resulting in different speciation, as: CO3 -2, CO2, Cgraphite/diamond, CH4 or heavier hydrocarbons. In the present work, we are determining phase stability of minerals, water, CO2 and CH4 in the system Nefeline-Kalsilite-Diopside. Our experiments are conducted under 4.0 GPa and temperatures up to 1300°C, using a 1000 tonf hydraulic press coupled with toroidal chambers. Preliminary experiments performed at 1300°C and 4.0GPa (initial composition in the Olivine-Quartz- Kalsalite/Nepheline system: 40mol% Ol90, 40mol% Nph50Kls50 and 20mol% Qz, PH2O,CO2=Ptotal) resulted in the formation of forsterite (Fo90) in equilibrium with phlogopite (Phl), melt and volatile phases (CO2 and CH4). Closer to the Diopside vertice, the addition of CO3 to the sample resulted in a imisibility of a carbonatitic and a silicatic melt, in which the carbonititic melt is enriched in sodium, while the silcate melt is enriched in potassium. Appart from that, experiments in different parts of the diagram suggest compositions from nephelinite-kalsilitite to lamproites composition for the silicate melt in equilibrium with diopside (solid solution with omphacite) and phlogopite. This work is a continuation of previous work in the anhydrous diagram and future works will provide the addition of CH4 as the volatile phase
DS202006-0915
2020
Conover, E.Physicists have harnessed the aloofness of quantum particles to create a new type of crystal. Pauli crystal ( not specific to diamonds just for interest)Science News, May 19, 2p.Europe, GermanyCrystallography
DS202007-1135
2020
Corfu, F., Hegde, V.S.U-Pb systematics of the western Dharwar craton - glimpse of a billion year history of crustal evolution and relations to ancient supercratons.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 102, 102659, 12p. PdfIndiageochronology

Abstract: The Dharwar Craton developed progressively over a billion years, through two main stages of crustal growth separated by a few-hundred million year long period of relative quiescence. The first stage between 3.4 and 3.0 Ga developed a proto-craton, which was considerably amplified during the second main stage between 2.7 and 2.4 Ga, through extensive magmatism, tectonism, and crustal consolidation. This paper reports U-Pb dating results obtained in four specific areas of the craton, with the data encompassing key moments in this long development. Rocks formed during the proto-craton stage include a 3089 Ma augen gneiss and a 2973 Ma evolved granite, the latter of which marks the final cratonization event of the proto-craton. The beginning of the second main stage is recorded in this study by 2650 Ma tonalite and trondhjemite, a 2623 Ma granite dyke cutting augen gneiss, and 2614, 2602 and 2588 Ma volcanic rocks. Titanite responded differently to the long evolution, as a function of location and type of overprint. It preserved an original 2973 Ma magmatic age in the west, but was reset and/or crystallized during secondary events in central domains of the craton, yielding ages between 2590 and 2360 Ma. A diorite stock intruded at 2207 Ma in the consolidated crust. It is correlated with the Anantapur-Kunigal mafic dyke swarm, one of a series of such events in the Dharwar Craton between 2.35 and 1.79 Ma. In terms of its overall evolution the Dharwar Craton has an affinity with the Slave clan, which includes the Wyoming and Zimbabwe cratons. It also matches many features in the evolution of the São Francisco Craton, a probable other member of Sclavia. This is in contrast to the Amazonian Craton, which has more affinity with the Superior clan.
DS202001-0005
2019
Cui, K., Wardle, B.L.Cited as reference to Ball paper on Black diamonds.ACS Applied Material Interfaces, Vol. 11, pp. 35212-35220Globalnanodiamond
DS202004-0505
2018
Cummings, D.I., Russell, H.A.J.Glacial dispersal trains in North America.Journal of Maps ( Taylor & Francis) on linkedin, Vol. 14, 2, pp. 476-485. pdfUnited States, CanadaGlaciation, geomorphology, map

Abstract: A map depicting glacial dispersal trains in North America has been compiled from published sources. It covers the Canadian Shield, the Arctic Islands, the Cordillera and Appalachian mountains, and Phanerozoic sedimentary basins south of the Shield. In total, 140 trains are portrayed, including those emanating from major mineral-deposit types (e.g. gold, base metal, diamondiferous kimberlite, etc.). The map took 10 years of on-and-off work to generate, and it culls data from over 150 years of work by government, industry, and academia. It provides a new tool to help companies find ore deposits in Canada: the trains are generally a better predictor of dispersal distance and direction than striations and streamlined landforms, the data typically depicted on surficial-geology maps, including the Glacial Map of Canada. It also gives new insight into sedimentation patterns and processes beneath ice sheets, a sedimentary environment that, because of its inaccessibility, remains poorly understood and controversial.
DS202002-0171
2019
Cutts, J.A., Smit, M., Spengler, D., van Roermind, H., Kooijman, E.Punctuated evolution of the Archean SCLM in sync with the supercontinent cycle. Western Gneiss ComplexAmericam Geophysical Union Fall meeting, 1p. AbstractEurope, Norwayeclogites, peridotites

Abstract: The preservation of Archean cratons is typically attributed to the presence of a highly-depleted and buoyant sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that is equally old or older than its overlying crust. Time constraints on the formation and petrological evolution of the SCLM are key to investigating its long-term evolution and role in the formation and preservation of the continental crust. Nevertheless, such constraints are difficult to obtain as well-preserved samples of the SCLM are rare and typically lack conventional chronometric minerals. The history of SCLM rocks is typically inferred on the basis of model ages, many of which indicate an Archean origin; however, these dates are difficult to link to specific mineral assemblages or chemical signatures, and the petrological and dynamic processes that these represent. Garnet Lu-Hf geochronology is one of the few chronometers that could overcome this limitation. In this study, a refined method in Lu-Hf garnet chronology was applied to fragments of the Laurentian SCLM that are now exposed as orogenic peridotites in the ultrahigh-pressure domains of the Western Gneiss Complex, Norway. The peridotite bodies comprise a variety of unusually well-preserved rock types-from dunites that record decompression and melting at >350 km depth to fertile lithologies produced by melting and fluid metasomatism. Our internal isochron results from pyrope (after exsolution from majorite) in dunite samples yielded identical Neoarchean ages; these are the first-ever obtained for mantle garnet. The ages coincide with a time interval during which there was voluminous juvenile crust formation, indicating a link between this global process and the deeply sourced mantle upwellings that these samples represent. Internal isochrons from websterite-and clinopyroxenite-hosted pyrope yielded Meso-to Neoproterozoic ages that exactly match two distinct supercontinent break-up events in the overlying continental crust. Together, the new Lu-Hf results indicate that since its extraction during a period of widespread Archean crustal growth, the Laurentian SCLM appears to have largely been at petro-physical and chemical stasis and evolved only during short pulses that ran in sync with the supercontinent cycle.
DS202002-0172
2019
Czas, J., Pearson, G., Stachel, T., Kjarsgaard, B., Read, G.H. J. Pearson, G., Stachel, T., KjaA Paleoproterozoic diamond bearing lithospheric mantle root beneath the Archean Sask craton, Canada.Lithos, DOI:10.1016/ j.lithos.2019.105301Canada, Saskatchewandiamond genesis
DS202008-1383
2020
Dalton, H., Giuiani, A., Phillips, D., Hergt, J., Maas, R., Woodhead, J., Matchan, E., O'Brien, H.Kimberlite magmatism in Finland: distinct sources and links to the breakup of Rodinia.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractEurope, Finlanddeposit - Kuusamo

Abstract: The Karelian Craton in Finland is host to (at least) two distinct pulses of kimberlite magmatism. Twenty kimberlite occurrences have so far been discovered on the southwest margin of the craton at Kaavi-Kuopio and seven kimberlites are located in the Kuusamo area within the core of the craton. Comprehensive radiometric age determinations (U-Pb, Ar- Ar and Rb-Sr) reveal that all kimberlite activity was restricted to the Proterozoic. The Kaavi-Kuopio field was emplaced over a protracted period from ~610 to 550 Ma and is predated by the Kuusamo cluster that represents a relatively short pulse of magmatism at ~750 to 730 Ma. The emplacement of kimberlites globally has recently been linked to supercontinent reorganisation and we propose a similar scenario for these Finnish occurrences which, at the time of kimberlite emplacement, were situated on the Baltica paleo-continent. This land mass was contiguous with Laurentia in the Proterozoic and together formed part of Rodinia. The breakup of Rodinia is considered to have commenced at ~750 Ma and initiation of the opening of the Iapetus ocean at ~615 Ma. Contemporaneous with Kaavi-Kuopio magmatism, this latter period of Neoproterozoic crustal extension also includes the emplacement of kimberlites and related rocks in areas that were linked with Baltica as part of Rodinia - West Greenland and eastern North America. Both the initial and final periods of Rodinia’s breakup have been linked to mantle upwellings from the core-mantle boundary. We suggest that kimberlite magmatism in Finland was promoted by the influx of heat from mantle upwellings and lithospheric extension associated with the demise of Rodinia. Although both magmatic episodes are potentially linked to the breakup of Rodinia, whole-rock and perovskite radiogenic isotope compositions for the Kuusamo kimberlites (eNd(i) +2.6 to +3.3, eHf(i) +3.1 to +5.6) are distinct from the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites (eNd(i) -0.7 to +1.8, eHf(i) -6.1 to +5.2). The spread in Hf isotope compositions for the Kaavi-Kuopio magmas may be linked to variable assimilation of diverse mantle lithologies.
DS202002-0173
2019
Dalton, H., Giuliani, A., O'Brien, H., Phillips, D., Hergt, J.The role of lithospheric heterogeneity on the composition of kimberlite magmas from a single field: the case of Kaavi-Kuopio, Finland.Lithos, in press available, 61p. PdfEurope, Finlanddeposit - Kaavi-Kuopio

Abstract: Kimberlites are complex, ‘hybrid’ igneous rocks because their parental magmas entrain abundant crust- and mantle-derived components that can be readily assimilated during ascent to surface. Recent studies of olivine zonation patterns have shown compositional relationships between xenocrystic cores and magmatic rims, suggesting that kimberlite melt compositions might be controlled by assimilation of mantle material during emplacement. However, the nature and extent to which this process, as well as assimilation of crustal material, influences melt compositions within single kimberlite fields remains unclear. To address this issue, we have conducted a comprehensive geochemical and petrographic investigation of kimberlites from eight pipes in the Kaavi-Kuopio field in Finland, which were emplaced on the southern margin of the Karelian craton during the Neoproterozoic (~550-600 Ma). While magmatic olivine rims are usually homogeneous in composition within and between kimberlites of a single cluster and field (e.g., Lac de Gras), the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites appear to represent a unique case where there are statistically significant differences between the average Mg# of olivine rims in different pipes (89.9 ± 0.2 to 88.5 ± 0.3). Importantly, the Mg# of magmatic olivine rims exhibit a strong correlation with the Mg# of their mantle-derived xenocrystic cores. Furthermore, the compositions of olivine cores and rims exhibit a robust relationship with those of magmatic spinel (e.g., Mg#, TiO2 contents). These geochemical variations also align with the mineralogy of the kimberlites: whereby abundances of phlogopite and oxides (e.g., spinel) are negatively correlated with olivine rim Mg#. The robust relationship between entrained and assimilated lithospheric mantle material (i.e. olivine cores) and magmatic components (i.e. olivine rims, spinel, and groundmass mineral abundance), combined with numerical modelling suggests that up to 10 wt% assimilation of lithospheric mantle material has modified the compositions of the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites. These new data are also consistent with significant variations in the lithospheric mantle composition of the Karelian craton beneath the closely spaced (<10 km) kimberlites. Finally, in addition to mantle assimilation, formation of Si-Fe-rich mica in some of the examined kimberlites might be linked to late-stage increases in oxygen fugacity potentially enhanced by crustal contamination. This study shows for the first time that variable assimilation of mantle and crustal material can generate significant variations in kimberlites derived from seemingly similar sources.
DS202002-0174
2019
Dalton, H., Giuliani, A., O'Brien, H., Phillips, D., Maas, R. Petrogenesis of a hybrid cluster of evolved kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in the Kuusamo area, Finland. Kasma 45, Kasma 45 south, Kasma 47, Kalettomanpuro, Kattaisenvaara, Dike 15 and LampiJournal of Petrology, in press available, 79p. PdfEurope, Finlanddeposit - Kuusamo

Abstract: Kimberlites are often closely associated, both in time and space, with a wide variety of alkaline ultramafic rock types; yet the question of a genetic relationship between these rock types remains uncertain. One locality where these relationships can be studied within the same cluster is the Karelian craton in Finland. In this study we present the first petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical results for the most recently discovered kimberlite cluster on this craton, which represents an example of the close spatial overlap of kimberlites with ultramafic lamprophyres. The Kuusamo cluster incorporates seven bodies (Kasma 45, Kasma 45 south, Kasma 47, Kalettomanpuro (KP), Kattaisenvaara (KV), Dike 15 and Lampi) distributed along a 60?km NE-SW corridor. Hypabyssal samples from KV, KP, Kasma 45 and Kasma 47 consist of altered olivine macrocrysts and microcrysts and phlogopite phenocrysts in a groundmass of perovskite, apatite, spinel, ilmenite, serpentine, and calcite. These petrographic features combined with mineral (e.g., Mg-rich ilmenite, Al-Ba-rich, Ti-Fe-poor mica) and whole-rock incompatible trace element compositions (La/Nb = 0.8 ± 0.1; Th/Nb = 0.07 ± 0.01; Nb/U = 66 ± 9) are consistent with these rocks being classified as archetypal kimberlites. These Kuusamo kimberlites are enriched in CaO and poor in MgO, which combined with the absence of chromite and paucity of olivine macrocrysts and mantle-derived xenocrysts (including diamonds), suggest derivation from differentiated magmas after crystal fractionation. Samples from Lampi share similar petrographic features, but contain mica with compositions ranging from kimberlitic (Ba-Al-rich cores) to those more typical of orangeites/lamproites (increasing Si-Fe, decreasing Al-Ti-Ba), and have higher bulk-rock SiO2 contents than the Kuusamo kimberlites. These features, combined with the occurrence of quartz and titanite in the groundmass, indicate derivation from a kimberlite magma that underwent considerable crustal contamination. This study shows that crustal contamination can modify kimberlites by introducing features typical of alkaline ultramafic rock types. Dike 15 represents a distinct carbonate-rich lithology dominated by phlogopite over olivine, with lesser amounts of titaniferous clinopyroxene and manganoan ilmenite. Phlogopite (Fe-Ti-rich) and spinel (high Fe2+/Fe2++Mg) compositions are also distinct from the other Kuusamo intrusions. The petrographic and geochemical features of Dike 15 are typical of ultramafic lamprophyres, specifically, aillikites. Rb-Sr dating of phlogopite in Dike 15 yields an age of 1178.8 ± 4.1?Ma (2s), which is considerably older than the ~750?Ma emplacement age of the Kuusamo kimberlites. This new age indicates significant temporal overlap with the Lentiira-Kuhmo-Kostomuksha olivine lamproites emplaced ~100?km to the southeast. It is suggested that asthenospheric aillikite magmas similar to Dike 15 evolved to compositions akin to the Karelian orangeites and olivine lamproites through interaction with and assimilation of MARID-like, enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. We conclude that the spatial coincidence of the Kuusamo kimberlites and Dike 15 is likely the result of exploitation of similar trans-lithospheric corridors.
DS202006-0916
2020
Davey, S.C., Bleeker, W., Kamo, S.L., Vuollo, J., Ernst, R.E., Cousens, B.L.Archean block rotation in western Karelia: resolving dyke swarm patterns in metacraton Karelia-Kola for a refined paleogeographic reconstruction of supercraton Superia.Lithos, in press available 95p. PdfRussia, Kola Peninsulacraton

Abstract: Rifting, breakup, and subsequent collision related to the ca. 1.92-1.79?Ga Svecofennian orogeny fragmented and deformed the western margin of the Archean Karelia-Kola craton into four crustal blocks: Pudasjärvi, Iisalmi, Kuhmo, and Taivalkoski. Detailed quantification of Svecofennian deformation is limited due to poorly exposed basement geology and an as yet incomplete dyke swarm record. New U-Pb ID-TIMS geochronological results on baddeleyite and zircon are presented for three key mafic dykes from the Pudasjärvi block, namely the Uolevinlehto, Myllykangas, and Sipojuntti dykes. The age of the 325°-trending Uolevinlehto dyke is estimated at ca. 2400?±?12?Ma from discordant multigrain baddeleyite fractions, showing it to be younger than ca. 2450?Ma dykes across Karelia. The 350°-trending Myllykangas dyke has a minimum age of 2135.2?+?3.6/-3.7?Ma based on chemically abraded zircon. Results from single baddeleyite grains provide a precise upper intercept age of 2128.9?±?1.2?Ma for the 320°-trending Sipojuntti dyke. Our new U-Pb ages are integrated with those from the literature to define six major dyke swarms in the Pudasjärvi block: the WNW-trending ca. 2.45?Ga Pääjärvi, NW-trending ca. 2.40?Ga Uolevinlehto, NW-trending ca. 2.13-2.10?Ga Tohmajärvi, WNW-trending ca. 2.07?Ga Palomaa, NNW-trending ca. 1.98?Ga Paukkajanvaara and undated"East-West" dykes. Trends of contemporaneous dyke swarms in the Taivalkoski and Kuhmo blocks, however, are systematically offset by 35°. With subvertical dips, offset dyke swarms record 35° clockwise vertical-axis rotation of the Pudasjärvi block relative to the interior of Karelia, consistent with dextral transpression during the Svecofennian orogeny. Structural restoration of the Pudasjärvi blocks improves the constraints on regional dyke swarm patterns, and these are used to revise the position of the Karelia-Kola craton within the context of the paleogeographic reconstruction of supercraton Superia.
DS202002-0175
2019
de Araujo Neto, J.F., de Brito Barreto, S., Carrino, T.A., Muller, A., de Lira Santos, L.C.M.Mineralogical and gemological characterization of emerald crystals from Parana deposit, NE Brazil: a study of mineral chemistry, absorption and reflectance spectroscopy and thermal analysis.Brazil Journal of Geology ( www.scielo.br) ENG, 15p. PdfSouth America, Brazildeposit - Parana

Abstract: The Paraná deposit, located at Southwestern Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil, is one of the few emerald deposits found at Borborema Province. The mineralization occurs in phlogopite schists and actinolite-phlogopite schists associated with pegmatites and albitites within the Portalegre Shear Zone. Unlike other well-known Brazilian emerald deposits, the mineralogy of Paraná emeralds has remained poorly investigated for the last 40 years. In this study, we conducted mineralogical characterization of theses emeralds through gemological testing, mineral chemistry, absorption and reflectance spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The Paraná emeralds are bluish-green colored, characterized by high refractive index, several two-phase fluid inclusions and mica is the main mineral inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses detected the presence of Fe2+ (0.43-1.94 wt.% FeO) and Cr3+ (0.04-0.14 wt.% Cr2O3) as the main chromophores replacing octahedral Al3+ in the crystal structure. In addition, substantial amounts of MgO (0.40-2.72 wt.%), Na2O (0.50-1.81 wt.%), and Cs2O (0.07-0.44 wt.%) were also identified. The main causes for its coloration were attributed to Cr3+ absorption features in visible spectral range, which were corroborated by absorption and reflectance spectra. The presence of types I and II H2O at channel-sites was recorded in Fourier-transform infrared spectra and demonstrated by dehydration processes observed in different thermal and thermogravimetric analyses.
DS202002-0176
2019
De Hoog, J.C.M., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W.Trace element geochemistry of diamond hosted olivine inclusions from the Akwatia mine, West African Craton: implications for diamond paragenesis and geothermobarometry.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, (12) doi: 10.1007/s00410-019-1634-yAfrica, Ghanadeposit - Akwatia

Abstract: Trace-element concentrations in olivine and coexisting garnets included in diamonds from the Akwatia Mine (Ghana, West African Craton) were measured to show that olivine can provide similar information about equilibration temperature, diamond paragenesis and mantle processes as garnet. Trace-element systematics can be used to distinguish harzburgitic olivines from lherzolite ones: if Ca/Al ratios of olivine are below the mantle lherzolite trend (Ca/Al??300 µg/g Ca or?>?60 µg/g Na are lherzolitic. Conventional geothermobarometry indicates that Akwatia diamonds formed and resided close to a 39 mW/m2 conductive geotherm. A similar value can be derived from Al in olivine geothermometry, with TAl-ol ranging from 1020 to 1325 °C. Ni in garnet temperatures is on average somewhat higher (TNi-grt?=?1115-1335 °C) and the correlation between the two thermometers is weak, which may be not only due to the large uncertainties in the calibrations, but also due to disequilibrium between inclusions from the same diamond. Calcium in olivine should not be used as a geothermobarometer for harzburgitic olivines, and often gives unrealistic P-T estimates for lherzolitic olivine as well. Diamond-hosted olivine inclusions indicate growth in an extremely depleted (low Ti, Ca, Na, high Cr#) environment with no residual clinopyroxene. They are distinct from olivines from mantle xenoliths which show higher, more variable Ti contents and lower Cr#. Hence, most olivine inclusions in Akwatia diamonds escaped the refertilisation processes that have affected most mantle xenoliths. Lherzolitic inclusions are probably the result of refertilisation after undergoing high-degree melting first. Trivalent cations appear to behave differently in harzburgitic diamond-hosted olivine inclusions than lherzolitic inclusions and olivine from mantle xenoliths. Some divalent chromium is predicted to be present in most olivine inclusions, which may explain high concentrations up to 0.16 wt% Cr2O3 observed in some diamond inclusions. Strong heterogeneity of Cr, V and Al in several inclusions may also result in apparent high Cr contents, and is probably due to late-stage processes during exhumation. However, in general, diamond-hosted olivine inclusions have lower Cr and V than expected compared to mantle xenoliths. Reduced Na activity in depleted harzburgites limits the uptake of Cr, V and Sc via Na-M3+ exchange. In contrast, Al partitioning in harzburgites is not significantly reduced compared to lherzolites, presumably due to uptake of Al in olivine by Al-Al exchange.
DS202002-0177
2019
de Mamam Anzolin H., Dani, N., Remus, M.V.D., da Rocha Ribeiro, R., Nunes, A.R., Ruppel, K.M.V.Apatite multi-generations in the Tres Estradas carbonatite, southern Brazil: physical and chemistry meaning and implications to phosphate ore quality. Brazil Journal of Geology ( www.scielo.br) ENG, 17p. PdfSouth America, Brazildeposit - Tres Estradas

Abstract: Carbonatites were recently discovered in Southern Brazil, which increased the interest to evaluate the economic potential of these uncommon rocks, especially the Três Estradas Carbonatite. Carbonates are the dominant minerals of fresh rock followed by apatite, but the weathering process makes apatite abundant. We focused on apatite from the carbonatite using conventional petrography and electronic microscopy associated with microprobe, micro-Raman and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the existence of four types. The primary type is associated with the rock crystallization and the subsequent three others are associated with weathering processes. The alteration mechanism was favorable for initial carbonate leaching and subsequent increase of phosphate with late precipitation of three new apatite generations. The deduced model involves long exposure during polycyclic climate changes, intercalating periods of warm dry with humid climate. The apatite types differ chemically and morphologically and have distinctive characteristics that are suitable to be used to differentiate them. These properties should be considered in future planes of industrial processes to transform apatite into single superphosphate, a basic input for fertilizer production.
DS202005-0729
2020
Decree, S., Cawthorn, G., Deloule, E., Mercadier, J., Frimmel, H., Baele, J-M.Unravelling the processes controlling apatite formation in the Phalaborwa Complex ( South Africa) based on combined cathodluminescence, LA-ICPMS and in-situ O and Sr isotope analyses.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 34 31p. PdfAfrica, South Africacarbonatite

Abstract: The Phalaborwa world-class phosphate deposit (South Africa) is hosted by a Paleoproterozoic alkaline complex mainly composed of phoscorite, carbonatite, pyroxenitic rocks, and subordinate fenite. In addition, syenite and trachyte occur in numerous satellite bodies. New petrological and in-situ geochemical data along with O and Sr isotope data obtained on apatite demonstrate that apatite is in the principal host rocks (pyroxenitic rocks, phoscorite and carbonatite) formed primarily by igneous processes from mantle-derived carbonatitic magmas. Early-formed magmatic apatite is particularly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), with a decrease in the REE content ascribed to magma differentiation and early apatite fractionation in isolated interstitial melt pockets. Rayleigh fractionation favored a slight increase in d18O (below 1%) at a constant Sr isotopic composition. Intrusion of fresh carbonatitic magma into earlier-formed carbonatite bodies locally induced re-equilibration of early apatite with REE enrichment but at constant O and Sr isotopic compositions. In fenite, syenite and trachyte, apatite displays alteration textures and LREE depletion, reflecting interaction with fluids. A marked decrease in d18O in apatite from syenite and trachyte indicates a contribution from d18O-depleted meteoric fluids. This is consistent with the epizonal emplacement of the satellite bodies. The general increase of the Sr isotope ratios in apatite in these rocks reflects progressive interaction with the country rocks over time. This study made it possible to decipher, with unmatched precision, the succession of geological processes that led to one of the most important phosphate deposits worldwide.
DS202004-0506
2020
Delord, T., Huillery, P., Nicolas, L., Hetet, G.Spin-cooling of the motion of trapped diamond.Nature, March 23, in press available Globalnitrogen

Abstract: Observing and controlling macroscopic quantum systems has long been a driving force in quantum physics research. In particular, strong coupling between individual quantum systems and mechanical oscillators is being actively studied. Whereas both read-out of mechanical motion using coherent control of spin systems and single-spin read-out using pristine oscillators have been demonstrated, temperature control of the motion of a macroscopic object using long-lived electronic spins has not been reported. Here we observe a spin-dependent torque and spin-cooling of the motion of a trapped microdiamond. Using a combination of microwave and laser excitation enables the spins of nitrogen-vacancy centres to act on the diamond orientation and to cool the diamond libration via a dynamical back-action. Furthermore, by driving the system in the nonlinear regime, we demonstrate bistability and self-sustained coherent oscillations stimulated by spin-mechanical coupling, which offers the prospect of spin-driven generation of non-classical states of motion. Such a levitating diamond-held in position by electric field gradients under vacuum-can operate as a ‘compass’ with controlled dissipation and has potential use in high-precision torque sensing, emulation of the spin-boson problem15 and probing of quantum phase transitions. In the single-spin limit and using ultrapure nanoscale diamonds, it could allow quantum non-demolition read-out of the spin of nitrogen-vacancy centres at ambient conditions, deterministic entanglement between distant individual spins and matter-wave interferometry.
DS202004-0507
2020
Demarco, P.N., Masquelin, H., Prezzi, C., Muzio, R., Loureiro, J., Peel, E., Campal, N., Sanchez Bettucci, L. Aeromagnetic patterns in southern Uruguay: Precambrian- Mesozoic dyke swarms and Mesozoic rifting structural and tectonic evolution.Tectonophysics, in press available 40p. PdfSouth America, Uruguaygeophysics

Abstract: New high-resolution airborne magnetic data of Uruguay allowed constructing new maps concerning the spatial distribution of dyke swarms, main faults and other magnetic bodies, which compose the Uruguayan Shield. We combined geophysical analyses (vertical derivatives, upward continuation, Euler deconvolution), structural analyses of the magnetic maps and previous geological data in order to discriminate the main structural features of the Uruguayan Shield and contribute to a better understanding of its tectonic evolution. The magnetic maps revealed several outstanding features in the Uruguayan Shield. The Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm is larger, denser, more widespread and complex than originally thought, suggesting a possible plume origin. In addition, a new Mesozoic dyke swarm, as complex as the previous one, was identified crosscutting the Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm and the Neoproterozoic orogenic structures. Moreover, this swarm is connected to volcanic calderas in the Merín basin, and shows displacements along Neoproterozoic shear zones, in the magnetic maps, revealing its brittle reactivation during Mesozoic times. The new observations clarify how Proterozoic basement structures controlled the development of the Mesozoic rift. Paleoproterozoic dyke swarms were reactivated as normal faults and Neoproterozoic structures hindered the rift growth, deflecting the deformation in transcurrent movements. Meanwhile, the Mesozoic dyke swarm was developed in a perpendicular direction to the Neoproterozoic structures. Moreover, these findings contradict the current rift model for Uruguay and rise a new model in which the Mesozoic rift developed as two rift basins connected by a central transfer zone, generated by the reactivation of Dom Feliciano Belt structures, between the Sierra Ballena and Sarandí del Yí Shear Zones.
DS202002-0178
2019
Dewey, J.F.Musings in tectonics.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 56, pp. 1077-1094.MantleTectonic history

Abstract: I outline and discuss my career in the context of the history of structural geology and tectonics, the progressive developments that led to plate tectonics, the people who have encouraged and influenced me, the events that changed my life, my fifty six doctoral students who have taught me so much, and my principal interests in tectonics. I discuss, in particular, nine topics of special current interest: the evolution of Tibet, the geomorphology of the British Isles, transtension, the Precambrian, the complexities of plate boundary evolution, Appalachian-Caledonian evolution, ophiolites, the structure and strength of the lithosphere, and the subducting slab.
DS202004-0508
2020
Diggle, P.L., Dhaenens-Johannsson, U., Green, B., Welbourn, C.M., Tran Thi, T.N., Wang, W., Newton, M.E. Decoration of growth sector boundaries with single nitrogen vacancy centres in as-grown single crystal HPHT synthetic diamond.Diamond and Related Materials, arxiv.org 21p. Globalsynthetics

Abstract: Large (> 100 mm3), relatively pure (type II) and low birefringence single crystal diamond can be produced by high pressure high temperature (HPHT) synthesis. In this study we examine a HPHT sample of good crystalline perfection, containing less than 1 ppb (part per billion carbon atoms) of boron impurity atoms in the {001} growth sector and only tens of ppb of nitrogen impurity atoms. It is shown that the boundaries between {111} and {113} growth sectors are decorated by negatively charged nitrogen vacancy centres (NV-): no decoration is observed at any other type of growth sector interface. This decoration can be used to calculated the relative {111} and {113} growth rates. The bulk (001) sector contains concentrations of luminescent point defects (excited with 488 and 532 nm wavelengths) below 1011 cm-3 (10-3 ppb). We observe the negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV-) defect in the bulk {111} sectors along with a zero phonon line emission associated with a nickel defect at 884 nm (1.40 eV). No preferential orientation is seen for either NV- or SiV- defects, but the nickel related defect is oriented with its trigonal axis along the <111> sector growth direction. Since the NV- defect is expected to readily re-orientate at HPHT diamond growth temperatures, no preferential orientation is expected for this defect but the lack of preferential orientation of SiV- in {111} sectors is not explained.
DS202001-0006
2019
Dirlam, D.M., Rogers, C.L., Weldon, R.Gemstones in the era of the Taj Mahal and the Mughals.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 3, pp. 294-319.Indiahistory

Abstract: The Taj Mahal evokes an image of a monumental building and reflecting pool—its classic view. But the Taj Mahal complex is much more than that. It is actually a series of beautiful buildings and gardens in Agra, India, built in the seventeenth century in loving memory of Mumtaz Mahal. This name, given by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to one of his brides, means “Chosen One of the Palace.” Famed for its architectural magnificence, the landmark holds additional significance for the gemologist. Upon closer investigation, one is impressed with the intricacies of the inlay of numerous gems to create thousands of designs throughout the buildings on the grounds. This article sheds light on the gems used in decorating the Taj Mahal and in the extraordinary jewelry collected by Shah Jahan and other Mughals. These gems often took intricate trade routes to Agra, which are also discussed, along with the craft used to create the inlays and the efforts undertaken to preserve this Wonder of the World.
DS202003-0335
2020
Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., Ernst, R.E., Kirscher, U., Gamel El Dien, H., Mitchell, R.N.Coupled supercontinent-mantle plume events evidence by oceanic plume record.Geology, Vol. 48, pp. 159-163.Mantle, Africageodynamics

Abstract: The most dominant features in the present-day lower mantle are the two antipodal African and Pacific large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs). How and when these two structures formed, and whether they are fixed and long lived through Earth history or dynamic and linked to the supercontinent cycles, remain first-order geodynamic questions. Hotspots and large igneous provinces (LIPs) are mostly generated above LLSVPs, and it is widely accepted that the African LLSVP existed by at least ca. 200 Ma beneath the supercontinent Pangea. Whereas the continental LIP record has been used to decipher the spatial and temporal variations of plume activity under the continents, plume records of the oceanic realm before ca. 170 Ma are mostly missing due to oceanic subduction. Here, we present the first compilation of an Oceanic Large Igneous Provinces database (O-LIPdb), which represents the preserved oceanic LIP and oceanic island basalt occurrences preserved in ophiolites. Using this database, we are able to reconstruct and compare the record of mantle plume activity in both the continental and oceanic realms for the past 2 b.y., spanning three supercontinent cycles. Time-series analysis reveals hints of similar cyclicity of the plume activity in the continent and oceanic realms, both exhibiting a periodicity of ~500 m.y. that is comparable to the supercontinent cycle, albeit with a slight phase delay. Our results argue for dynamic LLSVPs where the supercontinent cycle and global subduction geometry control the formation and locations of the plumes.
DS202008-1384
2020
Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X., Gamel El Dien, H., Pourteau, A., Murphy, B., Collins, W.J., Mattielli, N., Olierook, H.K.H., Spencer, C.J., Mitchell, R.N.Distinct formation history for deep mantle domains reflected in geochemical differences.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, pp. 511-515. pdfMantlegeochemistry

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is currently divided into the African and Pacific domains, separated by the circum-Pacific subduction girdle, and each domain features a large low shear-wave velocity province (LLSVP) in the lower mantle. However, it remains controversial as to whether the LLSVPs have been stationary through time or dynamic, changing in response to changes in global subduction geometry. Here we compile radiogenic isotope data on plume-induced basalts from ocean islands and oceanic plateaus above the two LLSVPs that show distinct lead, neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions for the two mantle domains. The African domain shows enrichment by subducted continental material during the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, whereas no such feature is found in the Pacific domain. This deep-mantle geochemical dichotomy reflects the different evolutionary histories of the two domains during the Rodinia and Pangaea supercontinent cycles and thus supports a dynamic relationship between plate tectonics and deep-mantle structures.
DS202007-1136
2020
Doucet, L.S., Xu, Y., Klaessens, D., Hui, H., Ionov, D.A., Mattielli, N.Decoupled water and iron enrichments in the cratonic mantle: a study on peridotite xenoliths from Tok, SE Siberian craton.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 803-819.Russia, Siberia peridotites

Abstract: Water and iron are believed to be key constituents controlling the strength and density of the lithosphere and, therefore, play a crucial role in the long-term stability of cratons. On the other hand, metasomatism can modify the water and iron abundances in the mantle and possibly triggers thermo-mechanical erosion of cratonic keels. Whether local or large scale processes control water distribution in cratonic mantle remains unclear, calling for further investigation. Spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts of the Cenozoic Tok volcanic field sampled the lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern margin of the Siberian Craton. The absence of garnet-bearing peridotite among the xenoliths, together with voluminous eruptions of basaltic magma, suggests that the craton margin, in contrast to the central part, lost its deep keel. The Tok peridotites experienced extensive and complex metasomatic reworking by evolved, Ca-Fe-rich liquids that transformed refractory harzburgite to lherzolite and wehrlite. We used polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to obtain water content in olivine, orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) of 14 Tok xenoliths. Olivine, with a water content of 0-3 ppm H2O, was severely degassed, probably during emplacement and cooling of the host lava flow. Orthopyroxene (49-106 ppm H2O) and clinopyroxene (97-300 ppm H2O) are in equilibrium. The cores of the pyroxene grains, unlike olivine, experienced no water loss due to dehydration or addition attributable to interaction with the host magma. The water contents of Opx and Cpx are similar to those from the Kaapvaal, Tanzania, and North China cratons, but the Tok Opx has less water than previously studied Opx from the central Siberian craton (Udachnaya, 28-301 ppm; average 138 ppm). Melting models suggest that the water contents of Tok peridotites are higher than in melting residues, and argue for a post-melting (metasomatic) origin. Moreover, the water contents in Opx and Cpx of Tok peridotites are decoupled from iron enrichments or other indicators of melt metasomatism (e.g., CaO and P2O5). Such decoupling is not seen in the Udachnaya and Kaapvaal peridotites but is similar to observations on Tanzanian peridotites. Our data suggest that iron enrichments in the southeastern Siberian craton mantle preceded water enrichment. Pervasive and large-scale, iron enrichment in the lithospheric mantle may strongly increase its density and initiate a thermo-magmatic erosion. By contrast, the distribution of water in xenoliths is relatively “recent” and was controlled by local metasomatic processes that operate shortly before the volcanic eruption. Hence, water abundances in minerals of Tok mantle xenoliths appear to represent a snapshot of water in the vicinity of the xenolith source regions.
DS202001-0007
2019
Doucet, L-S., Li, Z-X., Kirscher, U., El Dien, H.G.Coupled supercontinent -mantle plume events evidenced by oceanic plume record.Geology, Vol. 48, 5p. Mantleplumes, hotspots
DS202008-1385
2020
Drenth, B.J., Souders, A.K., Schulz, K.J., Feinberg, J.M., Anderson, R.R., Chandler, V.W., Cannon, W.L., Clark, R.J.Evidence for a concealed Midcontinent Rift related northeast Iowa intrusive complex.Precambrian Research, in press available, 43p. PdfUnited States, Iowageophysics - seismics

Abstract: Large amplitude aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies over a ~9500 km2 area of northeast Iowa and southeast Minnesota have been interpreted to reflect the northeast Iowa intrusive complex (NEIIC), a buried intrusive igneous complex composed of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the Yavapai Province (1.8-1.7 Ga). Hundreds of meters of Paleozoic sedimentary cover and a paucity of basement drilling have prevented detailed studies of the NEIIC. Long considered, but not proven, to be related to the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), the NEIIC is comparable in areal extent to the richly mineralized Duluth Complex and is similarly located near the margin of the MRS. New geochronological and geophysical data together support an MRS affinity for the NEIIC. A dike swarm imaged in aeromagnetic data is cut by intrusions of the NEIIC, and a new apatite U-Pb date of ~1170 Ma on one of the dikes thus represents a maximum age for the NEIIC. A minimum age constraint is suggested by (1) large-volume magmatism associated with the MRS that was the last such event to affect the region; and (2) the presence of reversely magnetized dikes, similar in character to MRS-related dikes elsewhere, that cut several intrusions of the NEIIC. The NEIIC is largely characterized by the presence of multiple zoned intrusions, many of which contain large volumes of mafic-ultramafic rocks and have strong geophysical similarities to alkaline intrusive complexes elsewhere, including the MRS-related Coldwell Complex of Ontario. The largest of the zoned intrusions are ~40 km in diameter and are interpreted to have thicknesses of many kilometers. Suspected faults, alignments of intrusions, and intrusive margins tend to be aligned along northwest and northeast trends that match the trends of the Belle Plaine fault zone and Fayette structural zone, both previously interpreted as pre-MRS, possibly lithospheric-scale discontinuities that may have controlled NEIIC emplacement. These interpretations collectively imply notable potential for the NEIIC to host several different types of undiscovered base metal and critical mineral deposits.
DS202002-0179
2020
D'Souza, R.J., Canil, D., Coogan, L.A.Geobarometry for spinel peridotites using Ca and Al in olivine.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 12 pdfMantleperidotites

Abstract: Experiments were performed from 950 to 1250 °C and 1.5-2.4 GPa to determine the effect of pressure (P) on the temperature (T)-dependent partitioning of Al between olivine and spinel, using mixtures of natural spinel, olivine, clino- and ortho-pyroxene. When compared to 100 kPa experiments, the results show that there is no discernible effect of pressure on the Al-in-olivine thermometer at PT conditions relevant to the spinel peridotite facies. In our experiments with high-Cr spinel, we see no change in Al in olivine from starting values, likely due to the refractory nature of high-Cr spinel. Phase boundary flourescence prevented accurate quantification of Ca in olivine in the run products by electron microprobe analysis but measurements by laser ablation are consistent with the Köhler and Brey (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2375-2388, 1990) Ca-in-olivine thermobarometer. The combination of Al (for T) and Ca (for P) in olivine thus has great potential for thermobarometry in spinel facies peridotites. As a test we apply this approach to published high precision Ca and Al data for olivine from the Ray Pic spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Massif Central (De Hoog et al. Chem Geol 270:196-215, 2010). Reassuringly, the calculated PT conditions (1.0-1.8 GPa; 900-1080 °C) for all samples lie beneath the Moho, within the spinel peridotite facies and fall along a geophysically constrained geotherm.
DS202007-1137
2020
Dube, J-M., Darbyshire, F.A., Liddell, M.V., Stephenson, R.Seismic anisotropy of the Canadian High Arctic: evidence from shear wave splitting.Tectonophysics, Vol. 789, 228524, 13p. PdfCanada, Arcticgeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The Canadian High Arctic preserves a long and complex tectonic history, including craton formation, multiple periods of orogenesis, extension and basin formation, and the development of a passive continental margin. We investigate the possible preservation of deformational structures throughout the High Arctic subcontinental lithosphere using measurements of seismic anisotropy from shear wave splitting at 11 seismograph stations across the region, including a N-S transect along Ellesmere Island. The majority of measurements indicate a fast-polarisation orientation that parallels tectonic trends and boundaries, suggesting that lithospheric deformation is the dominant source of seismic anisotropy in the High Arctic; however, a sub-lithospheric contribution cannot be ruled out. Beneath Resolute in the central Canadian Arctic, distinct back-azimuthal variations in splitting parameters can be explained by two anisotropic layers. The upper layer is oriented E-W and correlates with tectonic trends and the inferred lithospheric deformation history of the region. The lower layer has a ~NNE-SSW orientation and may arise from present-day convective mantle flow beneath locally-thinned continental lithosphere. In addition to inferences of anisotropic structure beneath the Canadian High Arctic, measurements from the far north of our study region suggest the presence of an anisotropic zone in the lowermost mantle beneath northwest Alaska.
DS202008-1386
2020
Duncombe, J.Earth's core is in the hot seat.Eos, 101, doi,org./10.1029 /EO145531 June 24, MantleCore age

Abstract: How old is Earth’s inner core? High-pressure and high-temperature experiments suggest that our planet’s inner furnace may be much younger than expected.
DS202008-1387
2020
Duncombe, J.The ticking time bomb of Arctic permafrost.Eos, 101, doi,org./10.1029/EO1414607 June 24, Russiapermafrost

Abstract: Arctic infrastructure is under threat from thawing permafrost.
DS202001-0008
2019
Dupuy, H., Phillips, J.G.Selecting a diamond verification: instrument based on the results of the Assure program: an initial analysis.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, 7, pp. 606-619.Globaldiamond identification
DS202006-0917
2020
Dushyantha, N., Batapola, N., Ilankoon, I.M.S.K., Rohitha, S., Premasiri, R., Abeysinghe, B., Ratnayake, N., Dissanayake, K.The story of rare earth elements ( REES): occurrences, global distribution, genesis, geology, mineralogy and global production.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 122, 17p. PdfGlobalREE

Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs) including fifteen lanthanides, yttrium and scandium are found in more than 250 minerals, worldwide. REEs are used in various high-tech applications across various industries, such as electrical and electronics, automotive, renewable energy, medical and defence. Therefore, the demand for REEs in the global market is increasing day by day due to the surging demand from various sectors, such as emerging economies, green technology and R&D sectors. Rare earth (RE) deposits are classified on the basis of their genetic associations, mineralogy and form of occurrences. The Bayan Obo, Mountain Pass, Mount Weld and China’s ion adsorption clays are the major RE deposits/mines in the world to date and their genesis, chronology and mineralogy are discussed in this review. In addition, there are other RE deposits, which are currently being mined or in the feasibility or exploration stages. Most of the RE resources, production, processing and supply are concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region. In this regard, China holds the dominancy in the RE industry by producing more than 90% of the current rare earth requirements. Thus, REEs are used as a powerful tool by China in trade wars against other countries, especially against USA in 2019. However, overwhelming challenges in conventional RE explorations and mining make secondary RE resources, such as electric and electronic waste (e-waste) and mine tailings as promising resources in the future. Due to the supply risk of REEs and the monopoly of the REEs market, REEs recycling is currently considered as an effective method to alleviate market fluctuations. However, economical and sustainable processing techniques are yet to be established to exploit REEs via recycling. Moreover, there are growing ecological concerns along with social resistance towards the RE industry. To overcome these issues, the RE industry needs to be assessed to maintain long-term social sustainability by fostering the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs).
DS202001-0009
2019
Eaton-Magana, S., Ardon, T., Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.Natural color fancy white and fancy black diamonds: where color and clarity converge.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 3, pp. 320-336.Globalreview

Abstract: Natural Fancy white and Fancy black diamonds are not routinely submitted to GIA for grading (fewer than 2,000 since 2008). These fancy-color diamonds are distinctive since the causes of color generally are not atomic-scale defects, but nanometer- to micrometer-sized inclusions that reduce the diamond’s transparency by scattering or absorbing light (some exceptions exist among Fancy black diamonds). To clarify, Fancy white diamonds are those rare stones colored by inclusions that give a “whitish” appearance, and are distinct from “colorless” diamonds on the D-to-Z scale. These two colors, often thought of as opposites in the color world, are grouped here as outliers within the colored diamond world. Both can be colored by inclusions so numerous the stone would fall below the I3 grade on the clarity scale, demonstrating that inclusions, often perceived as a negative quality factor, can create a distinctive appearance. Among the Fancy white diamonds examined for this study, the vast majority (82%) were type IaB, making them a rare subset of a rare diamond type. Based on prior geological research, these are surmised to be mostly sublithospheric in origin (i.e., forming more than 250 km below the earth’s surface). The Fancy white diamonds generally have a different chemistry from D-to-Z type IaB diamonds, with greater quantities of several hydrogen- and nickel-related defects. Among Fancy black diamonds, the major causes of color are either micrometer-sized dark crystal inclusions, nanometer-sized inclusions clustered into clouds, or a combination of the two. For these two colors of diamond, we summarize their gemological properties along with the absorption and luminescence spectra of a representative subset of diamonds from each color, examining how they deviate from the standard grading methodology. Because of their rarity, there has been very little systematic study of either of these color categories, and never a sample set of this quantity, which includes data for ~500 Fancy white and ~1,200 Fancy black diamonds.
DS202006-0918
2020
Eaton-Magana. S., McElhenny, G., Breeding, C.M., Ardon, T.Comparison of gemological and spectroscopic features in type IIa and Ia natural pink diamonds.Diamonds & Related Materials, Vol. 105, 13p. PdfMantlenitrogen

Abstract: The majority of natural pink diamonds have a color origin due to absorption from a broad 550?nm band that has been associated with plastic deformation. One consistent feature in the photoluminescence spectra of these pink diamonds is a wide emission band extending from ~600 to 750?nm, with a series of smaller oscillations overlaid on the larger emission band. This "pink emission band" is seen in diamonds colored by the 550?nm absorption band; the absorption band often, but not always, shows similar oscillations at ~600?nm (called the 609?nm system by previous researchers). This emission band served as a proxy for the 550?nm absorption band as we performed spatial mapping to chronicle the differences between the uniform coloration in type IIa pink diamonds and the pronounced banding in type Ia pink diamonds. We also used Raman spectroscopy to identify the internal crystal inclusions present in type IIa pink diamonds and determined that the majority have a sub-lithospheric origin.
DS202002-0180
2020
Eguchi, J., Seales, J., Dagupta, R.Great oxidation and Lomagundi events linked by deep cycling and enhanced degassing of carbon.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, pp. 71-76. Mantlecarbon

Abstract: For approximately the first 2?billion years of the Earth’s history, atmospheric oxygen levels were extremely low. It was not until at least half a billion years after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, perhaps as early as 3?billion years ago, that oxygen rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event. Shortly after, marine carbonates underwent a large positive spike in carbon isotope ratios known as the Lomagundi event. The mechanisms responsible for the Great Oxidation and Lomagundi events remain debated. Using a carbon-oxygen box model that tracks the Earth’s surface and interior carbon fluxes and reservoirs, while also tracking carbon isotopes and atmospheric oxygen levels, we demonstrate that about 2.5?billion years ago a tectonic transition that resulted in increased volcanic CO2 emissions could have led to increased deposition of both carbonates and organic carbon (organic?C)?via enhanced weathering and nutrient delivery to oceans. Increased burial of carbonates and organic?C would have allowed the accumulation of atmospheric oxygen while also increasing the delivery of carbon to subduction zones. Coupled with preferential release of carbonates at arc volcanoes and deep recycling of organic?C to ocean island volcanoes, we find that such a tectonic transition can simultaneously explain the Great Oxidation and Lomagundi events without any change in the fraction of carbon buried as organic?C relative to carbonate, which is often invoked to explain carbon isotope excursions.
DS202001-0010
2019
El Dien, H.G., Doucet, L.S., Li, Z-X.Global geochemical fingerprinting of plume intensity suggests coupling with the supercontinent cycle.Nature Communications, Vol 10, 1, doi.org/10.1038 /s41467-019-13300 8p. PdfMantleplumes, hotspots

Abstract: Plate tectonics and mantle plumes are two of the most fundamental solid-Earth processes that have operated through much of Earth history. For the past 300 million years, mantle plumes are known to derive mostly from two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core-mantle boundary, referred to as the African and Pacific superplumes, but their possible connection with plate tectonics is debated. Here, we demonstrate that transition elements (Ni, Cr, and Fe/Mn) in basaltic rocks can be used to trace plume-related magmatism through Earth history. Our analysis indicates the presence of a direct relationship between the intensity of plume magmatism and the supercontinent cycle, suggesting a possible dynamic coupling between supercontinent and superplume events. In addition, our analysis shows a consistent sudden drop in MgO, Ni and Cr at ~3.2-3.0 billion years ago, possibly indicating an abrupt change in mantle temperature at the start of global plate tectonics.
DS202007-1138
2020
El Dien, H.G., Doucet, L.S., Murphy, J.B., Li, Z-X.Geochemical evidence for a widespread mantle re-enrichment 3.2 billion years ago: implications for global-scale plate tectonics.Scientific Reports, Vol. 10, 9461 8 pdfMantlemelting

Abstract: Progressive mantle melting during the Earth’s earliest evolution led to the formation of a depleted mantle and a continental crust enriched in highly incompatible elements. Re-enrichment of Earth’s mantle can occur when continental crustal materials begin to founder into the mantle by either subduction or, to a lesser degree, by delamination processes, profoundly affecting the mantle’s trace element and volatile compositions. Deciphering when mantle re-enrichment/refertilization became a global-scale process would reveal the onset of efficient mass transfer of crust to the mantle and potentially when plate tectonic processes became operative on a global-scale. Here we document the onset of mantle re-enrichment/refertilization by comparing the abundances of petrogenetically significant isotopic values and key ratios of highly incompatible elements compared to lithophile elements in Archean to Early-Proterozoic mantle-derived melts (i.e., basalts and komatiites). Basalts and komatiites both record a rapid-change in mantle chemistry around 3.2 billion years ago (Ga) signifying a fundamental change in Earth geodynamics. This rapid-change is recorded in Nd isotopes and in key trace element ratios that reflect a fundamental shift in the balance between fluid-mobile and incompatible elements (i.e., Ba/La, Ba/Nb, U/Nb, Pb/Nd and Pb/Ce) in basaltic and komatiitic rocks. These geochemical proxies display a significant increase in magnitude and variability after ~3.2 Ga. We hypothesize that rapid increases in mantle heterogeneity indicate the recycling of supracrustal materials back into Earth’s mantle via subduction. Our new observations thus point to a?=?3.2 Ga onset of global subduction processes via plate tectonics.
DS202004-0509
2020
Elling, R.P., Stein, S., Stein, C.A., Keller, G.R.Tectonics implications of the gravity signatures of the Midcontinent Rift and Grenville Front.Tectonophysics, Vol. 778, 228369, 6p. PdfUnited States, Canadamidcontinent rift

Abstract: North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) and Grenville Front (GF) jointly record aspects of the complex history of the assembly of Rodinia. The ~1100 Ma MCR, remaining from a failed major rifting event, is exposed along Lake Superior and well defined by gravity, magnetic, and seismic data. The GF, which results from collisions with Laurentia, is exposed in and identified by seismic and potential field data in Canada. In the eastern U.S., lineated gravity highs extending southward from Michigan to Alabama, along the trend of the front in Canada, have been interpreted either as a buried Grenville Front or as part of the MCR's east arm. We explore this issue by examining the gravity signatures of the MCR and GF. Both the MCR's arms have pronounced gravity highs, with the west arm's greater than the east arm's. Combining the gravity observations with seismic data suggests that the west arm contains 20-25 km thickness of volcanics, whereas the east arm contains 10-15 km of volcanics. Along the Grenville Front in Canada, thickened crust along the northern portion causes a broad gravity low, whereas the stacked thrusts along the southern portion cause essentially no gravity signature. Hence the lineated gravity highs in the eastern U.S. appear similar to those along the remainder of the MCR, and unlike those on either portion of the GF. These data favor the gravity anomalies traditionally interpreted as the Grenville Front in the eastern U.S. as instead being part of the MCR's east arm. A thrust sheet structure like that of the southern Canadian Grenville Front - which would have essentially no gravity effect - could also be present along the MCR's east arm, as implied by recent EarthScope seismic data.
DS202002-0181
2020
Elliott, B.A summary of the Slave geological province exploration development initiative - revitalizing mineral exploration and facilitating sustainable development in a a key economic region.Vancouver Kimberlite Cluster meeting, Jan. 23, 1/4p. AbstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesdata sets
DS202008-1388
2020
Eppelbaum, L., Ben-Avraham, Z., Katz, Y., Cloetingh, S., Kaban, M.Combined multifactor evidence of a giant lower mantle ring structure below the eastern mediterranean.Positioning, Vol. 11, pp. 11-32. pdf Africa, Arabiageophysics - gravity

Abstract: In the Arabian-Northern African region, interaction of the Nubian, Arabian and Eurasian plates and many small tectonic units is conspicuous. In order to better understand this interaction, we use satellite derived gravity data (retracked to the Earth’s surface) recognized now as a powerful tool for tectono-geodynamic zonation. We applied the polynomial approximation to the gravity data which indicated the presence of a large, deep ring structure in the eastern Mediterranean centered below the Island of Cyprus. Quantitative analysis of residual gravity anomaly provides an estimate of the deep anomalous body’s upper edge at a depth of about 1700 km. Computations of the residual gravity anomalies for the lower mantle also indicate presence of anomalous sources. The GPS vector pattern coinciding with the gravity trend implies counter clockwise rotation of this structure. Independent analyses of the geoid isolines map and seismic tomography data support the existence of a deep anomaly. Paleomagnetic data analysis from the surrounding regions confirms a counter clockwise rotation. Numerous petrological, mineralogical, geodynamical and tectonic data suggest a relation between this deep structure and near-surface processes. This anomaly sheds light on a number of phenomena including the Cyprus gravity anomaly, counter clockwise rotation of the Mesozoic terrane belt and asymmetry of basins along continental transform faults.
DS202002-0182
2019
Eppelbaum, L.V., Kutasov, I.M.Well drilling in permafrost regions: dynamics of the thawed zone. ( not specific to diamonds)Polar Research, Vol. 38, 3351 9p. PdfRussiapermafrost

Abstract: In the cold regions, warm mud is usually used to drill deep wells. This mud causes formation thawing around wells, and as a rule is an uncertain parameter. For frozen soils, ice serves as a cementing material, so the strength of frozen soils is significantly reduced at the ice-water transition. If the thawing soil cannot withstand the load of overlying layers, consolidation will take place, and the corresponding settlement can cause significant surface shifts. Therefore, for long-term drilling or oil/gas production, the radius of thawing should be estimated to predict platform stability and the integrity of the well. It is known that physical properties of formations are drastically changed at the thawing-freezing transition. When interpreting geophysical logs, it is therefore important to know the radius of thawing and its dynamics during drilling and shut-in periods. We have shown earlier that for a cylindrical system the position of the phase interface in the Stefan problem can be approximated through two functions: one function determines the position of the melting-temperature isotherm in the problem without phase transitions, and the second function does not depend on time. For the drilling period, we will use this approach to estimate the radius of thawing. For the shut-in period, we will utilize an empirical equation based on the results of numerical modelling.
DS202007-1139
2020
Eppelbaum, L.V., Youri, K.Significant tectono-geophysical features of the African-Arabian tectonic region: an overview.Geotectonics, Vol. 54, 2, pp. 266-283.AfricaArabian craton

Abstract: Satellite gravimetry is recognized now as powerful and reliable tool for regional tectono-geodynamic zonation. The studied region contains intricate geodynamical features (high seismological indicators, active rift systems and collision processes), richest structural arrangement (existence of mosaic blocks of oceanic and continental Earth’s crust of various age), and a number of high-amplitude gravity anomalies and complex geomagnetic pattern. The most hydrocarbon reserves and diamonds, gold, platinum and deposits occur in this region. Comprehensive analysis of satellite derived gravity data by different methodologies were used to develop a sequence of maps specifying crucial properties of the region deep structure. Combined analysis of the compiled gravity map and its transformations with obtained geological data allowed to detecting significant geotectonic features of lithosphere of the region. For instance, Zagros-Makran terrane was classified as a separately developing structural segment (element) of the Arabian craton. Detailed examination of numerous geological sources and their combined examination with the GPS pattern, paleomagnetic, tectonic, geoid isoline map, seismic and other data revealed some sophisticated tectono-geophysical feature apparently located in middle-lower mantle below the Arabian-African region.
DS202003-0336
2020
Ethier, B.Analyzing entangled territorialities and indigenous use of maps: Atikamekw Nehirowisiwok ( Quebec, Canada) dynamics of territorial negotiations, frictions, and creativity.The Canadian Geographer, https://doi.org/ 10.1111/cag.12603Canada, Quebeclegal

Abstract: This paper highlights the relevance of analyzing entangled territorialities and Indigenous use of maps in order to better understand what Lévy describes in terms of “spatial capital”—the socio-economic dynamics and power relationships maintained and negotiated between the stakeholders interacting within the Indigenous forestland. More specifically, it discusses the entanglement dynamics of land tenures coexisting today within Nitaskinan, the ancestral territory claimed by the Atikamekw Nehirowisiwok. Within Nitaskinan, members of the First Nation negotiate the continuity of their practices, occupation, and use of ancestral hunting territories with state institutions, logging companies, and non-Indigenous members of civil society who have interests in the land resources. All these stakeholders implement different territorial regimes that interact and sometimes conflict. Based on concrete ethnographic examples, the analysis presented here focuses on the compromises, frictions, resistance, and creativity that are part of territorial coexistence between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. This paper is about the entanglement of Indigenous and state's land tenures in a Canadian context. The study highlights the relevance of analyzing entangled territorialities to better understand the power relationships within Indigenous forestland. The study demonstrates the complex articulations between domination and resistance dynamics in Indigenous mapping in a territorial negotiation process. This paper is about the entanglement of Indigenous and state's land tenures in a Canadian context. The study highlights the relevance of analyzing entangled territorialities to better understand the power relationships within Indigenous forestland. The study demonstrates the complex articulations between domination and resistance dynamics in Indigenous mapping in a territorial negotiation process.
DS202005-0730
2020
Fareeduddin., Pant, N.C., Gupta, S., Chakraborty, P., Sensarma, S., Jain, A.K., Prasad, G.V.R., Srivastava, P., Rjan, S., Tiwari, V.M.The geodynamic evolution of the Indian subcontinent - an introduction.Episodes ( IUGS), Vol. 43, 1, pp. 1-18.Indiacarbonatite
DS202004-0510
2020
Faryad, S.W., Cuthbert, S.J.High temperature overprint in (U)HPM rocks exhumed from subduction zones: a product of isothermal decompression or a consequence of slab break-off ( slab rollback?) Dabie Sulu, KokechtavEarth-Science Reviews, Vol. 202, 103108 14p. PdfChina, Russiasubduction

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses petrological observations from high- to ultrahigh-pressure (U)HP metamorphic terrains in relation to existing geophysical and numerical models for subduction and exhumation processes in orogenic belts. The interpretations are mostly based on observations from gneiss terrains bearing abundant bodies mafic (meta-)eclogite and ultramafic garnet peridotite and pyroxenite, exposed in collisional orogens. The inclusions and compositional zoning of minerals are considered to be first order information that is needed to constrain PT paths of HP-UHP rocks and reconstruct the related geodynamic models for subduction and exhumation of crustal and mantle rocks. The Bohemian Massif of the European Variscides is used as the basis for a model example to explain these processes, but (U)HP rocks from various other terrains are taken into consideration to discuss available PT paths in relation to proposed subduction and exhumation rates of (U)HP rocks based on geophysical and geochronological data. Primarily information used in this respect include textural relations and preserved prograde zoning in minerals from many (U)HP rocks, which reveal that a relatively cool geothermal gradient typical of subduction zones tended to prevail during the prograde and peak pressure segments of PT paths prior to initiation of exhumation and may have continued, even with cooling, if exhumation rates were rapid. The commonly applied interpretation of isothermal decompression during exhumation is critically appraised, considering whether a simple thermal relaxation (and radiogenic heating) during exhumation is responsible for formation of post-peak pressure, retrograde mineral assemblages and textures observed in (U)HP rocks. We go on to consider whether this can satisfactorily explain the often pervasive medium-pressure, high-temperature metamorphic re-equilibration of (U)HP rocks or whether an additional, external source of heat is a better explanation. We conclude that the commonly observed high-temperature metamorphic overprint exhibited by (U)HP rocks occurs mostly after rocks have been exhumed from the subduction channel and have reached normal crustal positions, when mantle upwelling resulting from slab breakoff (delamination) or slab rollback takes place at the onset of continent-continent collision. We also explore contrasting PT trajectories for mantle rocks that have been entrained into crustal material during their subduction or exhumation; PT paths of mantle and subducted crustal rocks tend to converge as mantle rocks impinge upon the cooler subduction zone and, once entrained, share a common evolution that depends on the exhumation mechanism and rate. Considering all of the data presented in this work we conclude that the diverse, polyphase metamorphic evolution exhibited by (U)HP terrains, embodied in the PT paths of HP and UHP rocks, has important consequences for reconstructing their changing thermal regimes and provides important constraints for geodynamic models involving subduction and the transition to collision.
DS202008-1389
2020
Fedortchouk, Y., Chinn, I.L.Crystallization conditions of kimberlite magma.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractAfrica, Botswana, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Orapa, Lac de Gras

Abstract: Experiments on diamond crystallization in kimberlite melt were performed for 40 h at 6.3 GPa in the temperature range of 1300-1570 °C and at 7.5 GPa in the temperature range of 1450-1570 °C, using a multianvil high-pressure apparatus of split-sphere type. Group I kimberlite from the Udachnaya-East pipe and a synthetic multicomponent mixture modeling the average composition of group II kimberlites were used as starting materials. The experiments have shown that diamond growth on seed crystals in the kimberlite melt in equilibrium with olivine, pyroxene, and garnet starts from 1400 °C at 7.5 GPa and from 1520 °C at 6.3 GPa. Diamond nucleation requires higher temperature and pressure, 1570 °C and 7.5 GPa. The alkali-enriched and silicate-depleted derivates of kimberlite melts ensure the growth and nucleation of diamond at lower P and T values: 1400 °C at 7.5 GPa and 1520 °C at 6.3 GPa. The results obtained evidence that temperature, pressure, and the composition of crystallization medium are the main factors controlling diamond formation processes in the kimberlite melts and their derivates.
DS202003-0337
2020
Feng, M., Song, W., Kynicky, J., Smith, M., Cox, C., Kotlanova, M., Brtnicky, M., Fu, W., Wei, C.Primary rare earth element enrichment in carbonatites: evidence from melt inclusions in Ulgii Khild carbonatite, Mongolia.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 117, 14p. PdfAsia, Mongoliadeposit - Ulgii Khild
DS202002-0183
2019
First, E.C., Leonhardi, T.C., Hammer, J.E.Effects of superheating magnitude on olivine growth.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 13p. pdfMantlemagmatism

Abstract: Magmatic superheating is a condition with relevance to natural systems as well as experimental studies of crystallization kinetics. Magmas on Earth and other planetary bodies may become superheated during adiabatic ascent from the mantle or as a consequence of meteorite impact-generated crustal melting. Experimental studies of igneous processes commonly employ superheating in the homogenization of synthetic starting materials. We performed 1-atmosphere dynamic crystallization experiments to study the effects of superliquidus thermal history on the morphologies and compositions of subsequently grown olivine crystals. An ultramafic volcanic rock with abundant olivine was fused above the experimentally determined liquidus temperature (1395 °C), held for 0, 3, or 12 h, cooled at 25 °C h-1, and quenched from 200 °C below the liquidus, all at constant fO2, corresponding to FMQ-2?±?0.2 log units. An increase in olivine morphologic instability is correlated with superheating magnitude, parameterized as the integrated time the sample is held above the liquidus (“TtL”; °C h). We infer that a delay in nucleation, which intensifies monotonically with increasing TtL, causes crystal growth to be increasingly rapid. This result indicates that the structural relaxation time scale controlling the formation of crystal nuclei is (a) far longer than the time scale associated with viscous flow and (b) exceeds the liquidus dwell times typically imposed in crystallization experiments. The influence of magmatic superheating on crystal morphology is similar in sense and magnitude to that of subliquidus cooling rate and thus, both factors should be considered when interpreting the thermal history of a volcanic rock containing anhedral olivine.
DS202007-1140
2020
Fitzpayne, A., Giuliani, A., Hergt, J., Woodhead, J.D., Maas, R.Isotopic analyses of clinopyroxene demonstrate the effects of mantle metasomatism upon the lithospheric mantle.Lithos, in press available, 77p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: The trace element and radiogenic isotope systematics of clinopyroxene have frequently been used to characterise mantle metasomatic processes, because it is the main host of most lithophile elements in the lithospheric mantle. To further our understanding of mantle metasomatism, both solution-mode Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb and in situ trace element and Sr isotopic data have been acquired for clinopyroxene grains from a suite of peridotite (lherzolites and wehrlites), MARID (Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside), and PIC (Phlogopite-Ilmenite-Clinopyroxene) rocks from the Kimberley kimberlites (South Africa). The studied mantle samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their clinopyroxene trace element compositions, and this subdivision is reinforced by their isotopic ratios. Type 1 clinopyroxene, which comprises PIC, wehrlite, and some sheared lherzolite samples, is characterised by low Sr (~100-200 ppm) and LREE concentrations, moderate HFSE contents (e.g., ~40-75 ppm Zr; La/Zr < 0.04), and restricted isotopic compositions (e.g., 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70369-0.70383; eNdi = +3.1 to +3.6) resembling those of their host kimberlite magmas. Available trace element partition coefficients can be used to show that Type 1 clinopyroxenes are close to being in equilibrium with kimberlite melt compositions, supporting a genetic link between kimberlites and these metasomatised lithologies. Thermobarometric estimates for Type 1 samples in this study indicate equilibration depths of 135-160 km within the lithosphere, thus showing that kimberlite melt metasomatism is prevalent in the deeper part of the lithosphere beneath Kimberley. In contrast, Type 2 clinopyroxenes occur in MARID rocks and coarse granular lherzolites in this study, which derive from shallower depths (<135 km), and have higher Sr (~350-1000 ppm) and LREE contents, corresponding to higher La/Zr of > ~ 0.05. The isotopic compositions of Type 2 clinopyroxenes are more variable and extend from compositions resembling the “enriched mantle” towards those of Type 1 rocks (e.g., eNdi = -12.7 to -4.4). To constrain the source of these variations, in situ Sr isotope analyses of clinopyroxene were undertaken, including zoned grains in Type 2 samples. MARID and lherzolite clinopyroxene cores display generally radiogenic but variable 87Sr/86Sri values (0.70526-0.71177), which are correlated with Sr contents and La/Zr ratios, and which might be explained by the interaction between peridotite and melts from different enriched sources within the lithospheric mantle. Most notably, the rims of these Type 2 clinopyroxenes trend towards compositions similar to those of the host kimberlite and Type 1 clinopyroxene from PIC and wehrlites. These results are interpreted to represent clinopyroxene overgrowth during late-stage (shortly before/during entrainment) metasomatism by kimberlite magmas. Our study shows that a pervasive, alkaline metasomatic event caused MARID to be generated and harzburgites to be converted to lherzolite in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley area, which was followed by kimberlite metasomatism during Cretaceous magmatism. This latter event is the time at which discrete PIC, wehrlite, and sheared lherzolite lithologies were formed, and MARID and granular lherzolites were partly modified.
DS202007-1141
2020
Fitzpayne, A., Prytulak, J., Giuliani, A., Hergt, J.Thallium content and isotopic composition of phlogopite in mantle derived MARID and PIC rocks.Chemical Geology, Vol. 531, 119347Mantlegeochronology
DS202008-1390
2020
Fitzpaynek, A., Giuliani, A., Magalhaes, N., Soltys, A., Fiorentini, M., Farquhar, J.The petrology and sulphur istopic composition of sulphide and sulphate in the Kimberley kimberlites.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractAfrica, South Africadeposit - Kimberley

Abstract: The petrology and bulk-rock sulphur isotopic compositions of kimberlite samples from four localities (Bultfontein, De Beers, Kimberley, Wesselton) of the archetypal Kimberley cluster, South Africa, were used to investigate the origin(s) of S in kimberlites and gain insights into the occurrence of recycled crustal material in the source of Mesozoic kimberlites. The samples, which show variable degrees of alteration, are all hypabyssal and were derived from coherent root-zones as well as dykes and sills. Typical sulphide minerals are Cu-Fe-Ni-sulphides with less common pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and djerfisherite. They occur in a variety of textural associations, for example as groundmass phases, secondary inclusions in olivine, inclusions in matrix phases (e.g., phlogopite), or in carbonate-serpentine segregations. Barite is the most commonly observed sulphate phase. Bulk-sample d34SVCDT values of sulphides in fresh kimberlites, which mostly do not contain barite, vary from - 2.0 to -5.7 ‰. Slightly altered kimberlite samples, in which sulphides were generally associated with serpentine, returned somewhat higher bulk-sulphide d34SVCDT (-3.8 to +1.1 ‰). One sample from the Wesselton Water Tunnel Sills complex contains abundant barite and pyrite in its groundmass, with the latter having d34SVCDT (+0.2 to +1.9 ‰) similar to altered kimberlites. Two further altered samples returned d34SVCDT values (-10.1 to -13.0 ‰) that suggest a contribution from the local country rocks (Dwyka shale: d34SVCDT from -10.2 to -10.5 ‰). All samples have near-zero ?33S values, suggesting that material displaying mass-independent fractionation has not played an important role. The negative d34SVCDT values of fresh kimberlites from Kimberley suggest the involvement of recycled crustal material in their source, which is consistent with radiogenic isotope compositions. Overall, it appears that most kimberlitic sulphide S isotopic compositions can be explained by the action of a few typical magmatic/hydrothermal processes.
DS202006-0919
2020
Flowers, R.M., Macdonald, F.A., Siddoway, C.S., Havranek, R.Diachronous development of Great Unconformities before Neoproterozoic Snowlball Earth. Proceedinds of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 117, 19, 9p. PdfUnited States, Coloradogeothermometry

Abstract: The Great Unconformity marks a major gap in the continental geological record, separating Precambrian basement from Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. However, the timing, magnitude, spatial heterogeneity, and causes of the erosional event(s) and/or depositional hiatus that lead to its development are unknown. We present field relationships from the 1.07-Ga Pikes Peak batholith in Colorado that constrain the position of Cryogenian and Cambrian paleosurfaces below the Great Unconformity. Tavakaiv sandstone injectites with an age of =676 ± 26 Ma cut Pikes Peak granite. Injection of quartzose sediment in bulbous bodies indicates near-surface conditions during emplacement. Fractured, weathered wall rock around Tavakaiv bodies and intensely altered basement fragments within unweathered injectites imply still earlier regolith development. These observations provide evidence that the granite was exhumed and resided at the surface prior to sand injection, likely before the 717-Ma Sturtian glaciation for the climate appropriate for regolith formation over an extensive region of the paleolandscape. The 510-Ma Sawatch sandstone directly overlies Tavakaiv-injected Pikes granite and drapes over core stones in Pikes regolith, consistent with limited erosion between 717 and 510 Ma. Zircon (U-Th)/He dates for basement below the Great Unconformity are 975 to 46 Ma and are consistent with exhumation by 717 Ma. Our results provide evidence that most erosion below the Great Unconformity in Colorado occurred before the first Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth and therefore cannot be a product of glacial erosion. We propose that multiple Great Unconformities developed diachronously and represent regional tectonic features rather than a synchronous global phenomenon.
DS202008-1391
2019
Fofana, M., Steyn, T.Monitoring the performance of DMS circuits using RhoVol technology. ( DMC)The Journal of the Southern African Insitute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 119, Feb. 6p. PdfAfrica, South AfricaDMC

Abstract: The petrology and bulk-rock sulphur isotopic compositions of kimberlite samples from four localities (Bultfontein, De Beers, Kimberley, Wesselton) of the archetypal Kimberley cluster, South Africa, were used to investigate the origin(s) of S in kimberlites and gain insights into the occurrence of recycled crustal material in the source of Mesozoic kimberlites. The samples, which show variable degrees of alteration, are all hypabyssal and were derived from coherent root-zones as well as dykes and sills. Typical sulphide minerals are Cu-Fe-Ni-sulphides with less common pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and djerfisherite. They occur in a variety of textural associations, for example as groundmass phases, secondary inclusions in olivine, inclusions in matrix phases (e.g., phlogopite), or in carbonate-serpentine segregations. Barite is the most commonly observed sulphate phase. Bulk-sample d34SVCDT values of sulphides in fresh kimberlites, which mostly do not contain barite, vary from - 2.0 to -5.7 ‰. Slightly altered kimberlite samples, in which sulphides were generally associated with serpentine, returned somewhat higher bulk-sulphide d34SVCDT (-3.8 to +1.1 ‰). One sample from the Wesselton Water Tunnel Sills complex contains abundant barite and pyrite in its groundmass, with the latter having d34SVCDT (+0.2 to +1.9 ‰) similar to altered kimberlites. Two further altered samples returned d34SVCDT values (-10.1 to -13.0 ‰) that suggest a contribution from the local country rocks (Dwyka shale: d34SVCDT from -10.2 to -10.5 ‰). All samples have near-zero ?33S values, suggesting that material displaying mass-independent fractionation has not played an important role. The negative d34SVCDT values of fresh kimberlites from Kimberley suggest the involvement of recycled crustal material in their source, which is consistent with radiogenic isotope compositions. Overall, it appears that most kimberlitic sulphide S isotopic compositions can be explained by the action of a few typical magmatic/hydrothermal processes. One of the most important performance indicators of a dense medium cyclone (DMC) circuit is the Tromp curve, and by extension the separation density and Ecart Probable (Ep) values. The densimetric profiles of DMC product streams have been traditionally acquired using heavy liquid sinkfloat analysis, which has certain disadvantages, such as the associated safety and health risks. More recently, non-toxic media such as lithium hetero-polytungstates (LST) have been used, with the desired densities being achieved by maintaining the solutions at specific temperatures. However, the high costs of these liquids can be prohibitive. The long turnaround time of the sink-float analysis is a further disadvantage for timeous interventions to the operating set-points of the DMC process. The RhoVol technology can generate the density distribution of a batch of particles in a rapid, accurate, repeatable, and safe manner. Additional data of interest, such as particle size and shape, are also measured and reported on a per-particle basis. Furthermore, samples can be sorted into discrete sorting bins based on any of the measured parameters of the particle, making further analyses of the material possible. This technology has applications across all commodities that use the DMC, particularly in the size fractions 25 +8 mm and 8 +3 mm. To date, laboratory results have proved very encouraging separation densities are within 5% of traditional sink-float results, and the technology is being introduced to diamond DMC plants.
DS202002-0184
2019
Forster, M.W.Subduction zone metasomatism and its consequences for potassium rich magmatism and deep nitrogen recycling.Thesis Phd .Macquarie University, 250p. PdfMantlemetasomatism

Abstract: In total, subduction zones span 40,000 km across Earth’s surface and recycle an average thickness of 500 m of sediment. During burial and heating these sediments eventually start melting at T >675 °C, following which Si-rich hydrous melts infiltrate the peridotites of the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. In this thesis, a high-pressure experimental approach is used to examine the reaction of sediments and peridotites at 2-6 GPa in subduction zones and its consequences on the generation of K-rich magmatism and on deep nitrogen cycling. All experiments are conducted in a layered arrangement, where the depleted peridotite is placed above the sediments in a 1:1 ratio. At 2-3 GPa, the reaction of melts of sediment with depleted peridotite, simulating the fore-arc of a subduction zone, leads to the formation of layered phlogopite pyroxenites and selective incorporation of major and trace elements in these metasomatic layers. Partial melting of these phlogopite pyroxenites produces melts rich in K2O (>9 wt%) with K/Na >>2 and a trace element pattern comparable to “orogenic lamproites”. At similar pressures, the reaction of hydrous mantle melts with depleted peridotites produces metasomatic layers that show K/Na ~1 and a trace element pattern that closely resembles “anorogenic lamproites”. In both cases, K-enrichment is facilitated by the crystallization of an eclogitic residue rich in Na, poor in K, and consequently with low K/Na. At 4-6 GPa, the reaction of melts of sediment with depleted peridotite is does not produce mica, instead resulting in alkali chlorides with K/Na ratios similar to saline fluid inclusions in diamonds. Besides the chlorides, magnesite also crystallises in the peridotite. Both phases are important ingredients for the generation of salty kimberlites such as Udachnaya East. The change in metasomatic style from mica- to chloride formation between 3 to 4 GPa corresponds to the depth of the mid-lithospheric discontinuity, a zone of low seismic velocities that is found intermittently beneath all continents at a depth of 80-100 km. The subduction of sediment is the main mechanism that recycles nitrogen back to Earth’s mantle. The partitioning of nitrogen between fluid and melt (DN(Fluid/Melt)) and fluid and bulk residue (melt+mica) (DN(Fluid/Bulk)) was found to increase linearly with temperature normalized to pressure. Using the new partition coefficients, the amount of N recycled to Earth’s mantle since the onset of subduction is calculated as 50 ±6 %.
DS202002-0185
2020
Forster, M.W., Buhre, S., Xu, B., Prelevic, D., Mertz-Kraus, R., Foley, S.F.Two stage origin of K-enrichment in ultrapotassic magmatism simulated by melting of experimentally metasomatized mantle.MDPI Minerals, Vol. 10, 41;doe.10.3390/min10010041 21p. PdfMantlemetasomatism

Abstract: The generation of strongly potassic melts in the mantle requires the presence of phlogopite in the melting assemblage, while isotopic and trace element analyses of ultrapotassic rocks frequently indicate the involvement of subducted crustal lithologies in the source. However, phlogopite-free experiments that focus on melting of sedimentary rocks and subsequent hybridization with mantle rocks at pressures of 1-3 GPa have not successfully produced melts with K2O >5 wt%-6 wt%, while ultrapotassic igneous rocks reach up to 12 wt% K2O. Accordingly, a two-stage process that enriches K2O and increases K/Na in intermediary assemblages in the source prior to ultrapotassic magmatism seems likely. Here, we simulate this two-stage formation of ultrapotassic magmas using an experimental approach that involves re-melting of parts of an experimental product in a second experiment. In the first stage, reaction experiments containing layered sediment and dunite produced a modally metasomatized reaction zone at the border of a depleted peridotite. For the second-stage experiment, the metasomatized dunite was separated from the residue of the sedimentary rock and transferred to a smaller capsule, and melts were produced with 8 wt%-8.5 wt% K2O and K/Na of 6-7. This is the first time that extremely K-enriched ultrapotassic melts have been generated experimentally from sediments at low pressure applicable to a post-collisional setting.
DS202006-0920
2020
Foster, A., Darbyshire, F., Schaeffer, A.Anisotropic structure of the central North American craton surrounding the Mid-continent rift: evidence form Rayleigh waves.Precambrian Research, Vol. 342, 18p. PdfUnited States, Canadageophysics - seismics
DS202004-0511
2020
Fosu, B.R., Ghosh, P., Viladkar, S.G.Clumped isotope geochemistry of carbonatites in the north-western Deccan igneous province: aspects of evolution, post-depositional alteration and mineralization.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 274, pp. 118-135.Indiacarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonatites crystallise along a wide range of solidus temperatures and are commonly affected by post-magmatic textural re-equilibration and diagenesis. Further insights into the formation and modification of carbonatites are provided using carbon, oxygen and clumped isotope (?47) data of rocks from spatially associated Amba Dongar and Siriwasan alkaline complexes in the north-western Deccan igneous province, India. We derive apparent equilibrium blocking temperatures to help constrain the thermal evolution of the different rock types found within the alkaline complexes in a petrographic context. The apparent temperatures for the carbonatites are significantly low but are consistent with reports on other global carbonatites and model predictions. Rapidly cooled Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite yielded similar low temperatures, even in the absence of bulk isotopic alteration. The isotopic proxies and petrographic observations favour both isotopic exchange reactions and diagenesis in altering ?47 values in calciocarbonatites. Diagenetic reactions are however strongly favoured, as secondary calcites in nephelinites and ferrocarbonatites record much lower temperatures than in the calciocarbonatites, highlighting the effect of fluids and diagenetic reactions in 13C18O bond ordering in carbonatites. Variations in the CO isotope data reveal the coupling of fractional crystallisation and post-magmatic fluid-rock interactions on bulk rock composition. After emplacement, the resetting of clumped isotope signatures in carbonatites is facilitated by post-magmatic processes in both open and closed systems.
DS202003-0338
2020
Franz, G., Vyshnevsky, O., Taran, M., Khomenko, V., Wiedenbeck, M., Schiperski, F., Nissen, J.A new emerald occurrence from Kruta Balka, western Peri-Azovian, Ukraine: implications for understanding the crystal chemistry of emerald.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 162-181. pdfEurope, Ukraineemerald

Abstract: We investigated emerald, the bright-green gem variety of beryl, from a new locality at Kruta Balka, Ukraine, and compare its chemical characteristics with those of emeralds from selected occurrences worldwide (Austria, Australia, Colombia, South Africa, Russia) to clarify the types and amounts of substitutions as well as the factors controlling such substitutions. For selected crystals, Be and Li were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, which showed that the generally assumed value of 3 Be atoms per formula unit (apfu) is valid; only some samples such as the emerald from Kruta Balka deviate from this value (2.944 Be apfu). An important substitution in emerald (expressed as an exchange vector with the additive component Al2Be3Si6O18) is (Mg,Fe2+)NaAl1?1, leading to a hypothetical end-member NaAl(Mg,Fe2+)[Be3Si6O18] called femag-beryl with Na occupying a vacancy position (?) in the structural channels of beryl. Based on both our results and data from the literature, emeralds worldwide can be characterized based on the amount of femag-substitution. Other minor substitutions in Li-bearing emerald include the exchange vectors LiNa2Al1?2 and LiNaBe1?1, where the former is unique to the Kruta Balka emeralds. Rarely, some Li can also be situated at a channel site, based on stoichiometric considerations. Both Cr- and V-distribution can be very heterogeneous in individual crystals, as shown in the samples from Kruta Balka, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe. Nevertheless, taking average values available for emerald occurrences, the Cr/(Cr+V) ratio (Cr#) in combination with the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio (Mg#) and the amount of femag-substitution allows emerald occurrences to be characterized. The "ultramafic" schist-type emeralds with high Cr# and Mg# come from occur-rences where the Fe-Mg-Cr-V component is controlled by the presence of ultramafic meta-igneous rocks. Emeralds with highly variable Mg# come from "sedimentary" localities, where the Fe-Mg-Cr-V component is controlled by metamorphosed sediments such as black shales and carbonates. A "transitional" group has both metasediments and ultramafic rocks as country rocks. Most "ultramafic" schist type occurrences are characterized by a high amount of femag-component, whereas those from the "sedimentary" and "transitional" groups have low femag contents. Growth conditions derived from the zoning pattern combined replacement, sector, and oscillatory zoning in the Kruta Balka emeralds indicate disequilibrium growth from a fluid along with late-stage Na-infiltration. Inclusions in Kruta Balka emeralds (zircon with up to 11 wt% Hf, tourmaline, albite, Sc-bearing apatite) point to a pegmatitic origin.
DS202001-0011
2019
Frezzotti, M.L.Diamond growth from organic compounds in hydrous fluids deep within the Earth.Nature Communications, doi.org/10.1038/ s41467-019-12984-y 8p. PdfMantlesubduction

Abstract: At subduction zones, most diamonds form by carbon saturation in hydrous fluids released from lithospheric plates on equilibration with mantle rocks. Although organic molecules are predicted among dissolved species which are the source for carbon in diamonds, their occurrence is not demonstrated in nature, and the physical model for crustal diamond formation is debated. Here, using Raman microspectroscopy, I determine the structure of carbon-based phases inside fluid inclusions in diamond-bearing rocks from the Alps. The results provide direct evidence that diamond surfaces are coated by sp2-, and sp3-bonded amorphous carbon and functional groups of carboxylic acids (e.g., carboxyl, carboxylate, methyl, and methylene), indicating the geosynthesis of organic compounds in deep hydrous fluids. Moreover, this study suggests diamond nucleation via metastable molecular precursors. As a possible scenario, with carbon saturation by reduction of carboxylate groups, I consider tetrahedral H-terminated C groups as templates for the growth of sp3-structured carbon.
DS202008-1392
2020
Frezzotti, M.L.Diamond growth from organic compounds in hydrous fluids deep within the Earth.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractMantlesubduction

Abstract: Subduction diamonds represent the sequestration of carbon from fluids released from lithospheric plates at mantle depths. In deep fluids, besides reactive molecular species (e.g., CO2), inorganic, and organic aqueous ionic species have been proposed as a source of carbon in diamonds (Sverjensky et al., 2014). Unequivocal signatures of organic species, however, have not been found, neither a unified model for diamond nucleation and growth has been proposed. Here, I use Raman microspectroscopy to determine the structure and composition of carbon-based phases precipitated inside diamond-bearing fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks from the Alps to reveal the spontaneous products on carbon saturation in deep Earth’s aqueous fluids. I find that microand nano-sized diamonds are coated by sp2-, and sp3-bonded amorphous carbon that shows Raman modes of attached organic functional group structures (e.g., carboxyl, carboxylate, methyl, and methylene). Present data suggest that decomposition of complex carboxylic acids can induce diamond nucleation on the reduction of the carboxyl groups, whereas sp3-bonded radicals can create structural intermediates allowing diamond growth (Frezzotti, 2019). This formation mechanism is consistent with nucleation models via metastable molecular precursors (Gebbie et al., 2018). The present study provides direct evidence that, deep within the Earth, dissolved inorganic carbon can spontaneously evolve to organic species in the absence of biologically catalyzed processes. Results suggest that the Earth’s interior should be considered as a favorable environment for the origin of prebiotic organic compounds.
DS202004-0512
2020
Gales, E., Black, B., Elkins-Tanton, E.Carbonatites as a record of the carbon isotope composition of large igneous province outgassing.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 535, 116076 11p. PdfRussia, Siberiacarbonatite

Abstract: Large igneous province (LIP) eruptions have been linked in some cases to major perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle. However, few observations directly constrain the isotopic composition of carbon released by LIP magmas because carbon isotopes fractionate during degassing, which hampers understanding of the relative roles of mantle versus crustal carbon reservoirs. Carbonatite magmatism associated with LIPs provides a unique window into the isotopic systematics of LIP carbon because the majority of carbon in carbonatites crystalizes rather than degassing. Although the volume of such carbonatites is small, they offer one of the few available constraints on the mantle carbon originally hosted in other more voluminous magma types. Here, we present new data for the Guli carbonatites in the Siberian Traps. In addition, we compile ~260 published measurements of from carbonatites related to the Deccan Traps and the Paraná-Etendeka. We find no evidence for magmas with carbon isotope ratios lighter than depleted mantle values of ‰ from any of these LIPs, though some carbonatites range to heavier . We attribute relatively heavy in some carbonatites to either slightly 13C-enriched domains in the mantle lithosphere or carbon isotope fractionation in deep, carbon-saturated LIP magma reservoirs. The absence of a light component in LIP magmas supports the view that lithospheric carbon reservoirs must be tapped during cases of LIP magmatism linked with sharp negative carbon isotope excursions and mass extinctions.
DS202005-0731
2020
Galimov, E.M., Kaminsky, F.V., Shilobreeva, S.N., Sevastyanov, V.S., Voropaev, S.A., Khachatryan, G.K., Wirth, R., Schreiber, A., Saraykin, V.V., Karpov, G.A., Anikin, L.P.Enigmatic diamonds from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 498-509. pdfRussiadeposit - Tolbachik

Abstract: Approximately 700 diamond crystals were identified in volcanic (mainly pyroclastic) rocks of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. They were studied with the use of SIMS, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and utilization of electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. Diamonds have cube-octahedral shape and extremely homogeneous internal structure. Two groups of impurity elements are distinguished by their distribution within the diamond. First group, N and H, the most common structural impurities in diamond, are distributed homogeneously. All other elements observed (Cl, F, O, S, Si, Al, Ca, and K) form local concentrations, implying the existence of inclusions, causing high concentrations of these elements. Most elements have concentrations 3-4 orders of magnitude less than chondritic values. Besides N and H, Si, F, Cl, and Na are relatively enriched because they are concentrated in micro- and nanoinclusions in diamond. Mineral inclusions in the studied diamonds are 70-450 nm in size, round- or oval-shaped. They are represented by two mineral groups: Mn-Ni alloys and silicides, with a wide range of concentrations for each group. Alloys vary in stoichiometry from MnNi to Mn2Ni, with a minor admixture of Si from 0 to 5.20-5.60 at%. Silicides, usually coexisting with alloys, vary in composition from (Mn,Ni)4Si to (Mn,Ni)5Si2 and Mn5Si2, and further to MnSi, forming pure Mn-silicides. Mineral inclusions have nanometer-sized bubbles that contain a fluid or a gas phase (F and O). Carbon isotopic compositions in diamonds vary from -21 to -29‰ d13CVPDB (avg. = -25.4). Nitrogen isotopic compositions in diamond from Tolbachik volcano are from -2.32 to -2.58‰ d15NAir. Geological, geochemical, and mineralogical data confirm the natural origin of studied Tolbachik diamonds from volcanic gases during the explosive stage of the eruption.
DS202002-0186
2020
Garcia, L.F., Abel, M., Perrin, M., dos Santis Alvarenga, R.The GeoCore ontology: a core ontology for general use in geology.Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 135, 104387 9p. PdfGlobalGeoCore

Abstract: Domain ontologies assume the role of representing, in a formal way, a consensual knowledge of a community over a domain. This task is especially difficult in a wide domain like Geology, which is composed of diversified science resting on a large variety of conceptual models that were developed over time. The meaning of the concepts used by the various professionals often depends on the particular vision that they have of a domain according to their background and working habits. Ontology development in Geology thus necessitates a drastic elucidation of the concepts and vocabulary used by geologists. This article intends to contribute to solving these difficulties by proposing a core ontology named GeoCore Ontology resting on the BFO top ontology, specially designed for describing scientific fields. GeoCore Ontology contains well-founded definitions of a limited set of general concepts within the Geology field that are currently considered by all geologists whatever their skill. It allows modelers to separately consider a geological object, the substance that constitutes it, the boundaries that limit it and the internal arrangement of the matter inside it. The core ontology also allows the description of the existentially dependent qualities attached to a geological object and the geological process that generated it in a particular geological age. This small set of formally defined and described concepts combined with concepts from BFO provides a backbone for deriving by subsumption more specialized geological concepts and also constitutes a baseline for integrating different existent domain ontologies within the Geology domain. The GeoCore ontology and the methodology that we used for building it, provide solutions for unveiling major misunderstanding regarding the concepts that are commonly used for formulating geological interpretations. This will facilitate the communication of this information to external Geology users and its integration in domain applications.
DS202002-0187
2020
Gardiner, N.J., Kirkland, C.L., Hollis, J.A., Cawood, P.A., Nebel, O., Szilas, K., Yakymchuk, C.North Atlantic craton architecture revealed by kimberlite-hosted crustal zircons.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 534, 8p. PdfEurope, Greenlandkimberlite genesis

Abstract: Archean cratons are composites of terranes formed at different times, juxtaposed during craton assembly. Cratons are underpinned by a deep lithospheric root, and models for the development of this cratonic lithosphere include both vertical and horizontal accretion. How different Archean terranes at the surface are reflected vertically within the lithosphere, which might inform on modes of formation, is poorly constrained. Kimberlites, which originate from significant depths within the upper mantle, sample cratonic interiors. The North Atlantic Craton, West Greenland, comprises Eoarchean and Mesoarchean gneiss terranes - the latter including the Akia Terrane - assembled during the late Archean. We report U-Pb and Hf isotopic, and trace element, data measured in zircon xenocrysts from a Neoproterozoic (557 Ma) kimberlite which intruded the Mesoarchean Akia Terrane. The zircon trace element profiles suggest they crystallized from evolved magmas, and their Eo-to Neoarchean U-Pb ages match the surrounding gneiss terranes, and highlight that magmatism was episodic. Zircon Hf isotope values lie within two crustal evolution trends: a Mesoarchean trend and an Eoarchean trend. The Eoarchean trend is anchored on 3.8 Ga orthogneiss, and includes 3.6-3.5 Ga, 2.7 and 2.5-2.4 Ga aged zircons. The Mesoarchean Akia Terrane may have been built upon mafic crust, in which case all zircons whose Hf isotopes lie within the Eoarchean trend were derived from the surrounding Eoarchean gneiss terranes, emplaced under the Akia Terrane after ca. 2.97 or 2.7 Ga, perhaps during late Archean terrane assembly. Kimberlite-hosted peridotite rhenium depletion model ages suggest a late Archean stabilization for the lithospheric mantle. The zircon data support a model of lithospheric growth via tectonic stacking for the North Atlantic Craton.
DS202004-0513
2020
Gaucher, E.C.New perspectives in the industrial exploration for native hydrogen.Elements, Vol. pp. 8-9.Globalhydrogen

Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H2), when combusted, produces heat and water. There is no pollution, just water vapor. When hydrogen combines with oxygen, there is no generation of carbon dioxide, no production of cyclic hydro-carbons, no sulfur oxides (SOx), no nitrogen oxides (NOx), no ozone cogeneration. It seems that hydrogen, along with efficient energy production, solves many of our pollution problems, from urban air pollution to global warming. In the so-called Hydrogen Age of the future (Holland and Provenzano 2007), H2 will be mainly produced by the electrolysis of water using electricity that itself is derived from renewable energy sources or nuclear power plants. Steam methane reforming (a catalyzed reaction at high temperature where CH4 is combined with water to produce CO2 and H2) will only be acceptable as a source of H2 if it is associated with low-cost CO2 storage. But, in this future energy landscape, what is the role of naturally occurring hydrogen, sometimes referred to as native hydrogen?
DS202005-0732
2020
Gaucher, E.C.New perspectives in the industrial exploration for native hydrogen. ( brief review) whole issue on hydrogenElements, Vol. 18, 1, pp. 8-9.Globalhydrogen

Abstract: This article is a broad summary of the current state of knowledge concerning the potential exploration for native hydrogen across the globe. Native hydrogen has been identified in numerous source rocks in zones beyond sedimentary basins where petroleum companies typically operate. At the beginning of 2019 we may be at a tipping point with the first exploitable H2 field, potentially discovered in Mali. Of course, a number of issues and questions must still be resolved if these initial discoveries are to be transformed into a sustainable and abundant source of energy for society. However, the competencies that exist in the petroleum industry can readily be adapted by and to this new sector. New expertise will be needed to account for the reactivity of the hydrogen molecule in order to maximize exploration efforts and minimize the potential for chemical or biological consumption.
DS202001-0012
2019
Gauthier, M.S., Hodder, T., Ross, M., Kelley, S.E. Rochester, A., McCausland< P. The subglacial mosaic of the Laurentide ice sheet; a study of the interior region of southwestern Hudson Bay.Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 214, pp. 1-27.Canada, Manitobageomorphology

Abstract: Reconstructions of past ice-flow provide useful insights into the long-term behaviour of past ice sheets and help to understand how glaciated landscapes are shaped. Here, we present reconstruction of a 10-phase ice-flow history from southwestern Hudson Bay in northeastern Manitoba (Canada), a dynamic region situated between two major ice dispersal centres of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. We utilize a diverse geologic dataset including 1900 field-based erosional indicators, 12 streamlined-landform flowsets, esker and meltwater corridor orientations, 103 till-fabrics analyses, and 1344 till-clast lithology counts. Our reconstruction suggests that both pre-MIS 2 and MIS 2 glaciations followed similar growth patterns, where ice advanced into study area from ice centered to the east (probably in northern Quebec), followed by a switch in ice-flow direction indicating flow from the Keewatin ice centre to the northwest and north. The cause for this switch in ice-flow orientation is uncertain, but the youngest switch may relate to retreat of ice during MIS 3 that then left space for Keewatin-sourced ice to advance over the study area. While modelling experiments indicate widespread cold-based conditions in the study area during the last glacial cycle, uniformly relict landscapes are not common. Instead, the glaciated landscape is palimpsest and commonly fragmented, forming a subglacial bed mosaic of erosional and depositional assemblages that record both shifting ice-flow direction through time and shifting subglacial conditions. Each assemblage formed, or modified, during times of dynamic (warm-based) ice, and later preserved under conditions below or close to the pressure melting point (slow and sluggish, or cold-based).
DS202005-0733
2020
Geballe, Z.M., Sime, N., Badro, J., van Keken, P.E., Goncharov, A.F.Thermal conductivity near the bottom of the Earth's lower mantle: measurements of pyrolite up to 120 Gpa and 2500 K.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 536, 116161, 11p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Knowledge of thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is crucial for understanding heat transport from the Earth's core to mantle. At the pressure-temperature conditions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary, calculations of lattice thermal conductivity based on atomistic models have determined values ranging from 1 to 14 W/m/K for bridgmanite and bridgmanite-rich mineral assemblages. Previous studies have been performed at room temperature up to the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, but correcting these to geotherm temperatures may introduce large errors. Here we present the first measurements of lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals up to pressures and temperatures near the base of the mantle, 120 GPa and 2500 K. We use a combination of continuous and pulsed laser heating in a diamond anvil cell to measure the lattice thermal conductivity of pyrolite, the assemblage of minerals expected to make up the lower mantle. We find a value of W/m/K at 80 GPa and 2000 to 2500 K and 5.9 W/m/K at 124 GPa and 2000 to 3000 K. These values rule out the highest calculations of thermal conductivity of the Earth's mid-lower mantle (i.e. W/m/K at 80 GPa), and are consistent with both the high and low calculations of thermal conductivity near the base of the lower mantle.
DS202004-0514
2020
Gebralle, Z.M., Sime, N., Badro, J., van Kekn, P.E.Thermal conductivity near the bottom of the Earth's lower mantle: mesurements of pyrolite up to 120 GPa and 2500 K. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 536, 116161 7p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Knowledge of thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is crucial for understanding heat transport from the Earth's core to mantle. At the pressure-temperature conditions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary, calculations of lattice thermal conductivity based on atomistic models have determined values ranging from 1 to 14 W/m/K for bridgmanite and bridgmanite-rich mineral assemblages. Previous studies have been performed at room temperature up to the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, but correcting these to geotherm temperatures may introduce large errors. Here we present the first measurements of lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals up to pressures and temperatures near the base of the mantle, 120 GPa and 2500 K. We use a combination of continuous and pulsed laser heating in a diamond anvil cell to measure the lattice thermal conductivity of pyrolite, the assemblage of minerals expected to make up the lower mantle. We find a value of W/m/K at 80 GPa and 2000 to 2500 K and 5.9 W/m/K at 124 GPa and 2000 to 3000 K. These values rule out the highest calculations of thermal conductivity of the Earth's mid-lower mantle (i.e. W/m/K at 80 GPa), and are consistent with both the high and low calculations of thermal conductivity near the base of the lower mantle.
DS202003-0339
2020
Geological Survey of IndiaMineral resources of India. ( first 19p. Kimberlites )Geological Survey of India, 75p. PdfIndiadiamond

Abstract: India has a rich tradition of mineral exploration. Innumerable old workings, mine dumps slag heaps, etc. are the tell tale signs of this glorious tradition. The flourishing diamond trade in the Deccan peninsula, mainly in the Golconda kingdom, had attracted world’s attention during historical time. Copper and gold were also used locally since the days of Indus Valley civilizations. East India Company started exploration for coal in the Eighteenth century with setting up of , the premier Earth science organisation and the second oldest survey of the country, in 1851 for the systematic geological survey and prospecting for coal. India was a notable producer of gold in the early part of twentieth century and major exporter of mica, sillimanite, kyanite, magnetite and chromite. Metallurgical industry started with the setting up of steel plants at Burnpur, Jamshedpur and copper smelter at Ghatsila. Second World War created great demand for various minerals and metals including those of strategic importance e.g., tungsten. Industrial policy, formulated after Independence, brought about a radical change in the mining and metallurgical industry. During the post-Independence period, GSI has embarked upon the exploration for minerals, particularly in favourable geological milieu spread over Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum and Aravalli cratons. The investigations carried out since 1960s provide us firsthand information of different mineral occurrences as well as their potential. Keeping in tune with the modern trends of mineral exploration, the GSI oriented its programmes through multidisciplinary surveys. From time to time it equipped itself with state-of-the-art laboratories to back up its various exploration programmes. The efforts have led to discovery of several mineral deposits in virgin areas in different parts of the country. A few other central and state government organisations were also involved in mineral exploration now and then, mostly in collaboration with foreign organisations. The liberalisation of India’s National Mineral Policy in 1993 paved the way for the entry of private entrepreneurs, including those from overseas for carrying out mineral exploration. The database developed by GSI has been found very useful for taking investment decisions by the Multi-National Companies.
DS202002-0188
2019
Ghent, E.D., Edwards, B.R., Russell, J.K.Pargasite bearing vein in spinel lherzolite from the mantle lithosphere of the North American Cordillera. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 56, pp. 870-885.Canada, British Columbialherzolite

Abstract: Basanite lavas near Craven Lake, British Columbia, host a spinel lherzolite xenolith containing cross-cutting veins with pargasitic amphibole (plus minor apatite). The occurrence of vein amphibole in spinel lherzolite is singular for the Canadian Cordillera. The vein crosscuts foliated peridotite and is itself cut by the basanite host. The amphibole is pargasite, which is the most common amphibole composition in mantle peridotite. Rare earth element concentrations in the pargasite are similar to those for mafic alkaline rocks across the northern Cordilleran volcanic province (light rare earth elements ~50× chondrite and heavy rare earth elements ~5× chondrite). Two-pyroxene geothermometry suggests that the vein and host peridotite were thermally equilibrated prior to sampling by the basanite magma. Calculated temperature conditions for the sample, assuming equilibration along a model steady-state geotherm, are between 990 and 1050 °C and correspond to a pressure of 0.15 GPa (~52 ± 2 km depth). These conditions are consistent with the stability limits of mantle pargasite in the presence of a fluid having XH2O < ~0.1. The pargasite vein and associated apatite provide direct evidence for postaccretion fracture infiltration of CO2-F-H2O-bearing silicate fluids into the Cordilleran mantle lithosphere. Pargasite with low aH2O is in equilibrium with parts per million concentrations of H2O in mantle olivine, potentially lowering the mechanical strength of the lithospheric mantle underlying the Cordillera and making it more susceptible to processes such as lithospheric delamination. Remelting of Cordilleran mantle lithosphere containing amphibole veins may be involved in the formation of sporadic nephelinite found in the Canadian Cordillera.
DS202004-0515
2020
Gibson, S.A., Rooks, E.E., Day, J.A., Petrone, C.M., Leat, P.T.The role of sub-continental mantle as both "sink" and "source" in deep Earth volatile cycles.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 275, pp. 140-162.Mantlecraton

Abstract: The extent to which Earth’s sub-continental lithospheric mantle modulates the flux of volatile elements from our planet’s deep interior to its atmosphere (via volcanism) is poorly constrained. Here, we focus on "off-craton" sub-continental lithospheric mantle because this long-lived reservoir potentially acts as both a volatile “sink” and “source” during major heating and rifting events. The sub-continental lithospheric mantle is primarily formed of peridotites with subordinate amounts of pyroxenites. While both lithologies are dominated by nominally-volatile-free mantle minerals, some of these phases have been shown to contain non-negligible amounts of H2O (e.g. 100’s of ppmw in clinopyroxene). Data for volatile elements other than Li are, however, limited. We present new, high-precision, in-situ Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry analyses of H, F, Cl, Li and B in olivine and pyroxenes from well-characterised garnet- and spinel-bearing peridotites and pyroxenites (from southern Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula). Our study confirms that clinopyroxene is the main host of H2O and F. The maximum F contents we report (up to 154 ppmw) are higher than those in previous studies and occur in Ti-Cr diopsides in highly-metasomatised peridotites and Ti-Al augites from clinopyroxenite veins. Water contents of clinopyroxenes (up to 615 ppmw) are within the range previously published for continental mantle. Lithium concentrations are low (<5 ppmw) in all analysed phases and both Cl and B are below detection levels (14 ppmw and 0.03 ppmw, respectively). Unique to our study is the large variation in major- and trace-element concentrations of the clinopyroxenes, which allows us to place quantitative constraints on how volatiles are stored in the mantle. We demonstrate that: (i) F contents of clinopyroxenes closely correlate with Ti and (ii) and is systematic and inversely correlated with temperature. Despite the redistribution of volatiles during sub-solidus re-equilibration, we show that the first order control on the concentration of volatiles in clinopyroxene is the style of metasomatism, i.e. channellised flow versus reactive percolation. The mean bulk volatile contents of peridotites from Pali Aike and the Antarctic Peninsula (H2O?=?89?±?31 ppmw, F?=?16?±?11.2 ppmw and Li?=?2?±?0.7 ppmw) are within the range previously published for continental "off-craton" mantle. The pyroxenites have significantly higher mean bulk concentrations of H2O (260?±?59 ppmw), F (86?±?43 ppmw) and Li (1.0?±?0.35 ppmw). While the greater capacity of mantle pyroxenites to host H2O relative to the associated peridotites has previously been observed in global "off-craton" mantle xenolith suites (e.g. Oahu, Hawaii; eastern China and the Rio Grande Rift, SW USA), here we show for the first time that pyroxenites are also major hosts of F (but not Cl, Li or B). Because of their relatively low solidus temperatures, pyroxenites in "off-craton" settings will be readily re-mobilised during lithospheric extension (and heating). We suggest these pyroxene-rich mantle lithologies may be responsible for the elevated concentrations of H2O and F observed in basalts and volcanic gasses from major continental rift zones and flood basalt provinces, and hence an important consideration in models of global volatile cycles.
DS202004-0516
2020
Giovannini, A.L., Mitchell, R.H., Bastos Neto, A.C., Moura, C.A.V., Pereira, V.P., Porto, C.G.Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Morro dos Seis Lagos siderite carbonatite, Amazonas, Brazil.Lithos, vol. 360-361, 105433 20p. PdfSouth America, Brazil, Amazonascarbonatite

Abstract: The Morro dos Seis Lagos niobium rare earth element, Ti-bearing lateritic deposit (Amazonas, Brazil) is derived from a primary siderite carbonatite. The complex is the only example of a Nb deposit in which Nb-rich rutile is the main Nb ore mineral. Apart from the laterites, at the current level of exposure the complex consists only of siderite carbonatite; silicate rocks are absent. Three types of siderite carbonatite are recognized: (1) a brecciated and oxidized core siderite carbonatite consisting of up to 95 vol% siderite together with: hematite; pyrochlore; Nb-brookite; Ti-maghemite; and thorobastnäsite; (2) a REE- and P-rich variety of the core siderite carbonatite consisting of siderite (up to 95 vol%), hematite, minor pyrochlore, monazite and bastnäsite; (3) a border hydrothermal siderite carbonatite with ~70 vol% siderite, barite (~15 vol%), gorceixite (~7 vol%) and minor rhabdophane and pyrochlore. The country rock gneiss in which the carbonatite was emplaced was affected by potassic fenitization, with the formation of phlogopite and orthoclase together with monazite, fluorapatite and bastnäsite. The siderite carbonatites exhibit a wide variation of d13C (-5.39‰ to -1.40‰), accompanied by a significant variation in d18O (17.13‰ to 31.33‰), especially in the REE-rich core siderite carbonatite, and are explained as due to the presence of both H2O and CO2 in the magma. The core siderite carbonatite is the richest in Fe (48.64-70.85 wt% Fe2O3) and the poorest in Ca (up 0.82 wt% CaO) example of a siderite carbonatite yet recognized The ferrocarbonatite has significant contents of Mn, Ba, Th, Pb and LREE, and a very high Nb (up to 7667 ppm) content due to the presence of Nb-brookite. The substitution 3Ti4+ = Fe2+ + 2Nb5+ recognized in Nb-rich brookite explains enrichment of Nb in the core siderite carbonatite and indicates formation in a reducing environment. The high Nb/Ta ratio (1408-11,459) of the carbonatite is compatible with residual liquids derived by fractional crystallization. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.70411-0.70573) and 144Nd/143Nd (0.512663-0.512715) isotopic data suggest the carbonatite is mantle-derived with essentially no crustal contamination and is younger than the maximum age of 1328 ± 58 Ma (UPb in zircon). We suggest that the Morro dos Seis Lagos carbonatite complex represents the upper-most parts of a differentiated carbonatite magmatic system, and that the siderite carbonatite is related to late-magmatic-to-carbo-hydrothermal processes.
DS202008-1393
2020
Giuliani, A., Jackson, M.G., Fitzpayne, A.The role of FOZO-PREMA in kimberlite genesis. Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractMantlekimberlite

Abstract: FOZO-PREMA is an ubiquitous component of oceanic basalts and was originally defined by the convergence of Sr- Nd-Pb isotope trends of ocean island basalts (OIBs) from individual island-seamount chains [1]. FOZO-PREMA is also widespread in juvenile continental magmas, which argue for a global relevance of this component irrespective of the tectonic settings. Early studies proposed that FOZO-PREMA could be a physically discrete reservoir derived from depletion of primitive mantle based on the combination of geochemically depleted 143Nd/144Nd combined with elevated 3He/4He ratios [2]. Conversely, later models showed that isotopic compositions spanning the FOZO-PREMA field can be obtained by mixing recycled oceanic crust and mantle material previously depleted by crust extraction [3]. Kimberlites can provide a new perspective on this debate because a recent study of the Nd and Hf isotope compositions of kimberlite through time shows that these magmas sample a deep, long-lived, homogeneous reservoir, which might contain remnants of early Earth differentiation processes [4]. We critically review the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope compositions of kimberlites that were emplaced from ~2.1 Ga. After screening kimberlite isotopic data for the effects of lithospheric contamination and secondary alteration, we show that kimberlites through time have been derived from a mantle source with FOZO-PREMA composition. This observation makes it unlikely that FOZO-PREMA derives from continuous mixing of depleted and recycled components because the composition of subducted lithologies, pressure and temperature conditions in subduction zones, and temperature and oxygen fugacity conditions of the convective mantle have changed throughout Earth history. We therefore conclude that FOZO-PREMA is a long-lived component of Earth’s mantle, which must have existed for at least the last 2.1 Ga, the wider implications of which will be discussed.
DS202007-1142
2020
Giuliani, A., Pearson, D.G., Soltys, A., Dalton, H., Phillips, D., Foley, S.F., Lim, E.Kimberlite genesis from a common primary melt modified by lithospheric mantle assimilation.Science Advances, Vol. 6, eeaz0424Mantlemelting

Abstract: Quantifying the compositional evolution of mantle-derived melts from source to surface is fundamental for constraining the nature of primary melts and deep Earth composition. Despite abundant evidence for interaction between carbonate-rich melts, including diamondiferous kimberlites, and mantle wall rocks en route to surface, the effects of this interaction on melt compositions are poorly constrained. Here, we demonstrate a robust linear correlation between the Mg/Si ratios of kimberlites and their entrained mantle components and between Mg/Fe ratios of mantle-derived olivine cores and magmatic olivine rims in kimberlites worldwide. Combined with numerical modeling, these findings indicate that kimberlite melts with highly variable composition were broadly similar before lithosphere assimilation. This implies that kimberlites worldwide originated by partial melting of compositionally similar convective mantle sources under comparable physical conditions. We conclude that mantle assimilation markedly alters the major element composition of carbonate-rich melts and is a major process in the evolution of mantle-derived magmas.
DS202003-0340
2019
Giuliani, G., Groat, L.A.Geology of corundum and emerald gem deposits: a review.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 464-511.Africa, Madagascar, Zambia, Asia, Sri Lanka, South America, Colombiaemerald

Abstract: The great challenge of geographic origin determination is to connect the properties and features of individual gems to the geology of their deposits. Similar geologic environments can produce gems with similar gemological properties, making it difficult to find unique identifiers. Over the last two decades, our knowledge of corundum and emerald deposit formation has improved significantly. The mineral deposits are classically separated into primary and secondary deposits. Primary corundum deposits are subdivided into two types based on their geological environment of formation: (1) magmatic and (2) metamorphic. Magmatic deposits include gem corundum in alkali basalts as in eastern Australia, and sapphire in lamprophyre and syenite as in Montana (United States) and Garba Tula (Kenya), respectively. Metamorphic deposits are divided into two subtypes (1) metamorphic deposits sensu stricto (in marble; mafic and ultramafic rocks, or M-UMR), and (2) metamorphic-metasomatic deposits characterized by high fluid-rock interaction and metasomatism (i.e., plumasite or desilicated pegmatites in M-UMR and marble, skarn deposits, and shear zonerelated deposits in different substrata, mainly corundum-bearing Mg-Cr-biotite schist). Examples of the first subtype include the ruby deposits in marble from the Mogok Stone Tract or those in M-UMR from Montepuez (Mozambique) and Aappaluttoq (Greenland). The second subtype concerns the sapphire from Kashmir hosted by plumasites in M-UMR. Secondary corundum deposits (i.e., present-day placers) result from the erosion of primary corundum deposits. Here, corundum is found in the following types of deposits: eluvial (derived by in situ weathering or weathering plus gravitational movement), diluvial (scree or talus), colluvial (deposited at the base of slopes by rainwash, sheetwash, slow continuous downslope creep, or a combination of these processes), and alluvial (deposited by rivers). Today, most sapphires are produced from gem placers related to alkali basalts, as in eastern Australia or southern Vietnam, while placers in metamorphic environments, such as in Sri Lanka (Ratnapura, Elahera) and Madagascar (Ilakaka), produce the highest-quality sapphires. The colluvial Montepuez deposit in Mozambique provides a huge and stable supply of clean and very high-quality rubies. Primary emerald deposits are subdivided into two types based on their geological environment of formation: (1) tectonic-magmatic-related (Type I) and (2) tectonic-metamorphic-related (Type II). Several subtypes are defined and especially Type IA, hosted in M-UMR, which accounts for about 70% of worldwide production (Brazil, Zambia, Russia, and others). It is characterized by the intrusion of pegmatites or quartz veins in M-UMR accompanied by huge hydrothermal fluid circulation and metasomatism with the formation of emerald-bearing desilicated pegmatite (plumasite) and biotite schist. Type IB in sedimentary rocks (China, Canada, Norway, Kazakhstan, and Australia) and Type IC in granitic rocks (Nigeria) are of minor importance. The subtype Type IIA of metamorphic deposits is related to hydrothermal fluid circulation at high temperature, in thrust fault and/or shear zones within M-UMR of volcano-sedimentary series, such as at the Santa Terezinha de Goiás deposit in Brazil. The subtype Type IIB is showcased by the Colombian emerald deposits located in the Lower Cretaceous black shales of the Eastern Cordillera Basin. These are related to the circulation of hydrothermal basinal fluids in black shales, at 300330°C, that dissolved evaporites in (1) thrust and tear faults for the deposits of the western emerald zone (Yacopi, Coscuez, Muzo, Peñas Blancas, Cunas, and La Pita mines) and (2) a regional evaporite level intercalated in the black shales or the deposits of the eastern emerald zone (Gachalá, Chivor, and Macanal mining districts). Secondary emerald deposits are unknown because emerald is too fragile to survive erosion and transport in rivers.
DS202007-1143
2020
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V.Geochemical composition of dolerites as an indicator of the distance of a dike swarm from the mantle plume center ( case study of Proterozoic dike swarms, Siberian craton).Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 491, pp. 243-246.Russia, Siberiadyke

Abstract: Based on investigation of Proterozoic mafic dike swarms of the Siberian Craton, we inferred how the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of dike swarms of dolerites of Large Igneous Provinces depend on their distance from the mantle plume head. It has been found that the dolerite parent melts near the mantle plume head correspond to OIB compositions. At significant distances from the plume, the initial melts of dolerites are generated in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which provides a wide range of their compositions differing from typical OIB and do not indicate directly the genetic relationship of these mafic rocks with the mantle plume.
DS202008-1394
2020
Goes, S., Hasterok, D., Schutt, D.L., Klocking, M.Continental lithospheric temperatures: a review.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 306, 106509, 18p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Thermal structure of the lithosphere exerts a primary control on its strength and density and thereby its dynamic evolution as the outer thermal and mechanic boundary layer of the convecting mantle. This contribution focuses on continental lithosphere. We review constraints on thermal conductivity and heat production, geophysical and geochemical/petrological constraints on thermal structure of the continental lithosphere, as well as steady-state and non-steady state 1D thermal models and their applicability. Commonly used geotherm families that assume that crustal heat production contributes an approximately constant fraction of 25-40% to surface heat flow reproduce the global spread of temperatures and thermal thicknesses of the lithosphere below continents. However, we find that global variations in seismic thickness of continental lithosphere and seismically estimated variations in Moho temperature below the US are more compatible with models where upper crustal heat production is 2-3 times higher than lower crustal heat production (consistent with rock estimates) and the contribution of effective crustal heat production to thermal structure (i.e. estimated by describing thermal structure with steady-state geotherms) varies systematically from 40 to 60% in tectonically stable low surface heat flow regions to 20% or lower in higher heat flow tectonically active regions. The low effective heat production in tectonically active regions is likely partly the expression of a non-steady thermal state and advective heat transport.
DS202001-0013
2019
Goldie, R.Approximation of Tiffany & Co. seasonally - adjusted, quarterly sales per store ( sales x $ 000). Raymondgoldie @outlook.com, Dec. 6, 1p. GraphGlobalTiffany
DS202008-1395
2019
Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I., Korsakov, A.V., Abersteiner, A.Can primitive kimberlitic melts be alkali-carbonate liquids: composition of the melt snapshots preserved in deepest mantle xenoliths.Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5701 19p pdfRussiadeposit - Udachnaya-East

Abstract: The study of kimberlite rocks is important as they provide critical information regarding the composition and dynamics of the continental mantle and are the principal source of diamonds. Despite many decades of research, the original compositions of kimberlite melts, which are thought to be derived from depths > 150 km, remain highly debatable due to processes that can significantly modify their composition during ascent and emplacement. Snapshots of the kimberlite-related melts were entrapped as secondary melt inclusions hosted in olivine from sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East pipe (Siberian craton). These xenoliths originated from 180- to 220-km depth and are among the deepest derived samples of mantle rocks exposed at the surface. The crystallised melt inclusions contain diverse daughter mineral assemblages (>30 mineral species), which are dominated by alkali-rich carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides. The presence of aragonite as a daughter mineral suggests a high-pressure origin for these inclusions. Raman-mapping studies of unexposed inclusions show that they are dominated by carbonates (>65 vol.%), whereas silicates are subordinate (<13 vol.%). This indicates that the parental melt for the inclusions was carbonatitic. The key chemical features of this melt are very high contents of alkalis, carbon dioxide, chlorine, and sulfur and extremely low silica and water. Alkali-carbonate melts entrapped in xenolith minerals likely represent snapshots of the primitive kimberlite melt. This composition is in contrast with the generally accepted notion that kimberlites originated as ultramafic silicate water-rich melts. Experimental studies revealed that alkali-carbonate melts are a very suitable diamond-forming media. Therefore, our findings support the idea that some diamonds and kimberlite magmatism may be genetically related.
DS202008-1396
2020
Gonzales-Jiminez, J.M., Tassara, S., Schettino, E., Roque-Rosell, J., Farre-de-Pablo, J., Saunders, J.E., Deditius, A.P., Colas, V., Rovira-Medina, J.J., Guadalupe Davalos, M., Schilling, M., Jiminez-Franco, A., Marchesi, C., Nieto, F., Proenza, J.A., GerMineralogy of the HSE in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle - an interpretive review.Lithos, in press available, 44p. PdfMantleHSE

Abstract: The highly siderophile elements (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Re, Au) exist in solid solution in accessory base-metal sulfides (BMS) as well as nano-to-micron scale minerals in rocks of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The latter include platinum-group minerals (PGM) and gold minerals, which may vary widely in morphology, composition and distribution. The PGM form isolated grains often associated with larger BMS hosted in residual olivine, located at interstices in between peridotite-forming minerals or more commonly in association with metasomatic minerals (pyroxenes, carbonates, phosphates) and silicate glasses in some peridotite xenoliths. The PGM found inside residual olivine are mainly Os-, Ir- and Ru-rich sulfides and alloys. In contrast, those associated with metasomatic minerals or silicate glasses of peridotite xenoliths consist of Pt, Pd, and Rh bonded with semimetals like As, Te, Bi, and Sn. Nanoscale observations on natural samples along with the results of recent experiments indicate that nucleation of PGM is mainly related with the uptake of HSE by nanoparticles, nanominerals or nanomelts at high temperature (> 900?°C) in both silicate and/or sulfide melts, regardless of the residual or metasomatic origin of their host minerals. A similar interpretation can be assumed for gold minerals. Our observations highlight that nanoscale processes play an important role on the ore-forming potential of primitive mantle-derived magmas parental to magmatic-hydrothermal deposits enriched in noble metals. The metal inventory in these magmas could be related with the physical incorporation of HSE-bearing nanoparticles or nanomelts during processes of partial melting of mantle peridotite and melt migration from the mantle to overlying continental crust.
DS202002-0189
2019
Goss, H.The shape of the world.EOS, 100, Dec. 31, http://doi.org/ 10.1029/2019EO138179Mantlegeodynamics
DS202008-1397
2020
Goss, H.A dive into the deep Earth.Eos, 101, doi.org/10.1029 /2020EO145467 1p. Mantlemineralogy

Abstract: In July, Eos looks at the incredible capabilities scientists have developed to recreate the enormous pressures and temperatures that exist far below the planet’s surface.
DS202005-0734
2020
Gramling, C.Plate tectonics may have started 400 million years earlier than we thought. sciencemag.org, April 22, 3p.AustraliaTectonics

Abstract: Modern plate tectonics may have gotten under way as early as 3.2 billion years ago, about 400 million years earlier than scientists thought. That, in turn, suggests that the movement of large pieces of Earth’s crust could have played a role in making the planet more hospitable to life. Geologist Alec Brenner of Harvard University and his colleagues measured the magnetic orientations of iron-bearing minerals in the Honeyeater Basalt, a layer of rock that formed between 3.19 billion and 3.18 billion years ago. The basalt is part of the East Pilbara Craton, an ancient bit of continent in Western Australia that includes rocks as old as 3.5 billion years. This craton, the researchers found, was on the move between 3.35 billion and 3.18 billion years ago, drifting around the planet at a rate of at least 2.5 centimeters per year. That’s a speed comparable to modern plate motions, the team reports April 22 in Science Advances.
DS202008-1398
2020
Greene, S., Jacob, D.E., O'Reilly, S.Y., Henry, H., Pinter, Z., Heaman, L.Extensive prekimberlitic lithosphere modification recorded in Jericho mantle xenoliths in kimberlites, Slave Craton.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Jericho

Abstract: Wehrlite and pyroxenite xenoliths and megacrysts from the Jericho kimberlite were analyzed by µXRF and EBSD, and for major elements, trace elements, and isotopes (Pb-Sr- O) in major phases. Thermobarometry places these samples at 60 - 180 km and 600 - 1200 ??C. While modes and textures vary, many samples have olivine-olivine grain boundaries with straight edges and 120° angle junctions, indicating granoblastic recrystallisation, while clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are complexly intergrown. Clinopyroxene twins and subgrains recording orientations distinct from the encapsulating grain were detected using EBSD and are inferred to represent recent modification processes. Several distinct garnet compositions were measured, with multiple thin garnet rims in some samples suggesting possible successive stages of garnet crystallisation. Complex chromium zoning in garnet is detected by µXRF in several samples (fig.1). Pb-Pb ages for most samples are similar to the age of kimberlite entrainment (173 Ma), but the shallowest pyroxenite sample preserves the most radiogenic Pb composition, intercecting concordia at 0.7 - 1.1 Ga, and is the only sample with d18O above the mantle range (6.2±0.1 ‰). The deepest sample has the lowest d18O (5.5±0.1 ‰) and radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr similar to MARID rocks (0.709±1 ‰). These results suggest the Jericho lithosphere experienced several melt/fluid injection events that modified substantial portions of the sampled section soon before kimberlite entrainment.
DS202001-0014
2019
Groat, L.A.Adding logic to luck: recent advances in coloured stone exploration in Canada.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, pp. 620-633.Canadagemstones
DS202003-0341
2019
Groat, L.A., Giuilani, G.,, Stone-Sundberg, J., Sun, Z., Renfro, N.D., Palke, A.C.A review of analytical methods used in geographic origin determination of gemstones.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 512-535.Globalemerald, sapphire

Abstract: Origin determination is of increasing importance in the gem trade. It is possible because there is a close relationship between the geological environment of formation and the physical and chemical properties of gemstones, such as trace element and isotopic compositions, that can be measured in the laboratory using combinations of increasingly sophisticated instrumentation. Origin conclusions for ruby, sapphire, and emerald make up the bulk of demand for these services, with growing demand for alexandrite, tourmaline, and spinel. However, establishing origin with a high degree of confidence using the capabilities available today is met with varying degrees of success. Geographic origin can be determined with a high level of confidence for materials such as emerald, Paraíba-type tourmaline, alexandrite, and many rubies. For some materials, especially blue sapphire and some rubies, the situation is more difficult. The main problem is that if the geology of two deposits is similar, then the properties of the gemstones they produce will also be similar, to the point where concluding an origin becomes seemingly impossible in some cases. Origin determination currently relies on a combination of traditional gemological observations and advanced analytical instrumentation.
DS202002-0190
2020
Grocholski, B.Synthesizing single-layer diamond: Carbon allotropes of diamond and graphene.Science, Vol. 367, 6476, p. 402.Globalcarbon

Abstract: The carbon allotropes of diamond and graphene have different types of bonding that lead to their exceptional properties. Bakharev et al. pull off the impressive trick of making a monolayer carbon film that is diamond-like in its bonding. The authors accomplish this by attaching fluorine atoms to the carbon film, creating “F-diamane.” Diamane is a long-sought-after, but challenging to make, material that should have useful properties. F-diamane may find use in a variety of applications, from microelectronics as a semiconductor to a seed material for growing single-crystal diamond films.
DS202004-0517
2019
Gruber, B.H.Temperatures and heat production in the Slave Craton lower crust: evidence from exnoliths in the Diavik A-154 kimberlite.Thesis MSc University of Alberta , 123p. Pdf Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Diavik A-154

Abstract: Lower crustal heat production is poorly constrained due to the relative inaccessibility of lower crustal samples and their inherent complexity. To obtain the requisite information, the current project conducts spatially resolved geochemical analyses on minerals in 15 lower crustal xenoliths erupted via the Diavik A-154 kimberlite of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The aims are to: 1) conduct geothermometric measurements on lower crustal minerals, 2) construct a heatproducing element budget of the lower crust of the Slave craton, and 3) test the validity of these measurements in a parameter space relevant to geodynamic modeling and diamond exploration. The Diavik lower crustal xenolith suite comprises two main lithologies, mafic granulite (garnet-plagioclase-clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene) and metasedimentary granulite (garnetplagioclase- orthopyroxene ± quartz ± K-feldspar ± kyanite), which are present in proportions of approximately 80:20, respectively. Application of mineral-pair, iron-magnesium exchange geothermometers (garnet-biotite, garnet-amphibole, and garnet-clinopyroxene) to these xenoliths indicates that the lower crust was at a maximum temperature of roughly 500 °C at the time of kimberlite eruption (~ 55 Ma). The actual temperature of the lower crust is likely lower than 500 °C as the geothermometers probably record the closure temperature of diffusional Fe2+-Mg exchange between touching mineral pairs rather than the ambient temperature of the rocks prior to their entrainment in the kimberlite magma. Heat-producing element (HPE) concentration measurements show that the lower crustal heat production of the Slave craton is likely 0.14 ± 0.02 µW/m3, which is lower than most values in the literature but broadly comparable to some geophysical estimates. This estimate is the result of (20:80) bimodal mixing of idealized lower crustal endmembers: a metasedimentary lower crust (0.37 ± 0.06 µW/m3) and a mafic lower crust (0.08 ± 0.01 µW/m3). These endmembers were iii calculated via a reconstructed bulk rock calculation utilizing trace element concentrations of constituent lower crustal minerals and idealized lithologies from the lower crustal xenoliths. Using these heat production estimates and other crustal parameters such as continental heat flux, mantle heat flux, crustal thickness, and crustal thermal conductivity, I modeled a Moho temperature for the Slave craton of 425 °C, which is consistent with maximum lower crustal temperature estimate given by geothermometry. Adjusting the lower crustal heat production in the geotherm modeling program FITPLOT changes the temperature of the Moho in a similar fashion to the calculated models; however, the diamond propensity of the mantle lithosphere (partially a function of Moho temperature and heat production) does not appear to be strongly affected by a changing Moho temperature and is more strongly controlled by the conditions of the mantle P-T array.
DS202005-0735
2020
Gryaznov, I.A., Zhimulev, E.I., Sonin, V.M., Lindenblot, E.S., Chepurov, A.A.Morphological features of diamond crystals resulting from dissolution in a Fe-Ni-S melt under high pressure.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 489, 2, pp. 1449-1452 .pdfRussiadiamond morphology, CLIPPIR

Abstract: The primary results are presented on the dissolution of plane-faced diamond crystals of octahedral habit in a Fe-Ni-S melt under 3.5 GPa and 1400°C. It was found that the dissolution resulted in the transformation of plane-faced into curve-faced individuals of morphological features characteristic for kimberlite diamonds. It was concluded that the diamond forms as such might have formed in reduced domains of the Earth’s mantle before becoming involved in the kimberlite magma.
DS202002-0191
2019
Guice, G.L.Origin and geodynamic significance of ultramafic- mafic complexes in the North Atlantic and Kaapvaal cratons.Thesis, Phd Cardiff University, 315p. PdfEurope, Africa, South Africacraton
DS202008-1399
2020
Gukurume, S., Nhodo, L.Forced displacements in mining communities: politics in Chiadzwa diamond area, Zimbabwe.Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 38, 1, pp. 39-54.Africa, Zimbabwedeposit - Chiadzwa

Abstract: The Chiadzwa diamonds attracted widespread attention due to human rights violations and illegal smuggling. When diamonds were discovered in 2006, thousands of artisanal miners descended on the diamond fields. In response, the government unleashed the army and police in brutal crackdowns to drive artisanal miners off the diamond fields. This militarisation of diamond fields and extraction was followed by forced displacement of the Chiadzwa people. This article examines the lived, everyday experiences of the displaced Chiadzwa people. Findings reveal that displacements dislocated the livelihoods and socialities of the people. Displacements also exacerbated people's vulnerability to livelihood shocks, insecurity, and poverty. In relocating people the government adopted a ‘top-down’ approach which triggered contestations and conflicts with the people who felt alienated from their ancestral land and excluded from diamond wealth. Consequently, sabotage, resistance and subversion were commonplace in the relocation process. These socio-political ‘tactics’ should be viewed as ‘weapons of the weak’.
DS202006-0921
2020
Gusev, N.I., Sergeeva, L. Yu., Larionov, A.N., Skublov, S.G.Relics of the Eoarchean continental crust of the Anabar shield, Siberian Craton.Petrology, Vol. 28, 2, pp. 118-140.Russiadeposit - Daldyn

Abstract: In the northern part of the Anabar Shield, orthopyroxene plagiogneisses of the granulite Daldyn Group host lenses of mafic rocks surrounded by melanocratic rims. According to their chemical composition, the mafic rocks correspond to subalkaline gabbro, the plagiogneisses correspond to granodiorites contaminated with mafic material, and the rims are diorites. The orthopyroxene plagiogneisses of granodiorite composition have 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1097, eNd(?) = 1.6, TNd(DM) = 3.47 Ga and are metamorphosed anatectic granitoids with an age of 3.34 Ga. The mafic rocks have high Zr, Th, and Pb contents, are enriched in REE (SREE = 636 ppm), with a high degree of fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 17.73] and a well-defined Eu minimum (Eu/Eu* = 0.51), and have 147Sm/144Nd = 0.099, eNd(?) = 1.4 and TNd(DM) = 3.65 Ga. It is assumed that these rocks crystallized from melt derived from an enriched mantle (plume) source. Based on U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) dating of 50 zircon grains from the mafic rocks, a group of grains with concordant ages from 3567 to 1939 Ma was distinguished, along with a large number of discordant values. Multiple measurements in zircon grains with discordant age values make it possible to identify seven grains of Eoarchean age, with upper intercepts of the discordia corresponding to 3987 ± 71 to 3599 ± 33 Ma. The Lu-Hf systematics of 14 zircon grains is characterized by eHf(T) = +3.7 and by close values of THf(DM) = 3.95 and TCHf = 3.93 Ga (3.99 Ga for the oldest zircon). The Paleoarchean (3.57 Ga) zircons are characterized by negative values of eHf(T) = -5.3 and -6.8, THf(DM) = 3.92-3.98 Ga, and TCHf = 4.14-4.24 Ga, which indicate recycling of the preexisting Eoarchean and Hadean continental crust. The younger zircon (3287-2410 Ma) was also formed when the preexisting crust was recycled.
DS202007-1144
2020
Haddock, D., Manya, S., Brown, R.J., Jones, T.J., Wadsworth, F.B., Dobson, K.J., Gernon, T.M.Syn-eruptive agglutination of kimberlite volcanic ash. PyroclastsVolcanica, Vol. 3, 1, pp. 169-182. PdfAfrica, Tanzaniadeposit - Igwisi Hills

Abstract: Pyroclastic deposits of the Holocene Igwisi Hills kimberlite volcanoes, Tanzania, preserve unequivocal evidence for rapid, syn-eruptive agglutination. The unusual pyroclasts are composed of ash-sized particles agglutinated to each other by thin necks. The textures suggest the magma was disrupted into droplets during ascent. Collisions between particles occurred within a volcanic plume and on deposition within the conduit to form a weakly agglutinated, porous pyroclastic deposit. Theoretical considerations indicate that agglutination occurred over short timescales. Agglutinated clasts were entrained into weak volcanic plumes and deposited around the craters. Our results support the notion that agglutination can occur during kimberlite eruptions, and that some coherent, dense rocks in ancient kimberlite pipes interpreted as intrusive rocks could instead represent agglutinated pyroclastic rocks. Differentiating between agglutinated pyroclastic rocks and effusive or intrusive rocks in kimberlite pipes is important because of the potential effects that pyroclastic processes might have on diamond concentrations in deposits.
DS202002-0192
2019
Hazarika, B., Malpe, D.B., Dongre, A.Petrology and geochemistry of a boninite dyke from the western Bastar craton of central India.Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 128, 17p. PdfIndiaboninite

Abstract: The Dongargarh Supergroup along with the basal Amgaon Gneissic Complex constitutes the northwestern part of the central Indian Bastar craton. In the present study, we report a new finding of a boninite dyke intruded in the Amgaon gneisses of this area. The dyke composed of mainly pyroxenes, amphiboles and subordinate amount of plagioclase. The higher contents of SiO2 (51-54 wt.%), MgO (12-14 wt.%), Ni (375-473 ppm), Cr (1416-1580 ppm) and very low TiO2 (0.2-0.4 wt.%) are consistent with the boninite nature of the dyke as well as the unevolved primary nature of the source magma. The extraordinarily high CaO content (15.97-17.7 wt.%) with higher CaO/Al2O3 (3.13-3.96) ratios classifies it as high-Ca boninite. The trace element ratios including Zr/Ti, Ti/V, Ti/Sc and Ti/Yb further show its geochemical similarity with the Archaean boninite. The dyke also shows negative high-field strength element (Nb, Ta and Ti) anomalies which are the characteristics of the boninite rocks reported elsewhere and along with the enriched light rare earth element pattern, it shows more affinity particularly with the northern Bastar boninite dyke. The mineralogical and geochemical similarities of the boninite dykes from the Bastar craton indicate a widespread boninitic event during the Palaeoproterozoic having a similar origin. These boninite dykes indicate the preservation of subduction-related signatures in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Bastar craton at the time of its evolution or may be during the convergence of the Bastar and Bundelkhand cratons.
DS202003-0342
2020
Hazarika, B., Malpe, D.B., Dongre, A.Petrogenesis of mafic dykes from the western Bastar craton of central India and their relation to ourgrowth of Columbia supercontinent.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available, 20p. PdfIndiacraton

Abstract: We report mineral compositions and bulk rock geochemistry of mafic dykes intruded in the western part of Bastar craton, comprising of Archaean Amgaon Group and Proterozoic Dongargarh Supergroup of rocks. Field relations show two distinct trends of these dykes which are almost perpendicular to each other but having similar mineralogical and geochemical characteristics. Dykes are mostly composed of pyroxenes, plagioclase and subordinate amount of amphiboles and Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and ilmenite). These hypersthene normative basaltic dykes show tholeiitic trend and are characterised by narrow compositional variations of MgO (6.067.08 wt%), FeOt (15.0617.78 wt%), TiO2 (1.182.24 wt%), Al2O3 (11.9615.54 wt%) and low Mg# [atomic Mg/(Mg?+?Fe2+)?×?100] values in the range of 3748. Low loss on ignition (LOI) values <2 wt% and significant trends of trace elements (Nb, La, Th, Sr) with Zr indicate insignificant effects of post magmatic processes in these dykes. Smooth correlations between major oxides and MgO, among trace element ratios (Ce/La, Th/Yb, Nb/Yb) and negative Nb-Ta anomalies without positive Zr and Hf anomalies negate the crustal contamination effects. The correlations of compatible (e.g. Cr, Ni) and incompatible (e.g. Ba, Rb) elements show involvement of both fractional crystallisation and partial melting processes in their formation. Flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) pattern with low (Tb/Yb)n values reveal their genesis from a mantle source without involvement of garnet and geochemical models suggested in the present study indicate melting from spinel lherzolite mantle source. Strong geochemical similarities of present dykes with those of earlier reported Lakhna (1.46 Ga) and Bandimal (1.42 Ga) dykes of northern Bastar craton suggest a widespread mafic magmatic event across the Bastar craton during 1.421.46 Ga. Present dykes therefore represent a subduction related outgrowth of Columbia supercontinent due to the accretion of continental margins.
DS202007-1145
2020
Hecker, J.G., Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Markl, G.Halogens in amphibole and mica from mantle xenoliths: implications for the halogen distribution and halogen budget of the metasomatized continental lithosphere.American Mineralogist, Vol. 105, pp. 781-794.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: This study reports halogen contents (F and Cl) of amphibole and phlogopite derived from mantle xenoliths and one peridotite massif, for amphibole and phlogopite megacrysts and ultramafic magmatic cumulates (hornblendites) found in alkaline volcanic rocks from 12 localities in Europe and Africa. Amphibole and phlogopite contain more F than Cl with F/Cl ratios reaching about 160 in phlogopites and 50 in amphiboles. Phlogopites are higher in F (median of 3400 µg/g) than amphibole (median of 1000 µg/g), while median Cl contents are higher in amphibole (290 µg/g) compared to phlogopite (180 µg/g). The Cl contents and the F/Cl ratios in amphibole and phlogopite from mantle xenoliths exhibit large differences between samples of the same region, recording very large variations of halogen contents in the continental lithosphere. We suggest that the halogen content in such samples largely depends on the initial composition of percolating melts and fluids in the continental lithosphere. During reaction of these agents with peridotitic wall-rocks, Cl is preferentially retained in the fluid as it is much more incompatible compared to water and F. This desiccation effect continuously increases salinity (Cl content) and decreases the F/Cl ratio in the agent with time, causing variable Cl contents and F/Cl ratios in amphibole and phlogopite at a specific locality. Subsequent partial melting processes may then sequester and re-distribute, especially Cl among amphibole, phlogopite and melts/fluids as a result of its strong incompatibility, whereas F is much less affected as it behaves slightly compatible. The impact of even small amounts of amphibole and mica on the total halogen budget in the continental lithosphere is significant and both minerals can effectively contribute to the high halogen contents typical of alkaline melts.
DS202007-1146
2020
Heyn. B.H., Conrad, C.P., Tronnes, R.G.Core-mantle boundary topography and its relation to the viscosity structure of the lowermost mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 543, 116358 14p. PdfMantlemantle plumes

Abstract: Two large areas of anomalously low seismic velocities are visible in all tomographic models of the lowermost mantle. Depending on the density structure of these Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs), the core-mantle boundary (CMB) will deform upwards or downwards due to isostatic and dynamic topography, the latter being sensitive to the viscosity structure of the lowermost mantle. Heterogeneities in the viscosity structure, although difficult to constrain, might be especially important if the LLSVPs are thermochemical piles with elevated intrinsic viscosity as suggested by mineral physics. Based on numerical models, we identify a short-wavelength (about 80-120 km wide, up to a few km deep) topographic depression that forms around the pile edges if the pile is more viscous than the surrounding mantle. The depression forms when a wedge of thermal boundary layer material becomes compressed against the viscous pile, and is enhanced by relative uplift of the CMB beneath the pile by plumes rising above it. The depth and asymmetry of the depression constrain the magnitude of the viscosity contrast between pile and the surrounding mantle. Furthermore, (periodic) plume initiation and pile collapse at the pile margin systematically modify the characteristic depression, with a maximum in asymmetry and depth at the time of plume initiation. Core-reflected waves or scattered energy may be used to detect this topographic signature of stiff thermochemical piles at the base of the mantle.
DS202005-0736
2020
Hinze, W. J,, Chandler, V.W.Reviewing the configuration and extent of the Midcontinent rift system.Precambrian Research, Vol. 342, 18p. PdfUnited States, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahomageophsyics - magnetics

Abstract: Uncertainty exists in the configuration and extent of the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) because of deficiencies in geophysical data and limited information from outcrops and basement drill holes. Additional ambiguity is caused by misunderstanding the definition of continental rifts. Six principal problematic regions in mapping the MRS are described. Gravity and magnetic data, supported by drill hole and seismic reflection data, show that the Eastern Lake Superior rift segment of the MRS continues south from Lake Superior and connects to a much narrower rift in northern Lake Michigan. The eastern margin of this transition is ill defined because of the lack of definitive anomalies and supporting seismic and drill hole data, but is interpreted to occur near the U.S. - Canada border. The rift segment in southeastern Michigan intersects the Grenville Front and likely continues eastwards in modified form to near the boundary with Canada. Cross-cutting gravity and magnetic signatures may reflect Grenvillian overthrusts near the terminus of the MRS in Michigan. The proposed southerly extensions of both branches of the rift system into Oklahoma and Ohio are based primarily on positive gravity anomalies, but neither postulated extension appears to be associated with rifted troughs. Rather the gravity anomalies of the western branch are related to intrusive mafic rocks and those of the eastern branch are most likely related to deep crustal metamorphic rocks thrust into juxtaposition with less dense crust by Grenville orogenesis. Recent paleomagnetic investigations, in conjunction with high-resolution radiometric dating, imply that the MRS developed during the rapid southward movement of Laurentia during a quiescent period along its eastern continental margin. Massive magmatic activity accompanying the rifting was likely due to rising mantle material that was displaced by subducted lithosphere along the southern margin. The heated crust was made more ductile, fostering rifting due to extensional stresses. The Nipigon Embayment remains as a possible candidate for an early "third branch" of the MRS, but current evidence is insufficient to include the Fort Wayne "rift" as part of the MRS. Future studies of the MRS would be well-served by new age-dating and high-resolution seismic studies of the lithosphere.
DS202001-0015
2018
Hodder, T. Kelley, S.E.Kimberlite indicator minerals and clast lithology composition of till, Kaskattama region northeastern Manitoba (parts of NTS 53N, O, 54 B,C.)Manitoba Report, GS2018-13 pdf 17p. Canada, Manitobageochemistry

Abstract: Canada exhibits many of the challenges involved with exploring for coloured stones in countries with very low population densities, temperate-to-arctic climates and a lack of infrastructure hindering access to most prospective areas. Despite this, a number of discoveries have occurred, mainly during the past two decades. These include emeralds from Northwest Territories (1997) and Yukon (1998); sapphire (2002) and spinel (from 1982)—including cobalt-blue stones—from Baffin Island in Nunavut; and ruby and pink sapphire (2002) from British Columbia. Such discoveries can be assisted by undertaking scientific research into gem formation, as well as by applying exploration criteria developed elsewhere to uncharted territory. Future exploration in Canada and other countries facing similar challenges will likely benefit from additional geological studies to identify prospective areas and features; innovative means of transportation, such as boats instead of aircraft; drones for exploring rugged terrain; hyperspectral imaging for mineral sensing; surveying with UV lamps to identify minerals associated with gem mineralisation; and careful prospecting (including field mapping and collecting heavy mineral concentrates) by experienced individuals. Quaternary geology fieldwork was conducted at a reconnaissance-scale in the Kaskattama highland area to document the Quaternary stratigraphy and till composition. The diamond potential of this region was investigated using kimberlite-indicator-mineral (KIM) counts from till samples. Indicator mineral results are the focus of this report and are combined with ice-flow and till-clast-lithology data to provide a context to interpret provenance. Kimberlite-indicator minerals were recovered from glacial sediments (till) in the Kaskattama highland area and KIM counts are elevated relative to data from the surrounding area. The lowest KIM counts were from till with a high Hudson Bay Basin (carbonatedominated) and low undifferentiated greenstone and greywacke (UGG) provenance signature. The highest KIM counts are associated with till samples that have a relatively elevated UGG or elevated granitoid provenance signature. Till samples with relatively elevated UGG concentration have an interpreted east or southeast provenance, which is supported by ice-flow data and the recovery of distinct east-sourced erratics. Till samples with a relatively elevated granitoid clast concentration have a correlation with the southwest- trending Hayes streamlined-landform flowset. Considering the likely provenance for granitoid clasts is to the northwest, the presence of relatively high concentrations of granitoid clasts in the Hayes flowset could be indicative of a higher inheritance from previous ice-flow events or a palimpsest dispersal pattern. Interpretation of till-composition and ice-flow data has indicated there are likely multiple sources for the KIMs recovered during this study. Detailed work is recommended to clarify local-scale dispersal patterns.
DS202005-0737
2019
Hoffman, P.F.Big Time: Proterozoic Eon.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 1-17. pdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The Proterozoic Eon was once regarded as the neglected middle half of Earth history. The name refers to early animals, but they did not appear until the eon (2.5-0.54 Ga) was nearly over. Eukaryotic cells and sexual reproduction evolved much earlier in the eon, as did chloroplasts. Molecular dioxygen, the presence of which altered the geochemical behavior of nearly every element essential to life, rose from negligible to near-modern levels, and then plummeted before rising fitfully again. Plate tectonics took on a modern form, and two supercontinents, Nuna and Rodinia, successively congregated and later dispersed. Climate regulatory failures, i.e., Snowball Earth, appear to be a uniquely Proterozoic phenomenon, having occurred twice in rapid succession near the end of the eon (from 717 to 660 Ma and from 650 to 635 Ma) and arguably once near its beginning (ca. 2.43 Ga). Dynamic sea glaciers covered Snowball Earth oceans from pole to pole, and equatorial sublimation drove slow-moving ice sheets on land. Ultimately, the gradual accumulation of CO2 triggered rapid deglaciation and transient greenhouse aftermaths. Physically based and geologically tested, Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth appears to have molecular legacies in ancient bitumens and modern organisms. This is the story of my love affair with an eon that is now a little less neglected.
DS202008-1400
2020
Hoggard, M.J., Czarnota, K., Richards, F.D., Huston, D.L., Jaques, A.L., Ghelichkhan, S.Global distribution of sediment hosted metals controlled by craton edge stability. ( not specific to diamonds but of interest)Nature Geoscience, Vol. 13, pp. 504-510.Mantlelithospheric thickness

Abstract: Sustainable development and the transition to a clean-energy economy drives ever-increasing demand for base metals, substantially outstripping the discovery rate of new deposits and necessitating dramatic improvements in exploration success. Rifting of the continents has formed widespread sedimentary basins, some of which contain large quantities of copper, lead and zinc. Despite over a century of research, the geological structure responsible for the spatial distribution of such fertile regions remains enigmatic. Here, we use statistical tests to compare deposit locations with new maps of lithospheric thickness, which outline the base of tectonic plates. We find that 85% of sediment-hosted base metals, including all giant deposits (>10?megatonnes of metal), occur within 200?kilometres of the transition between thick and thin lithosphere. Rifting in this setting produces greater subsidence and lower basal heat flow, enlarging the depth extent of hydrothermal circulation available for forming giant deposits. Given that mineralization ages span the past two?billion?years, this observation implies long-term lithospheric edge stability and a genetic link between deep Earth processes and near-surface hydrothermal mineral systems. This discovery provides an unprecedented global framework for identifying fertile regions for targeted mineral exploration, reducing the search space for new deposits by two-thirds on this lithospheric thickness criterion alone.
DS202007-1147
2020
Hoggard, M.J., Parnell-Turner, R., White, N. Hotspots and mantle plumes revisited: towards reconciling the mantle heat transfer discrepancy.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 542, 116317 16p. PdfMantleplumes, geothermometry

Abstract: Mantle convection is the principal mechanism by which heat is transferred from the deep Earth to the surface. Cold subducting slabs sink into the mantle and steadily warm, whilst upwelling plumes carry heat to the base of lithospheric plates where it can subsequently escape by conduction. Accurate estimation of the total heat carried by these plumes is important for understanding geodynamic processes and Earth's thermal budget. Existing estimates, based upon swell geometries and velocities of overriding plates, yield a global heat flux of ~2 TW and indicate that plumes play only a minor role in heat transfer. Here, we revisit the Icelandic and Hawaiian plumes to show that their individual flux estimates are likely to be incorrect due to the assumption that buoyancy is mainly produced within the lithosphere and therefore translates at plate velocities. We develop an alternative methodology that depends upon swell volume, is independent of plate velocities, and allows both for decay of buoyancy through time and for differential motion between asthenospheric buoyancy and the overlying plate. Reanalysis of the Icelandic and Hawaiian swells yields buoyancy fluxes of Mg s-1 and Mg s-1, respectively. Both swells are used to calibrate a buoyancy decay timescale of ~45 Myr for the new volumetric approach, which enables buoyancy fluxes to be estimated for a global inventory of 53 swells. Estimates from magmatic hotspots yield a cumulative lower bound on global plume flux of 2 TW, which increases to 6 TW if amagmatic swells are also included and if all buoyancy is assumed to be thermal in origin. Our results suggest that upwelling plumes play a significant role in the transfer of heat into the uppermost mantle.
DS202001-0016
2019
Holwell, D.A., Fiorentini, M., McDonald, I., Lu, Y., Giuliani, A., Smith, D.J., Keith, M., Locmelis, M.A metasomatized lithospheric mantle control on the metallogenic signature of post-subduction magmatism. ( Not specific to diamonds)Nature Communications, doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11065-4 pdf 10p.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Ore deposits are loci on Earth where energy and mass flux are greatly enhanced and focussed, acting as magnifying lenses into metal transport, fractionation and concentration mechanisms through the lithosphere. Here we show that the metallogenic architecture of the lithosphere is illuminated by the geochemical signatures of metasomatised mantle rocks and post-subduction magmatic-hydrothermal mineral systems. Our data reveal that anomalously gold and tellurium rich magmatic sulfides in mantle-derived magmas emplaced in the lower crust share a common metallogenic signature with upper crustal porphyry-epithermal ore systems. We propose that a trans-lithospheric continuum exists whereby post-subduction magmas transporting metal-rich sulfide cargoes play a fundamental role in fluxing metals into the crust from metasomatised lithospheric mantle. Therefore, ore deposits are not merely associated with isolated zones where serendipitous happenstance has produced mineralisation. Rather, they are depositional points along the mantle-to-upper crust pathway of magmas and hydrothermal fluids, synthesising the concentrated metallogenic budget available.
DS202006-0922
2020
Hong, L., Znag,, M.Object oriented multiscale deep features for hyperspectral image classification. (Not specific to diamonds)International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, 14, pp. 5549-5572.Globalhyperspectral

Abstract: The classification of hyperspectral images (HSIs) is one of the most popular topics in the remote sensing community. Numerous feature extraction methods have been proposed to improve the classification accuracy of HSIs. Recently, deep features extracted by convolution neural network (CNN) have been introduced into the classification process of HSIs. Due to the nonlinear and invariant advantages of the features, CNN methods provide a powerful tool for representing geographic objects and classifying HSIs. However, traditional deep features only extracted at pixel-level and often neglect multiscale characteristics of geographic objects. In this study, a new deep feature extraction method is proposed, which takes advantage of multi-scale object analysis and the CNN model. Firstly, multiscale image objects are obtained by the multiscale segmentation algorithm and multiscale low-level features of objects are extracted. Secondly, the CNN is devoted to obtain deep features from low-level object features at each scale, respectively. Thirdly, the obtained deep features at all scales are stacked and fed to one fully connected layer to extract the multiscale deep learning features for classification. Finally, the logistic regression classifier is applied to hyperspectral image (HSI) classification based on object-oriented multiscale deep features. The proposed method was carried out on three widely used hyperspectral data sets: University of Pavia, Salinas, and Washington DC. The results reveal that the proposed method provides better results than other state-of-the-art methods.
DS202004-0518
2020
Howarth, G.H., Giuliani, A.Contrasting types of miceaceous kimberlite-lamproite magmatism from the Man craton ( West Africa): new insights from petrography and mineral chemistry.Lithos, in press available 63p. PdfAfrica, Sierra Leone, Liberiadeposit - Tongo, Weasua

Abstract: Diamondiferous rock types worldwide are broadly divided into kimberlite and lamproite, the latter of which have unique characteristics in different regions and include carbonate-rich varieties (formerly orangeites/Group II kimberlites). Diamondiferous rocks in West Africa are typically micaceous and share petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics with both kimberlites and lamproites. To further constrain the classification and petrogenesis of diamondiferous rocks worldwide and their variability between different cratonic regions, in this study we combine detailed petrographic observations with olivine, phlogopite, and spinel chemistry for hypabyssal samples from the Jurassic Tongo dike (Sierra Leone) and the Neoproterozoic Weasua cluster (Liberia). The Tongo dike contains macrocrysts of olivine and phlogopite in a groundmass of olivine, abundant phlogopite, spinel, perovskite, and apatite with a base of calcite, dolomite, and lesser serpentine. The phlogopite is characterised by concurrent FeO and Al2O3 enrichment, which is typical of kimberlites and unlike lamproites. These features and the kimberlite-like spinel compositions allow us to classify the Tongo samples as micaceous kimberlites. The Weasua rocks comprise macrocrysts of olivine in a groundmass of olivine, phlogopite, diopside (zoned towards aegirine-rich rims), spinel, perovskite, and apatite with a base of serpentine and less common calcite. The composition of Weasua phlogopite trends to significant FeO enrichment and Al2O3 depletion, i.e. towards tetraferriphlogopite. The enrichment in mica, phlogopite chemistry and presence of magmatic diopside indicates that these rocks are olivine lamproites. The populations of olivine macrocrysts and microcrysts at Tongo and Weasua are similar and characterised by distinct core and rim zones. Two distinct olivine core populations are observed. 1) forsterite-rich (Fo?>?90) olivine interpreted to reflect xenocrysts from typical mantle peridotites. Al-in-olivine thermometry suggests that these cores have P-T equilibration within diamond stability at Weasua and Tongo. 2) Al-, Ca- and Na- rich cores with P-T formation conditions extending beyond the mantle adiabat. These cores are interpreted to reflect metasomatic and thermal perturbation linked with the infiltration of kimberlite/lamproite melts in the deep lithosphere shortly before entrainment in the ascending magma. The olivine rims at Tongo and Weasua show limited variations in Fo contents at similar values of 88.9?±?0.8 for Tongo and 89.6?±?1.2 for Weasua, as well as similar minor and trace element concentrations. Thus, whereas the Tongo and Weasua rock types are classified as kimberlite and olivine lamproite, respectively, the olivine chemistry suggests a similar petrogenetic evolution.
DS202006-0923
2020
Howell, D., Collins, A.T., Loudin, L.C., Diggle, P.L., D'Haenens-Johansson, U.F.S., Smit, K.V., Katrusha, A.N., Butler, J.E., Nestola, F.Automated FTIR mapping of boron distribution in diamond. DiaMap_IIb ( synthetics)Diamonds & Related Materials, In press available, 30p. PdfGlobalsynthetics

Abstract: Type IIb diamonds are those that contain more boron than nitrogen. The presence of this uncompensated boron gives rise to absorption in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending into the visible region and often resulting in blue colouration. Here we report on the expansion of the DiaMap freeware (for the automated spectral deconvolution of Type I [nitrogen containing] diamonds) to work on Type IIb diamonds, returning concentrations from three boron-related absorption bands, and determining which band provides the most reliable value. The program uses the calibration coefficients of Collins (2010), which show good relative agreement between the three bands, but might require some further study to confirm their absolute accuracy to the uncompensated boron concentration. The methodology of DiaMap_IIb is applicable to all Type IIb diamonds, both natural and synthetic. Analysis of high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) maps of two high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamonds using DiaMap_IIb, confirm the growth sector dependence of the boron incorporation. Partitioning of boron strongly favours the octahedral {111} sectors.
DS202004-0519
2020
Howell, D., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A., Pearson, D.G., Nestola, F., Hardman, M.F., Harris, J.W., Jaques, A.L., Shirery, S.B., Cartigny, P., Smit, K.V., Aulbach, S., Brenker, F.E., Jacob, D.E., Thomassot, E., Walter, M.J., Navon, O.Deep carbon through time: Earth's diamond record and its implications for carbon cycling and fluid speciation in the mantle.(peridotite and eclogite used)Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 275, pp. 99-122.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: Diamonds are unrivalled in their ability to record the mantle carbon cycle and mantle fO2 over a vast portion of Earth’s history. Diamonds’ inertness and antiquity means their carbon isotopic characteristics directly reflect their growth environment within the mantle as far back as ~3.5 Ga. This paper reports the results of a thorough secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) carbon isotope and nitrogen concentration study, carried out on fragments of 144 diamond samples from various locations, from ~3.5 to 1.4 Ga for P [peridotitic]-type diamonds and 3.0 to 1.0 Ga for E [eclogitic]-type diamonds. The majority of the studied samples were from diamonds used to establish formation ages and thus provide a direct connection between the carbon isotope values, nitrogen contents and the formation ages. In total, 908 carbon isotope and nitrogen concentration measurements were obtained. The total d¹³C data range from -17.1 to -1.9 ‰ (P = -8.4 to -1.9 ‰; E = -17.1 to -2.1‰) and N contents range from 0 to 3073 at. ppm (P = 0 to 3073 at. ppm; E = 1 to 2661 at. ppm). In general, there is no systematic variation with time in the mantle carbon isotope record since > 3 Ga. The mode in d¹³C of peridotitic diamonds has been at -5 (±2) ‰ since the earliest diamond growth ~3.5 Ga, and this mode is also observed in the eclogitic diamond record since ~3 Ga. The skewness of eclogitic diamonds’ d¹³C distributions to more negative values, which the data establishes began around 3 Ga, is also consistent through time, with no global trends apparent. No isotopic and concentration trends were recorded within individual samples, indicating that, firstly, closed system fractionation trends are rare. This implies that diamonds typically grow in systems with high excess of carbon in the fluid (i.e. relative to the mass of the growing diamond). Any minerals included into diamond during the growth process are more likely to be isotopically reset at the time of diamond formation, meaning inclusion ages would be representative of the diamond growth event irrespective of whether they are syngenetic or protogenetic. Secondly, the lack of significant variation seen in the peridotitic diamonds studied is in keeping with modeling of Rayleigh isotopic fractionation in multicomponent systems (RIFMS) during isochemical diamond precipitation in harzburgitic mantle. The RIFMS model not only showed that in water-maximum fluids at constant depths along a geotherm, fractionation can only account for variations of <1‰, but also that the principal d¹³C mode of -5 ± 1‰ in the global harzburgitic diamond record occurs if the variation in fO2 is only 0.4 log units. Due to the wide age distribution of P-type diamonds, this leads to the conclusion that the speciation and oxygen fugacity of diamond forming fluids has been relatively consistent. The deep mantle has therefore generated fluids with near constant carbon speciation for 3.5 Ga.
DS202001-0017
2019
Huang, C., Zhang, N, Li, Z.X., Dang, Z.Modeling the inception of supercontinent breakup: stress state and the importance of orogens.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, in press available pdf 20p.Globalgeodynamics

Abstract: The relative significance of various geodynamic mechanisms that drive supercontinent breakup is unclear. A previous analysis of extensional stress during supercontinent breakup demonstrated the importance of the plume-push force relative to the dragging force of subduction retreat. Here, we extend the analysis to basal traction (shear stress) and cross-lithosphere integrations of both extensional and shear stresses, aiming to understand more clearly the relevant importance of these mechanisms in supercontinent breakup. More importantly, we evaluate the effect of preexisting orogens (mobile belts) in the lithosphere on supercontinent breakup process. Our analysis suggests that a homogeneous supercontinent has extensional stress of 20-50 MPa in its interior (<40° from the central point). When orogens are introduced, the extensional stress in the continents focuses on the top 80-km of the lithosphere with an average magnitude of ~160 MPa, whereas at the margin of the supercontinent the extensional stress is 5-50 MPa. In both homogeneous and orogeny-embedded cases, the subsupercontinent mantle upwellings act as the controlling factor on the normal stress field in the supercontinent interior. Compared with the extensional stress, shear stress at the bottom of the supercontinent is 1-2 order of magnitude smaller (0-5 MPa). In our two end-member models, the breakup of a supercontinent with orogens can be achieved after the first extensional stress surge, whereas for a hypothetical supercontinent without orogens it starts with more diffused local thinning of the continental lithospheric before the breakup, suggesting that weak orogens play a critical role in the dispersal of supercontinents.
DS202007-1148
2020
Huang, F., Sverjensky, D.A.Mixing of carbonatitic into saline fluid fluid during Panda diamond formation.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 59p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Panda

Abstract: Diamonds containing fluid inclusions provide invaluable samples of upper mantle fluids, the study of which illuminates not only diamond formation but also the long-term evolution of the subcratonic, lithospheric mantle. The very large range of inclusion compositions worldwide has been interpreted to represent four end-member fluids: saline (rich in Na+K+Cl); silicic (rich in Si+Al); and carbonatitic (rich in Ca+Mg+Fe, with low-Mg and high-Mg end members). However, the sources and evolution of these fluids and the processes involved in diamond formation are still unclear. We used an unusual study of diamonds from the Panda kimberlite (Ekati Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada) in which both mineral and fluid inclusions in the diamonds were analyzed (Tomlinson et al., 2006) to develop models of the saline, silicic, and low-Mg carbonatitic fluids present in the Panda fluid inclusions. The models used aqueous speciation and solubility calculations to link the solid and fluid inclusion chemistry with model upper mantle rock types. We used the extended Deep Earth Water model to calculate equilibrium constants previously calibrated with experimental rock solubilities referring to upper mantle temperatures and pressures (Huang and Sverjensky, 2019). Our results at 950 °C and 4.5 GPa suggest that the saline fluid could originate from peridotite, the silicic fluid from eclogite, and the low-Mg carbonatitic fluid from carbonated dunite. The fluid models were then used to predict the irreversible, chemical mass transfer when the carbonatitic fluid infiltrated a harzburgite containing a saline fluid. Simultaneous reduction of formate and bicarbonate in the carbonatitic fluid and oxidation of aqueous hydrocarbons from the peridotitic fluid during mixing and reaction with harzburgite resulted in the formation of diamond, olivine, garnet, and clinopyroxene, and increases in the and . Olivine was predicted to become more Fe-rich and garnet more Ca and Fe-rich with reaction progress, in agreement with reported temporal trends (core-to-rim) in the Panda mineral inclusions. The fluid at the site of diamond formation became more saline with reaction progress and the predicted aqueous phase concentrations of all elements changed consistent with trends in Panda fluid inclusions. In contrast, a prediction for a saline fluid infiltrating a harzburgite containing a carbonatitic fluid resulted in trends of the silicate minerals and the salinity with reaction progress that were in the opposite direction to data from the Panda diamonds. Overall, our study strongly supports the notion that fluids from subducting slabs could mix and precipitate diamonds containing carbon from both oxidized and reduced sources, while adding Ca and Fe to the sub-lithospheric cratonic mantle through metasomatic reactions.
DS202008-1401
2020
Huang, S., Tschauner, O., Yang, S., Humayun, M.HIMU signature trapped in a diamond from the mantle transition zone.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractMantlediamond inclusion

Abstract: Mantle plumes sample the deep mantle. A limited number of geochemical endmember components can describe the isotopic and compositional variations in the ocean island basalts (OIBs), which are produced by plume volcanism. The endmembers are correlated to compositions in the OIB source regions or represent incorporation of material upon ascent. However, their actual nature and origins are still highly debated. The depths of plume sources have been proposed to be anywhere between the core-mantle boundary and the upper mantle, and need not be the same for all plume-related volcanic activities. Using a combination of synchrotron micro-X ray fluorescence and -diffraction mapping, and in-situ Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, we show that the elemental features of HIMU-rich OIBs, such as Bermuda, St Helena, and Cook-Austral, exactly match the geochemical signature of a multiphase inclusion in a diamond. The geochemical signature in our studied diamond inclusion is markedly different from that of inclusions in lithospheric diamonds. The phases identified in the inclusion are majorite-rich garnet, ilmenite, the sodic 10Å-phase (TAP), and liebermannite. Furthermore, we show that this inclusion was entrapped at 14.5 ± 0.5 GPa (420-440 km) and 1450 ± 50 K. At the conditions of entrapment, the diamond inclusion phase assembly was garnet + ilmenite + liebermannite + clinopyroxene + stishovite + fluid. Sodic TAP is a retrograde product of reaction between clinopyroxene, stishovite, and fluid upon ascent. Its presence shows that the HIMU source is water-saturated. Entrapment in diamond indicates that the fluid also contained carbonate. The conditions of 14.5 ± 0.5 GPa and 1450 ± 50 K plot right on top of the alkaline carbonatite solidus, and match the formation of carbonatitic melt from subducted slabs plus diamond formation from reaction of carbonate with iron. In summary, our data show that the transition zone source accounts for the global HIMU endmember.
DS202001-0018
2019
Huang, W., Ni, P., Shui, T., Shi, G.Hydrogen rich green diamond color treated by multi step processing.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 3, pp. 398-405.Globaldiamond color

Abstract: A cut diamond of intense yellowish green color has been characterized using microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The diamond has been unambiguously identified as color-treated. The simultaneous presence of multiple centers related to irradiation and annealing—including H1a, H1b, NV0, NV-, H3, H4, GR1, and H2—was revealed. UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy showed that the diamond owes its color to the two major bands related to H3 and GR1. The combination of these spectroscopic features in one diamond has not been reported in the gemological literature, suggesting that this diamond was subjected to a complex treatment procedure that is not frequently applied. Taking into account the thermal stability of the defects involved and the defect transformations at high temperatures, two possible treatment procedures explaining the observed combination of spectroscopic features are proposed.
DS202001-0019
2019
Huang, Z., Yuan, C., Long, X., Zhang, Y., Du, L.From breakup of Nuna to assembly of Rodinia: a link between the Chinese central Tianshen block and Fennoscandia.Tectonics, Doi.org/10.1029/ 2018TC005471China, Europe, Fennoscandiageochronology

Abstract: The transition from breakup of Nuna (or Columbia, 2.0-1.6 Ga) to assembly of Rodinia (1.0-0.9 Ga) is investigated by means of U-Pb and Lu-Hf data of detrital zircons from three Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Central Tianshan Block (CTB), NW China. These data yield six age peaks around 1.0, 1.13, 1.34, 1.4-1.6, 1.75, and 2.6 Ga. Few zircons are detected between 2.0 and 2.5 Ga. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic detrital zircons have Hf isotopic compositions (-22.1 to +13.0) similar to those of coeval magmatic rocks in the CTB, indicating a proximal provenance. These results, together with the geological evidence and the presence of 1.4 Ga orogenic granitoids in the CTB, rule out most cratons as the CTB sources but support a Fennoscandia ancestry. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions from the CTB and Fennoscandia suggest that from 1.8 to 1.4 Ga, the eHf(t) values increased toward more positive values, consistent with an exterior orogen characteristic that the lower crust was replaced by a juvenile arc crust. In contrast, from 1.4 to 0.9 Ga, zircon eHf(t) values decreased to more negative values, reflecting an interior orogen, characterized by enhanced contribution of recycled crustal material from collided continental fragments. This marked shift most likely reflected a transition from breakup of Nuna to assembly of Rodinia, accomplished by a transformation from an exterior orogen to an interior one.
DS202002-0193
2020
Hurt, S.M., Wolf, A.S.Anomalous structure of MgCO3 liquid and the buoyancy of carbonatite melts.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 531, 10p. PdfMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: MgCO3 is one of the most important components of mantle-derived carbonatite melts, and yet also one of the most difficult to study experimentally. Attempts to constrain its thermodynamic properties are hampered by decarbonation, which occurs at only ~500 °C, far below its metastable 1 bar melting temperature. Molecular dynamic simulations, however, can predict the thermodynamic properties of the MgCO3 liquid component in spite of experimental challenges. Using the recently developed empirical potential model for high-pressure alkaline-earth carbonate liquids (Hurt and Wolf, 2018), we simulate melts in the MgCO3-CaCO3-SrCO3-BaCO3 system from 773 to 2373 K up to 20 GPa. At 1 bar, MgCO3 liquid assumes a novel topology characterized by a 4-fold coordination of the metal cation (Mg) with both the carbonate molecule and oxygen ion; this is distinct from the other alkaline-earth carbonate liquids in which the metal cation is in ~6- and ~8-fold coordination with carbonate and oxygen. With increasing pressure, MgCO3 liquid structure becomes progressively more like that of (Ca, Sr, Ba)CO3 liquids with approaching 6-fold coordination with carbonate groups. The novel network topology of MgCO3 liquid results in a melt that is significantly more buoyant and compressible than other alkaline-earth carbonate liquids. Simulations of mixed MgCO3-bearing melts show that metal cation coordination with O and C is independent of bulk composition. Mixed simulation also reveal that molar volume, compressibility, enthalpy and heat capacity do not mix ideally with (Ca, Sr, Ba)CO3 liquids at 1 bar, a consequence of preferential metal-cation ordering in MgCO3-bearing mixtures. As pressure increases, however, mixing progressively approaches ideality with respect to molar volume, becoming nearly ideal by 12 GPa. The model is further applied to mantle-derived primary carbonatite melts with compositions, temperatures and pressures determined by published phase equilibrium experiments. The voluminous structure of liquid MgCO3 results in a buoyant melt that inhibits a density crossover with the surrounding mantle. Assuming FeCO3 liquid also adopts the same anomalous high-volume structure as MgCO3, we predict that even the most Fe-rich ferrocarbonatites would remain buoyant and be barred from sinking or stagnating in the mantle.
DS202005-0738
2020
Hutchison, M.T.Data methods applied to Greenland diamond exploration package.Ministry of Mineral Resources Report, Government of Greenland, 6,895KB pdfEurope, GreenlandData

Abstract: The Government of Greenland’s Diamond exploration data package compiles over 50 years of diamond exploration data. In addition to samples derived from Greenland’s established areas of diamondiferous rocks in central West Greenland, a wide coverage of regional exploration data extending throughout the country is included. The database follows a similar methodology of attribution and has a compatible structure to the Diamond exploration databases of the Northern Territory of Australia and Western Australia, and so meets international standards applied in areas of diamond mining. The Diamond exploration data package is the first of its kind to collate diamond exploration data country-wide in a publicly accessible fashion. It incorporates the locations of 25 000 diamond exploration samples. Associated with these samples are over 109 000 good-quality chemical analyses of mineral separate grains integrated into a standardised framework. In total, 100 discrete, named in-situ bodies, which in principle have diamond potential (kimberlites, lamproites, ultramafic lamprophyres, and carbonatites) have also been compiled in the diamond exploration data package. These occur among over 3 000 compiled in situ occurrences of dykes, pipes, sills and blows. With considerable data generated from bulk sampling of diamondiferous bodies, notably Garnet Lake, Qeqertaa and Majuagaa, this part of the database considerably expands upon previous compilations of relevant Greenland rocks, including the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland’s Report 2004-117. As a companion, 56 emplacement age determinations from 36 bodies are reported, encompassing most of the geographic extent of Greenland’s known rocks with diamond potential. Analyses of the exploration data allow for an understanding of exploration history in areas of known occurrences and identification of considerable gaps in the exploration coverage within areas of diamond potential. The Diamond exploration data package stands as a means to support and encourage future diamond exploration in Greenland in addition to further establishing a rigorous framework suitable for development of diamond exploration databases elsewhere.
DS202005-0739
2020
Hutchison, M.T.Greenland diamond exploration data package.www.trigon-gs.com/ publications_ms.html, external link free downloadEurope, GreenlandData

Abstract: The Department of Geology within the Mineral Resources Authority is pleased to announce the publication and release of a Greenland diamond exploration package. Greenland has seen significant diamond exploration, but remains heavily underexplored. The last diamond data package for Greenland was produced in 2004. However, considerable exploration has since been undertaken, generating abundant new exploration data. The new data package, covering the whole of Greenland, doubles the size of the previously available data. Furthermore, new discoveries of world-class significance were made in Greenland over the last fifteen years, which feature in the new product. The new diamond exploration data package collates publicly available, up-to-date information on Greenland’s diamond exploration history and sampling data from all across Greenland. It focuses on the locations of diamond-relevant rocks in-situ and as float, and the physical sampling and results of geochemical testing of these rocks. The package includes over 24,000 sample locations with over 10,000 being positive for diamond indicators. Accompanying these sample locations, there are over 121,000 mineral chemical analyses and detailed descriptions of over 1,000 diamonds. The database furthermore includes 3,000 in-situ locations of kimberlite, ultramafic lamprophyre, carbonatite and lamproites, in some cases with outcrop polygons and polylines, and geochronology data. Geophysical and remote sensing data are included by reference to other sources. Data are presented in raw formats and spatially as ArcMap and QGIS projects and as MapInfo files, as well as sample and analytical databases, and diamond-relevant exploration and survey reports. The package was commissioned by the Department of Geology, Mineral Resources Authority, and created by Mark T. Hutchison, Trigon GeoServices. To access the data package, contact us at , and you will receive the package through an ftp folder. The free data package aligns with the Mineral Resources Authority’s policy of publishing free, high quality, exploration-relevant geoscientific data. The data package highlights that Greenland has a major diamond potential. With this diamond data package, the Mineral Resources Authority aims to spark interest and support exploration for diamonds in Greenland.
DS202007-1149
2019
In Color MagazineThe Russian emerald saga - The Mariinsky Priisk mine.incolorMagazine.com, Vol. Fall pp. 26-46.Russiadeposit - Mariinsky Priisk
DS202001-0020
2020
Ionov, D.A., Guo, P., Nelson, W.R., Shirey, S.B., Willbold, M.Paleoproterozoic melt depleted lithospheric mantle in the Khanka block, far eastern Russia: inferences for mobile belts bordering the North China and Siberian cratons.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 270, pp. 95-111.China, Russiametasomatism, melting

Abstract: The eastern part of Asia between the North China and Siberian cratons contains orogenic belts formed by the Paleo-Asian and Pacific subduction and older continental blocks. A fundamental question regarding these and all mobile belts is the fate of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) during their formation, i.e. whether, or to what extent the CLM may be formed, replaced or affected during orogeny. Insights into these processes can be obtained from mantle xenoliths hosted by Cenozoic basalts in the Proterozoic Khanka block in the far eastern Russia between NE China and the Pacific coast of Asia. We report petrographic, chemical, and Os-Sr-Nd isotope data for spinel peridotite xenoliths at two Khanka sites: Sviyagin and Podgelban. The modal abundances and chemical compositions suggest that the peridotites are residues of low to moderate degrees of melt extraction from fertile mantle. They show an 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os correlation with an apparent 1.9?Ga age; the 187Os/188Os ratios are positively correlated with Al2O3 and other melt extraction indices. These results provide the first robust CLM age constraints for the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The ages suggest that the ancient CLM of the Khanka block may be roughly coeval with reworked CLM at Hannuoba (North China craton), and that it persisted through the Phanerozoic orogenies. Moreover, despite the proximity to Phanerozoic subduction zones, the Khanka CLM shows little post-melting enrichment, e.g. the clinopyroxenes are typically LREE-depleted and have Sr-Nd isotope ratios typical of the MORB mantle. We posit that the metasomatism of the CLM, earlier proposed for North China xenolith suites and ascribed to the effects of Pacific or older subduction and related mantle upwelling, may not be widespread in the CAOB. In general, Proterozoic blocks composed of residual peridotites may be more common in the CLM of the SE Siberia and northern China, and possibly other orogenic belts, than previously thought.
DS202002-0194
2020
Ionov, D.A., Guo, P., Nelson, W.R., Shirey, S.B., Willbold, M.Paleoproterozoic melt depleted lithospheric mantle in the Khanka block, far eastern Russia: inferences for mobile belts bordering the North China and Siberian cratons.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 270, pp. 95-111.Russiaperidotites

Abstract: The eastern part of Asia between the North China and Siberian cratons contains orogenic belts formed by the Paleo-Asian and Pacific subduction and older continental blocks. A fundamental question regarding these and all mobile belts is the fate of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) during their formation, i.e. whether, or to what extent the CLM may be formed, replaced or affected during orogeny. Insights into these processes can be obtained from mantle xenoliths hosted by Cenozoic basalts in the Proterozoic Khanka block in the far eastern Russia between NE China and the Pacific coast of Asia. We report petrographic, chemical, and Os-Sr-Nd isotope data for spinel peridotite xenoliths at two Khanka sites: Sviyagin and Podgelban. The modal abundances and chemical compositions suggest that the peridotites are residues of low to moderate degrees of melt extraction from fertile mantle. They show an 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os correlation with an apparent 1.9?Ga age; the 187Os/188Os ratios are positively correlated with Al2O3 and other melt extraction indices. These results provide the first robust CLM age constraints for the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The ages suggest that the ancient CLM of the Khanka block may be roughly coeval with reworked CLM at Hannuoba (North China craton), and that it persisted through the Phanerozoic orogenies. Moreover, despite the proximity to Phanerozoic subduction zones, the Khanka CLM shows little post-melting enrichment, e.g. the clinopyroxenes are typically LREE-depleted and have Sr-Nd isotope ratios typical of the MORB mantle. We posit that the metasomatism of the CLM, earlier proposed for North China xenolith suites and ascribed to the effects of Pacific or older subduction and related mantle upwelling, may not be widespread in the CAOB. In general, Proterozoic blocks composed of residual peridotites may be more common in the CLM of the SE Siberia and northern China, and possibly other orogenic belts, than previously thought.
DS202007-1150
2020
Ionov, D.A., Liu, Z., Li, J., Golovin, A.V., Korsakov, A.V., Xu, Y.The age and origin of cratonic lithospheric mantle: Archean dunites vs paleoproterozoic harzburgites from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberian craton.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 281, pp. 67-90. pdfRussia, Siberiadeposit - Udachnaya

Abstract: Cratonic lithospheric mantle is believed to have been formed in the Archean, but kimberlite-hosted coarse peridotites from Udachnaya in the central Siberian craton typically yield Paleoproterozoic Re-depletion Os isotope ages (TRD). By comparison, olivine megacrysts from Udachnaya, sometimes called “megacrystalline peridotites”, often yield Archean TRD ages, but the nature of these rare materials remains enigmatic. We provide whole-rock (WR) Re-Os isotope and PGE analyses for 24 olivine-rich xenoliths from Udachnaya as well as modal and petrographic data, WR and mineral major and trace element compositions. The samples were selected based on (a) high olivine abundances in hand specimens and (b) sufficient freshness and size to yield representative WR powders. They comprise medium- to coarse-grained (olivine??1?cm) dunite, olivine megacrysts and low-orthopyroxene (11-21% opx) harzburgites equilibrated at 783-1154?°C and 3.9-6.5 GPa; coarse dunites have not been previously reported from Udachnaya; two xenoliths contain ilmenite. The harzburgites and dunites have similar WR variation ranges of Ca, Al, Fe, Cr and Mg# (0.917-0.934) typical of refractory cratonic peridotites, but the dunites tend to have higher MgO, NiO and Mg/Si. Mineral abundances and those of Ca and Al are not correlated with Mg#WR; they are not due to differences in melting degrees but are linked to metasomatism. Several samples with high 187Re/188Os show a positive linear correlation with 187Os/188Os with an apparent age of 0.37?Ga, same as eruption age of host kimberlite. Robust TRD ages were obtained for 16 xenoliths with low 187Re/188Os (0.02-0.13). TRD ages for low-opx harzburgites (1.9-2.1?Ga; average 2.0?±?0.1?Ga, 1 s) are manifestly lower than for dunites and megacrysts (2.4-3.1?Ga); the latter define two subsets with average TRD of 2.6?±?0.1?Ga and 3.0?±?0.1?Ga, and TMA of 3.0?±?0.2?Ga and 3.3?±?0.1?Ga, respectively. Differences in olivine grain size (coarse vs. megacrystalline) are not related to age. The age relations suggest that the dunites and megacrysts could not be produced by re-melting of harzburgites, e.g. in arc settings, nor be melt channel materials in harzburgites. Instead, they are relict fragments of lithospheric mantle formed in the Archean (likely in two events at or after 2.6?Ga and 3.0?Ga) that were incorporated into cratonic lithosphere during the final assembly of the Siberian craton in the Paleoproterozoic. A multi-stage formation of the Siberian lithospheric mantle is consistent with crustal basement ages from U-Pb dating of zircons from crustal xenoliths at Udachnaya and detrital zircons from the northern Siberian craton (1.8-2.0, 2.4-2.8 and 3.0-3.4?Ga). The new data from the Siberian and other cratons suggest that the formation of strongly melt-depleted cratonic lithosphere (e.g. Mg# =0.92) did not stop at the Archean-Proterozoic boundary as is commonly thought, but continued in the Paleoproterozoic. The same may be valid for the transition from the ‘Archean’ (4-2.5?Ga) to modern tectonic regimes.
DS202001-0021
2019
Jacques, J.F.An eye on diamonds. The way diamonds are utilised for ophthalmic surgery.Gems & Jewellery, Vol. 28, 4, pp. 22-23.GlobalCryo-EM
DS202008-1402
2020
Jalowitzki, T., Gervasoni, F., Sumino, H., Klemme, S., Berndt, J., Dalla Costa, M., Fuck, R.A.Plume subduction events recorded by KS2 kimberlite indicator minerals from Juina, Brazil.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractSouth America, Brazil, Mato Grossodeposit - Juina

Abstract: The Cretaceous Juína Kimberlite Province (JKP, 95-92 Ma) is located in the southwest of the Amazonian Craton, northwest of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Here we present new geochemical and isotopic data of garnet (n=187) and zircon (n=25) megacrysts collected from the KS2 kimberlite. The magmatic zircon megacrysts have U-Pb ages of 92.1 ± 0.7 Ma. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns (LREE
DS202008-1403
2020
Jeffay, J.Size still matters. History of Cullinan diamond.Idexonline Memo , July 2, 2p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Premier
DS202008-1404
2020
Jeffay, J.Daytrip Mom finds 2.23 carat brown diamond at "Dig your own" mine.Idexonline Memo , June 30, 1p.United States, Arkansasdeposit - Crater of Diamonds
DS202003-0343
2020
Jellinek, M., Lenardic, A., Pierrehumbert, R.T.Ice, fire, or fizzle: the climate footprint of Earth's supercontinental cycles.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 21, 2, 66p. PdfMantlegeodynamics

Abstract: Supercontinent assembly and breakup can influence the rate and global extent to which insulated and relatively warm subcontinental mantle is mixed globally, potentially introducing lateral oceanic-continental mantle temperature variations that regulate volcanic and weathering controls on Earth's long-term carbon cycle for a few hundred million years. We propose that the relatively warm and unchanging climate of the Nuna supercontinental epoch (1.81.3 Ga) is characteristic of thorough mantle thermal mixing. By contrast, the extreme cooling-warming climate variability of the Neoproterozoic Rodinia episode (10.63 Ga) and the more modest but similar climate change during the Mesozoic Pangea cycle (0.30.05 Ga) are characteristic features of the effects of subcontinental mantle thermal isolation with differing longevity. A tectonically modulated carbon cycle model coupled to a one-dimensional energy balance climate model predicts the qualitative form of Mesozoic climate evolution expressed in tropical sea-surface temperature and ice sheet proxy data. Applied to the Neoproterozoic, this supercontinental control can drive Earth into, as well as out of, a continuous or intermittently panglacial climate, consistent with aspects of proxy data for the Cryogenian-Ediacaran period. The timing and magnitude of this cooling-warming climate variability depends, however, on the detailed character of mantle thermal mixing, which is incompletely constrained. We show also that the predominant modes of chemical weathering and a tectonically paced abiotic methane production at mid-ocean ridges can modulate the intensity of this climate change. For the Nuna epoch, the model predicts a relatively warm and ice-free climate related to mantle dynamics potentially consistent with the intense anorogenic magmatism of this period.
DS202004-0520
2020
Johnson, B.W., Wing, B.A.Limited Archean continental emergence reflected in an early Archean 180-enriched ocean.Nature Geoscience, 10.1038/s41561-020-0538-9Australiawater

Abstract: The origin and evolution of Earth’s biosphere were shaped by the physical and chemical histories of the oceans. Marine chemical sediments and altered oceanic crust preserve a geochemical record of these histories. Marine chemical sediments, for example, exhibit an increase in their 18O/16O ratio through time. The implications of this signal are ambiguous but are typically cast in terms of two endmember (but not mutually exclusive) scenarios. The oceans may have been much warmer in the deep past if they had an oxygen isotope composition similar to that of today. Alternatively, the nature of fluid-rock interactions (including the weathering processes associated with continental emergence) may have been different in the past, leading to an evolving oceanic oxygen isotope composition. Here we examine approximately 3.24-billion-year-old hydrothermally altered oceanic crust from the Panorama district in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia as an alternative oxygen isotope archive to marine chemical sediments. We find that, at that time, seawater at Panorama had an oxygen isotope composition enriched in 18O relative to the modern ocean with a d18O of 3.3?±?0.1‰ VSMOW. We suggest that seawater d18O may have decreased through time, in contrast to the large increases seen in marine chemical sediments. To explain this possibility, we construct an oxygen isotope exchange model of the geologic water cycle, which suggests that the initiation of continental weathering in the late Archaean, between 3 and 2.5 billion years ago, would have drawn down an 18O-enriched early Archaean ocean to d18O values similar to those of modern seawater. We conclude that Earth’s water cycle may have gone through two separate phases of steady-state behaviour, before and after the emergence of the continents.
DS202006-0924
2020
Jones, T.D., Maguire, R.R., van Keken, P.E., Ritsema, J., Koelemeijer, P.Subducted oceanic crust as the origin of seismically slow lower-mantle structures.Progress in Earth and Planetary Science , Vol. 7, 16p. PdfMantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Mantle tomography reveals the existence of two large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) at the base of the mantle. We examine here the hypothesis that they are piles of oceanic crust that have steadily accumulated and warmed over billions of years. We use existing global geodynamic models in which dense oceanic crust forms at divergent plate boundaries and subducts at convergent ones. The model suite covers the predicted density range for oceanic crust over lower mantle conditions. To meaningfully compare our geodynamic models to tomographic structures, we convert them into models of seismic wavespeed and explicitly account for the limited resolving power of tomography. Our results demonstrate that long-term recycling of dense oceanic crust naturally leads to the formation of thermochemical piles with seismic characteristics similar to the LLSVPs. The extent to which oceanic crust contributes to the LLSVPs depends upon its density in the lower mantle for which accurate data is lacking. We find that the LLSVPs are not composed solely of oceanic crust. Rather, they are basalt rich at their base (bottom 100-200 km) and grade into peridotite toward their sides and top with the strength of their seismic signature arising from the dominant role of temperature. We conclude that recycling of oceanic crust, if sufficiently dense, has a strong influence on the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth’s mantle.
DS202001-0022
2019
Jones, T.J., Reynolds, C.D., Boothroyd, S.C.Fluid dynamic induced break-up during volcanic eruptions. ( mentions kimberlite and carbonatite)Nature Communications, doi.org/10.1038/ s41467-019-11750-4 7p. pdf Mantlemelting

Abstract: Determining whether magma fragments during eruption remains a seminal challenge in volcanology. There is a robust paradigm for fragmentation of high viscosity, silicic magmas, however little is known about the fragmentation behaviour of lower viscosity systems—the most abundant form of volcanism on Earth and on other planetary bodies and satellites. Here we provide a quantitative model, based on experiments, for the non-brittle, fluid dynamic induced fragmentation of low viscosity melts. We define the conditions under which extensional thinning or liquid break-up can be expected. We show that break-up, both in our experiments and natural eruptions, occurs by both viscous and capillary instabilities operating on contrasting timescales. These timescales are used to produce a universal break-up criterion valid for low viscosity melts such as basalt, kimberlite and carbonatite. Lastly, we relate these break-up instabilities to changes in eruptive behaviour, the associated natural hazard and ultimately the deposits formed.
DS202007-1151
2019
Jones, T.J., Reynolds, C.D., Boothroyd, S.C.Fluid dynamics induced break up during volcanic eruptions.Nature Communications, Vol. 10, 1, 10.1038/s41467-019-11750-4.Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: Determining whether magma fragments during eruption remains a seminal challenge in volcanology. There is a robust paradigm for fragmentation of high viscosity, silicic magmas, however little is known about the fragmentation behaviour of lower viscosity systems—the most abundant form of volcanism on Earth and on other planetary bodies and satellites. Here we provide a quantitative model, based on experiments, for the non-brittle, fluid dynamic induced fragmentation of low viscosity melts. We define the conditions under which extensional thinning or liquid break-up can be expected. We show that break-up, both in our experiments and natural eruptions, occurs by both viscous and capillary instabilities operating on contrasting timescales. These timescales are used to produce a universal break-up criterion valid for low viscosity melts such as basalt, kimberlite and carbonatite. Lastly, we relate these break-up instabilities to changes in eruptive behaviour, the associated natural hazard and ultimately the deposits formed.
DS202007-1152
2020
Juarez-Perez, E., Haro, M.Perovskite cells take a step forward.Science, Vol 368, 6497, p. 1309.Globalperovskite

Abstract: Today's monocrystalline silicon solar cells have their throne on the roofs of our houses. In the past decade, however, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show impressive advances with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.2% (1) and low fabrication cost, which make this technology promising for further advances in decarbonization energy models (2). Yet the life cycle of PSCs needs to be increased for market integration. Poor stability is the main impediment to commercializing this technology. Thus, great effort has been focused on the causes and mechanisms of degradation, many of which can be mitigated or minimized with encapsulation. Various strategies have been proposed to increase PSCs' operational stability, which is affected by moisture, oxidation, heat, light, and other factors (3, 4). On page 1328 of this issue, Shi et al. (5) report a successful encapsulation procedure for hybrid PSCs.
DS202004-0521
2020
Jung, S., Hauff, F., Berndt, J.Generation of a potassic to ultrapotassic alkaline complex in a syn-collisional setting through flat subduction: constraints on magma sources and processes ( Otjimingwe alkaline complex, Damara orogen, Namibia).Gondwana Research, Vol. 82, pp. 267-287.Africa, Namibiametasomatism

Abstract: The ~545 Ma-old syn-collisional Otjimbingwe alkaline complex is composed of pyroxene-amphibole-biotite-bearing, mildly nepheline-normative to quartz-normative rocks ranging in composition from monzogabbro to monzonite, syenite and granite. The alkaline rocks have moderate to high SiO2 (50.5-73.0 wt%) and Na2O + K2O (5.1-11.5 wt%) and moderate to low MgO (6.6-0.2 wt%) concentrations. All samples have high large ion lithophile element (LILE: Ba up to 4600 ppm) and high-field-strength element contents (HFSE; Zr: 155-1328 ppm; Nb: 16-110 ppm; Ta: 1.4-7.1 ppm and Hf: 4-24 ppm) and have strongly fractionated LREE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 14-51). The most primitive members lack significant negative Eu anomalies. Mantle-normalized multi-element diagrams show depletion in Ba, Rb, Nb (Ta), P and Ti. The alkaline rocks have moderate radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7061-0.7087) and unradiogenic initial ?Nd values (-3.9 to -6.1). This isotope signature, associated with high LREE/HFSE ratios indicates that the parental melts were generated in enriched portions of the shallow lithospheric mantle, which was probably affected by previous subduction zone processes. In addition, correlations between Sr and Nd isotopes indicate that some of these variations result from combined crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes. A new model of flat subduction is presented that explains most of the unsolved problems in the orogenic evolution of the Damara orogen, namely (i) the absence of early intrusive rocks with a clear subduction zone setting, (ii) the absence of high-pressure rocks such as blueschists and eclogites, (iii) the unusual distribution of igneous rocks with a clear predominance of granite and granodiorite and (iv) the need for a asthenospheric window during a classical subduction to explain the high T/moderate P granulite facies conditions in the overriding plate.
DS202007-1153
2020
Jung, S., Hauff, F., Berndt, J.Generation of a potassic to ultrapotassic alkaline complex in a syn-collisional setting through flat subduction: constraints on magma sources and processes ( Otjimingwe alkaline complex, Damara orogen, Namibia.Gondwana Research, Vol. 82, pp. 267-287. pdfAfrica, Namibiadeposit - Otjimbingwe

Abstract: The ~545 Ma-old syn-collisional Otjimbingwe alkaline complex is composed of pyroxene-amphibole-biotite-bearing, mildly nepheline-normative to quartz-normative rocks ranging in composition from monzogabbro to monzonite, syenite and granite. The alkaline rocks have moderate to high SiO2 (50.5-73.0 wt%) and Na2O + K2O (5.1-11.5 wt%) and moderate to low MgO (6.6-0.2 wt%) concentrations. All samples have high large ion lithophile element (LILE: Ba up to 4600 ppm) and high-field-strength element contents (HFSE; Zr: 155-1328 ppm; Nb: 16-110 ppm; Ta: 1.4-7.1 ppm and Hf: 4-24 ppm) and have strongly fractionated LREE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 14-51). The most primitive members lack significant negative Eu anomalies. Mantle-normalized multi-element diagrams show depletion in Ba, Rb, Nb (Ta), P and Ti. The alkaline rocks have moderate radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7061-0.7087) and unradiogenic initial ?Nd values (-3.9 to -6.1). This isotope signature, associated with high LREE/HFSE ratios indicates that the parental melts were generated in enriched portions of the shallow lithospheric mantle, which was probably affected by previous subduction zone processes. In addition, correlations between Sr and Nd isotopes indicate that some of these variations result from combined crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes. A new model of flat subduction is presented that explains most of the unsolved problems in the orogenic evolution of the Damara orogen, namely (i) the absence of early intrusive rocks with a clear subduction zone setting, (ii) the absence of high-pressure rocks such as blueschists and eclogites, (iii) the unusual distribution of igneous rocks with a clear predominance of granite and granodiorite and (iv) the need for a asthenospheric window during a classical subduction to explain the high T/moderate P granulite facies conditions in the overriding plate. Graphical abstract
DS202005-0740
2020
Kaminsky, F.V.Basic problems concerning the composition of the Earth's lower mantle.Lithos, in press available, 8p. PdfMantlebridgmanite

Abstract: The last decade has seen the publication of a number of new and highly pertinent studies on the composition of the Earth's lower mantle, leading to a better understanding of the Deep Earth. A series of new lower-mantle minerals were found, having formed under natural conditions and received the following names: bridgmanite, jeffbenite, breyite, and ellinaite. Some other, as yet, unnamed oxides, phosphates, and fluorides were also discovered for the first time. Among the new mineral phases, of particular interest are cubic nitrogen and ice-VII. Their presence demonstrates a significant role of both nitrogen and of water in the Deep Earth. This new data allows for creation of a principal model for the composition of the Earth's lower mantle. By various evidences, it differs greatly to that of the upper mantle composition, and is heterogeneous.
DS202007-1154
2020
Kane, R.E.America's Royal Gem Montana and Yogo sapphires.incolorMagazine.com, Vol. winter pp. 30-39.United States, Montanadeposit - Yogo sapphires
DS202008-1405
2020
Kara, J., Vaisanen, M., Heinonen, J.S., Lahaye, Y., O'Brien, H., Huhma, H., Tracing arcologites in the Paleoproteroic era - a shift from 1.88 Ga calc-alkaline to 1.86 Ga high-Nb and adakite-like magmatism in central Fennoscandian shield.Lithos, in press available, 68p. PdfEurope, Fennoscandiaalkaline
DS202008-1406
2020
Kargin, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S.Links between ultramafic lamprophyres and kimberlites in the Anabar shield, Yakutia, Russia: evidence from multiphase inclusions in rock-forming minerals.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractRussia, Yakutiadeposit - Viktoria

Abstract: To provide new constraints on the evolution of ultramafic lamprophyre melts and relation to kimberlites, we examined monomineralic and primary multiphase melt inclusions in rock-forming minerals within damtjernite from Viktoria pipe, Anabar region, Siberia craton, Russia. The studied samples are relatively unaltered nepheline-bearing, carbonate-poor damtjernite with a significant amount of monticellite in the groundmass and as a replacement of olivine. Studied inclusions hosted by groundmass monticellite, magnesian ulvöspinel-magnetite and perovskite. Monomineralic inclusions sized up to 10 µm are round-toeuhedral in shape and are comprised of monticellite, spinel, perovskite and nepheline. Multiphase melt inclusions sized up to 10-15 µm have rounded to elongate and amoeboid shapes. These inclusions are heterogeneous in composition and consist of perovskite, spinel group minerals, apatite (including F- and Sr-apatite), feldspathoids, multiphase alkali (Na, K) carbonate and chloride (sylvite/halite), rare K-Naand Ba-sulfates, phlogopite and baddeleyite. Despite the lack of carbonate phases in studied rocks, the composition of multiphase inclusions indicates that lamprophyre melts contained carbonate or carbonate/chlorite components. The CO2 degassing is consistent with the reaction between olivine and carbonate-bearing melt led to decarbonation reaction and generation of montichellite, as described in [1]. The composition of multiphase inclusions within minerals from lamprophyres is close to the composition of multiphase inclusions within olivine, spinel, monticellite, perovskite from kimberlites, thus indicating possible genetic links between parental melts of ultramafic lamprophyre and kimberlite.
DS202008-1407
2020
Kargin, A.V., Nosova, A.A., Sazonova, L.V., Peresetskaya, E.V., Golubeva, Yu.Yu., Lebedeva, N.M., Tretyachenko, V.V., Khvostikov, V.A., Burmii, J.P.Ilmenite from the Arkangelsk diamond province, Russia: composition, origin and indicator of diamondiferous kimberlites.Petrology, Vol. 28, 4, pp. 341-369. pdfRussia, Archangelilmenite

Abstract: To provide new insights into the origin and evolution of kimberlitic magmas with different diamond concentrations from the Arkhangelsk diamond province in northwestern Russia, we examined the major-and trace-element compositions of ilmenite from diamondiferous kimberlite of the Grib pipe and diamond barren kimberlites from the Kepino cluster (Stepnaya and TsNIGRI-Arkhangelskaya pipes). Ilmenite from diamond-barren kimberlites shows lower Mg, Ti, Cr, Ni and Cu concentrations with increase in both Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ and Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Zn and V concentrations. The main differences between kimberlites with different diamond contents are the Nb and Zr concentrations and their correlation patterns with Mg and Cr concentrations. Ilmenite from the Grib kimberlite has Zr concentrations <110 ppm, whereas ilmenite from the Kepino kimberlites has Zr concentrations >300 ppm. Ilmenite crystallisation within the Grib kimberlite occurred under increasing oxygen fugacity (fO 2), which may reflect assimilation of mantle peridotite by the kimberlitic magmas. Ilmenite from the Kepino kimberlites suggests its crystallisation under constant fO 2 , with the ilmenite composition being controlled by processes of fractional crystallisation of megacrystic minerals. These assumptions were confirmed with assimilation-fractional crystallisation calculations. On the basis of obtained data, we developed a model for the evolution of the kimberlitic magmas for both diamon-diferous and barren kimberlites. The diamond-bearing kimberlitic magmas were generated under intense interaction of kimberlitic magmas with the surrounding lithospheric mantle. It may be that during early modification of the lithospheric mantle by kimberlitic magmas as well as with kimberlitic magmas' local stretching and swift ascent, the capture of the mantle xenoliths was favoured over the crystallisation of phenocrysts. The formation of barren kimberlitic magmas may have occurred when the lithospheric mantle in the vicinity of ascending magmas was already geochemically equilibrated with them. It also is possible that the magma's ascent slowed under conditions of dominantly compressive stresses with crystallisation of olivine and other megacrystic phases.
DS202003-0344
2019
Katsuke, Y., Sun, Z., Breeding, C.M., Dutrow, B.L.Geographic origin of Paraiba tourmaline.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 4, pp. 648-659.South America, Braziltourmaline

Abstract: Vivid blue to green copper-bearing tourmalines, known as Paraíba tourmalines, are recovered from deposits in Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique. These tourmalines are sought after for their intense colors. Prices are based, in part, on the geographic origin of a stone, and determining provenance is thus an important aspect for Paraíba tourmaline. However, their geographic origin cannot be established by standard gemological testing and/or qualitative chemical analyses. GIA has established sophisticated criteria requiring quantitative chemical analyses to determine geographic origin for these tourmalines. These criteria were based on several hundred samples from known sources spanning the three countries. Highly accurate and precise quantitative elemental concentrations for Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Sn, and Pb are acquired with laser ablationinductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). These data can then be plotted as a function of elemental concentration for accurate geographic origin determination.
DS202005-0741
2020
Keller, D., Ague, J.J.Quartz, mica, and amphibole exsolution from majoritic garnet reveals ultra-deep sediment subduction, Appalachian region.Science Advances, doi. 10.1126/sciadv.aay5178 13p. PdfUnited States, ConnecticutUHT, HPG

Abstract: Diamond and coesite are classic indicators of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP; =100-kilometer depth) metamorphism, but they readily recrystallize during exhumation. Crystallographically oriented pyroxene and amphibole exsolution lamellae in garnet document decomposed supersilicic UHP majoritic garnet originally stable at diamond-grade conditions, but majoritic precursors have only been quantitatively demonstrated in mafic and ultramafic rocks. Moreover, controversy persists regarding which silicates majoritic garnet breakdown produces. We present a method for reconstructing precursor majoritic garnet chemistry in metasedimentary Appalachian gneisses containing garnets preserving concentric zones of crystallographically oriented lamellae including quartz, amphibole, and sodium phlogopite. We link this to novel quartz-garnet crystallographic orientation data. The results reveal majoritic precursors stable at =175-kilometer depth and that quartz and mica may exsolve from garnet. Large UHP terranes in the European Caledonides formed during collision of the paleocontinents Baltica and Laurentia; we demonstrate UHP metamorphism from the microcontinent-continent convergence characterizing the contiguous and coeval Appalachian orogen.
DS202004-0522
2020
Kellett, D.A., Pehrsson, S., Skipton, D., Regis, D., Camacho, A., Schneider, D., Berman, R.Thermochronological history of the Northern Canadian Shield. Nuna, Churchill Province, Trans-Hudson orogen, Thelon, RaePrecambrian Research, doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2020.105703 in press available 80p. PdfCanadageothermometry

Abstract: The northern Canadian Shield is comprised of multiple Archean cratons that were sutured by the late Paleoproterozoic to form the Canadian component of supercontinent Nuna. More than 2000 combined K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from across the region reveal a stark contrast in upper and lower plate thermal responses to Nuna-forming events, with the Churchill Province in particular revealing near complete thermal reworking during the late Paleoproterozoic. We review the detailed cooling history for five regions that span the Churchill Province and Trans-Hudson orogen (THO): Thelon Tectonic Zone, South Rae, Reindeer Zone, South Hall Peninsula, and the Cape Smith Belt. The cooling patterns across Churchill Province are revealed in two >1500 km transects. At the plate scale, Churchill’s cooling history is dominated by THO accretionary and collisional events, during which it formed the upper plate. Cooling ages generally young from west to east across both southern and central Churchill, and latest cooling in the THO is 50 myr older in southernmost Churchill (Reindeer Zone) compared to eastern Churchill (Hall Peninsula), indicating diachronous thermal equilibration across 2000 km strike length of the THO. Churchill exhibits relatively high post-terminal THO cooling rates of ~4 °C/myr, which support other geological evidence for widespread rapid exhumation of the THO upper plate following terminal collision, potentially in response to lithospheric delamination.
DS202001-0023
2019
Kelley, S.E., Ross, M., Elliott, B., Normandeau, P.X.Effect of shifting ice flow and basal topography in shaping three dimensional dispersal patterns , Lac de Gras region, Northwest Territories.Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 199, pp. 105-127.Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeomorphology

Abstract: Tracing indicator minerals and geochemical pathfinders in glacial sediments back to their up-ice source is a common mineral exploration approach in prospective, formerly glaciated regions. In this study, we utilize surface and subsurface data from the Lac de Gras area of the Northwest Territories to develop a three-dimensional understanding of till compositional anomalies emanating from two known kimberlite pipes, DO-18 and DO-27. Specifically, this study examines the three-dimensional shape of dispersal trains as defined by geochemical pathfinder elements and kimberlite indicator minerals shed from a pair of kimberlite pipes within a till cover of variable thickness. From our ninety-four reverse circulation boreholes (n?=?251 till samples), and other publicly-available geologic datasets, we have reconstructed bedrock topography, till thickness, and the subsurface geometry of two dispersal trains. Utilizing our three-dimensional dataset, we have documented the role of basal topography in creating dispersal patterns with contrasting geometries from two adjacent kimberlites, as well as in the preferential preservation of older till units. The combination of field observations of ice-flow indicators and till compositional data demonstrates that features produced by multiple ice flows are preserved in both the erosional and depositional records in this region. Three-dimensional dispersion patterns of kimberlite indicators reflect the effect of shifting ice-flow direction with respect to slope aspect of bedrock topography in governing compositional variability within glacial drift. Our findings suggest that surficial data do not capture the full extent of dispersion patterns even in areas of relatively thin and discontinuous till cover.
DS202006-0925
2016
Kendall, J-M., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.Why is Africa rifting? GSL SP 420 ( Lyell release May 11, 2020), Vol. 420, pp. 11-30. pdfAfricaTectonics

Abstract: Continental rifting has a fundamental role in the tectonic behaviour of the Earth, shaping the surface we live on. Although there is not yet a consensus about the dominant mechanism for rifting, there is a general agreement that the stresses required to rift the continental lithosphere are not readily available. Here we use a global finite element model of the lithosphere to calculate the stresses acting on Africa. We consider the stresses induced by mantle flow, crustal structure and topography in two types of models: one in which flow is exclusively driven by the subducting slabs and one in which it is derived from a shear wave tomographic model. The latter predicts much larger stresses and a more realistic dynamic topography. It is therefore clear that the mantle structure beneath Africa plays a key part in providing the radial and horizontal tractions, dynamic topography and gravitational potential energy necessary for rifting. Nevertheless, the total available stress (c. 100 MPa) is much less than that needed to break thick, cold continental lithosphere. Instead, we appeal to a model of magma-assisted rifting along pre-existing weaknesses, where the strain is localized in a narrow axial region and the strength of the plate is reduced significantly. Mounting geological and geophysical observations support such a model.
DS202005-0742
2020
Keshav, S., Corgne, A., Gudfinnsson, G.H., Fei, Y.Major and trace element partitioning between majoritic garnet, clinopyroxene, and carbon dioxide-rich liquid in model carbonated peridotite at 10 Gpa and interpretations of the element chemistry of majoritic garnet inclusions in diamonds from the subcontiLithos, Vol. 362-363, 11p. PdfSouth America, Brazil, Guineadiamond inclusions

Abstract: Experimentally determined major and trace element partition coefficients between majoritic garnet, clinopyroxene, and carbon dioxide-rich liquid are reported at 10 GPa and 1800 °C in a model carbonated peridotite composition in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2. Besides majoritic garnet, the liquid coexists with forsterite, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, making melting phase relations invariant at fixed pressure and temperature conditions. Partition coefficients span a wide range of values - for instance, Sr, Nb, Ba, La, and Ce are highly incompatible in majoritic garnet, while Ca, Y, Nb, and Ho are moderately incompatible, and Lu, Si, Al, and Mg are compatible. Strong fractionation of light rare earth elements (e.g., La, Ce, Nd, Sm) and high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th) is seen between majoritic garnet and liquid. The experimentally determined partitioning values are used to calculate compositions of melts in equilibrium with majoritic garnet inclusions in diamonds from select localities in Brazil and Guinea. The calculated melts largely straddle those between documented carbonatites, kimberlites, and alkali basalts, low-degree mantle melting products from carbonated peridotite. This resemblance firmly suggests that majoritic garnet inclusions in diamonds from Brazil and Guinea can simply be interpreted as precipitates from such melts, thereby offering an alternative to the hypothesis that the element chemistry of such inclusions in diamonds can largely, and sometimes only, be ascribed to subducted oceanic crust, and further that, fusion of this crust may limit the terrestrial 'carbon recycling' at depths much beyond corresponding to those of Earth's transition zone.
DS202006-0926
2020
Keulen, N., Thomsen, T.B., Schumacher, J.C., Poulsen, M.D., Kalvig, P., Vennemann, T., Salimi, R.Formation, origin and geographic typing of corundum ( ruby and pink sapphire) from the Fiskenaesst complex, Greenland.Lithos, Vol. 366-367, 26p. PdfEurope, Greenlandruby

Abstract: Metamorphic petrology observations on rubies found in-situ in their host-rock are combined with geochemical measurements and optical microscopy observations on the same rubies, with the aim of connecting the ruby-forming metamorphic reaction to a unique fingerprint for these minerals. The Fiskenæsset complex in Greenland is used as an area of this case study. Isochemical pressure-temperature sections were calculated based on electron microprobe and whole-rock geochemistry analyses, and compared to field observations. Rubies formed from reaction between olivine/serpentine and anorthite, triggered by the intrusion of a 2.71 Ga pegmatite. Al is sourced from the anorthite reacting to calcic amphibole, silica from the pegmatite reacts with olivine/serpentine to anthophyllite, Cr3+ is mobile in the pegmatitic fluid, giving colour to the rubies. The ruby-forming reaction occurs at about 640 °C and 7 kbar. In order to establish the unique fingerprint for this ruby-bearing ultramafic complex, laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry trace-element measurements, oxygen isotope compositions, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were applied. Due to the setting in an ultramafic rock-anorthosite-leucogabbro complex, the fingerprint of the rubies from the Fiskenæsset complex is rather unique. Compared to rubies from other localities, Fiskenæsset complex rubies contain high Cr, intermediate Fe, and low V, Ga, and Ti concentrations, low oxygen isotope values (1.6-4.2‰) and a rarely-observed combination of optical growth features and mineral inclusions like anthophyllite+biotite. Results for other Greenland localities are presented and discussed as well. Even though these are derived from ultramafic rock settings too, they record different trace-element ratios and oxygen isotope values, resulting from variations in the Archaean ruby-forming reaction.
DS202004-0523
2020
Kibikas, W.M., Carpenter, B.M., Ghassemi, A.Mechanical strength and physical properties of Oklahoma's igneous basement.Tectonophysics, Vol. 777, 228336, 15p. PdfUnited States, Oklahomageophysics, seismics

Abstract: From 2009 to 2016, a drastic increase in seismic activity occurred in the Central and Eastern US (CEUS), particularly in the Oklahoma-Kansas region. The majority of hypocenters were focused in the crystalline basement rock. Information regarding the physical properties (elastic wave velocity, peak strength, etc.) of rocks in the CEUS basement to date is sparse. Forecasting future seismic hazard and predicting the in situ response of the crystalline basement requires their geomechanical parameters be adequately constrained. This work assesses the mechanical and petrophysical properties of several sets of basement rocks from Oklahoma to provide a better framework for understanding intraplate seismicity and overall basement deformation in the continental United States. Laboratory experiments were conducted with granite, rhyolite and diabase basement rock samples collected from southern Oklahoma. Evolution of compressional and shear wave velocity with increasing confinement was measured through a series of ultrasonic velocity tests. A suite of uniaxial and triaxial tests were conducted to measure the elastic and inelastic deformation behavior of the basement rocks. Deformation data was evaluated using the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and compared with additional preexisting deformation data of igneous basement rocks. Dynamic and static elastic properties compare favorably with available field measurements and demonstrate the role physical properties can play in varying mechanical behavior. Granitic samples demonstrate moderate variation of intrinsic physical properties can alter elastic properties and failure behavior significantly. Water-weakening in the basement rocks may indicate fluid-assisted processes such as stress corrosion cracking enhance deformation in the crystalline basement.
DS202007-1155
2020
Kim, D.Seismic echoes reveal structures at the base of the mantle.www.livescience.com/core-mantle-ULVZ-blobs-enormous.html, 3p. Mantlegeophysics - seismics
DS202003-0345
2020
King, S.D.Do impacts impact global tectonics?Geology, Vol. 48, pp. 205-206. Globalgeodynamics
DS202008-1408
2019
Kirkpatrick, S., Mukendwa, J.Operational changes enable Namdeb's Southern Coastal mining team to reduce risk and increase productivity as we advance deeper into the Atlantic Ocean.The Journal of the Southern African Insitute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 119, Feb. 8p. PdfAfrica, Namibiadeposit - Southern Coastal

Abstract: The mining operation at Namdeb's Southern Coastal Mine (SCM) is unique. It targets gravel layers up to 30 m below sea level, which continue to dip deeper, further west, under the Atlantic Ocean. On this storm-dominated coastline, severe water seepage into mining areas, rugged orebody footwall characteristics, and highly variable resource grades all contribute to a challenging operational environment. Namdeb has a proud history of innovation, and as the mine progresses further westwards and associated technical and economic challenges increase, this innovative culture has become essential to the future of the mine. The Theory of Constraints (ToC) has been widely used at SCM, and across the mining discipline, to focus efforts on improving overall business profitability. Through analysis of the mining processes, opportunities were identified, solutions developed, and initiatives implemented with staggering results across all three mining disciplines, i.e. stripping, load and haul, and bedrock bulking and cleaning. This paper outlines the solutions adopted and the results of the ToC analysis.
DS202008-1409
2020
Klashnikova, T.V., Soloveva, L.V., Kostrovitsky, S.I., Sun, J.Geochemical features of peridotite xenolith from Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipe - cumulates or residues?Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractRussiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: This study concerns the geochemical characteristics of mantle xenoliths from the upper-Jurassic Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipe (Kuoika field, Yakutian kimberlite province, the north-east of Siberian craton). The so-called magnesian xenolith group (Sp, Sp-Grt, Grt lherzolites, olivine websterites and websterites) was distinguished, the rocks of the group are assumed to be of the same genesis based on transitions in modal mineral composition and a change in the composition of minerals. The chemical composition (CaO, MgO) of most depleted harzburgites, as well as part of the lherzolites of the magnesian group coincide with the restites obtained by experimental melting, which suggested their residue origin. Narrow variations in the composition of olivine (Mg # - 91-92; NiO - 0.35-0.45 wt.%) and orthopyroxene (Mg # - 92-93) for Obnazhennaya peridotites also support this hypothesis. In terms of chemical composition, olivines coincide with the “mantle trend” of olivines from the lithospheric mantle. Nevertheless, garnets from the peridotites consistently change their composition in the direction of decreasing Cr2O3, CaO and Mg # values from Grt, Sp-Grt lherzolites to Grt websterites. The garnet composition from Obnazhennaya peridotites differs from Udachnaya peridotites, for which the residue hypothesis assumed. They are similar in composition to garnets from Beni-Bousera garnet pyroxenites, as well as to garnets from deformed lherzolites of the Udachnaya pipe, which suggests crystallization of garnets from the melt and the effect of metasomatic processes. The formation of orogenic massifs is a multi-stage process, many authors suggest that pyroxenite veins in mafic complexes are cumulative in origin and show signs of metasomatic processes (in particular, enrichment with aluminum, calcium and chromium, increased REE concentrations in garnet). So peridotite cumulative origin and further metasomatic transformations were suggested.
DS202002-0195
2020
Klaver, M., Ionov, D.A., Takazawa, E., Elliott, T.The non-chondritic Ni isotope composition of Earth's mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 268, pp. 405-421.Mantleperidotites

Abstract: Nickel is a major element in the Earth. Due to its siderophile nature, 93% of Ni is hosted in the core and the Ni isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth might inform on the conditions of terrestrial core formation. Whether Earth’s mantle is fractionated relative to the chondritic reservoir, and by inference to the core, is a matter of debate that largely arises from the uncertain Ni isotope composition of the mantle. We address this issue through high-precision Ni isotope measurements of fertile- to melt-depleted peridotites and compare these data to chondritic meteorites. Terrestrial peridotites that are free from metasomatic overprint display a limited range in d60/58Ni (deviation of 60Ni/58Ni relative to NIST SRM 986) and no systematic variation with degree of melt depletion. The latter is consistent with olivine and orthopyroxene buffering the Ni budget and isotope composition of the refractory peridotites. As such, the average Ni isotope composition of these peridotites (d60/58Ni = 0.115 ± 0.011‰) provides a robust estimate of the d60/58Ni of the bulk silicate Earth. Peridotites with evidence for melt metasomatism range to heavier Ni isotope compositions where the introduction of clinopyroxene appears to drive an increase in d60/58Ni. This requires a process where melts do not reach isotopic equilibrium with buffering olivine and orthopyroxene, but its exact nature remains obscure. Chondritic meteorites have variability in d60/58Ni due to heterogeneity at the sampling scale. In particular, CI1 chondrites are displaced to isotopically lighter values due to sorption of Ni onto ferrihydrite during parent body alteration. Chondrites less extensively altered than the CI1 chondrites show no systematic differences in d60/58Ni between classes and yield average d60/58Ni = 0.212 ± 0.013‰, which is isotopically heavier than our estimate of the bulk silicate Earth. The notable isotopic difference between the bulk silicate Earth and chondrites likely results from the segregation of the terrestrial core. Our observations potentially provide a novel constraint on the conditions of terrestrial core formation but requires further experimental calibration.
DS202006-0927
2020
Ko, B., Prakapenka, V., Kunz, M., Prescher, C., Leinenweber, K., Shim, S-H.Mineralogy and density of Archean volcanic crust in the mantle transition zone.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 305, 13p. PdfMantledensity

Abstract: The composition of Archean volcanic crust can be characterized by a higher Mg/Si ratio than modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), because of the higher degree melting from the warmer mantle in the Archean. Although modern MORB may become less dense than the surrounding mantle beneath the mantle transition zone (MTZ), the Mg-rich composition of Archean volcanic crust may result in the different density, and therefore different sinking behavior near the MTZ. In order to understand the compositional effect of Archean volcanic crust on the sinking behaviors and the scale of mantle mixing in the Archean, we investigated the mineralogy and density of Archean volcanic crust near the MTZ (470-910 km-depth). We conducted experiments at 19-34 GPa and 1400-2400 K using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) combined with in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in-situ XRD and the chemical analysis revealed that Archean volcanic crust forms garnet and ringwoodite (84 and 16 vol%, respectively), which gradually transforms to Brg and CaPv (82 and 18 vol%, respectively) at 23-25 GPa and 1800 K. Our in-situ XRD experiments allowed us to measure the volumes of stable phases and to estimate their densities at high pressure and temperature. The results suggest that Archean volcanic crust maintains greater density than the pyrolitic mantle in the Archean regardless of temperature at 20-34 GPa (570-850 km-depth), promoting further sinking into the deeper mantle in the Archean. We also considered the density of the subducting slab in the Archean. The density model showed that the subducting slab is still denser or at least equally dense as the surrounding pyrolitic mantle in the Archean.
DS202008-1410
2020
Ko, B., Prakapenka, V., Kunz, M., Prescher, C., Leinenweber, K., Shim, S-H.Mineralogy and density of Archean volcanic crust in the mantle transition zone.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 305, 13p. PdfMantlesubduction

Abstract: The composition of Archean volcanic crust can be characterized by a higher Mg/Si ratio than modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), because of the higher degree melting from the warmer mantle in the Archean. Although modern MORB may become less dense than the surrounding mantle beneath the mantle transition zone (MTZ), the Mg-rich composition of Archean volcanic crust may result in the different density, and therefore different sinking behavior near the MTZ. In order to understand the compositional effect of Archean volcanic crust on the sinking behaviors and the scale of mantle mixing in the Archean, we investigated the mineralogy and density of Archean volcanic crust near the MTZ (470-910 km-depth). We conducted experiments at 19-34 GPa and 1400-2400 K using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) combined with in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in-situ XRD and the chemical analysis revealed that Archean volcanic crust forms garnet and ringwoodite (84 and 16 vol%, respectively), which gradually transforms to Brg and CaPv (82 and 18 vol%, respectively) at 23-25 GPa and 1800 K. Our in-situ XRD experiments allowed us to measure the volumes of stable phases and to estimate their densities at high pressure and temperature. The results suggest that Archean volcanic crust maintains greater density than the pyrolitic mantle in the Archean regardless of temperature at 20-34 GPa (570-850 km-depth), promoting further sinking into the deeper mantle in the Archean. We also considered the density of the subducting slab in the Archean. The density model showed that the subducting slab is still denser or at least equally dense as the surrounding pyrolitic mantle in the Archean.
DS202001-0024
2019
Kogarko, L.N., Veselovskiy, R.V.Geodynamic origin of carbonatites from the absolute paleoproterozoic reconstructions. Maymecha-KotuyJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 125, pp. 13-21.Russia, Siberiacarbonatite

Abstract: Geodynamic origin of carbonatites is debated for several decades. One of hypotheses links their origin to large-volume mantle plumes rising from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Some evidence exists for temporal and spatial relationships between the occurrences of carbonatites and large igneous provinces (LIPs), and both carbonatites and LIPs can be related to mantle plumes. A good example is the carbonatites of the Maymecha-Kotuy Province in the Polar Siberia, which were formed at the same time as the Siberian superplume event at ca. 250 Ma. In this study we use a recently published absolute plate kinematic modelling to reconstruct the position of 155 Phanerozoic carbonatites at the time of their emplacement. We demonstrate that 69% of carbonatites may be projected onto the central or peripheral parts of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle. This correlation provides a strong evidence for the link between the carbonatite genesis and the locations of deep-mantle plumes. A large group of carbonatites (31%) has no obvious links to LLSVPs and, on the contrary, they plot above the "faster-than-average S-wave" zones in the deep mantle, currently located beneath North and Central America and China. We propose that their origin may be associated with remnants of subducted slabs in the mantle.
DS202007-1156
2020
Koop. F.What's deep sea mining? Risks and challenges of the new industrial frontier…. Mentions diamonds in Namibia.ZMEscience.com, June 24, 6p.Africa, Namibia, Globalmining
DS202007-1157
2020
Korenaga, J.Plate tectonics and surface environment: role of the oceanic upper mantle.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 205, 103185 22p. PdfMantlegeodynamics

Abstract: Earth is so far the only planet that exhibits plate tectonics, and along with the right heliocentric distance and the presence of surface water, plate tectonics is among necessary conditions for a habitable planet. Yet, the physics of this particular style of mantle convection is poorly understood, creating a substantial bottleneck in developing the general theory of planetary evolution. As plate tectonics is characterized by the subduction of oceanic lithosphere, a better understanding of the oceanic upper mantle could potentially help to break this stalemate. In this review, I summarize available theoretical, observational, and experimental constraints on the evolution of the oceanic upper mantle and its rheology, place the study of the oceanic upper mantle in the big picture of Earth evolution, and provide some suggestions for future research in relevant disciplines, including marine geophysics and computational geodynamics.
DS202008-1411
2020
Korneeva, A.A., Nikolai, N.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Portnyagin, M.V., Savelyev, D.P., Krasheninnikov, S.P., Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, M.B., Zelenski, M.E., Shcherbakov, V.D., Botcharnikov, R.E.Composition, crystallization conditions and genesis of sulfide saturated parental melts of olivine-phyric rocks from Kamchatsky Mys ( Kamchatka, Russia).Lithos, 10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105657Russia, Kamchatkapicrites

Abstract: Sulfide liquids that immiscibly separate from silicate melts in different magmatic processes accumulate chalcophile metals and may represent important sources of the metals in Earth's crust for the formation of ore deposits. Sulfide phases commonly found in some primitive mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) may support the occurrence of sulfide immiscibility in the crust without requiring magma contamination and/or extensive fractionation. However, the records of incipient sulfide melts in equilibrium with primitive high-Mg olivine and Cr-spinel are scarce. Sulfide globules in olivine phenocrysts in picritic rocks of MORB-affinity at Kamchatsky Mys (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia) represent a well-documented example of natural immiscibility in primitive oceanic magmas. Our study examines the conditions of silicate-sulfide immiscibility in these magmas by reporting high precision data on the compositions of Cr-spinel and silicate melt inclusions, hosted in Mg-rich olivine (86.9-90 mol% Fo), which also contain globules of magmatic sulfide melt. Major and trace element contents of reconstructed parental silicate melts, redox conditions (?QFM = +0.1 ± 0.16 (1s) log. units) and crystallization temperature (1200-1285 °C), as well as mantle potential temperatures (~1350 °C), correspond to typical MORB values. We show that nearly 50% of sulfur could be captured in daughter sulfide globules even in reheated melt inclusions, which could lead to a significant underestimation of sulfur content in reconstructed silicate melts. The saturation of these melts in sulfur appears to be unrelated to the effects of melt crystallization and crustal assimilation, so we discuss the reasons for the S variations in reconstructed melts and the influence of pressure and other parameters on the SCSS (Sulfur Content at Sulfide Saturation).
DS202006-0928
2020
Korsakov, A.V., Kohn, M.J., Perraki, M.Applications of raman spectroscopy in metamorphic petrology and tectonics. ( mentions diamond)Elements, Vol. 16, pp. 105-110.Mantlespectroscopy, geothermalbarometry

Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is widely applied in metamorphic petrology and offers many opportunities for geological and tectonic research. Minimal sample preparation preserves sample integrity and microtextural information, while use with confocal microscopes allows spatial resolution down to the micrometer level. Raman spectroscopy clearly distinguishes mineral polymorphs, providing crucial constraints on metamorphic conditions, particularly ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to monitor the structure of carbonaceous material in metamorphic rocks. Changes in structure are temperature-sensitive, so Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material is widely used for thermometry. Raman spectroscopy can also detect and quantify strain in micro-inclusions, offering new barometers that can be applied to understand metamorphic and tectonic processes without any assumptions about chemical equilibrium.
DS202002-0196
2020
Kostrovitsky, S.I., Yakolev, D.A.The origin of salts in unaltered kimberlites. Comment on Abersteiner article Journal of Petrology, in press available, 13p.Russiadeposit - Udachnaya-East

Abstract: The article by Abersteiner et al., (2018) discussing the mantle origin of salts in serpentine-free kimberlites from the Udachnaya-East pipe contradicts the views of Kostrovitsky et al. (2013) concerning the origin of these salts from a surface source of brines. Here we wish to emphasize that Abersteiner et al. (2018) have presented erroneous statements regarding the genesis of these rocks. On the basis of the data collected by hydrogeologists working at Udachnaya-East we consider that unaltered kimberlites occur at 400-500 m depth, where the brines precipitated salts. The relation of unaltered kimberlites to the surface sources of salt is illustrated by the cross sections of the Mir and International’naya pipes, where serpentine-free kimberlites occur at the depths of Cambrian evaporite host rocks intercalated with thick halite layers. It is assumed that the salts from surface sources prevented olivine serpentinization. The secondary origin of salts in serpentine-free kimberlites is confirmed by our investigations and the hypothesis regarding the mantle origin of salts is doubtful.
DS202005-0743
2020
Kostrovitsky, S.I., Yakolev, D.A., Soltys, A., Ivanov, A.S., Matsyuk, S.S., Robles-Cruz, S.E.A genetic relationship between magnesian ilmenite and kimberlites of the Yakutian diamond fields.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 120, 16p. PdfRussia, Yakutiailmenite

Abstract: We present new major element geochemical data, and review the existing data for ilmenite macrocrysts, megacrysts, as well as ilmenite in mantle xenoliths from four diamondiferous kimberlite fields in the Yakutian province. This combined data set includes 10,874 analyses of ilmenite from 94 kimberlite pipes. In the studied samples we identify various different ilmenite compositional distributions (e.g., “Haggerty's parabola”, or “Step-like” trends in MgO-Cr2O3 bivariate space), which are common to all kimberlites from a given cluster, but the compositional distributions differ between clusters. We propose three stages of ilmenite crystallization: 1) Mg-Cr poor ilmenite crystallising from a primitive asthenospheric melt (the base of Haggerty's parabola on MgO-Cr2O3 plots). 2) This primitive asthenospheric melt was then modified by the partial assimilation of lithospheric material, which enriched the melt in MgO and Cr2O3 (left branch of Haggerty’s parabola). 3) Ilmenite subsequently underwent sub-solidus recrystallization in the presence of an evolved kimberlite melt under increasing oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) conditions (right branch of Haggerty’s parabola in MgO-Cr2O3 plots). Significant differences in the ilmenite compositional distribution between different kimberlite fields are the result of diverse conditions during subsequent ilmenite crystallization in a kimberlite melt ascending through the lithospheric mantle, which have different textures and compositions beneath the studied kimberlite fields. We propose that a TiO2 fluid formed due to immiscibility of an asthenospheric melt with low Cr and high Ti contents. This fluid infiltrated lithospheric mantle rocks forming Mg-ilmenite. These features indicate a genetic link between ilmenite and the host kimberlite melt.
DS202002-0197
2019
Krebs, M.Y., Pearson, D.G., Fagan, A.J., Bussweiler, Y., Sarkar, C.The application of trace elements and Sr-Pb isotopes to dating and tracing ruby formation: the Aappaluttoq deposit, SW Greenland.Chemical Geology, Vol. 523, pp. 42-58.Europe, Greenlandruby

Abstract: Trace element characteristics of rubies from the Aappaluttoq deposit, SW Greenland, were measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) and offline laser ablation followed by solution ICP-MS. LA-ICP-TOF-MS - applied to rubies for the first time - effectively maps trace element spatial variation in these gems. With the exception of a small number of elements that can substitute for Al3+ in the crystal structure (e.g., Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mg), trace element mapping clearly demonstrates that most elements such as Th, U, Sr and Rb are hosted in mineral and fluid inclusions or are present along fractures. Primitive mantle normalized trace element patterns show characteristics that are broadly correlative to mineral inclusions within the analysed rubies. These minerals include rutile (enrichment of HFSE over LREE, high Ta/Nb and Hf/Zr ratios and low Th/U ratios), phlogopite (enrichment in Rb and Ba and positive Sr anomalies), and zircon (extreme enrichment in Zr-Hf, U and Th, HREE enrichment over LREE and positive Ce anomalies). The sample suite analysed here is derived from a bulk sample of ore composed of three different rock types (sapphirine-gedrite, leucogabbro and phlogopitite). Two different populations of ruby were identified at Aappaluttoq; these can be defined on the basis of their different V content within the corundum lattice. Therefore, V content may be able to geochemically define rubies from different host rocks within the same deposit. Using offline laser ablation followed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) we measured the radiogenic isotope compositions in ruby for the first time. A Pb-Pb isochron age of 2686 +300/-74?Ma, was defined for gem formation at Aappaluttoq. We believe that this is the first ever direct age determined on a ruby suite, independent of associated minerals, derived by bulk sampling sub-micron to micron sized inclusions in the corundum lattice. This age likely reflects the re-crystallization and re-setting of the ruby (and its U-Pb system) during the Neoarchean in SW Greenland, due to regional granulite to upper-amphibolite facies metamorphism.
DS202006-0929
2020
Krishnamurthy, P.Rare metal (RM) and rare earth element ( REE) resources: world scenario with special reference to India.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 95, pp. 464-474.India, globalREE

Abstract: The RM (Li, Be, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Th and U) and REE (Light Rare Earths and Heavy Rare Earths including Yttrium) are strategic and critical for sustaining a variety of industries such as nuclear, defence, information technology (IT) and green energy options (wind, solar, electric vehicles and others). The 2010 ‘Rare Earth’ crisis of the world, following China’s monopoly with over 80% share and export restrictions in the REE market, led to an exploration boom for REE all over the world including India. This led to a substantial increase in REE mineral resources (98 Mt of contained REO in 2015) outside China located in Canada (38 Mt), Greenland (39 Mt) and Africa (10.3 Mt) that represents a fivefold increase in resources (c.f. Paulick and Machacek, 2017). As per the 2019, USGS commodity survey, the world reserves of REE have been estimated at 120 Mt in countries such as China (44Mt), Brazil (22Mt), Vietnam (22 Mt), Russia (12 Mt), India (6.9 Mt) and others (13 Mt). At present world resources of RM and REE are adequate to cater the demands of the different industries. The constraints, however, appear to be not technical but mainly environmental and social issues.
DS202003-0346
2020
Krmicek, L., Ackerman, L., Hruby, J., Kynicky, J.The highly siderophile elements and Re-Os isotope geochemistry of Variscan lamproites from the Bohemian Massif: implications for regionally dependent metasomatism of orogenic mantle.Chemical Geology, Vol. 532, 11p. Available pdfEurope, Czech republic, Austria, Polandlamproites

Abstract: Orogenic lamproites represent a group of peralkaline, ultrapotassic and perpotassic mantle-derived igneous rocks that hold the potential to sample components with extreme compositions from highly heterogeneous orogenic mantle. In our pilot study, we present highly siderophile element (HSE) and ReOs isotope systematics of Variscan orogenic lamproites sampled in the territories of the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland, i.e., from the termination of the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian zones of the Bohemian Massif. Orogenic lamproites of the Bohemian Massif are distinguished by variably high contents of SiO2, high Mg# and predominant mineral associations of K-rich amphibole and Fe-rich microcline. The HSE show (i) consistently very low contents in all investigated orogenic lamproites compared to the estimated concentrations in majority of mid-ocean ridge basalts, hotspot-related volcanic rocks (e.g., ocean island basalts, continental flood basalts, komatiites, some intraplate alkaline volcanic rocks such as kimberlites and anorogenic lamproites) and arc lavas, and (ii) marked differences in relative and absolute HSE abundances between the samples from the Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian Zone. Such a regional dependence in HSE from mantle-derived melts is exceptional. Orogenic lamproites have highly variable and high initial suprachondritic 187Os/188Os values (up to 0.631) compared with rather chondritic to subchondritic Os isotope values of the young lithospheric mantle below the Bohemian Massif. The highly radiogenic Os isotope component in orogenic lamproites may be derived from preferential melting of metasomatised vein assemblages sitting in depleted peridotite mantle. This process appears to be valid generally in the petrogenesis of orogenic lamproites both from the Bohemian Massif and from the Mediterranean area. As a specific feature of the orogenic lamproites from the Bohemian Massif, originally ultra-depleted mantle component correlative with remnants of the Rheic Ocean lithosphere in the Moldanubian Zone was metasomatised by a mixture of evolved and juvenile material, whereas the lithospheric mantle in the Saxo-Thuringian Zone was enriched through the subduction of evolved crustal material with highly radiogenic Sr isotope signature. As a result, this led to observed unique regionally dependent coupled HSE, RbSr and ReOs isotope systematics.
DS202002-0198
2019
Krupnik, D., Khan, S.Close range, ground based hyperspectral imaging for mining applications at various scales: review and case studies. ( not specific to diamonds). Glossary addedEarth Science Reviews, Vol. 198, 34p. PdfGlobalhyperspectral

Abstract: Detailed mapping of mineral phases at centimeter scale can be useful for geological investigation, including resource exploration. This work reviews case histories of ground-based close-range hyperspectral imaging for mining applications. Studies of various economic deposits are discussed, as well as techniques used for data correction, integration with other datasets, and validation of spectral mapping results using geochemical techniques. Machine learning algorithms suggested for automation of the mining workflow are reviewed, as well as systems for environmental monitoring such as gas leak detection. Three new case studies that use a ground-based hyperspectral scanning system with sensors collecting data in the Visible Near-Infrared and Short-Wave Infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum in active and abandoned mines are presented. Vertical exposures in a Carlin Style sediment-hosted gold deposit, an active Cu-Au-Mo mine, and an active asphalt quarry are studied to produce images that delineate the extent of alteration minerals at centimeter scale to demonstrate an efficient method of outcrop characterization, which increases understanding of petrogenesis for mining applications. In the Carlin-style gold deposit, clay, iron oxide, carbonate, and jarosite minerals were mapped. In the copper porphyry deposit, different phases of alteration are delineated, some of which correspond to greater occurrence of ore deposits. A limestone quarry was also imaged, which contains bitumen deposits used for road paving aggregate. Review of current literature suggests use of this technology for automation of mining activities, thus reducing physical risk for workers in evaluating vertical mine faces.
DS202004-0524
2020
Kueter, N., Schmidt, M.W., Lilley, M.D., Bernasconi, S.Kinetic carbon isotope fractionation links graphite and diamond precipitation to reduced fluid sources.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 529, 115848 12p. PdfGlobalcarbon

Abstract: At high temperatures, isotope partitioning is often assumed to proceed under equilibrium and trends in the carbon isotope composition within graphite and diamond are used to deduce the redox state of their fluid source. However, kinetic isotope fractionation modifies fluid- or melt-precipitated mineral compositions when growth rates exceed rates of diffusive mixing. As carbon self-diffusion in graphite and diamond is exceptionally slow, this fractionation should be preserved. We have hence performed time series experiments that precipitate graphitic carbon through progressive oxidization of an initially CH4-dominated fluid. Stearic acid was thermally decomposed at 800 °C and 2 kbar, yielding a reduced COH-fluid together with elemental carbon. Progressive hydrogen loss from the capsule caused CH4 to dissociate with time and elemental carbon to continuously precipitate. The newly formed C0, aggregating in globules, is constantly depleted by ‰ in 13C relative to the methane, which defines a temperature dependent kinetic graphite-methane 13C/12C fractionation factor. Equilibrium fractionation would instead yield graphite heavier than the methane. In dynamic environments, kinetic isotope fractionation may control the carbon isotope composition of graphite or diamond, and, extended to nitrogen, could explain the positive correlation of and sometimes observed in coherent diamond growth zones. 13C enrichment trends in diamonds are then consistent with reduced deep fluids oxidizing upon their rise into the subcontinental lithosphere, methane constituting the main source of carbon.
DS202004-0525
2019
Kumar, A., Fernandez, M., Jimenez-Munt, I., Torne, M., Verges, J., Afonso, J.C.LitMod2D_2.0: an improved integrated geophysical petrological modeling took for the physical interpretation of upper mantle anomalies.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 10.1029/2019GC008777. 19p.Mantlegeophysics

Abstract: LitMod2D integrates geophysical and petrological data sets to produce the thermal, density, and seismic velocity structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. We present a new LitMod2D_2.0 package with improvements focused on (i) updated anelastic attenuation correction for anharmonic seismic velocities, (ii) chemical composition in the sublithospheric mantle, and (iii) incorporation of sublithospheric mantle anomalies. Sublithospheric mantle anomalies can be defined with different chemical composition, temperature, seismic velocities, and a combination of them, allowing the application of LitMod2D_2.0 to regions affected by mantle upwelling, subduction, delamination, and metasomatism. We demonstrate the potential application of LitMod2D_2.0 to such regions and the sensitivity of thermal and compositional anomalies on density and seismic velocities through synthetic models. Results show nonlinearity between the sign of thermal and seismic velocity anomalies, and that S wave velocities are more sensitive to temperature whereas P wave velocities are to composition. In a synthetic example of subduction, we show the sensitivity of sublithospheric mantle anomalies associated with the slab and the corner flow on surface observables (elevation, geoid height, and gravity anomalies). A new open-source graphic user interface is incorporated in the new package. The output of the code is simplified by writing only the relevant physical parameters (temperature, pressure, material type, density, and seismic velocities) to allow the user using predefined post-processing codes from a toolbox (flexure, mineral assemblages, synthetic passive seismological data, and tomography) or designing new ones. We demonstrate a post-processing example calculating synthetic seismic tomography, Rayleigh surface-wave dispersion curves, and P wave receiver functions from the output file of LitMod2D_2.0.
DS202008-1412
2020
Kumar, S., Gupta, S., Kanna, N., Sivaram, k., Crustal structures across the Deccan volcanic province and eastern Dharwar craton in south Indian shield using receiver function modelling.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 306, 106543, 9p. PdfIndiageophysics -seismic

Abstract: The south Indian shield, primarily consisting of Archean cratons and Cretaceous-Tertiary Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), has undergone several major tectonic episodes during its evolution. The Deccan volcanism at Cretaceous-Tertiary (~65 Ma) is the last major tectono-thermal event, which influenced a substantial part of the south Indian shield. To understand the influence of the Deccan volcanism on the evolution of the south Indian shield, we study the crustal seismic structure of the ~65 Ma Deccan Volcanic Province and the adjacent ~2.6 Ga Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), which forms the basement of the volcanic terrain. We calculate teleseismic receiver functions for 18 broadband seismic stations along a ~1000 km long seismological profile that cut across both the EDC and DVP. The analysis and modelling, using H-Vp/Vs stacking and generalized neighbourhood algorithm inversion of the receiver functions show distinct crustal structure (crustal thickness, average composition, shear wave velocity variation, nature of crust-mantle boundary, etc.) across the EDC and DVP. The results clearly indicate that the crustal structure is heterogeneous beneath the DVP compared to a relatively uniform structure below the EDC. Using results from this study along with earlier results, we infer that the present Eastern Dharwar Craton terrain is not affected by any tectono-thermal event for a long geological time, including the Deccan volcanism. Whereas, the present Deccan Volcanic Province is highly affected by the Reunion mantle plume-crust interaction.
DS202006-0930
2020
Kumar, S., Pal, S.K., Guha, A.Very low frequency electromagnetic ( VLF-EM) study over Wajrakakarur kimberlite pipe 6 in eastern Dharwar craton, India.Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 129, 1, 102 10p. PdfIndiadeposit - Pipe 6

Abstract: The Wajrakarur kimberlite Pipe 6 in Eastern Dharwar Craton, is hardly explored using latest ground-based geophysical techniques. The present study uses the Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) method for understanding the aerial extension, depth and geometry of the kimberlite pipe. The VLF-EM data have been analyzed using Fraser filtering of in-phase component, 3D Euler deconvolution of Fraser filtered in-phase data, radially average power spectrum (RAPS) of VLF data (raw data) and 2D inversion of VLF data (raw data). The Fraser filtered in-phase grid anomaly map has witnessed as an effective tool for mapping extension of the kimberlite pipe. The maxima of Fraser filtered in-phase component has been observed as a key parameter to delineate the conducting bodies. The high apparent current density in Karous-Hjelt (K-H) pseudo section locate relatively conducting body possibly associated with kimberlite pipe. Two depth interfaces at about 15 and 32 m have been delineated using RAPS. 3D Euler solution indicate dyke-like structure associated with kimberlite pipe having depth solutions ranging from 6 to 40 m with mode of depth 17 m in the study area. 2D resistivity sections indicate that causative bodies are in the depth range of 15-50 m. The results of VLF-EM study are well validated using geological borehole data over the study area reported by Geological Survey of India.
DS202001-0025
2019
Kumari, S., Debajyoti, P., Stracke, A.Constraints on Archean crust formation from open system models of Earth evolution.Chemical Geology, doi.org/10.1016/ j.chemgeo.2019. 119307Mantlecraton

Abstract: Establishing the mode and rate of formation of the continental crust is crucial for quantifying mass exchange between Earth’s crust and mantle. The limited crustal rock record, particularly of early Archean rocks, has led to a variety of different models of continental growth. Here, we present an open-system model of silicate Earth evolution incorporating the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics with the aim to constrain crustal growth during the Archean and its effect on the chemical and isotopic evolution of Earth’s crust-mantle system. Our model comprises four reservoirs: the bulk continental crust (CC), depleted upper mantle (UM), lower mantle (LM), and an isolated reservoir (IR) where recycled crust is stored transiently before being mixed with the LM. The changing abundance of isotope species in each reservoir is quantified using a series of first order linear differential equations that are solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method at 1 Myr time steps for 4.56 Gyr (the age of the Earth). The model results show that only continuous and exponential crustal growth reproduces the present-day abundances and isotope ratios in the terrestrial reservoirs. Our preferred crustal growth model suggests that the mass of the CC by the end of Hadean (4.0 Ga) and end of Archean (2.5 Ga) was ~30% and ~75% of the present-day mass of the CC, respectively. Models proposing formation of most (~90%) of the present-day CC during the initial 1 Gyr or nearly 50-60% during the last 1 Gyr are least favorable. Significant mass exchange between crust and mantle, that is, both the formation and recycling of crust, started in the Hadean with Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope evolution typical for mafic rocks. Depletion of the UM (in incompatible elements) during the early Archean is mitigated by the input of recycled crust, so that the UM maintained a near-primitive Hf-Nd isotope composition. The LM also retained a near-primitive Hf-Nd isotope composition during the Archean, but for different reasons. In contrast to the UM, the crustal return flux into the LM is transiently stored (~ 1 Gyr) in an isolated reservoir (IR), which limits the mass flux into and out of the LM. The IR in our model is distinct from other mantle reservoirs and possibly related to stable crustal blocks or, alternatively, to recycled crust in the mantle that remains temporarily isolated, perhaps at the core-mantle boundary (LLSVPs).
DS202005-0744
2020
Labidi, J., Barry, P.H., Bekaert, D.V., Broadley, M.W., Marty, B., Giunta, T., Warr, O., Sherwood Lollar, B., Fischer, T.P., Avice, G., Caracusi, A., Ballentine, C.J., Halldorsson, S.A., Stefansson, A., Kurz, M.D., Kohl, I.E., Young, E.D.Hydrothermal 15N15N abundances constrain the origins of mantle nitrogen.Nature, Vol. 580, 7803 pp. 367-371. Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen is the main constituent of the Earth’s atmosphere, but its provenance in the Earth’s mantle remains uncertain. The relative contribution of primordial nitrogen inherited during the Earth’s accretion versus that subducted from the Earth’s surface is unclear1,2,3,4,5,6. Here we show that the mantle may have retained remnants of such primordial nitrogen. We use the rare 15N15N isotopologue of N2 as a new tracer of air contamination in volcanic gas effusions. By constraining air contamination in gases from Iceland, Eifel (Germany) and Yellowstone (USA), we derive estimates of mantle d15N (the fractional difference in 15N/14N from air), N2/36Ar and N2/3He. Our results show that negative d15N values observed in gases, previously regarded as indicating a mantle origin for nitrogen7,8,9,10, in fact represent dominantly air-derived N2 that experienced 15N/14N fractionation in hydrothermal systems. Using two-component mixing models to correct for this effect, the 15N15N data allow extrapolations that characterize mantle endmember d15N, N2/36Ar and N2/3He values. We show that the Eifel region has slightly increased d15N and N2/36Ar values relative to estimates for the convective mantle provided by mid-ocean-ridge basalts11, consistent with subducted nitrogen being added to the mantle source. In contrast, we find that whereas the Yellowstone plume has d15N values substantially greater than that of the convective mantle, resembling surface components12,13,14,15, its N2/36Ar and N2/3He ratios are indistinguishable from those of the convective mantle. This observation raises the possibility that the plume hosts a primordial component. We provide a test of the subduction hypothesis with a two-box model, describing the evolution of mantle and surface nitrogen through geological time. We show that the effect of subduction on the deep nitrogen cycle may be less important than has been suggested by previous investigations. We propose instead that high mid-ocean-ridge basalt and plume d15N values may both be dominantly primordial features.
DS202002-0199
2020
Lai, M.Y., Breeding, C.M., Stachel, T., Stern, R.A.Spectroscopic features of natural and HPHT treated yellow diamonds. EkatiDiamonds & Related Materials, Vol. 101, 107642, 8p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Ekati

Abstract: High pressure high temperature (HPHT) treatment has long been applied in the gem trade for changing the body colour of diamonds. The identification of HPHT-treated diamonds is a field of on-going research in gemological laboratories, as different parameters of treatment will result in either the creation or the destruction of a variety of lattice defects in diamonds. Some features that exist in treated diamonds can also be found in natural diamonds, and consequently must not be employed for the separation of treated and natural diamonds. In this research, we investigated the properties of 11 natural yellow diamonds (directly obtained from the Ekati Diamond Mine to ensure that they are untreated) before and after HPHT treatment, conducted at a temperature of 2100 °C and a pressure of 6 GPa for 10 min. We report spectroscopic data and fluorescence characteristics, collected using PL mapping, FTIR mapping and fluorescence imaging showing the distribution of lattice defects and internal growth structures. PL mapping indicates SiV defects exist in one of the nitrogen-rich natural diamonds prior to treatment. Silicon-related defects can also be created by HPHT treatment, and they seem to show a relationship with pre-existing NV- centres. SIMS analysis was conducted to confirm the presence of silicon in these diamonds. The increase in the hydrogen-related infrared absorption peak at 3107 cm-1 (VN3H) is very strong in some diamonds that do not form B-centres during treatment. NVH was observed in our HPHT-treated natural diamonds, so it is possible that this strong increase in VN3H suppresses the aggregation of A- to B-centres as the newly formed A-centres were captured by NVH lattice defects to form VN3H. HPHT-altered and HPHT-induced platelet peaks are different from their natural counterparts in peak width and shape. Strong green fluorescence over a large area of a diamond, which is linked to relatively high concentration of H3 centres, was produced after HPHT treatment. We are confident that the unusual platelet peaks and strong emission of H3 centres are reliable indicators for HPHT-treated diamonds as they are not observed in untreated natural diamonds.
DS202003-0347
2020
Lai, M.Y., Stachel, T., Breeding, C.M., Stern, R.A.Yellow diamonds with colourless cores - evidence for episodic diamond growth beneath Chidliak and Ekati mine, Canada.Mineralogy and Petrology, in press available 13p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Chidliak, Ekati

Abstract: Yellow diamonds from the CH-7 (Chidliak) and the Misery (Ekati Mine) kimberlites in northern Canada are characterised for their nitrogen characteristics, visible light absorption, internal growth textures, and carbon isotope compositions. The diamonds are generally nitrogen-rich, with median N contents of 1230 (CH-7) and 1030 at.ppm (Misery). Normally a rare feature in natural diamonds, single substitutional nitrogen (C centres) and related features are detected in infrared absorption spectra of 64% of the studied diamonds from CH-7 and 87% from Misery and are considered as the major factor responsible for their yellow colouration. Episodically grown diamonds, characterised by colourless cores containing some nitrogen in the fully aggregated form (B centres) and yellow outer layers containing C centres, occur at both localities. Carbon isotope compositions and N contents also are significantly different in such core and rim zones, documenting growth during at least two temporally distinct events and involving different diamond forming fluids. Based on their nitrogen characteristics, both the yellow diamonds and yellow rims must have crystallized in close temporal proximity (<<1 Ma) to kimberlite activity at CH-7 and Misery.
DS202002-0200
2019
Lai, X., Yang, X.U-Pb ages and Hf isotope of zircons from a carbonatite dyke in the Bayan Obo Fe-REE deposit in Inner Mongolia: its geological significance.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 93, 6, pp. 1783-1796.China, MongoliaREE

Abstract: Detailed studies on U-Pb ages and Hf isotope have been carried out in zircons from a carbonatite dyke associated with the Bayan Obo giant REE-Nb-Fe deposit, northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), which provide insights into the plate tectonic in Paleoproterozoic. Analyses of small amounts of zircons extracted from a large sample of the Wu carbonatite dyke have yielded two ages of late Archaean and late Paleoproterozoic (with mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2521±25 Ma and 1921±14 Ma, respectively). Mineral inclusions in the zircon identified by Raman spectroscopy are all silicate minerals, and none of the zircon grains has the extremely high Th/U characteristic of carbonatite, which are consistent with crystallization of the zircon from silicate, and the zircon is suggested to be derived from trapped basement complex. Hf isotopes in the zircon from the studied carbonatite are different from grain to grain, suggesting the zircons were not all formed in one single process. Majority of ?Hf(t) values are compatible with ancient crustal sources with limited juvenile component. The Hf data and their TDM2 values also suggest a juvenile continental growth in Paleoproterozoic during the period of 1940-1957 Ma. Our data demonstrate the major crustal growth during the Paleoproterozoic in the northern margin of the NCC, coeval with the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia, and provide insights into the plate tectonic of the NCC in Paleoproterozoic.
DS202002-0201
2019
Larson, K.M.Unanticipated uses of the Global Positioning System.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 19-40.GlobalGPS system

Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments are routinely used today to measure crustal deformation signals from tectonic plate motions, faulting, and glacial isostatic adjustment. In parallel with the expansion of GPS networks around the world, several new and unexpected applications of GPS have been developed. For example, GPS instruments are now being used routinely to measure ground motions during large earthquakes. Access to real-time GPS data streams has led to the development of better hazard warnings for tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Terrestrial water storage changes can be derived from GPS vertical coordinate time series. Finally, GPS signals that reflect on the surfaces below a GPS antenna can be used to measure soil moisture, snow accumulation, vegetation water content, and water levels. In the future, combining GPS with the signals from the Russian, European, and Chinese navigation constellations will significantly enhance these applications.
DS202005-0745
2019
Larson, K.M.Unanticipated uses of the Global Positioning System. Just interesting not specific to diamonds.Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 19-40. pdfGlobalGPS

Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments are routinely used today to measure crustal deformation signals from tectonic plate motions, faulting, and glacial isostatic adjustment. In parallel with the expansion of GPS networks around the world, several new and unexpected applications of GPS have been developed. For example, GPS instruments are now being used routinely to measure ground motions during large earthquakes. Access to real-time GPS data streams has led to the development of better hazard warnings for tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Terrestrial water storage changes can be derived from GPS vertical coordinate time series. Finally, GPS signals that reflect on the surfaces below a GPS antenna can be used to measure soil moisture, snow accumulation, vegetation water content, and water levels. In the future, combining GPS with the signals from the Russian, European, and Chinese navigation constellations will significantly enhance these applications. 1) GPS data are now routinely used to study the dynamics of earthquake rupture. 2) GPS instruments are an integral part of warning systems for earth- quakes, tsunamis, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. 3) Reflected GPS signals provide a new source of soil moisture, snow depth, vegetation water content, and tide gauge data. 4)GPS networks can sense changes in soil moisture, groundwater, and snow depth and thus can contribute to water resource assessments.
DS202004-0526
2020
Laturtrie. B., Ross, P-S.Phreatomagmatic vs magmatic eruptive styles in maar-diatremes: a case study at Twin Peaks, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, Arizona.Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 82, 28.United States, Arizonamagmatism

Abstract: The Hopi Buttes volcanic field (HBVF) is located on the Colorado Plateau, Northern Arizona. In this Miocene volcanic field, the erosion level increases southward, allowing the study of maar-diatreme volcanoes from top (posteruptive crater infill and ejecta ring) to bottom (lower diatreme). The Twin Peaks volcanic complex consists mostly of two hills (North Peak and South Peak) with thick lavas at their summits and pyroclastic rocks underneath. In the HBVF, such volcanic remnants have received little scientific attention so far, despite their relative abundance. Our field observations allow us to interpret the North and South Peaks as remnants of two maar-diatreme volcanoes which evolved into lava lakes filling the craters. Within the complex, we distinguish four volcanic units (from unit 1 at the bottom to unit 4 at the top). On the basis of the field description of the deposits and the componentry measurements, we suggest that unit 1 is phreatomagmatic, unit 2 is phreato-strombolian (with mixed phreatomagmatic and strombolian characteristics), unit 3a is phreato-hawaiian (with mixed phreatomagmatic and hawaiian characteristics), unit 3b is hawaiian (formed by lava fountains) and unit 4 consists of lava lakes filling the maar craters. There is therefore a progressive evolution from a purely phreatomagmatic eruptive style, which excavated the craters and diatremes and partly filled them, to magmatic explosive to nonexplosive eruptive styles, which filled the maar craters up to the pre-eruptive surface. We discuss traditional criteria used to distinguish phreatomagmatic from magmatic eruptive styles in ultramafic to mafic maar-diatreme volcanoes.
DS202002-0202
2020
Lawley, C.J.M., Pearson, G., Waterton, P., Zagorevski, A., Bedard, J.H., Jackson, S.E., Petts, D.C., Kjarsgaard, B.A., Zhang, S., Wright, D.Element and isotopic signature of re-fertilized mantle peridotite as determined by nanopower and olivine LA-ICPMS analyses.Chemical Geology, DOI:101016/ j.chemgeo.2020.119464Mantleperidotite

Abstract: The lithospheric mantle should be depleted in base- and precious-metals as these elements are transferred to the crust during partial melting. However, some melt-depleted mantle peridotites are enriched in these ore-forming elements. This may reflect re-fertilization of the mantle lithosphere and/or sequestering of these elements by residual mantle phase(s). Both processes remain poorly understood because of the low abundances of incompatible elements in peridotite and the nugget-like distribution of digestion-resistant mantle phases that pose analytical challenges for conventional geochemical methods. Herein we report new major and trace element concentrations for a suite of mantle peridotite and pyroxenite samples from the Late Permian to Middle Triassic Nahlin ophiolite (Cache Creek terrane, British Columbia, Canada) using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) analysis of nanoparticulate powders and olivine. Compatible to moderately incompatible element concentrations suggest that Nahlin ophiolite peridotites represent residues after =20% melt extraction. Pyroxenite dykes and replacive dunite bands are folded and closely intercalated with residual harzburgite. These field relationships, coupled with the presence of intergranular base metal sulphide, clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel at the microscale, point to percolating melts that variably re-fertilized melt-depleted mantle peridotite. Radiogenic Pb (206Pb/204Pb?=?15.402-19.050; 207Pb/204Pb?=?15.127-15.633; 208Pb/204Pb?=?34.980-38.434; n?=?45) and Os (187Os/188Os 0.1143-0.5745; n?=?58) isotope compositions for a subset of melt-depleted peridotite samples further support metasomatic re-fertilization of these elements. Other ore-forming elements are also implicated in these metasomatic reactions because some melt-depleted peridotite samples are enriched relative to the primitive mantle, opposite to their expected behaviour during partial melting. New LA-ICPMS analysis of fresh olivine further demonstrates that a significant proportion of the highly incompatible element budget for the most melt-depleted rocks is either hosted by, and/or occurs as trapped inclusions within, the olivine-rich residues. Trapped phases from past melting and/or re-fertilization events are the preferred explanation for unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions and Paleozoic to Paleoproterozoic Re-depletion model ages, which predate the Nahlin ophiolite by over one billion years.
DS202008-1413
2020
Le Roex, A., Tinguely, C., Gregoire, M.Eclogite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from kimberlites emplaced along the southern margin of the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa: mantle or lower crustal fragments?Journal of Petrology, https://doi.org/ 10.1093/petrology /egaa040 50p. PdfAfrica, South Africakimberlites

Abstract: Eclogite xenoliths, together with garnet pyroxenites and some mafic garnet granulites, found in kimberlites located along the southern margin of the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa have been analysed by electron microprobe and mass spectrometry techniques to determine their geochemical characteristics. The majority of eclogites are bimineralic with garnet and omphacitic clinopyroxene in subequal proportions, with rutile as the main accessory phase; a few contain kyanite. Based on K2O in clinopyroxene and Na2O in garnet, the eclogites can be classified as Group II eclogites, and the majority are high-Ca in character. Garnet pyroxenites comprise garnet clinopyroxenites and garnet websterites. Major and trace element concentrations and isotope ratios of reconstituted bulk rock compositions of the eclogites and garnet pyroxenites allow constraints to be placed on depth of origin and likely protolith history. Calculated Fe–Mg exchange equilibration temperatures for the eclogites range from 815 to 1000?°C, at pressures of 1·7?±?0·4?GPa as determined by REE partitioning, indicating that they were sampled from depths of 50–55?km; i.e. within the lower crust of the Namaqua–Natal Belt. The garnet pyroxenites show slightly lower temperatures (686–835?°C) at similar pressures of equilibration. Initial 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (calculated to time of kimberlite emplacement) of both lithologies overlap the field for lower crustal samples from the Namaqua–Natal Belt. Further evidence for a crustal origin is found in the similar REE patterns shown by many of the associated garnet granulite xenoliths. Garnet pyroxenites are interpreted to have a similar origin as the associated eclogites but with the mafic protolith having insufficient Na (i.e. low modal plagioclase) to allow for development of omphacitic pyroxene. Metamorphism of the mafic protoliths to these eclogites and garnet pyroxenites is inferred to have occurred during crustal shortening and thickening associated with the collision of the Namaqua–Natal Belt with the Kaapvaal craton at 1–1·2?Ga.
DS202008-1414
2020
Lebedeva, N., Nosova, A., Kargin, A., Larionova, Y., Sazonova, L., Tikhomirova, Y.Grib kimberlite peridotitic xenoliths: isotopic evidence of variable source of mantle metasomatism.Goldschmidt 2020, 1p. AbstractRussia, Kola Peninsuladeposit - Grib

Abstract: We present petrography and mineral chemistry for both phlogopite, from mantle-derived xenoliths (garnet peridotite, eclogite and clinopyroxene-phlogopite rocks) and for megacryst, macrocryst and groundmass flakes from the Grib kimberlite in the Arkhangelsk diamond province of Russia to provide new insights into multi-stage metasomatism in the subcratonic lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and the origin of phlogopite in kimberlite. Based on the analysed xenoliths, phlogopite is characterized by several generations. The first generation (Phl1) occurs as coarse, discrete grains within garnet peridotite and eclogite xenoliths and as a rock-forming mineral within clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths. The second phlogopite generation (Phl2) occurs as rims and outer zones that surround the Phl1 grains and as fine flakes within kimberlite-related veinlets filled with carbonate, serpentine, chlorite and spinel. In garnet peridotite xenoliths, phlogopite occurs as overgrowths surrounding garnet porphyroblasts, within which phlogopite is associated with Cr-spinel and minor carbonate. In eclogite xenoliths, phlogopite occasionally associates with carbonate bearing veinlet networks. Phlogopite, from the kimberlite, occurs as megacrysts, macrocrysts, microcrysts and fine flakes in the groundmass and matrix of kimberlitic pyroclasts. Most phlogopite grains within the kimberlite are characterised by signs of deformation and form partly fragmented grains, which indicates that they are the disintegrated fragments of previously larger grains. Phl1, within the garnet peridotite and clinopyroxene-phlogopite xenoliths, is characterised by low Ti and Cr contents (TiO2 < 1 wt.%, Cr2O3 < 1 wt.% and Mg# = 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe) > 92) typical of primary peridotite phlogopite in mantle peridotite xenoliths from global kimberlite occurrences. They formed during SCLM metasomatism that led to a transformation from garnet peridotite to clinopyroxene-phlogopite rocks and the crystallisation of phlogopite and high-Cr clinopyroxene megacrysts before the generation of host-kimberlite magmas. One of the possible processes to generate low-Ti-Cr phlogopite is via the replacement of garnet during its interaction with a metasomatic agent enriched in K and H2O. Rb-Sr isotopic data indicates that the metasomatic agent had a contribution of more radiogenic source than the host-kimberlite magma. Compared with peridotite xenoliths, eclogite xenoliths feature low-Ti phlogopites that are depleted in Cr2O3 despite a wider range of TiO2 concentrations. The presence of phlogopite in eclogite xenoliths indicates that metasomatic processes affected peridotite as well as eclogite within the SCLM beneath the Grib kimberlite. Phl2 has high Ti and Cr concentrations (TiO2 > 2 wt.%, Cr2O3 > 1 wt.% and Mg# = 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe) < 92) and compositionally overlaps with phlogopite from polymict breccia xenoliths that occur in global kimberlite formations. These phlogopites are the product of kimberlitic magma and mantle rock interaction at mantle depths where Phl2 overgrew Phl1 grains or crystallized directly from stalled batches of kimberlitic magmas. Megacrysts, most macrocrysts and microcrysts are disintegrated phlogopite fragments from metasomatised peridotite and eclogite xenoliths. Fine phlogopite flakes within kimberlite groundmass represent mixing of high-Ti-Cr phlogopite antecrysts and high-Ti and low-Cr kimberlitic phlogopite with high Al and Ba contents that may have formed individual grains or overgrown antecrysts. Based on the results of this study, we propose a schematic model of SCLM metasomatism involving phlogopite crystallization, megacryst formation, and genesis of kimberlite magmas as recorded by the Grib pipe.
DS202005-0746
2020
Lebedeva, N., Nosova, A.A., Kargin, A., Sazonova, L.V.Multi-stage evolution of kimberlite melt as inferred from inclusions in garnet megacrysts in the Grib kimberlite ( Arkangelsk region, Russia.Mineralogy and Petrology, doi: 10.1007/s00710- 020-00704-0 in press 16p. PdfRussia, Arkangeldeposit - Grib

Abstract: To provide new insights into the origin of garnet megacrysts and evolution of kimberlite melts, we studied in detail the polymineralic and monomineralic inclusions and their host garnets from the Grib kimberlite (Arkhangelsk diamond province, Russia). Low-Cr and high-Cr garnet megacrysts and eclogitic garnets contain abundant polymineralic and rare monomineralic inclusions. Monomineralic inclusions presented by clinopyroxene, ilmenite, olivine replaced by serpentine, were found exclusively within the low-Cr megacrysts. The composition of clinopyroxene exhibits geochemical equilibrium with the host garnet, indicating its primary origin during the formation of the megacryst assemblage. The low-Cr garnet-clinopyroxene mineral assemblage formed as a result of high-temperature, melt-associated mantle metasomatism by failed kimberlite within the lithospheric mantle (T = 1150 °C and P = 5.5 GPa). Polymineralic inclusions are characterised by a silicate or silicate-sulphate matrix. The central part of the silicate inclusions is filled by serpentine and contains ilmenite, spinel, perovskite, calcite and apatite. At the contact with host garnets, phlogopite, spinel and amphibole occur as reaction minerals. Composition of spinel and other minerals within inclusions with silicate matrix suggests that kimberlite melt was trapped at mantle pressures. Inclusions with silicate matrix were found in all garnets. The matrix of silicate-sulphate inclusions consists of silicate cryptocrystalline phases and sulphate minerals (celestine-barite) and contains calcite grains. The inclusions are distributed in some low-Cr garnet megacrysts and eclogitic garnet. The silicate-sulphate inclusions were crystallised from the late-stage kimberlite melt. Diverse reaction textures are evidences of disequilibrium between the host crystals and polymineralic inclusions and indicate that garnet and the hosted inclusions reacted with the ascending kimberlite melt. The silicate-sulphate inclusions with a thin rim of epidote within eclogitic garnets indicate that a kimberlite melt invaded the garnet and induced partial melting. The studied inclusions allow us to propose three stages of the Grib kimberlite evolution: 1) generation of garnet megacrysts and primary inclusions due to melt metasomatism, 2) reaction of the high-Ti kimberlite melt with garnet megacrysts (including their dissolution) and 3) alteration of the inclusions in garnet after kimberlite ascent.
DS202008-1415
2020
Lebedeva, N.M., Nosova, A.A., Kargin, A.V., Sazonova, L.V.Multi-stage evolution of kimberlite melt as inferred from inclusions in garnet megacrysts in the Grib kimberlite ( Arkangelsk region, Russia).Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 114, 4, pp. 272-288. pdfRussia, Archangeldeposit - Grib

Abstract: To provide new insights into the origin of garnet megacrysts and evolution of kimberlite melts, we studied in detail the polymineralic and monomineralic inclusions and their host garnets from the Grib kimberlite (Arkhangelsk diamond province, Russia). Low-Cr and high-Cr garnet megacrysts and eclogitic garnets contain abundant polymineralic and rare monomineralic inclusions. Monomineralic inclusions presented by clinopyroxene, ilmenite, olivine replaced by serpentine, were found exclusively within the low-Cr megacrysts. The composition of clinopyroxene exhibits geochemical equilibrium with the host garnet, indicating its primary origin during the formation of the megacryst assemblage. The low-Cr garnet–clinopyroxene mineral assemblage formed as a result of high-temperature, melt-associated mantle metasomatism by failed kimberlite within the lithospheric mantle (T?=?1150 °C and P?=?5.5 GPa). Polymineralic inclusions are characterised by a silicate or silicate-sulphate matrix. The central part of the silicate inclusions is filled by serpentine and contains ilmenite, spinel, perovskite, calcite and apatite. At the contact with host garnets, phlogopite, spinel and amphibole occur as reaction minerals. Composition of spinel and other minerals within inclusions with silicate matrix suggests that kimberlite melt was trapped at mantle pressures. Inclusions with silicate matrix were found in all garnets. The matrix of silicate-sulphate inclusions consists of silicate cryptocrystalline phases and sulphate minerals (celestine–barite) and contains calcite grains. The inclusions are distributed in some low-Cr garnet megacrysts and eclogitic garnet. The silicate-sulphate inclusions were crystallised from the late-stage kimberlite melt. Diverse reaction textures are evidences of disequilibrium between the host crystals and polymineralic inclusions and indicate that garnet and the hosted inclusions reacted with the ascending kimberlite melt. The silicate-sulphate inclusions with a thin rim of epidote within eclogitic garnets indicate that a kimberlite melt invaded the garnet and induced partial melting. The studied inclusions allow us to propose three stages of the Grib kimberlite evolution: 1) generation of garnet megacrysts and primary inclusions due to melt metasomatism, 2) reaction of the high-Ti kimberlite melt with garnet megacrysts (including their dissolution) and 3) alteration of the inclusions in garnet after kimberlite ascent.
DS202003-0348
2020
Lee, C.W.Y., Cheng, J., Yium Y.C., Chan, K., Lau, D., Tang, W.C., Cheng, K.W,m Kong, T., Hui, T.K.C., Jelezko, F.Correlation between EPR spectra and coloration of natural diamonds.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 103, 13p. PdfGlobaldiamond colour

Abstract: White diamonds color grading is one of the basic diamond evaluations. The color value based on a scale that ranges from D to Z, with D being the more colorless and more valuable, among other qualifications. As the diamond grade moves on this scale, its color appears more yellow progressively. This yellowish color, present only in Type I diamonds, is mainly due to the nitrogen related defects such as N3 center and C-center. The current color grading system is based on a visual method, where gemologist compares the sample with a Master Color set. However, this method is very subjective. Several defects responsible for light absorption in diamond are carrying electron spin and appear in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrum. In this study, we developed a new EPR based technique for a quantitative measurement of N3 center and C-center in diamond through quantitative EPR spectroscopy. The correlation between EPR spectra and color grades of diamond was established.
DS202007-1158
2020
Leelawatanasuk, T., Atichat, W., Pisutha-Arnond, V., Sutthirat, C., Jakkawanvibul, J., GITTwo decades of GIT's ruby and sapphire color standards.incolorMagazine.com, Vol. winter pp. 96-103.Asia, Thailandsapphire colour
DS202007-1159
2020
Li, W, Yang, Z., Chiaradia, M., Yong, L., Caho, Yu., Zhang, J.Redox state of southern Tibetan mantle and ultrapotassic magmas. Lhasa TerraneGeology, Vol. 48, 7, pp. 733-736. pdfAsia, Tibetalkaline rocks

Abstract: The redox state of Earth’s upper mantle in several tectonic settings, such as cratonic mantle, oceanic mantle, and mantle wedges beneath magmatic arcs, has been well documented. In contrast, oxygen fugacity (graphic) data of upper mantle under orogens worldwide are rare, and the mechanism responsible for the mantle graphic condition under orogens is not well constrained. In this study, we investigated the graphic of mantle xenoliths derived from the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle beneath the Himalayan orogen, and that of postcollisional ultrapotassic volcanic rocks hosting the xenoliths. The graphic of mantle xenoliths ranges from ?FMQ = +0.5 to +1.2 (where ?FMQ is the deviation of log graphic from the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer), indicating that the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle is more oxidized than cratonic and oceanic mantle, and it falls within the typical range of mantle wedge graphic values. Mineralogical evidence suggests that water-rich fluids and sediment melts liberated from both the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab and perhaps the Indian continental plate could have oxidized the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle. The graphic conditions of ultrapotassic magmas show a shift toward more oxidized conditions during ascent (from ?FMQ = +0.8 to +3.0). Crustal evolution processes (e.g., fractionation) could influence magmatic graphic, and thus the redox state of mantle-derived magma may not simply represent its mantle source.
DS202007-1160
2020
Li, W-Y., Yu, H-M., Xu, J., Halama, R., Bell, K., Nan, X-Y., Huang, F.Barium isotopic composition of the mantle: constraints from carbonatites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 278, pp. 235-243.Mantlecarbonatite

Abstract: To investigate the behaviour of Ba isotopes during carbonatite petrogenesis and to explore the possibility of using carbonatites to constrain the Ba isotopic composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Ba isotopic analyses of: (1) carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the only active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and (2) Archean to Cenozoic carbonatites from Canada, East Africa, Germany and Greenland. Carbonatites and associated phonolites and nephelinites from Oldoinyo Lengai have similar d137/134Ba values that range from +0.01 to +0.03‰, indicating that Ba isotope fractionation during carbonatite petrogenesis is negligible. The limited variation in d137/134Ba values from -0.03 to +0.09‰ for most carbonatite samples suggests that their mantle sources have a relatively homogeneous Ba isotopic composition. Based on the carbonatites investigated in this work, the average d137/134Ba value of their mantle sources is estimated to be +0.04?±?0.06‰ (2SD, n?=?16), which is similar to the average value of +0.05?±?0.06‰ for mid-ocean ridge basalts. The lower d137/134Ba value of -0.08‰ in a Canadian sample and higher d137/134Ba values of +0.14‰ and?+?0.23‰ in two Greenland samples suggest local mantle isotopic heterogeneity that may reflect the incorporation of recycled crustal materials in their sources.
DS202006-0931
2020
Li, W-Ye., Yu, H-M., Xu, J., Halama, R., Bell, K., Nan, X-Y., Huang, F.Barium isotopic composition of the mantle: constraints from carbonatites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 278, pp. 235-243. pdfAfrica, Tanzania, Canada, Europe, Germany, Greenlanddeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: To investigate the behaviour of Ba isotopes during carbonatite petrogenesis and to explore the possibility of using carbonatites to constrain the Ba isotopic composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Ba isotopic analyses of: (1) carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the only active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and (2) Archean to Cenozoic carbonatites from Canada, East Africa, Germany and Greenland. Carbonatites and associated phonolites and nephelinites from Oldoinyo Lengai have similar d137/134Ba values that range from +0.01 to +0.03‰, indicating that Ba isotope fractionation during carbonatite petrogenesis is negligible. The limited variation in d137/134Ba values from -0.03 to +0.09‰ for most carbonatite samples suggests that their mantle sources have a relatively homogeneous Ba isotopic composition. Based on the carbonatites investigated in this work, the average d137/134Ba value of their mantle sources is estimated to be +0.04?±?0.06‰ (2SD, n?=?16), which is similar to the average value of +0.05?±?0.06‰ for mid-ocean ridge basalts. The lower d137/134Ba value of -0.08‰ in a Canadian sample and higher d137/134Ba values of +0.14‰ and?+?0.23‰ in two Greenland samples suggest local mantle isotopic heterogeneity that may reflect the incorporation of recycled crustal materials in their sources.
DS202005-0747
2020
Lin, J-F., Mao, Z., Yang, J., Fu, S.Elasticity of lower-mantle bridgmanite.Nature, Vol. 564, 7736, doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0741-7Mantlebridgmanite
DS202006-0932
2020
Liu, J., Pearson, D.G., Shu, Q., Sigurdsson, H., Thomassot, E., Alard, O.Dating post-Archean lithospheric mantle: insights from Re-Os and Lu-Hf isotopic systematics of the Cameroon volcanic line peridotites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 278, pp. 177-198.Africa, Cameroonperidotites

Abstract: Highly depleted Archean peridotites have proven very amenable to Re-Os model age dating. In contrast, due to the increasing heterogeneity of mantle Os isotope compositions with time, the Re-Os system has not been as effective in dating post-Archean peridotites. The timing of depletion and accretion of post-Archean lithospheric mantle around cratons is important to understand within the context of the evolution of the continents. In an attempt to precisely date post-Archean peridotite xenoliths, we present a study of the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry, including whole-rock Re-Os isotopes, highly siderophile elements and clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of peridotite xenoliths from Lake Nyos in the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). Eight Nyos peridotite xenoliths, all fresh spinel lherzolites, are characterized by low to moderate olivine Fo contents (88.9-91.2) and low spinel Cr# (8.4-19.3), together with moderate to high whole-rock Al2O3 contents (2.0-3.7%). These chemical characteristics indicate that they are mantle residues of a few percent to <20% partial melting. However, trace element patterns of both clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are not a pristine reflection of melt depletion but instead show various extents of evidence of metasomatic enrichment. Some of the samples contain orthopyroxene with 143Nd/144Nd lower than its coexisting clinopyroxene, which is best explained by recent short-timescale alteration, most likely by infiltration of the host basalt. Because of these metasomatic effects, the Sr-Nd isotope systematics in pyroxenes cannot sufficiently reflect melt depletion signatures. Unlike Sr-Nd isotopes, the Lu-Hf isotope system is less sensitive to recent metasomatic overprinting. Given that orthopyroxene hosts up to 33% of the Lu and 14% of the Hf in the whole rock budget of these rocks and has 176Hf/177Hf similar to, or higher than, coexisting clinopyroxene, it is necessary to reconstruct a whole-rock Lu-Hf isochron in order to constrain the melt depletion age of peridotites. The reconstructed Nyos Lu-Hf isochron from ortho- and clinopyroxenes gives an age of 2.01?±?0.18?Ga (1s), and when olivine and spinel are considered, is 1.82?±?0.14?Ga (1s). Both ages are identical within error, and they are within error of the alumina-187Os/188Os pseudo-isochron ages (1.2-2.4?Ga) produced on the peridotites from Lake Nyos, consistent with their oldest rhenium depletion Os model ages (2.0?Ga). We conclude that the Nyos peridotites, and the lithospheric mantle that they represent, were formed at ~2.0?Ga, indicating that the reconstructed whole-rock Lu-Hf isotope system can be a powerful radiometric dating tool that is complementary to and in some instances, more precise than the Re-Os isotope system in dating well-preserved post-Archean peridotites. The recognition of ~2.0?Ga subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in the Nyos area suggests that the Nyos region was assembled as a Paleoproterozoic block, or that it represents fragments of the SCLM from the nearby Paleoproterozoic domain juxtaposed through collisional emplacement during the Pan African Orogeny. With regards to the origin of the CVL, our data reveal that the Hf isotopic compositions of the Nyos peridotites are too radiogenic to be the main source of the CVL basalts.
DS202002-0203
2020
Liu, S., Fan, H-R., Groves, D.I., Yang, K-F, Yang, Z-F., Wang, Q-W.Multiphase carbonatite related magmatic and metasomatic processes in the genesis of the ore-hosting dolomite in the giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit.Lithos, in press available, 96p. PdfChinacarbonatite

Abstract: The origin of dolomite that hosts the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit (57.4 % REE2O3, 2.16 % Nb2O5, and >1500 % iron oxides) has been controversial for decades, but it is integral to understanding of the genesis of this giant deposit. In this study, based on the textures and in situ major and trace element composition of its carbonates, the dolomite was proved to be initially generated from magnesio-ferro-carbonatite melts. It subsequently experienced magmatic-hydrothermal alteration and recrystallization in a low strain environment, caused by calcio-carbonatitic fluids, with formation of finer-grained dolomite, interstitial calcite and increasing amounts of associated fluorocarbonates. Available stable isotope analyses indicate that the recrystallized ore-hosting dolomite has higher d13C and d18O ratios compared to its igneous coarse-grained precursor. Rayleigh fractionation during the recrystallization process, rather than crustal contamination, played a major role in the highly-variable stable isotope composition of carbonates in the dolomite. Low-T alteration increased variability with apparently random increases in d18O within carbonates. The REE, Ba and Sr were added simultaneously with the elevated (La/Yb)cn from magnesio-ferro-carbonatite melts to calcio-carbonatitic fluids, and to carbonatite-derived aqueous fluids, through which extensive fluorine metasomatism and alkali alteration overlapped the recrystallization of the ore-hosting dolomite. Therefore, the multi-stage REE mineralization at Bayan Obo is closely related to metasomatism by calcio-carbonatitic fluids of previously-emplaced intrusive magnesio-ferro-carbonatite bodies during late evolution of the Bayan Obo carbonatite complex. Then, the ore-hosting dolomitic carbonatite was subjected to compressive tectonics during a Paleozoic subduction event, and suffered intense, largely brittle, deformation, which partially obscured the earlier recrystallization process. The complex, multi-stage evolution of the ore-hosting dolomite is responsible for the uniqueness, high grade and giant size of the Bayan Obo deposit, the world's largest single REE resource with million tonnes of REE oxides.
DS202001-0026
2019
Live ScienceEarth's magnetic north pole continues drifting, crosses prime meridian.LiveScience.com, Dec 18, 1p.Mantlemagnetics
DS202002-0204
2019
Lobanov, S.S., Holtgrewe, N., Ito, G., Badro, J., Piet, H., Babiel, F., Lin, J-F., Bayarjargal, L., Wirth, R., Schrieber, A., Goncharov, A.F.Blocked radiative heat transport in the hot pyrolitic lower mantle.Researchgate.com, 32p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: The heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (QCMB) is the key parameter to understand the Earth/s thermal history and evolution. Mineralogical constraints of the QCMB require deciphering contributions of the lattice and radiative components to the thermal conductivity at high pressure and temperature in lower mantle phases with depth-dependent composition. Here we determine the radiative conductivity (krad) of a realistic lower mantle (pyrolite) in situ using an ultra-bright light probe and fast time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. We find that the mantle opacity increases critically upon heating to ~3000 K at 40-135 GPa, resulting in an unexpectedly low radiative conductivity decreasing with depth from ~0.8 W/m/K at 1000 km to ~0.35 W/m/K at the CMB, the latter being ~30 times smaller than the estimated lattice thermal conductivity at such conditions. Thus, radiative heat transport is blocked due to an increased optical absorption in the hot lower mantle resulting in a moderate CMB heat flow of ~8.5 TW, at odds with present estimates based on the mantle and core dynamics. This moderate rate of core cooling implies an inner core age of about 1 Gy and is compatible with both thermally- and compositionally-driven ancient geodynamo.
DS202008-1416
2018
Lobatlamang, S., Brennan, M., Davidson, J., Rogers, A.Discovery of the KX36 kimberlite.Botswana Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 29-34. pdfAfrica, Botswanadeposit - KX36

Abstract: The KX36 kimberlite pipe is situated in the southeastern part of Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), Botswana, approximately 60 km from the known Gope and Kikao kimberlite fields (see figure 1).The kimberlite is covered by 75m of Kalahari sand, has a surface area of 3.6 Ha at the base of the sand cover and was discovered by Petra Diamonds Botswana (Pty) Ltd in 2008. Application of modern geophysical techniques (Ultra hi-resolution low level flying Xcalibur magnetics) and improved sampling method led to the discovery of KX36.The kimberlite was emplaced into the Karoo Supergroup, which comprised the older sedimentary rocks (300 - 185 Ma) overlain by the flood basalts (185Ma). The Karoo Supergroup rocks are overlain by approximately 80m of Kalahari Group sediments.
DS202008-1417
2019
Lobe, P.R., Nhleko, A.S., Mtegha, H.Evaluation of government equity participation in the minerals sector of Tanzania from 1996-2015.The Journal of the Southern African Insitute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 119, Feb. 10p. PdfAfrica, Tanzaniafinancing

Abstract: Government's equity role in the minerals sector is one of the nationalist measures implemented in order to ensure greater control and management of a country's mineral resources. This paper evaluates the Tanzanian government's equity participation in the minerals sector from 1996 to 2015. The research methodology included determination of the number of mineral rights, minimum allowable exploration expenditures in prospecting licences (PLs), and forms of equity role of the government. Data was collected and analysed for PLs, mining licences (MLs), and special mining licences (SMLs). The study revealed a number of challenges faced by the Tanzanian government as regards its equity strategy in the mineral sector. One of the major challenges was the secrecy surrounding agreements and contracts entered into between the government and private sector investors, which were concluded via various business ownership and mineral development projects. This secrecy resulted in non-transparency and lack of accountability in the mining industry. The financial benefits accruing to the government were inadequately realized, evident through inconsistent payments of corporate income tax and mining royalties by the mining companies. Furthermore, the government does not have solid mechanisms and frameworks for assessing non-financial benefits, thus it is difficult to measure the impact of these factors. It is recommended that the Tanzanian government review the Mining Act and Regulations of 2010 to include the provision of solid mechanisms and frameworks for all forms of government equity role.
DS202001-0027
2019
Lougheed, H.D., McClenaghan, M.B., Layton-Matthews, D., Leybourne, M.I.Evaluation of single use nylon screened sieves for use with fine grained sediment samples.Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8613, 13p. PdfGlobalsieves
DS202007-1161
2020
Lu, J., Tilhac, R., Griffin, W.L., Zheng, J.P., Xiong, Q., Oliveira, B., O'Reilly, S.Y.Lithospheric memory of subduction in mantle pyroxenite xenoliths from rift related basalts.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 544, 116365 14p. PdfAustraliacarbonatite

Abstract: Petrological and geochemical studies have revealed the contribution of garnet pyroxenites in basalt petrogenesis. However, whether primary mantle melts are produced with such signature or acquired it subsequently remains somewhat controversial. We here integrate new major-, trace-element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths in Holocene alkali basalts from Lakes Bullenmerri and Gnotuk, Southeastern Australia, to relate their petrogenesis to mantle-wedge melt circulation and subsequent lithospheric evolution. Results show that the clinopyroxenites have lower MgO and Cr2O3 contents than the associated websterites, and range in compositions from depleted LREE patterns and highly radiogenic Nd and Hf isotopic signatures in relatively low-MgO samples (Type 1), to enriched REE patterns with negative HFSE anomalies, unradiogenic Nd and Hf isotopes, and extremely radiogenic Sr-isotopic ratios in samples with higher MgO (Type 2). Such compositional variabilities suggest that these pyroxenites represent segregates from melts derived from a recycled oceanic lithosphere with a potential contribution from pelagic sediments. Variable LREE contents and isotopic compositions between those of Type 1 and 2 clinopyroxenites are observed in amphibole-bearing samples (Type 3), which are interpreted as Type 1-like protoliths metasomatized by the basaltic and carbonatitic melts, possibly parental to Type 2 clinopyroxenites. The lithosphere beneath Southeastern Australia thus has received variable melt contributions from a heterogeneous mantle-wedge source, which notably includes a subducted oceanic slab package that has retained its integrity during subduction. On this basis, we suggest that the compositional heterogeneity and temporal evolution of the subsequent Southeastern Australian basaltic magmatism were probably affected by the presence of pyroxenite fragments in the basalt source and formed by the tectonic reactivation of this lithosphere during Cenozoic rifting. This interpretation is notably consistent with a trend of Nd-Pb isotopes towards EMII in Older Volcanic Provinces (OVP basalts) and limited Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic variations towards HIMU in the Newer Volcanic Provinces (NVP basalts, including the host lavas), which also exhibit low SiO2, high FeO and high CaO/Al2O3 commonly interpreted as due to pyroxenite contributions. Therefore, the identification of a subduction signature in these rift-related lavas attests to a "lithospheric memory" of earlier subduction episodes (as documented by the xenoliths), rather than a reflection of contemporaneous subduction tectonics.
DS202006-0933
2020
Lutz, K,A., Long, M.D., Creasy, N., Deng, J.Seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath North America from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press available, 51p. PdfUnited States, Canadageophysics - seismics

Abstract: We examined SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies for phases that sample the lowermost mantle beneath North America, which has previously been shown to exhibit seismic anisotropy using other analysis techniques. We examined data from 25 long-running seismic stations, along with 244 stations of the temporary USArray Transportable Array, located in the eastern, southeastern and western U.S. We identified 279 high-quality SKS-SKKS wave pairs that yielded well-constrained splitting intensity measurements for both phases. Of the 279 pairs, a relatively small number (15) exhibited discrepancies in splitting intensity of 0.4 s or greater, suggesting a contribution to the splitting of one or both phases from anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. Because only a small minority of SK(K)S phases examined in this study show evidence of being affected by lowermost mantle anisotropy, the traditional interpretation that splitting of these phases primarily reflects anisotropy in the upper mantle directly beneath the stations is appropriate. The discrepant pairs exhibited a striking geographic trend, sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the southern U.S. and northern Mexico, while other regions were dominated by non-discrepant pairs. We carried out ray theoretical modeling of simple anisotropy scenarios that have previously been suggested for the lowermost mantle beneath North America, invoking the alignment of post-perovskite due to flow induced by the impingement of the remnant Farallon slab on the core-mantle boundary. We found that our measurements are generally consistent with this model and with the idea of slab-driven flow, but relatively small-scale lateral variations in the strength and/or geometry of lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath North America are also likely present.
DS202008-1418
2020
Lutz, K.A., Long, M.D., Creasy, N., Deng, J.Seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath North America from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 305, 106504, 15p. PdfUnited Statesgeophysics - seismics

Abstract: We examined SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies for phases that sample the lowermost mantle beneath North America, which has previously been shown to exhibit seismic anisotropy using other analysis techniques. We examined data from 25 long-running seismic stations, along with 244 stations of the temporary USArray Transportable Array, located in the eastern, southeastern and western U.S. We identified 279 high-quality SKS-SKKS wave pairs that yielded well-constrained splitting intensity measurements for both phases. Of the 279 pairs, a relatively small number (15) exhibited discrepancies in splitting intensity of 0.4 s or greater, suggesting a contribution to the splitting of one or both phases from anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. Because only a small minority of SK(K)S phases examined in this study show evidence of being affected by lowermost mantle anisotropy, the traditional interpretation that splitting of these phases primarily reflects anisotropy in the upper mantle directly beneath the stations is appropriate. The discrepant pairs exhibited a striking geographic trend, sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the southern U.S. and northern Mexico, while other regions were dominated by non-discrepant pairs. We carried out ray theoretical modeling of simple anisotropy scenarios that have previously been suggested for the lowermost mantle beneath North America, invoking the alignment of post-perovskite due to flow induced by the impingement of the remnant Farallon slab on the core-mantle boundary. We found that our measurements are generally consistent with this model and with the idea of slab-driven flow, but relatively small-scale lateral variations in the strength and/or geometry of lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath North America are also likely present.
DS202005-0748
2020
Mackensie, S., Everingham, J-A., Bourke, P.The social dimensions of mineral exploration. Not specific to diamonds - but interestSEG Discovery ( former NewsLetter), No. 121, April, pp. 16-28.Globalgeoscience

Abstract: Geoscientists are often the first point of contact a local community has with a company conducting mineral exploration. The behavior of the geoscientists and the interest they take in understanding the local community and stakeholders will have ramifications well beyond their direct exploration activities. This article highlights some of the positive and negative impacts exploration can have for local communities (in part drawing on interviews with experienced geoscientists and others involved in exploration). The article explores the increasing complexity of deposits in terms of environmental, economic, social, and political parameters and the increasing scrutiny by local stakeholders and the international community. We argue that, although geoscientists are not social performance specialists, they still need the awareness, tools, and capabilities to understand and manage the social aspects of their exploration activities commensurate with the stage and resourcing of the project. We propose three interrelated aspects of social performance that can be applied during mineral exploration: meaningful and positive engagement, acquiring and documenting a social knowledge base, and strategic investment in the community. Two case studies provide cautionary examples of failure to do so and two case studies highlight how, through careful engagement and strategic collaboration, mutually beneficial and positive relationships can be built from early exploration.
DS202004-0527
2020
Maltese, A., Mezger, K.The pb isotope evolution of bulk silicate Earth: constraints from its accretion and early differentiation history.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 271, pp. 179-193.Mantlemeteorites

Abstract: Constraining the evolution of Pb isotopes in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) is hampered due to the lack of a direct determination of Earth’s U/Pb and initial Pb isotope composition. All estimates of these parameters are strongly model dependent and most Pb evolution models start with a meteoritic source, i.e., the primordial Pb composition determined in troilite from the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. During the condensation of the elements in the solar nebula, accretion of the Earth, and its subsequent chemical evolution, the U/Pb was modified. Different models make different assumptions about the timing and extent of this U-Pb fractionation during Earth’s chemical evolution that cannot always be related to known global geological processes at the time of this modification. This study explores geochemical constraints that can be related to known geological processes to derive an internally consistent model for the evolution of the U-Th-Pb systematics of the silicate Earth. Lead is chalcophile, moderately volatile, and as a result strongly depleted in the BSE compared to primitive meteorites. Any process affecting the abundance and isotope composition of Pb in Earth throughout its early history has to be consistent with the abundance of elements with similar chemical and physical properties in the same reservoir. The abundances of refractory to moderately and highly volatile elements in the BSE imply that the proto Earth was highly depleted in volatile elements, and therefore evolved with a very high U/Pb (238U/204Pb?=?µ?=?100) prior to collision with the Moon-forming giant impactor. This impactor had close to chondritic abundances of moderately to highly volatile elements and delivered most of Earth’s volatile elements, including the Pb budget. Addition of this volatile-rich component caused oxidation of Earth’s mantle and allowed effective transfer of Pb into the core via sulfide melt segregation. Sequestration of Pb into the core therefore accounts for the high µBSE, which has affected ca. 53% of Earth’s Pb budget. In order to account for the present-day Pb isotope composition of BSE, the giant impact must have occurred at 69?±?10 Myr after the beginning of the solar system. Using this point in time, a model-derived µ-value and the corresponding initial Pb isotope composition of BSE, a single stage Pb isotope evolution curve can be deduced. The result is a model evolution curve for BSE in 208Pb-207Pb-206Pb-204Pb-isotope space that is fully consistent with geochemical constraints on Earth’s accretionary sequence and differentiation history. This Pb-evolution model may act as a reference frame to trace the silicate Earth’s differentiation into crust and mantle reservoirs, similar to the CHUR reference line used for other radio-isotope systems. It also highlights the long-standing Th/U paradox of the ancient Earth.
DS202006-0934
2020
Marshall, T.GSSA Professional Affairs Portfolio - discussion April 29 and the need to be Professional!GSSA Presentation, https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=Hnwk3lPkMcMGlobalCSR - Professional Development
DS202007-1162
2020
Martelat, J-E., Cardon, H., Lardeaux, J-M., Nicollet, C., Schulmann, K., Pili, E.Geophysical evidence for large scale mullion type structures at the mantle crust interface in southern Madagascar: implications for Neoproterozoic orogeny.International Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 109, 4, pp. 1487-1500.Africa, Madagascartectonics

Abstract: This study uses gravimetric data integrated with recent seismic data published on south Madagascar to investigate geometry of crust-mantle interface. The regional tectonic framework of Madagascar is characterised by anastomosing network of up to 15-km-wide, 600-km-long and north-oriented high-strain zones, which originated during Neoproterozoic convergence. The studied Bouguer anomalies obtained from the International Gravimetr