Kaiser Bottom Fish OnlineFree trialNew StuffHow It WorksContact UsTerms of UseHome
Specializing in Canadian Stocks
SearchAdvanced Search
Welcome Guest User   (more...)
Home / Education

Sheahan Diamond Literature Technical Reference Compilation 2019

The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
Sort OrderReferences are sorted by the "author" name and when the reference was posted to the compilation.
Most RecentIf the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract. With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in progress.
Link to external location of article: If the title has a link, it means we have found a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it. The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article.
Searching this page for a specific term or authorIn your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web page enter your search term. Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted.
Sending or sharing a referenceThe left column (Posted/Published) has an embedded hyperlink for each reference. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference's location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the "share this link" option to tweet, facebook etc the link.
Monthly Sheahan Diamond Newsletters for 2019
January 2019 May 2019 September 2019
February 2019 June 2019 October 2019
March 2019 July 2019 November 2019
April 2019 August 2019 December 2019
2019 Technical Reference Compilation
Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Giuliani, A., Howarth, G.H., Castillo-Oliver, M., Thompson, J., Kamenetsky, M., Cherry, A.Composition and emplacement of the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex ( Kimberley, South Africa): textural, petrographic and melt inclusion constraints.Lithos, Vol. 324-325, pp. 297-314.Africa, South Africadeposit - Benfontein

Abstract: The Benfontein kimberlite is a renowned example of a sill complex and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the emplacement and evolution of intrusive kimberlite magmas. We have undertaken a detailed petrographic and melt inclusion study of the Benfontein Upper, Middle and Lower sills. These sills range in thickness from 0.25 to 5?m. New perovskite and baddeleyite U/Pb dating produced ages of 85.7?±?4.4?Ma and 86.5?±?2.6?Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previous age determinations and indicate emplacement coeval with other kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. The Benfontein sills are characterised by large variations in texture (e.g., layering) and mineral modal abundance between different sill levels and within individual samples. The Lower Sill is characterised by carbonate-rich diapirs, which intrude into oxide-rich layers from underlying carbonate-rich levels. The general paucity of xenogenic mantle material in the Benfontein sills is attributed to its separation from the host magma during flow differentiation during lateral spreading. The low viscosity is likely responsible for non-explosive emplacement of the Benfontein sills, while the rhythmic layering is attributed to multiple magma injections. The Benfontein sills are marked by the excellent preservation of olivine and groundmass mineralogy, which is composed of monticellite, spinel, perovskite, baddeleyite, ilmenite, apatite, calcite, dolomite along with secondary serpentine and glagolevite [NaMg6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8•H2O]. This is the first time glagolevite is reported in kimberlites. Groundmass spinel exhibits atoll-textures and is composed of a magnesian ulvöspinel - magnetite (MUM) or chromite core, surrounded by occasional pleonaste and a rim of Mg-Al-magnetite. We suggest that pleonaste crystallised as a magmatic phase, but was resorbed back into the residual host melt and/or removed by alteration. Analyses of secondary inclusions in olivine and primary inclusions in monticellite, spinel, perovskite, apatite and interstitial calcite are largely composed of Ca-Mg carbonates and, to a lesser extent, alkali-carbonates and other phases. These inclusions probably represent the entrapment of variably differentiated parental kimberlite melts, which became progressively more enriched in carbonate, alkalis, halogens and sulphur during crystal fractionation. Carbonate-rich diapirs from the Lower Sill contain more exotic phase assemblages (e.g., Ba-Fe titanate, barite, ancylite, pyrochlore), which probably result from the extreme differentiation of residual kimberlite melts followed by physical separation and isolation from the parental carbonate-rich magma. It is likely that any alkali or halogen rich minerals crystallising in the groundmass were removed from the groundmass during syn-/post-magmatic alteration, or in the case of Na, remobilised to form secondary glagolevite. The Benfontein sill complex therefore provides a unique example of how the composition of kimberlites may be modified after magma emplacement in the upper crust.
Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Gornova, M.A.Polymineralic inclusions in kimberlite hosted megacrysts: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Lithos, doi.101016/j.lithos .2019.04.004 42p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Russiadeposit - Diavik, Jericho, Leslie, Udachnaya East

Abstract: Megacrysts are large (cm to >20?cm in size) mantle-derived crystals, which are commonly entrained by kimberlite magmas, comprising of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, phlogopite, garnet, ilmenite and zircon as common phases. Numerous studies have shown megacrysts to contain polymineralic inclusions, which have been interpreted to represent entrapped kimberlite melt. To constrain the origin of these inclusions in megacrysts and their relationship to kimberlite magmatism, we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of clinopyroxene and olivine megacrysts and their hosted inclusions from the Diavik, Jericho, Leslie (Slave Craton, Canada) and Udachnaya-East (Siberian Craton, Russia) kimberlites. The studied megacrysts are between 1 and 3?cm in size and representative of both the Cr-rich and Cr-poor suites. Megacrysts contain two types of inclusions: i. Large (<0.5-5?mm in size) round-to-irregular shaped polymineralic inclusions, which are composed of minerals similar to the host kimberlite groundmass, and consist of olivine, calcite, spinel, perovskite, phlogopite and apatite (± serpentine, alkali-carbonates, alkali-chlorides, barite). ii. Swarms/trails of ‘micro melt inclusions’ (MMI; <1-5?µm in size), which surround polymineralic inclusions, veins and fractures, thereby forming a ‘spongy’ texture. MMIs generally contain multiphase assemblages similar to polymineralic inclusions as well as various additional phases, such as alkali-carbonates or alkali-chlorides, which are typically absent in polymineralic inclusions and the surrounding kimberlite groundmass. Textural and geochemical evidence suggests that polymineralic inclusions in megacrysts crystallised from kimberlite melt, which infiltrated along fracture/vein networks. The polymineralic inclusion assemblages resulted from disequilibria reactions between the host megacryst and infiltrating kimberlite melt, which was likely enhanced by rapidly changing conditions during magmatic ascent. The connectivity of polymineralic inclusions to the kimberlite groundmass via network veins/fractures suggests that they are susceptible to infiltrating post-emplacement fluids. Therefore, the vast majority of polymineralic inclusions are unlikely to represent ‘pristine’ entrapped kimberlite melt. In contrast, MMIs are isolated within megacrysts (i.e. not connected to fractures/veins and therefore shielded from post-magmatic fluids) and probably represent entrapped remnants of the variably differentiated kimberlite melt, which was more enriched in alkalis-Cl-S-CO2 than serpentinised polymineralic inclusions and the host rocks exposed at Earth's surface as kimberlites.
Abersteiner, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Goemann, K., Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Giuliani, A., Rodemann, T., Spetsius, Z.V., Kamenetsky, M.Djerfisherite in kimberlites and their xenoliths: implications for kimberlite melt evolution.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 8 22p. Africa, South Africa, Russia, Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Bultfontein, Roberts Victor, Udachnaya-East, Obnazhennaya, Vtorogodnitsa, Koala, Leslie

Abstract: Djerfisherite (K6(Fe,Ni,Cu)25S26Cl) occurs as an accessory phase in the groundmass of many kimberlites, kimberlite-hosted mantle xenoliths, and as a daughter inclusion phase in diamonds and kimberlitic minerals. Djerfisherite typically occurs as replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides (i.e. pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite), but can also occur as individual grains, or as poikilitic phase in the groundmass of kimberlites. In this study, we present new constraints on the origin and genesis of djerfisherite in kimberlites and their entrained xenoliths. Djerfisherite has extremely heterogeneous compositions in terms of Fe, Ni and Cu ratios. However, there appears to be no distinct compositional range of djerfisherite indicative of a particular setting (i.e. kimberlites, xenoliths or diamonds), rather this compositional diversity reflects the composition of the host kimberlite melt and/or interacting metasomatic medium. In addition, djerfisherite may contain K and Cl contents less than the ideal formula unit. Raman spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed that these K-Cl poor sulphides still maintain the same djerfisherite crystal structure. Two potential mechanisms for djerfisherite formation are considered: (1) replacement of pre-existing Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides by djerfisherite, which is attributed to precursor sulphides reacting with metasomatic K-Cl bearing melts/fluids in the mantle or the transporting kimberlite melt; (2) direct crystallisation of djerfisherite from the kimberlite melt in groundmass or due to kimberlite melt infiltration into xenoliths. The occurrence of djerfisherite in kimberlites and its mantle cargo from localities worldwide provides strong evidence that the metasomatising/infiltrating kimberlite melt/fluid was enriched in K and Cl. We suggest that kimberlites originated from melts that were more enriched in alkalis and halogens relative to their whole-rock compositions.
Agrosi, G., Tempesta, G., Della Ventura, G., Cestelli Guidi, M., Hutchison, M., Nimis, P., Nestola, F.Non-destructive in situ study of plastic deformation in diamonds: X-ray diffraction topography and uFTIR mapping of two super deep diamond crystals from Sao Luiz ( Juina, Brazil).Crystals MDPI, Vol. 7, 8, 11p. Doi.org/10. 3390/cryst7080233South America, Brazildeposit - Juina

Abstract: Diamonds from Juina, Brazil, are well-known examples of superdeep diamond crystals formed under sublithospheric conditions and evidence would indicate their origins lie as deep as the Earth’s mantle transition zone and the Lower Mantle. Detailed characterization of these minerals and of inclusions trapped within them may thus provide precious minero-petrogenetic information on their growth history in these inaccessible environments. With the aim of studying non-destructively the structural defects in the entire crystalline volume, two diamond samples from this locality, labelled JUc4 and BZ270, respectively, were studied in transmission mode by means of X-ray Diffraction Topography (XRDT) and micro Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (µFTIR). The combined use of these methods shows a good fit between the mapping of spatial distribution of extended defects observed on the topographic images and the µFTIR maps corresponding to the concentration of N and H point defects. The results obtained show that both samples are affected by plastic deformation. In particular, BZ270 shows a lower content of nitrogen and higher deformation, and actually consists of different, slightly misoriented grains that contain sub-grains with a rounded-elongated shape. These features are commonly associated with deformation processes by solid-state diffusion creep under high pressure and high temperature.
Alemayehu, M., Guo, F., Aulbach, S.Transformation of continental lithospheric mantle beneath the East African Rift: constraints from platinum group elements and Re-Os isotopes in mantle xenoliths from Ethiopia.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 5, 27p.Africa, Ethiopiaxenoliths

Abstract: The behavior of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in extensional settings, up to successful rifting, plays an important role in geodynamics and in the global carbon cycle, yet the underlying processes and rates of lithosphere destruction remain poorly constrained. We determined platinum-group element (PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd) abundances and Re-Os-isotope systematics for well-characterized mantle xenoliths hosted in Cenozoic basalts from the northwestern plateau (Gundeweyn area) and southern rift zone (Dillo and Megado areas) of Ethiopia to provide new insights on the nature and timing of processes leading to the formation and transformation of the off-cratonic lithospheric mantle beneath the East Africa rift system (EARS). The whole-rock PGE concentrations are highly variable, with total PGE abundances ranging from 6.6 to 12.6 ppb for Gundeweyn, 11.5 to 23.3 ppb for Dillo, and 9.9 to 19.4 ppb for Megado mantle xenoliths. The 187Os/188Os ratios of the whole-rock mantle xenoliths vary from 0.1180 to 0.1287 for Gundeweyn, 0.1238 to 0.1410 for Dillo and 0.1165 to 0.1277 for Megado, compared to 0.130 for the Afar plume and?=?0.14 for the Kenya plume, with Re depletion ages up to 1.45 Ga for Gundeweyn, 0.64 Ga for Dillo, and 1.65 Ga for Megado mantle xenoliths. The regional differences between refertilizing agents recorded in mantle xenoliths from the plateau area and the rift systems reflect distinct tectonomagmatic settings: (1) low PGE abundances, with some retention of low 187Os/188Os in Gundeweyn peridotites, are ascribed to scavenging by early small-volume oxidizing melts, generated in the convecting mantle ahead of the arrival of the Afar plume. (2) Percolation of late-stage silicate/basaltic melts, associated with the arrival of hot mantle plume and lithosphere thinning in the rift setting, locally led to refertilization and sulfide precipitation and partial replenishment of the PGE (Dillo), with convecting mantle-like 187Os/188Os. Local enclaves of older, cryptically metasomatised mantle with unradiogenic Os (Megado) attest to the heterogeneous nature of melt-peridotite interaction at this stage (pervasive vs. focused melt flow). Highly depleted abundances of the compatible PGE are characteristic of SCLM affected by incipient rifting and percolation of oxidizing melts, here associated with the Afar and Kenya plume beneath the East Africa rift, and may be precursors to advanced degrees of lithosphere destruction/transformation.
Andrews, G.D.M., Russell, J.K., Cole, B.G.., Brown, S.R.The kimberlite factory: the volcanic nature of kimberlites.Joint 53rd Annual South-Central/53rd North Central/71st Rocky Mtn GSA section Meeting, 1p. AbstractMantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Although traditionally considered the realm of igneous petrologists and geochemists, kimberlites have received attention from physical volcanologists interested in how they are emplaced in the crust and how they can erupt. This presentation will review the evidence for the volcaniclastic (i.e. fragmental) nature of kimberlites from examples in Canada's Northwest Territories and in Pennsylvania. A growing body of evidence indicates that kimberlite magmas are gas-dominated (overwhelmingly CO2) suspensions of molten kimberlite liquid and crystals, usually olivines. The olivines, like other mineral phases and xenoliths, are entrained from the surrounding mantle peridotite wall-rock, rather than crystallized from the meager kimberlite liquid, and are, therefore, overwhelmingly xenocrystic. This crystal and rock fragment load is sampled and mechanically processed by a turbulent gas-jet before being immersed in a bath of kimberlite liquid: this is the kimberlite factory. As the gas-charged crack-tip propagates and ascends, new mantle is processed into the kimberlite factory. Each emplacement event records the passage of a kimberlite factory through the mantle and lithosphere. The Masontown kimberlite in Pennsylvania is a solitary hypabyssal kimberlite dyke but it preserves evidence of the passage of a single kimberlite factory. Although many kimberlites stall in the crust, many erupt explosively to produce indisputably volcaniclastic kimberlite lithofacies associated with diatremes. Open-pit mining of several diatremes in Canada reveals the complex temporal-spatial nature of different emplacement events within the same volcanic field, and the ubiquitous presence of hypabyssal kimberlite dykes that fed or attempted to feed explosive eruptions. Such explosive eruptions sustained tephra plumes that produced kimberlite fall deposits and pyroclastic density currents that produced kimberlite ignimbrites; both of which exited their source diatremes and inundated the surrounding landscape.
Andrews, R.G.Earth is missing a huge part of its crust. Now we may know why. A fifth of the Earth's geologic history might have vanished because planet-wide glaciers buried the evidence.National Geographic, Dec. 31, United States, Arizonageomorphology

Abstract: The Grand Canyon is a gigantic geological library, with rocky layers that tell much of the story of Earth’s history. Curiously though, a sizeable layer representing anywhere from 250 million years to 1.2 billion years is missing. Known as the Great Unconformity, this massive temporal gap can be found not just in this famous crevasse, but in places all over the world. In one layer, you have the Cambrian period, which started roughly 540 million years ago and left behind sedimentary rocks packed with the fossils of complex, multicellular life. Directly below, you have fossil-free crystalline basement rock, which formed about a billion or more years ago. So where did all the rock that belongs in between these time periods go? Using multiple lines of evidence, an international team of geoscientists reckons that the thief was Snowball Earth, a hypothesized time when much, if not all, of the planet was covered in ice.
Anthonis, A., Chapman, J., Smans, S., Bouman, M., De Corte, K.Fluorescence in diamond: new insights.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 265-6.GlobalFluoresence

Abstract: The effect of fluorescence on the appearance of diamonds has been a subject of debate for many years (Moses et al., 1997). In the trade, fluorescence is generally perceived as an undesirable characteristic. Nearly 80% of diamonds graded at HRD Antwerp receive a “nil” fluorescence grade, while the remainder are graded as “slight,” “medium,” and “strong,” their value decreasing with level of fluorescence. To understand how fluorescence might change diamond appearance, a selection of 160 round brilliant-cut diamonds were investigated in detail. This study focused on the effect of thetic samples, it is possible that some of the observed phosphorescence does not involve boron impurities. In this paper we report on the results of combined fluorescence, phosphorescence, thermoluminescence, and quantitative charge transfer investigations undertaken on both HPHT and CVD synthetic diamond, with the objective of identifying which defects are involved in the fluorescence and phosphorescence processes.
Antonelli, M.A., DePaolo, D.J., Chacko, T., Grew, E.S., Rubatto, D.Radiogenic Ca isotope confirms post-formation K depletion of lower crust.Geochemical Perspective Letters, Vol. 10, pp. 43-48. doi:10.7185/ geochemlet.1904Mantlexenoliths

Abstract: Heat flow studies suggest that the lower crust has low concentrations of heat-producing elements. This could be due to either (i) greater fractions of basaltic rock at depth or (ii) metamorphic depletion of radioactive elements from rocks with more evolved (andesitic to granodioritic) compositions. However, seismic data suggest that lower crust is not predominantly basaltic, and previous studies (using Pb and Sr isotopes) have shown that lower crustal rocks have experienced significant losses of U and Rb. This loss, however, is poorly constrained for K, which is inferred to be the most important source of radioactive heat in the earliest crust. Our high precision Ca isotope measurements on a suite of granulite facies rocks and minerals from several localities show that significant losses of K (~60 % to >95 %) are associated with high temperature metamorphism. These results support models whereby reduction of heat production from the lower crust, and consequent stabilisation of continental cratons in the Precambrian, are largely due to high temperature metamorphic processes. Relative changes in whole rock K/Ca suggest that 20-30 % minimum (granitic) melt removal can explain the K depletions.
Anzolini, C., Nestola, F., Mazzucchelli, M.L., Alvaro, M., Nimis, P., Gianese, A., Morganti, S., Marone, F., Campione, M., Hutchison, M.T., Harris, J.W.Depth of diamond formation obtained from single periclase inclusions. SDD ( Super Deep Diamonds)Geology , Vol. 47, 3, pp. 219-222.South America, Brazil, Guyanadiamond genesis

Abstract: Super-deep diamonds (SDDs) are those that form at depths between ~300 and ~1000 km in Earth’s mantle. They compose only 1% of the entire diamond population but play a pivotal role in geology, as they represent the deepest direct samples from the interior of our planet. Ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O, is the most abundant mineral found as inclusions in SDDs and, when associated with low-Ni enstatite, which is interpreted as retrogressed bridgmanite, is considered proof of a lower-mantle origin. As this mineral association in diamond is very rare, the depth of formation of most ferropericlase inclusions remains uncertain. Here we report geobarometric estimates based on both elasticity and elastoplasticity theories for two ferropericlase inclusions, not associated with enstatite, from a single Brazilian diamond. We obtained a minimum depth of entrapment of 15.7 (±2.5) GPa at 1830 (±45) K (~450 [±70] km depth), placing the origin of the diamond-inclusion pairs at least near the upper mantle-transition zone boundary and confirming their super-deep origin. Our analytical approach can be applied to any type of mineral inclusion in diamond and is expected to allow better insights into the depth distribution and origin of SDDs.
Anzolini, C., Wang, F., Harris, G.A., Locock, A.J., Zhang, D., Nestola, F., Peruzzo, L., Jacobsen, S.D., Pearson, D.G.Nixonite, Na2Ti6O13, a new mineral from a metasomatized mantle garnet pyroxenite from the western Rae Craton, Darby kimberlite field, Canada.American Mineralogist, in press available 26p.Canada, Nunavutdeposit - Darby

Abstract: Nixonite (IMA 2018-133), ideally Na2Ti6O13, is a new mineral found within a heavily-metasomatized pyroxenite xenolith from the Darby kimberlite field, beneath the west central Rae Craton, Canada. It occurs as microcrystalline aggregates, 15 to 40 µm in length. Nixonite is isostructural with jeppeite, K2Ti6O13, with a structure consisting of edge- and corner-shared titanium-centered octahedra that enclose alkali-metal ions. The Mohs hardness is estimated to be between 5 and 6 by comparison to jeppeite and the calculated density is 3.51(1) g/cm3. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive spectroscopic analysis (average of 6 points) yielded: Na2O 6.87, K2O 5.67 CaO 0.57, TiO2 84.99, V2O3 0.31, Cr2O3 0.04, MnO 0.01, Fe2O3 0.26, SrO 0.07, total 98.79 wt%. The empirical formula, based on 13 O atoms, is: (Na1.24K0.67Ca0.06)S1.97(Ti5.96V0.023Fe0.018)S6.00O13 with minor amounts of Cr and Mn. Nixonite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, with unit-cell parameters a = 15.3632(26) Å, b = 3.7782(7) Å, c = 9.1266(15) Å, ß = 99.35(15)º and V = 522.72(1) Å3, Z = 2. Based on the average of seven integrated multi-grain diffraction images, the strongest diffraction lines are [dobs in Å (I in %) (h k l)]: 3.02 (100) (3 1 0) , 3.66 (75) (1 1 0), 7.57 (73) (2 0 0), 6.31 (68) (2 0 -1), 2.96 (63) (3 1 -1), 2.96 (63) (2 0 -3) and 2.71 (62) (4 0 2). The five main Raman peaks of nixonite, in order of decreasing intensity, are at: 863, 280, 664, 135 and 113 cm-1. Nixonite is named after Peter H. Nixon, a renowned scientist in the field of kimberlites and mantle xenoliths. Nixonite occurs within a pyroxenite xenolith in a kimberlite, in association with rutile, priderite, perovskite, freudenbergite and ilmenite. This complex Na-K-Ti rich metasomatic mineral assemblage may have been produced by a fractionated Na-rich kimberlitic melt that infiltrated a mantle-derived garnet pyroxenite and reacted with rutile during kimberlite crystallization.
Aremieva, I.M., Thybo, H., Cherepanova, Y.Isopycnicity of cratonic mantle restricted to kimberlite provinces.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 505, pp. 162-172.Russia, Siberiacraton

Abstract: The isopycnicity hypothesis states that the lithospheric mantle of ancient platforms has a unique composition such that high density due to low lithosphere temperature is nearly compensated by low-density composition of old cratonic mantle. This hypothesis is supported by petrological studies of mantle xenoliths hosted in kimberlite magmas. However, the representativeness of the kimberlite sampling may be questioned, given that any type of magmatism is atypical for stable regions. We use EGM2008 gravity data to examine the density structure of the Siberian lithospheric mantle, which we compare with independent constraints based on free-board analysis. We find that in the Siberian craton, geochemically studied kimberlite-hosted xenoliths sample exclusively those parts of the mantle where the isopycnic condition is satisfied, while the pristine lithospheric mantle, which has not been affected by magmatism, has a significantly lower density than required by isopycnicity. This discovery allows us to conclude that our knowledge on the composition of cratonic mantle is incomplete and that it is biased by kimberlite sampling which provides a deceptive basis for the isopycnicity hypothesis.
Armistead, S.E., Collins, A.S., Redaa, A., Gilbert, S., Jepson, G., Gillespie, J., Blades, M.L., Foden, J.D., Razakamana, T.Structural evolution and medium temperature thermochronology of central Madagascar: implications for Gondwana amalgamation.Journal of the Geological Society of London, in press available 25p.Africa, Madagascarthermochronology

Abstract: Madagascar occupied an important place in the amalgamation of Gondwana, and preserves a record of several Neoproterozoic events that can be linked to orogenesis of the East African Orogen. We integrate remote sensing and field data to unravel complex deformation in the Ikalamavony and Itremo domains of central Madagascar. The deformation sequence comprises a gneissic foliation (S1), followed by south to south-west directed, tight to isoclinal, recumbent folding (D2). These are overprinted by north-trending upright folds that formed during a ~E-W shortening event. Together these produced type 1 and type 2 fold interference patterns throughout the Itremo and Ikalamavony domains. Apatite U-Pb and muscovite and biotite Rb-Sr thermochronometers indicate that much of central Madagascar was thermally reset to at least ~500oC at c. 500 Ma. Deformation in west-central Madagascar occurred between c. 750 Ma and c. 550 Ma, and we suggest this deformation formed in response to the c. 650 Ma collision of Azania with Africa along the Vohibory Suture in southwestern Madagascar. In eastern Madagascar, deformation is syn- to post-550 Ma, which formed in response to the final closure of the Mozambique Ocean along the Betsimisaraka Suture that amalgamated Madagascar with the Dharwar Craton of India.
Armitage, P.E.B.The Songwe Hill rare earths project, Malawi - geological observations on the recently announced mineral resource upgrade.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p. Abstract p. 37.Africa, Malawideposit - Songwe Hill

Abstract: PDF link to the presentation.
Artyushkov, E.V., Korikovsky, S.P., Massonne, H-J., Checkhovich, P.A.Recent crustal uplift of Precambrian cratons: key patterns and possible mechanisms.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 59, 11, pp. 1389-1409.Russiacraton

Abstract: Precambrian cratons cover about 70% of the total continental area. According to a large volume of geomorphological, geological, paleontological, and other data for the Pliocene and Pleistocene, these cratons have experienced a crustal uplift from 100-200 m to 1000-1500 m, commonly called the recent or Neotectonic uplift. Shortening of the Precambrian crust terminated half a billion years ago or earlier, and its uplift could not have been produced by this mechanism. According to the main models of dynamic topography in the mantle, the distribution of displacements at the surface is quite different from that of the Neotectonic movements. According to seismic data, there is no magmatic underplating beneath most of the Precambrian cratons. In most of cratonic areas, the mantle lithosphere is very thick, which makes its recent delamination unlikely. Asthenospheric replacement of the lower part of the mantle lithosphere beneath the Precambrian cratons might have produced only a minor part of their Neotectonic uplifts. Since the above mechanisms cannot explain this phenomenon, the rock expansion in the crustal layer is supposed to be the main cause of the recent uplift of Precambrian cratons. This is supported by the strong lateral nonuniformity of the uplift, which indicates that expansion of rocks took place at a shallow depth. Expansion might have occurred in crustal rocks that emerged from the lower crust into the middle crust with lower pressure and temperature after the denudation of a thick layer of surface rocks. In the dry state, these rocks can remain metastable for a long time. However, rapid metamorphism accompanied by expansion of rocks can be caused by infiltration of hydrous fluids from the mantle. Analysis of phase diagrams for common crustal rocks demonstrates that this mechanism can explain the recent crustal uplift of Precambrian cratons.
Aubert, J., Finlay, C.C.Geomagnetic jerks and rapid hydromagnetic waves focusing at Earth's core surface.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 12, 5, pp. 393-398.Mantlegeophysics

Abstract: Geomagnetic jerks are abrupt changes in the second time derivative "the secular acceleration" of Earth’s magnetic field that punctuate ground observatory records. As their dynamical origin has not yet been established, they represent a major obstacle to the prediction of geomagnetic field behaviour for years to decades ahead. Recent jerks have been linked to short-lived, temporally alternating and equatorially localized pulses of secular acceleration observed in satellite data, associated with rapidly alternating flows at Earth’s core surface. Here we show that these signatures can be reproduced in numerical simulations of the geodynamo that realistically account for the interaction between slow core convection and rapid hydromagnetic waves. In these simulations, jerks are caused by the arrival of localized Alfvén wave packets radiated from sudden buoyancy releases inside the core. As they reach the core surface, the waves focus their energy towards the equatorial plane and along lines of strong magnetic flux, creating sharp interannual changes in core flow and producing geomagnetic jerks through the induced variations in magnetic field acceleration. The ability to numerically reproduce jerks offers a new way to probe the physical properties of Earth’s deep interior.
Aulbach, S., Arndt, N.T.Ecologites as paleodynamic archives: evidence for warm ( not hot) and depleted ( but heterogeneous) Archean ambient mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 505, pp. 162-172.Mantleeclogites

Abstract: Some high-Mg eclogite xenoliths, entrained by kimberlites from the mantle lithospheres of ancient continental cores, and rare orogenic eclogites and ophiolites, exhumed or obducted during the closure of palaeo-ocean basins, have elemental and isotopic compositions indicative of protoliths that formed as little-differentiated melts erupted in ancient ocean floors. Despite metamorphism and, in part, partial melt loss, these samples of ancient mid-ocean ridge basalt and picrite retain a memory of the chemical and physical state of their protoliths' ambient convecting mantle sources. Published data show that, when filtered to exclude specimens with cumulate protoliths or showing evidence for later enrichment (metasomatism), the samples lack Y or Al 2 O 3 depletion relative to TiO 2 and MgO. This indicates melt segregation of the protolith predominantly from a garnet-free peridotite source and implies intersection of the solidus at low pressures (=3 GPa). Given the dependence of melt composition and volume on source composition (assumed to be similar to modern depleted mantle) and mantle potential temperature (T P), we calculate moderate average melt fractions F (~0.22 ± 0.01) from the Ti contents of the least differentiated samples in three sample suites with 2.6 to 2.9 Ga ages. This converts to T P of ~1410 ± 10 • C assuming a final pressure of melting of 0.5 GPa, melt productivity of 10%/GPa and mantle adiabat of 0.4 • C/km, and using a mantle solidus parameterisation. Though model-dependent, the results are in agreement with recent work advocating moderate Archaean mantle T P. Estimates drop to F = 0.19 and T P = 1380 • C at 1.9 Ga and F = 0.12 and T P = 1310 at 0.6 Ga, corresponding to a decrease in T P of only ~100 • C over the last 3 Ga. A less depleted mantle source yields higher F and T P , but the above estimates are in better agreement with qualitative evidence from Al 2 O 3 and Y, and with Nd-Hf and Sr isotope compositions of orogenic eclogite and granulite suites and mantle eclogites, respectively, which indicate that portions of the Meso-to Neoarchaean mantle were depleted. Moderate T P supports early plate strengthening and a possible transition to plate tectonics in the Mesoarchaean if not earlier. Moreover, moderate temperatures in Archaean subduction zones may have facilitated deep recycling of volatiles that would otherwise have been lost from subducting slabs at shallow depths.
Aulbach, S., Heaman, L.M., Jacob, D., Viljoen, K.S.Ages and sources of mantle eclogites: ID-TIMS and in situ MC-ICPMS Pb-Sr isotope systematics of clinopyroxene.Chemical Geology, Vol. 503, pp. 15-28.Africa, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Sierra Leonedeposit - Lace, Orapa, Koidu

Abstract: Strontium and Pb isotopic compositions of clinopyroxene (cpx) in selected samples from three well-characterised eclogite suites with oceanic crustal protoliths (Lace/Kaapvaal craton, Orapa/Zimbabwe craton and Koidu/West African craton) were acquired by high-precision isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and in situ multicollector-laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-LA-ICPMS). The aims of this study are twofold: (1) assess their utility to obtain formation or resetting age constraints and identify elemental signatures that enhance the chances of successful age dating, and (2) to confirm the veracity and utility of results obtained by novel MC-LA-ICPMS techniques. Strontium-Pb isotope systematics of eclogitic cpx measured in this study are decoupled and may reflect addition of unsupported radiogenic Sr during seawater alteration or interaction with oceanic sediments in subduction mélanges, and/or disturbance due to mantle metasomatism, to which the more incompatible Pb is more susceptible. Despite a complex history, subsets of samples yield meaningful model dates. Clinopyroxene fractions from Lace with high Pb contents (3-6?ppm), unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pb?=?13.57-13.52) and low 238U/204Pb (1.0-1.5) give single-stage model Pb dates of 2.90-2.84?Ga. In contrast, samples from Orapa plot to the right of the Geochron and do not yield meaningful Pb model ages. However, these data do define secondary isochrons that can be modelled to yield minimum age constraints on major events affecting the cratonic lithosphere. Within the uncertainties, the resultant 2.18?±?0.45?Ga age obtained for Koidu eclogites reflect disturbance of the Pb isotope system due to subduction beneath the craton linked to the Eburnean orogeny, while they retained their unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (0.7016). Similarly, the age for samples from Orapa (2.20?±?0.54?Ga) is interpreted as an overprint age related to Palaeoproterozoic accretion at the western craton margin. Gabbroic eclogites (Eu/Eu*?>?1) with plagioclase-rich protoliths having low time-integrated Rb/Sr and U/Pb retain the least radiogenic Sr and, in part, Pb. High model µ (9.0 to 9.1) for several eclogites from Lace with elevated LREE, Th and Pb abundances reflects ca. 3.0?Ga addition of a sedimentary component, possibly derived from reworking of a high-µ basaltic protocrust, as observed on other cratons. We suggest that sample targeting can be usefully guided by fast-throughput in situ LA-ICPMS techniques, which largely yield results identical to ID-TIMS, albeit at lower precision, and which can further help identify kimberlite contamination in the mineral separates used for solution work.
Aulbach, S., Hofer, H.E., Gerdes, A.High Mg and Low Mg mantle eclogites from Koidu (West African Craton) linked by Neoproterozoic ultramafic melt metasomatism of subducted Archean plateau-like oceanic crust.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 60, 4, pp. 723-754.Africa, Sierra Leonedeposit - Koidu

Abstract: Bimineralic eclogites and pyroxenites (n?=?75?±?accessory rutile, ilmenite, sulphide, apatite) from the Koidu kimberlite (West African Craton) were investigated for mineral major and trace elements and mineral Sr-Nd isotope compositions to constrain (1) the nature and age of their basaltic to picritic protoliths, and (2) the effect, timing and source of mantle metasomatism. Consistent with published work, samples are grouped into low-Mg eclogites with Mg# from 0•49 to 0•73 (median 0•59; n?=?40) and high-Mg eclogites with Mg# from 0•60 to 0•88 (median 0•75; n?=?14), plus pyroxenites [clinopyroxene Na/(Na + Ca) <0•2; n?=?8] and gabbroic eclogites and pyroxenite (Eu/Eu* of reconstructed bulk-rocks >1•05; n?=?8), with five unclassifiable samples. Reconstructed low-Mg and gabbroic eclogites have major and trace element systematics (Eu/Eu*-heavy rare earth elements-Y) indicating crustal protolith crystallisation, confirming an origin as subducted oceanic crust. Their high FeO contents at MgO >~10?wt % require an Fe-rich source, the high melt productivity of which led to the formation of thicker crust, perhaps in a plateau-like setting. This is consistent with SiO2-MgO relationships indicating differentiation at ~0•5?GPa. Unradiogenic Sr in some clinopyroxene (87Sr/86Sr of 0•7010-0•7015), combined with light rare earth element (LREE) depletion relative to normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) for the majority of samples (average N-MORB-normalised Nd/Yb of unmetasomatised samples = 0•51), suggests eclogitisation and partial melt loss in the Neoarchaean, possibly coeval with and parental to 2•7?Ga overlying continental crust. Most reconstructed high-Mg eclogites and some pyroxenites formed by metasomatic overprinting of low-Mg eclogites and gabbroic eclogites, as indicated by the preservation of positive Eu anomalies in some samples, and by the Mg-poorer composition of included versus matrix minerals. Coupled enrichment in MgO, SiO2 and Cr2O3 and in incompatible elements (Sr, LREE, Pb, Th and U) is ascribed to metasomatism by a kimberlite-like, small-volume, carbonated ultramafic melt, mediated by addition of clinopyroxene from the melt (i.e. stealth metasomatism). Strontium-Nd isotope systematics suggest a Neoproterozoic age for this metasomatic event, possibly linked to Rodinia break-up, which facilitated intrusion of asthenospheric carbonated melts with an ocean island basalt-like 87Sr/86Sri of ~0•7035. Cretaceous kimberlite magmatism (including Koidu), with more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (~0•7065, intermediate between Kaapvaal kimberlites and orangeites), may have been partially sourced from associated Neoproterozoic metasomes. The presence of diamonds in low-Mg eclogites, but absence in high-Mg eclogites, indicates the diamond-destructive nature of this event. Nevertheless, the moderate proportion of affected eclogites (~35%) suggests preservation of a sizeable diamond-friendly mantle eclogite reservoir beneath Koidu.
Aulbach, S., Sun, J., Tappe, S., Gerdes, A.Effects of multi-stage rifting and metasomatism on HSE 187 Os 188 Os systematics of the cratonic mantle beneath SW Greenland. KimberlitesContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 23p.Europe, Greenlandmetasomatism

Abstract: We report highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and Re-Os isotope compositions, obtained by isotope dilution induc-tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, of olivine separates from a suite of multiply metasomatised peridotite xenoliths entrained in kimberlites from SW Greenland. Combined with petrographic and compositional observations on accessory base metal sulphides (BMS), the results reveal new insights into the chemical, physical and mineralogical effects of multi-stage rifting and associated melt percolation on the Archaean lithospheric mantle. Refertilised lherzolites are dominated by rare to frequent small (tens of µm) BMS inclusions in olivine, whereas modally metasomatised phlogopite-bearing lherzolite and wehrlites have higher proportions of more Ni-rich BMS, including abundant large interstitial grains (hundreds of µm). The olivine separates display depleted HSE systematics with Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM)-normalised Pd/Ir of 0.014-0.62, and have both depleted and enriched 187 Os/ 188 Os (0.1139-0.2724) relative to chondrite that are not correlated with 187 Re/ 188 Os. Four out of ten olivine separates retain similarly depleted Os corresponding to Re-depletion model ages of 2.1-1.8 Ga. They may reflect Palaeoproterozoic refertilisation (lherzolitisation) during Laurentia plate assembly, with re-introduction of clinopyroxene and Os-rich BMS into the originally refractory mantle lithosphere by asthenosphere-derived basaltic melts, followed by recrystallisation and occlusion in olivine. Unradiogenic Os is observed regardless of lithology, including from peridotites that contain abundant interstitial BMS. This reflects addition of Os-poor BMS (<< 1 ppm) during more recent wehrlitisation and phlogopite-introduction, and control of the Os isotopic signature by older Os-rich BMS that precipitated from the basaltic melt. Depletions in compatible HSE (< 0.5 × PUM for Ru, Ir, Os) in all, but one olivine separate reflect nugget effects (amount of depleted vs. metasomatic BMS inclusions) and/or loss due to sulphide dissolution into oxidising small-volume melts that invaded the lithosphere during recurrent rifting, the latter supported by similar depletions in published bulk peridotite data. Combined, these multiple metasomatic events destroyed all vestiges of Mesoarchaean or older inheritance in the olivine separates investigated here, and highlight that caution is needed when interpreting Proterozoic Os model ages in terms of Proterozoic lithosphere stabilisation.
Aulbach, S., Symes, C., Chacko, T.Elemental and radiogenic isotope perspective on formation and transformation of cratonic lower crust: Central Slave craton ( Canada). DiavikGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available, 42p.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit -Diavik A154 N & S

Abstract: Kimberlite-borne granulite xenoliths provide rare insights into the age, chemical composition and tectonothermal evolution of the otherwise largely inaccessible deep cratonic crust. The formation and transformation of the lower continental crust (LCC) beneath the central Slave craton (Canada) is here illuminated using whole-rock trace-element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of nine metabasaltic (MBG), one gabbroic (MGG) and two metasedimentary/hybrid (MSG) granulite xenoliths. On the one hand, published sulphide Re-Os and a few zircon U-Pb data indicate that at least a portion of the LCC beneath the central Slave craton has a Palaeoarchaean origin (~3.3?Ga), which apparently coincides with a period of juvenile crust and deep lithospheric mantle formation during plume impingement beneath the pre-existing cratonic nucleus. On the other hand, enrichment in Li, Sr, LREE, Pb and Th, but relative depletion in Ti, Hf and HREE, suggest formation of (picro)basaltic protoliths by partial melting of a subduction-modified garnet-bearing source, Crystallisation in the crust after fractionation of plagioclase is inidicated by their Sr and Eu negative anomalies, which are complementary to the positive anomalies in the MGG. Samarium-Nd isotopes in MBG and MGG show large scatter, but fall on Neo- or Mesoarchaean age arrays. These elemental systematics are suggested to fingerprint deserpentinisation fluids plus small amounts of sedimentary melt as the main contaminants of the mantle source, supporting the operation of at least regional and transient subduction at 3.3?Ga. Evidence for quasi-coeval plume impingement and subduction beneath the central Slave craton in the Mesoarchaean is reconcilable in a dynamic regime where vertical tectonics, though waning, was still active and plate interactions became increasingly important. Unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (down to 0.7017) is consistent with significant loss of Rb and probably other heat-producing elements (K, Th, U) plus H2O during Neoarchaean metamorphism, which helped to enhance LCC viscosity and stabilise the cratonic lithosphere.
Aulbach, S., Tappe, S., Gerdes, A.Effects of multi-stage rifting and metasomatism on HSE-187Os/188Os systematic of the cratonic mantle beneath SW Greenland.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 23p.Europe, Greenlandkimberlites

Abstract: We report highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and Re-Os isotope compositions, obtained by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, of olivine separates from a suite of multiply metasomatised peridotite xenoliths entrained in kimberlites from SW Greenland. Combined with petrographic and compositional observations on accessory base metal sulphides (BMS), the results reveal new insights into the chemical, physical and mineralogical effects of multi-stage rifting and associated melt percolation on the Archaean lithospheric mantle. Refertilised lherzolites are dominated by rare to frequent small (tens of µm) BMS inclusions in olivine, whereas modally metasomatised phlogopite-bearing lherzolite and wehrlites have higher proportions of more Ni-rich BMS, including abundant large interstitial grains (hundreds of µm). The olivine separates display depleted HSE systematics with Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM)-normalised Pd/Ir of 0.014-0.62, and have both depleted and enriched 187Os/188Os (0.1139-0.2724) relative to chondrite that are not correlated with 187Re/188Os. Four out of ten olivine separates retain similarly depleted Os corresponding to Re-depletion model ages of 2.1-1.8 Ga. They may reflect Palaeoproterozoic refertilisation (lherzolitisation) during Laurentia plate assembly, with re-introduction of clinopyroxene and Os-rich BMS into the originally refractory mantle lithosphere by asthenosphere-derived basaltic melts, followed by recrystallisation and occlusion in olivine. Unradiogenic Os is observed regardless of lithology, including from peridotites that contain abundant interstitial BMS. This reflects addition of Os-poor BMS (<
Badro, J., Aubert, J., Hirose, K., Nomura, R., Blanchard, I., Borensztajn, S., Siebert, J.Magnesium partitioning between Earth's mantle and core and its potential to drive an early exsolution geodynamo.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, 24, pp. 13,240-13,248.Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: We measure the incorporation of magnesium oxide (one of the main components of Earth's mantle) into iron (the main constituent Earth's core), using extremely high pressure and temperature experiments that mimic the conditions of Earth's mantle and core. We find that magnesium oxide dissolution depends on temperature but not on pressure, and on metal (i.e., core) composition but not silicate (i.e., mantle) composition. Our findings support the idea that magnesium oxide dissolved in the core during its formation will precipitate out during subsequent core cooling. The precipitation should stir the entire core to produce a magnetic field in Earth's distant past, at least as intense as the present-day field.
Balaram, V.Rare earth elements: a review of applications, occurrence, exploration, analysis, recycling, and environmental impact.Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 10, pp. 1285-1303.GlobalRare earths

Abstract: Rare earth elements (REE) include the lanthanide series elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) plus Sc and Y. Currently these metals have become very critical to several modern technologies ranging from cell phones and televisions to LED light bulbs and wind turbines. This article summarizes the occurrence of these metals in the Earth's crust, their mineralogy, different types of deposits both on land and oceans from the standpoint of the new data with more examples from the Indian subcontinent. In addition to their utility to understand the formation of the major Earth reservoirs, multi-faceted updates on the applications of REE in agriculture and medicine including new emerging ones are presented. Environmental hazards including human health issues due to REE mining and large-scale dumping of e-waste containing significant concentrations of REE are summarized. New strategies for the future supply of REE including recent developments in the extraction of REE from coal fired ash and recycling from e-waste are presented. Recent developments in individual REE separation technologies in both metallurgical and recycling operations have been highlighted. An outline of the analytical methods for their precise and accurate determinations required in all these studies, such as, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GD-MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (including ICP-MS, ICP-TOF-MS, HR-ICP-MS with laser ablation as well as solution nebulization) and other instrumental techniques, in different types of materials are presented.
Banerjee, A., Chakrabarti, R.A geochemical and Nd, Sr and stable Ca isotopic study of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the ~65 Ma old Ambadongar carbonatite complex and the Phenai Mata igneous complex, Gujarat, India: implications for crustal contamination, carbonate rLithos, in press available 56p.Indiacarbonatite

Abstract: Major, trace element concentrations and Nd, Sr and Ca stable isotopic compositions (d44/40Ca and d44/42Ca w.r.t. NIST SRM915a) of carbonatites and associated igneous silicate rocks from the ~65?Ma old Ambadongar carbonatite complex and the surrounding Phenai Mata igneous complex of western India are reported. Samples of fluorspar from Ambadongar and the Bagh Limestone and Sandstone, which are part of the country rocks at Ambadongar, have also been analysed. The Ambadongar carbonatites are primarily calcio- and ferro-carbonatites while the silicate rocks from these two complexes are alkaline and tholeiitic in composition. The d44/40Ca values of the carbonatites (0.58-1.1‰, n?=?7) and the associated igneous silicate rocks (0.50-0.92‰, n?=?14) show a broad range. The low K/Ca values of the carbonatites (<0.2) and silicate rocks (<2) along with their young eruption age (~65 Ma) rule out any effect of radiogenic 40Ca ingrowth due to decay of 40K on the d44/40Ca values. The lack of correlations between d44/40Ca and Mg# as well as La/Yb(N) values suggest that the variability in d44/40Ca is not controlled by the degree of partial melting. The d44/40Ca values of the carbonatites (0.58-1.1‰) overlap with that of the upper mantle/Bulk Silicate Earth and is mostly higher than the d44/40Ca value of the Bagh Limestone (0.66‰) suggesting that assimilation of these crustal limestones by the magma is unlikely to have caused the variability in d44/40Ca of the carbonatites. In plots of d44/40Ca versus eNd(t) and 87Sr/86Sr(t), the igneous silicate rocks from the Ambadongar and Phenai Mata complexes plot on a mixing trend between a primitive (plume) mantle source and the continental crustal basement suggesting the role of continental crustal contamination during eruption of the Reunion plume. While simple binary mixing calculations yield unrealistically high amounts of crustal contamination (40%), assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) models suggest up to 20% contribution from a heterogeneous basement for these igneous silicate rocks. The role of continental crustal contamination in the genesis of the igneous silicate rocks is further supported by their unradiogenic eNd(t), radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr(t) and low Ce/Pb values. In contrast, carbonatites plot away from the mixing trend between a primitive mantle (plume) source and continental crust in Ca-Sr-Nd isotopic diagrams suggesting that the Ca isotopic variability of carbonatites is not caused by continental crustal contamination. In contrast, the isotopic composition of the carbonatites can be explained by mixing of the plume end-member with up to 20% of ~160?Ma-old recycled carbonates suggesting their derivation from a highly heterogeneous, recycled carbonate-bearing plume mantle source. The composition of one carbonatite sample showing unusually high d44/40Ca and highly radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr(t) is explained by hydrothermal alteration which is also invoked for the formation of massive fluorspar deposits with high d44/40Ca (1.44‰) at Ambadongar. In a plot of d44/40Ca versus K/Rb, the carbonatites plot towards the phlogopite end-member (d44/40Ca?=?1‰, K/Rb?=?40-450) while the igneous silicate rocks plot towards the amphibole end-member (d44/40Ca?=?0.44‰, K/Rb >1000). Phlogopite, especially if F-rich, is stable at greater depths in the mantle compared to amphibole. Hence, the correlated d44/40Ca and K/Rb values of the carbonatites and associated igneous silicate rocks suggest the derivation of these carbonatites from a relatively deeper mantle source compared to the silicate rocks, both within the Reunion mantle plume. The origin of the carbonatites from the F-rich phlogopite-bearing mantle is also consistent with the occurrence of large fluorspar deposits within the Ambadongar carbonatite complex.
Banerjee, A., Chakrabarti, R.A geochemical and Nd, Sr and stable Ca isotopic study of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the ~65 Ma old Ambadongar carbonatite complex and the Phenai Mata igneous complex, Gujarat, India: implications for crustal contamination, carbonate rLithos, Vol. 324, pp. 89-104.Africa, South Africadeposit - Ambadongar
Banks, G.J., Walter, B.F., Marks, M.A.W., Siegfried, P.R.A workflow to define, map and name a carbonatite-alkaline igneous-associated REE-HFSE mineral system: a case study from SW Germany.MDPI, Vol. 9, 97, 28p. PdfGlobalREE

Abstract: Security of supply of “hi-tech” raw materials (including the rare earth elements (REE) and some high-field-strength elements (HFSEs)) is a concern for the European Union. Exploration and research projects mostly focus on deposit- to outcrop-scale description of carbonatite- and alkaline igneous-associated REE-HFSE mineralization. The REE-HFSE mineral system concept and approach are at a nascent stage, so developed further here. However, before applying the mineral system approach to a chosen REE-HFSE metallogenic province its mineral system extent first needs defining and mapping. This shifts a mineral system project’s foundation from the mineral system concept to a province’s mineral system extent. The mapped extent is required to investigate systematically the pathways and potential trap locations along which the REE-HFSE mass may be distributed. A workflow is presented to standardize the 4-D definition of a REE-HFSE mineral system at province-scale: (a) Identify and hierarchically organize a mineral system’s genetically related sub-divisions and deposits, (b) map its known and possible maximum extents, (c) name it, (d) discern its size (known mineral endowment), and (e) assess the favorability of the critical components to prioritize further investigations. The workflow is designed to generate process-based perspective and improve predictive targeting effectiveness along under-evaluated plays of any mineral system, for the future risking, comparing and ranking of REE-HFSE provinces and plays.
Baratoux, L., Soderlund, U., Ernst, R.E., de Roever, E., Jessell, M.W., Kamo, S., Naba, S., Perrouty, S., Metelka, V., Yatte, D., Grenholm, M., Diallo, D.P., Ndiaye, P.M., Dioh, E., Cournede, C., Benoit, M., Baratoux, D., Youbi, N., Rousse, S., BendaoudNew U-Pb baddeleyite ages of mafic dyke swarms of the West African and Amazonian cratons: implication for their configuration in supercontinents through time.Dyke Swarms of the World: a modern perspective, Srivastava et al. eds. Springer , pp. 263-314.Africa, West Africa, South Americageochronology

Abstract: Eight different generations of dolerite dykes crosscutting the Paleoproterozoic basement in West Africa and one in South America were dated using the high precision U-Pb TIMS method on baddeleyite. Some of the individual dykes reach over 300 km in length and they are considered parts of much larger systems of mafic dyke swarms representing the plumbing systems for large igneous provinces (LIPs). The new U-Pb ages obtained for the investigated swarms in the southern West African Craton (WAC) are the following (oldest to youngest): 1791?±?3 Ma for the N010° Libiri swarm, 1764?±?4 Ma for the N035° Kédougou swarm, 1575?±?5 for the N100° Korsimoro swarm, ~1525-1529 Ma for the N130° Essakane swarm, 1521?±?3 Ma for the N90° Sambarabougou swarm, 915?±?7 Ma for the N070° Oda swarm, 867?±?16 Ma for the N355° Manso swarm, 202?±?5 Ma and 198?±?16 Ma for the N040° Hounde swarm, and 200?±?3 Ma for the sills in the Taoudeni basin. The last ones are related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) event. The Hounde swarm is oblique to the dominant radiating CAMP swarm and may be linked with the similar-trending elongate Kakoulima intrusion in Guinea. In addition, the N150° Käyser swarm (Amazonian craton, South America) is dated at 1528?±?2 Ma, providing a robust match with the Essakane swarm in a standard Amazonia-West African craton reconstruction, and resulting in a combined linear swarm >1500 km by >1500 km in extent. The Precambrian LIP barcode ages of c. 1790, 1765-1750, 1575, 1520, 915. 870 Ma for the WAC are compared with the global LIP record to identify possible matches on other crustal blocks, with reconstruction implications. These results contribute to the refinement of the magmatic ‘barcode’ for the West African and Amazonian cratons, representing the first steps towards plausible global paleogeographic reconstructions involving the West African and Amazonian cratons.
Barnett, M.J., Deady, E.A., Gregory, S.P., Palumbo-Roe, B.The role of biobased circular economy approach in sustainable critical metal extraction: the rare earth elements. Bioleaching3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, Apr. 30-May 2.GlobalREE

Abstract: PDF link to presentation.
Barry, P.H., de Moor, J.M., Giovannelli, D., Schrenk, M., Hummer, D.R., Lopez, T., Pratt, C.A., Alpizar Segua, Y., Battaglia, A., Beaudry, A., Bini, G., Cascante, M., d'Errico, G., di Carlo, M., Fattorini, D., Fullerton, K., H+Gazel, E., Gonzalez, G., HalForearc carbon sink reduces long term volatile recycling into the mantle.Nature , 588, 7753, p. 487.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: Carbon and other volatiles in the form of gases, fluids or mineral phases are transported from Earth’s surface into the mantle at convergent margins, where the oceanic crust subducts beneath the continental crust. The efficiency of this transfer has profound implications for the nature and scale of geochemical heterogeneities in Earth’s deep mantle and shallow crustal reservoirs, as well as Earth’s oxidation state. However, the proportions of volatiles released from the forearc and backarc are not well constrained compared to fluxes from the volcanic arc front. Here we use helium and carbon isotope data from deeply sourced springs along two cross-arc transects to show that about 91 per cent of carbon released from the slab and mantle beneath the Costa Rican forearc is sequestered within the crust by calcite deposition. Around an additional three per cent is incorporated into the biomass through microbial chemolithoautotrophy, whereby microbes assimilate inorganic carbon into biomass. We estimate that between 1.2 × 108 and 1.3 × 1010 moles of carbon dioxide per year are released from the slab beneath the forearc, and thus up to about 19 per cent less carbon is being transferred into Earth’s deep mantle than previously estimated.
Bataleva, Y.V., Palyanov, Y.N., Borzdov, Y.M., Novoselov, I.D., Bayukov, O.A.An effect of reduced S-rich fluids on diamond formation under mantle- slab interaction.Lithos, Vol. 336-337, pp. 27-39.Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Experimental study, dedicated to understanding the effect of S-rich reduced fluids on the diamond-forming processes under subduction settings, was performed using a multi-anvil high-pressure split-sphere apparatus in Fe3C-(Mg,Ca)CO3-S and Fe0-(Mg,Ca)CO3-S systems at the pressure of 6.3?GPa, temperatures in the range of 900-1600?°C and run time of 18-60?h. At the temperatures of 900 and 1000?°C in the carbide-carbonate-sulfur system, extraction of carbon from cohenite through the interaction with S-rich reduced fluid, as well as C0-producing redox reactions of carbonate with carbide were realized. As a result, graphite formation in assemblage with magnesiowüstite, cohenite and pyrrhotite (±aragonite) was established. At higher temperatures (=1100?°C) formation of assemblage of Fe3+-magnesiowüstite and graphite was accompanied by generation of fO2-contrasting melts - metal-sulfide with dissolved carbon (Fe-S-C) and sulfide-oxide (Fe-S-O). In the temperature range of 1400-1600?°C spontaneous diamond nucleation was found to occur via redox interactions of carbide or iron with carbonate. It was established, that interactions of Fe-S-C and Fe-S-O melts as well as of Fe-S-C melt and magnesiowüstite, were ?0-forming processes, accompanied by disproportionation of Fe. These resulted in the crystallization of Fe3+-magnesiowüstite+graphite assemblage and growth of diamond. We show that a participation of sulfur in subduction-related elemental carbon-forming processes results in sharp decrease of partial melting temperatures (~300?°C), reducting the reactivity of the Fe-S-C melt relatively to FeC melt with respect to graphite and diamond crystallization and decrease of diamond growth rate.
Bataleva, Y.V., Palyanov, Y.N., Borzdov, Y.M., Novoselov, I.D., Bayukov, O.A.An effect of reduced S rich fluids on diamond formation under mantle-slab interaction.Lithos, Vol. 336-337, pp. 27-39.Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Duplicate
Bataleva, Yu.V., Palyanov, Yu.N., Borzdov, Yu.M., Bayukov, O.A., Sobolev, N.V.Experiment al modeling of Co forming processes involving cohenite and CO2 fluid in a silicate mantle.Doklady earth Sciences, Vol. 483, 1, pp. 1427-1430.Mantlepetrology

Abstract: Experimental studies were performed in the Fe3C-SiO2-(Mg,Ca)CO3 system (6.3 GP?, 1100-1500°C, 20-40 h). It is established that the carbide-oxide-carbonate interaction leads to the formation of ferrosilite, fayalite, graphite, and cohenite (1100 and 1200°?), as well as a Fe-C melt (1300°?). It is determined that the main processes in the system are decarbonation, redox-reactions of cohenite and a CO2-fluid, extraction of carbon from carbide, and crystallization of metastable graphite (± diamond growth), as well as the formation of ferriferous silicates. The interaction studied can be considered as a simplified model of the processes that occur during the subduction of oxidized crustal material to reduced mantle rocks.
Bataleva, Yu.V., Palyanov, Yu.N., Borzdov, Yu.M., Novoselov, I.D., Bayukov, O.A., Sobolev, N.V.Conditions of formation of iron-carbon melt inclusions in garnet and orthopyroxene under P-T conditions of lithospheric mantle.Petrology, Vol. 26, 6, pp. 565-574.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Of great importance in the problem of redox evolution of mantle rocks is the reconstruction of scenarios of alteration of Fe°- or Fe3C-bearing rocks by oxidizing mantle metasomatic agents and the evaluation of stability of these phases under the influence of fluids and melts of different compositions. Original results of high-temperature high-pressure experiments (P = 6.3 GPa, T = 1300-1500°?) in the carbide-oxide-carbonate systems (Fe3C-SiO2-(Mg,Ca)CO3 and Fe3C-SiO2-Al2O3-(Mg,Ca)CO3) are reported. Conditions of formation of mantle silicates with metallic or metal-carbon melt inclusions are determined and their stability in the presence of CO2-fluid representing the potential mantle oxidizing metasomatic agent are estimated. It is established that garnet or orthopyroxene and CO2-fluid are formed in the carbide-oxide-carbonate system through decarbonation, with subsequent redox interaction between CO2 and iron carbide. This results in the formation of assemblage of Fe-rich silicates and graphite. Garnet and orthopyroxene contain inclusions of a Fe-C melt, as well as graphite, fayalite, and ferrosilite. It is experimentally demonstrated that the presence of CO2-fluid in interstices does not affect on the preservation of metallic inclusions, as well as graphite inclusions in silicates. Selective capture of Fe-C melt inclusions by mantle silicates is one of the potential scenarios for the conservation of metallic iron in mantle domains altered by mantle oxidizing metasomatic agents.
Batanova, V.G., Thompson, J.M., Danyushevsky, L.V., Portnyagin, M.V., Garbe-Schonberg, D., Hauri, E., Kimura, J-I., Chang, Q., Senda, R., Goemann, K., Chauvel, C., Campillo, S., Ionov, D.A., Sobolev,A.V.New olivine reference material for in situ microanalysis.Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press available, 21p.Asia, Mongoliaolivine

Abstract: A new olivine reference material - MongOL Sh11-2 - for in situ analysis has been prepared from the central portion of a large (20 × 20 × 10 cm) mantle peridotite xenolith from a ~ 0.5 My old basaltic breccia at Shavaryn-Tsaram, Tariat region, central Mongolia. The xenolith is a fertile mantle lherzolite with minimal signs of alteration. Approximately 10 g of 0.5-2 mm gem quality olivine fragments were separated under binocular microscope and analysed by EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS and bulk analytical methods (ID-ICP-MS for Mg and Fe, XRF, ICP-MS) for major, minor and trace elements at six institutions world-wide. The results show that the olivine fragments are sufficiently homogeneous with respect to major (Mg, Fe, Si), minor and trace elements. Significant inhomogeneity was revealed only for phosphorus (homogeneity index of 12.4), whereas Li, Na, Al, Sc, Ti and Cr show minor inhomogeneity (homogeneity index of 1-2). The presence of some mineral and fluid-melt micro-inclusions may be responsible for the inconsistency in mass fractions obtained by in situ and bulk analytical methods for Al, Cu, Sr, Zr, Ga, Dy and Ho. Here we report reference and information values for twenty-seven major, minor and trace elements.
Beard, C.D., Goodenough, K.M., Deady, E.A.Deposit scale geomodels for REE and HFSE exploration in carbonatite and alkaline silicate magmatic systems.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p.abstract p. 39.GlobalREE

Abstract: PDF link to presentation.
Bedard, L.P., Desjardins, D., Matton, G.The importance of syenite enclaves in the evolution of the Saint-Honore alkaline complex.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 60.Canada, QuebecCarbonatite

Abstract: The Saint-Honoré alkaline complex located near the Saguenay River (Grenville Province, Québec) has a syenite outer rim and concentric units of calcio-, magnesio- to ferro-carbonatite moving towards the centre. The Mg-carbonatite hosts a niobium deposit, and the Fe-carbonatite hosts a rare earth-rich zone at its centre. The Nb mineralization has a close spatial relationship to the syenite enclaves suggesting that the syenites may have played a critical role in concentrating the pyrochlore (Pcl). There are two forms of Nb mineralization: high- and low-grade. Low-grade mineralization is characterized by highly variable Pcl chemistry with higher U concentrations and a low abundance of fluoroapatite (Ap), whereas high-grade mineralization has a consistent Pcl chemistry (low-U), abundant Ap (with many acicular crystals) and more abundant phlogopite and magnetite. Some of the Pcl crystals have been altered to columbite by hydrothermal processes. It is interpreted that the metamict Pcl (rich in radioactive elements) was altered more readily than the Pcl having undamaged crystal structure. The high-grade mineralization is generally located near the syenite enclaves. Syenite enclaves (from a centimetre scale to several tens of metres in size) reacted with the carbonatite magma to produce a phlogopite rim. Ap is also abundant along the immediate contact between the enclaves and Mg-carbonatite. Large enclaves show hydro-fracturing by the carbonatite suggesting they were crystalline enough to be brittle. There are smaller textures (3-6 mm in diameter) that share many similarities with the syenite enclaves; however, these textures are rounded and could be interpreted as being related to liquid immiscibility. The interaction of carbonatite magma with syenite enclaves is interpreted to have started with abundant crystallization of acicular Ap which depleted the magma in F and lowered the magma's Nb-solubility. Pcl then crystallized in abundance in the vicinity of the syenite enclaves to create the economic Nb-rich zone.
Bercovici, D., Mulyukova, E., Long, M.D.A simple toy model for coupled retreat and detachment of subducting slabs.Journal of Geodynamics, in press available, 15p.Mantleconvection

Abstract: Subducting slabs are the primary drivers of plate tectonics and mantle circulation, but can also undergo various instabilities that cause dramatic adjustments in tectonic evolution and motion. Slab rollback or trench retreat is possibly a dominant form of time dependence in the plate-mantle system, causing plates to shrink and the mantle to undergo complex flow patterns. Likewise, slab detachment can induce abrupt adjustments in both plate motions and vertical displacement of continents. The arrival or accumulation of continental crust over a subduction zone induces high stresses on the plate and slab that can trigger either rollback or detachment or both. However, these processes necessarily interact because of how stress is relieved and plate motions altered. Here we present a simple boundary-layer like model of coupled trench retreat and slab detachment, induced by continent accumulation, and with slab necking augmented by grain-damage self-weakening (to allow for abrupt necking). With this model we find that, with continental accumulation, initial rollback is at first modest. However, as the stress from continental accumulation peaks, it triggers abrupt slab detachment. The subsequent slab loss causes the plate to lose its primary motive force and to thus undergo a more dramatic and rapid rollback event. After the larger rollback episode, the contracted continental mass re-expands partially. Plausible grain-damage parameters and 40?km thick crust cause abrupt detachment and major rollback to occur after a few hundred million years, which means the plates remain stable for that long, in agreement with the typical age for most large plates. While the complexity of some field areas with a well documented history of detachment and rollback, such as the Mediterranean, taxes the sophistication of our toy model, other simpler geological examples, such as on the western North American plate, show that episodes of rollback can follow detachment.
Berman, N., Couttenir, M., Rohner, D., Thoenig, M.This mine is mine! How minerals fuel conflict in Africa.American Economic Review, Vol. 107, 6, pp. 1564-1610. pdfAfricalegal

Abstract: We combine georeferenced data on mining extraction of 14 minerals with information on conflict events at spatial resolution of 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree for all of Africa between 1997 and 2010. Exploiting exogenous variations in world prices, we find a positive impact of mining on conflict at the local level. Quantitatively, our estimates suggest that the historical rise in mineral prices (commodity super-cycle) might explain up to one-fourth of the average level of violence across African countries over the period. We then document how a fighting group's control of a mining area contributes to escalation from local to global violence. Finally, we analyze the impact of corporate practices and transparency initiatives in the mining industry.
Biemiller, J., Ellis, S., Mizera, M., Little, T., Wallace, L., Lavier, L.Tectonic inheritance following failed continental subduction: a model for core complex formation in cold, strong lithosphere.Tectonics, in press available, 22p.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Inherited structural, compositional, thermal, and mechanical properties from previous tectonic phases can affect the deformation style of lithosphere entering a new stage of the Wilson cycle. When continental crust jams a subduction zone, the transition from subduction to extension can occur rapidly, as is the case following slab breakoff of the leading subducted oceanic slab. This study explores the extent to which geometric and physical properties of the subduction phase affect the subsequent deformation style and surface morphology of post subduction extensional systems. We focus on regions that transition rapidly from subduction to extension, retaining lithospheric heterogeneities and cold thermal structure inherited from subduction. We present numerical models suggesting that following failed subduction of continental crust (with or without slab breakoff), the extensional deformation style depends on the strength and dip of the preexisting subduction thrust. Our models predict three distinct extensional modes based on these inherited properties: (1) reactivation of the subduction thrust and development of a rolling-hinge detachment that exhumes deep crustal material in a domal structure prior to onset of an asymmetric rift; (2) partial reactivation of a low-angle subduction thrust, which is eventually abandoned as high-angle, “domino”-style normal faults cut and extend the crust above the inherited thrust; and (3) no reactivation of the subduction fault but instead localized rifting above the previous subduction margin as new rift-bounding, high-angle normal faults form. We propose that the first mode is well exemplified by the young, rapidly exhumed Dayman-Suckling metamorphic core complex that is exhuming today in Papua New Guinea.
Bindi, L., Camara, F., Griffin, W.L., Huang, J-X., Gain, S.E.M., Toledo, V., O'Reilly, S.Y.Discovery of the first natural hydride. Mt. CarmelAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 611-614.Europe, Israelcrystallography

Abstract: Although hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system, the mechanisms of exchange of this element between the deep interior and surface of Earth are still uncertain. Hydrogen has profound effects on properties and processes on microscopic-to-global scales. Here we report the discovery of the first hydride (VH2) ever reported in nature. This phase has been found in the ejecta of Cretaceous pyroclastic volcanoes on Mt Carmel, N. Israel, which include abundant xenoliths containing highly reduced mineral assemblages. These xenoliths were sampled by their host magmas at different stages of their evolution but are not genetically related to them. The xenoliths are interpreted as the products of extended interaction between originally mafic magmas and CH4+H2 fluids, derived from a deeper, metal-saturated mantle. The last stages of melt evolution are recorded by coarse-grained aggregates of hibonite (CaAl12O19) + grossite (CaAl4O7) + V-rich spinels ± spheroidal to dendritic inclusions of metallic vanadium (V0), apparently trapped as immiscible metallic melts. The presence of V0 implies low oxygen fugacities and suggests crystallization of the aggregates in a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. The presence of such reducing conditions in the upper mantle has major implications for the transport of carbon, hydrogen and other volatile species from the deep mantle to the surface.
Blank, V.D., Churkin, V.D., Kulnitsky, B.A., Perezhogin, I.A., Kirichenko, A.N., Erohin, S.V., Sorokin, P.B., Popov, M.Y.Pressure induced transformation of graphite and diamond to onions.Crystals MDPI, Vol. 8, 2, 8p. Doi.org/10.3390/cryst8020068Russiacarbon nanotubes

Abstract: In this study, we present a number of experiments on the transformation of graphite, diamond, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes under high pressure conditions. The analysis of our results testifies to the instability of diamond in the 55-115 GPa pressure range, at which onion-like structures are formed. The formation of interlayer sp3-bonds in carbon nanostructures with a decrease in their volume has been studied theoretically. It has been found that depending on the structure, the bonds between the layers can be preserved or broken during unloading.
Bo, T., Katz, R.F., Shorttle, O., Rudge, J.F.The melting column as a filter of mantle trace element heterogeneity.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 19, 12, pp. 4694-4721.Mantlemelting

Abstract: Basaltic lavas, created by melting the convecting mantle, show variability of concentration of trace element that are correlated with their affinity for the liquid phase during melting. The observed variability in lavas and melt inclusions carries information about heterogeneity in the mantle. The difficulty is to disentangle the contributions of source heterogeneity (i.e., spatial variability of mantle composition before melting) and process heterogeneity (i.e., spatial and temporal variability in melt transport). Here we develop an end-member model of the source heterogeneity and show that it is inadequate to explain observations.
Bogdana-Radu, I., Harris, C., Moine, B.N., Costin, G., Cottin, J-Y.Subduction relics in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle evidence from variation in the delta 180 value of eclogite xenolths from the Kaapvaal craton.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol 174, https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00410-019-1552-zAfrica, South Africadeposit - Roberts Victor, Jagersfontein

Abstract: Mantle eclogites are commonly accepted as evidence for ancient altered subducted oceanic crust preserved in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), yet the mechanism and extent of crustal recycling in the Archaean remains poorly constrained. In this study, we focus on the petrological and geochemical characteristics of 58 eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor and Jagersfontein kimberlites, South Africa. Non-metasomatized samples preserved in the cratonic root have variable textures and comprise bimineralic (garnet (gt)-omphacite (cpx)), as well as kyanite (ky)- and corundum (cor)-bearing eclogites. The bimineralic samples were derived from a high-Mg variety, corresponding to depths of ~ 100-180 km, and a low-Mg variety corresponding to depths of ~ 180-250 km. The high-Al (ky-, cor-bearing) eclogites originated from the lowermost part of the cratonic root, and have the lowest REE abundances, and the most pronounced positive Eu and Sr anomalies. On the basis of the strong positive correlation between gt and cpx d18O values (r2 = 0.98), we argue that d18O values are unaffected by mantle processes or exhumation. The cpx and gt are in oxygen isotope equilibrium over a wide range in d18O values (e.g., 1.1-7.6‰ in garnet) with a bi-modal distribution (peaks at ~ 3.6 and ~ 6.4‰) with respect to mantle garnet values (5.1 ± 0.3‰). Reconstructed whole-rock major and trace element compositions (e.g., MgO variation with respect to Mg#, Al2O3, LREE/HREE) of bimineralic eclogites are consistent with their protolith being oceanic crust that crystallized from a picritic liquid, marked by variable degrees of partial melt extraction. Kyanite and corundum-bearing eclogites, however, have compositions consistent with a gabbroic and pyroxene-dominated protolith, respectively. The wide range in reconstructed whole-rock d18O values is consistent with a broadly picritic to pyroxene-rich cumulative sequence of depleted oceanic crust, which underwent hydrothermal alteration at variable temperatures. The range in d18O values extends significantly lower than that of present-day oceanic crust and Cretaceous ophiolites, and this might be due to a combination of lower d18O values of seawater in the Archaean or a higher temperature of seawater-oceanic crust interaction.
Boger, S.D., Maas, R., Pastuhov, M., Macey, P.H., Hirdes, W., Schulte, B., Fanning, C.M., Ferreira, C.A.M., Jenett, T., Dallwig, R.The tectonic domains of southern and western Madagascar.Precambrian Research, Vol. 327, pp. 144-175.Africa, Madagascarplate tectonics

Abstract: Southern and western Madagascar is comprised of five tectonic provinces that, from northeast to southwest, are defined by the: (i) Ikalamavony, (ii) Anosyen, (iii) Androyen, (iv) Graphite and (v) Vohibory Domains. The Ikalamavony, Graphite and Vohibory Domains all have intermediate and felsic igneous protoliths of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-granite composition, with positive eNd, and low Sr and Pb isotopic ratios. All three domains are interpreted to be the products of intra-oceanic island arc magmatism. The protoliths of the Ikalamavony and Graphite Domains formed repectively between c. 1080-980?Ma and 1000-920?Ma, whereas those of the Vohibory Domain are younger and date to between c. 670-630?Ma. Different post-formation geologic histories tie the Vohibory-Graphite and Ikalamavony Domains to opposite sides of the pre-Gondwana Mozambique Ocean. By contrast, the Androyen and Anosyen Domains record long crustal histories. Intermediate to felsic igneous protoliths in the Androyen Domain are of Palaeoproterozoic age (c. 2200-1800?Ma), of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-granite composition, and show negative eNd, moderate to high 87Sr/86Sr and variable Pb isotopic compositions. The felsic igneous protoliths of the Anosyen Domain are of granitic composition and, when compared to felsic gneisses of the Androyen Domain, show consistently lower Sr/Y and markedly higher Sr and Pb isotope ratios. Like the Vohibory and Graphite Domains, the Androyen Domain can be linked to the western side of the Mozambique Ocean, while the Anosyen Domain shares magmatic and detrital zircon commonalities with the Ikalamavony Domain. It is consequently linked to the opposing eastern side of this ocean. The first common event observed in all domains dates to c. 580-520?Ma and marks the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The trace of this suture lies along the boundary between the Androyen and Anosyen Domains and is defined by the Beraketa high-strain zone.
Bohm, C.O., Hartlaub, R.P., Heaman, L.M., Cates, N., Guitreau, M., Bourdon, B., Roth, A.S.G., Mojzsis, S.J., Blichert-Toft, J.The Assean Lake Complex: ancient crust at the northwestern margin of the Superior Craton, Manitoba, Canada.Earths Oldest Rocks, researchgate.com Chapter 28, 20p. Pdf availableCanada, Manitobacraton

Abstract: This chapter describes the Assean Lake Complex (ALC) at ancient crust at the Northwestern margin of the Superior Craton, Manitoba, and Canada. An initial tectonic model for the Assean Lake area indicated that a regionally extensive high-strain zone running through the lake marks the suture between Archean high-grade crustal terranes of the Superior Craton to the southeast and Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Trans-Hudson Orogen to the northwest. Detailed geologic remapping combined with isotopic and geochemical studies led to a re-interpretation of the crust immediately north of the Assean Lake high-strain zone as Mesoarchean. The study area straddles the boundary between the Archean Superior Craton and the ca.1.90-1.84 Ga arc and marginal basin rocks of the Trans-Hudson Orogen, which represent the remains of ca. 1.83-1.76 Ga ocean closure and orogeny. It is indicated that the gneisses of the Split Lake Block consist primarily of meta-igneous protoliths of gabbroic to granitic composition. Tonalite and granodiorite are the most volumetrically dominant, but an anorthosite dome is also present in the northeast. Mapping, isotopic, and age data combined with high-resolution aero-magnetic data indicate that the Mesoarchean ALC is a crustal slice up to 10 km wide, and has a strike length of at least 50 km.
Bologna, M.S., Dragone, G.N., Muzio, R., Peel, E., Nunez, Demarco, P., Ussami, N.Electrical structure of the lithosphere from Rio de la Plata craton to Parana Basin: amalgamation of cratonic and refertilized lithospheres in SW Gondwanaland.Tectonics, Vol. 38, 1, pp. 77-94.South America, Brazilcraton

Abstract: We conducted a magnetotelluric (MT) study from Paleoproterozoic Rio de la Plata Craton, in Uruguay, toward Paleozoic-Mesozoic Paraná Basin, in Brazil. The 850-km-long MT transect comprises 35 evenly spaced broadband electromagnetic soundings sites. In the Paraná Basin, 11 additional long-period measurements were acquired to extend the maximum depth of investigation. All data were inverted using two- and three-dimensional approaches obtaining the electrical resistivity structure from the surface down to 200 km. The Rio de la Plata Craton is >200-km thick and resistive (~2,000 Om). Its northern limit is electrically defined by a lithosphere scale lateral transition and lower crust conductive anomalies (1-10 Om) interpreted as a Paleoproterozoic suture at the southern edge of Rivera-Taquarembó Block. The latter is characterized by an approximately 100-km thick and moderate resistive (>500 Om) upper mantle. The Ibaré shear zone is another suture where an ocean-ocean subduction generated the 120-km thick and resistive (>1,000 Om) São Gabriel juvenile arc. Proceeding northward, a 70- to 80-km thick, 150-km wide, and inclined resistive zone is imaged. This zone could be remnant of an oceanic lithosphere or island arcs accreted at the southern border of Paraná Basin. The MT transect terminates within the southern Paraná Basin where a 150- to 200-km-thick less resistive lithosphere (<1,000 Om) may indicate refertilization processes during plate subduction and ocean closure in Neoproterozoic-Cambrian time. Our MT data support a tectonic model of NNE-SSW convergence for this segment of SW Gondwanaland.
Bossi, J., Campal, N., Civetta, L., Demarchi, G., Girardi, V.V., Mazzucchelli, M., Piccirillo, E.M., Rivalenti, G., Sinigol, S., Teixeira, W., Fragoso-Cesar, A.R.Petrological and geochronological aspects of the Precambrian mafic dyke swarm of Uruguay. IN: Eng. Note Date****BOL.IG-USP, Publ.Esp., Vol. 10, pp. 35-42.South America, Uruguaydykes

Abstract: The subparallel maflc dykes of the Aorida-Durazno-S.José region (SW Uruguay) trend N60-80W and vary in thickness from 0.6 to 50 m. They are part of the mafic dyke swarms intrudlng granitic-gnelssic basement that were mappecl by BOSSI et ai. (1989), In an ares approximately 200 km In length and 100 km in bresdth. Plagioclass, augite, subcalclc augite (plgeonite) and opaques are the maln components of the dykes. Orthopyroxene and oIlvine are very rare. Blotite and homblende are secondary minerais. Quartz-feldspar Intergrowths occur In the coarser gralnecl dykes. The characterlstlc textures are subophitic and intersertal.
Boulard, E., Harmand, M., Guyot, F., Lelong, G., Morard, D., Cabaret, D., Boccato, S., Rosa, A.D., Briggs, R., Pascarelli, S., Fiquet, G.Ferrous iron under oxygen rich conditions in the deep mantle.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 3, pp. 1348-1356.MantleUHP

Abstract: Iron oxides are important end-members of the complex materials that constitute the Earth's interior. Among them, FeO and Fe2O3 have long been considered as the main end-members of the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) states of iron, respectively. All geochemical models assume that high oxygen concentrations are systematically associated to the formation of ferric iron in minerals. The recent discovery of O22- peroxide ions in a phase of chemical formula FeO2Hx stable under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions challenges this general concept. However, up to now, the valences of iron and oxygen in FeO2Hx have only been indirectly inferred from a structural analogy with pyrite FeS2. Here we compressed goethite (FeOOH), an Fe3+-bearing mineral, at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions by using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells, and we probed the iron oxidation state upon transformation of FeOOH in the pressure-temperature stability field of FeO2Hx using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The data demonstrate that upon this transformation iron has transformed into ferrous Fe2+. Such reduced iron despite high oxygen concentrations suggests that our current views of oxidized and reduced species in the lower mantle of the Earth should be reconsidered.
Boulvais, P., Ntiharirizwa, S., Branquet, Y., Poujol, M., Moreli, C., Ntungwanayo, J., Midende, G.Geology and U-Th dating of the Gakara REE deposit.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 64.Africa, BurundiREE

Abstract: The Gakara Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposit is one of the world’s highest grade REE deposits, likely linked to a carbonatitic magmatic-hydrothermal activity. It is located near Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, along the western branch of the East African Rift. Field observations suggest that the mineralized veins formed in the upper crust. Previous structures inherited from the Kibaran orogeny may have been reused during the mineralizing event. The paragenetic sequence and the geochronological data show that the Gakara mineralization occurred in successive stages in a continuous hydrothermal history. The primary mineralization in bastnaesite was followed by an alteration stage into monazite. The U-Th-Pb ages obtained on bastnaesite (602 ± 7 Ma) and on monazite (589 ± 8 Ma) belong to the Pan-African cycle. The emplacement of the Gakara REE mineralization most likely took place during a pre-collisional event in the Pan-African belt, probably in an extensional context.
Bouman, M., Anthonis, A., Chapman, J., Smans, S., De Corte, K.The effect of blue fluorescence on the colour appearance of round brilliant cut diamonds.Journal of Gemology, Vol. 36, 4, pp. 298-315.Globaldiamond fluoresence
Braithwaite, J., Stixrude, L.Melting of CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 4, pp. 2037-2044.Mantlemelting

Abstract: Silicate melting is a major agent of thermal and chemical evolution of the Earth and other rocky planets. The melting temperature of Calcium silicate perovskite, a mineral that exists in Earth's lower mantle, is unknown over most of the pressure range that occurs in the mantle of Earth and super-Earth exoplanets. We use advanced quantum mechanical simulations to predict the melting temperature of this material. We find that the melting temperature increases with increasing pressure but at a rate that diminishes continuously. The liquid and crystal have very similar volumes in the deep portions of planetary mantles, supporting the view that crystals may float at great depth.
Breeding, C.M.Colored diamonds: the rarity and beauty of imperfection.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 275.Globaldiamond color

Abstract: Diamond is often romanticized as a symbol of purity and perfection, with values that exceed all other gemstones. However, even the most flawless and colorless natural diamonds have atomic-level imperfections. Somewhat ironically, the rarest and most valuable gem diamonds are those that contain abundant impurities or certain atomic defects that produce beautiful fancy colors such as red, blue, or green—stones that can sell for millions of dollars per carat. Atomic defects can consist of impurities such as nitrogen or boron that substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond atomic structure (resulting in classifications such as type Ia, type Ib, type IIa, and type IIb) or missing or misaligned carbon atoms. Some defects are created during diamond growth, while others are generated over millions to billions of years as the diamond sits deep in the earth at high temperatures and pressures. Defects may be created when the diamond is rapidly transported to the earth’s surface or by interaction with radioactive fluids very near the earth’s surface. Each defect selectively absorbs different wavelengths of light to produce eye-visible colors. Absorptions from these color-producing defects (or color centers) are detected and identified using the gemological spectroscope or more sensitive absorption spectrometers such as Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) or ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR; figure 1). Some defects not only absorb light but also produce their own luminescence, called fluorescence. For example, the same defect that produces “cape” yellow diamonds also generates blue fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light. In some cases, the fluorescence generated by defects can be strong enough to affect the color of gem diamonds. With the exception of most natural white and black diamonds, where the color is a product of inclusions, colored diamonds owe their hues to either a single type of defect or a combination of several color centers. More than one type of defect can produce a particular color, however. Table 1 provides a list of the most common causes of color in diamond. Subtle differences in atomic defects can drastically affect a diamond’s color. For example, isolated atoms of nitrogen impurities usually produce strong yellow color (“canary” yellow diamonds). If those individual nitrogen atoms occur together in pairs, no color is generated and the diamond is colorless. If instead the individual nitrogen atoms occur adjacent to missing carbon atoms (vacancies), the color tends to be pink to red. Rearrangement of diamond defects is the foundation of using treatments to change the color of diamond. Identification of treatments and separation of natural and synthetic diamond requires a thorough understanding of the atomic-level imperfections that give rise to diamond color and value.
Broom-Fendley, S., Smith, M., Andrade, M.B., Ray, S., Banks, D.A., Loye, E., Atencio, D., Pickles, J.R., Wall, F.Sulphate bearing monazite (Ce) from silicified dolomite carbonatite, Eureka, Namibia: substitution mechanisms, redox state and HREE enrichment.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p. Abstract p. 51.Africa, Namibiadeposit - Eureka
Brun, J-P., Sokoutis, D., Tirel, C., Gueydan, F., Beslier, M-O.Crustal versus mantle core complexes.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 22-45.Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: Deep crustal and mantle rocks are exhumed in core complex mode of extension in three types of structures: metamorphic core complexes, oceanic core complexes and magma poor passive margins. Using available analogue and numerical models and their comparison with natural examples, the present paper reviews the mechanical processes involved in these different types of extensional setting. Three main aspects are considered: i) the primary role of lithosphere rheology, ii) the lithosphere-scale patterns of progressive deformation that lead to the exhumation of deep metamorphic or mantle rocks and iii) the initiation and development of detachment zones. Crustal core complexes develop in continental lithospheres whose Moho temperature is higher than 750 °C with “upper crust-dominated” strength profiles. Contrary to what is commonly believed, it is argued from analogue and numerical models that detachments that accommodate exhumation of core complexes do not initiate at the onset of extension but in the course of progressive extension when the exhuming ductile crust reaches the surface. In models, convex upward detachments result from a rolling hinge process. Mantle core complexes develop in either the oceanic lithosphere, at slow and ultra-slow spreading ridges, or in continental lithospheres, whose initial Moho temperature is lower than 750 °C, with “sub-Moho mantle-dominated” strength profiles. It is argued that the mechanism of mantle exhumation at passive margins is a nearly symmetrical necking process at lithosphere scale without major and permanent detachment, except if strong strain localization could occur in the lithosphere mantle. Distributed crustal extension, by upper crust faulting above a décollement along the ductile crust increases toward the rift axis up to crustal breakup. Mantle rocks exhume in the zone of crustal breakup accommodated by conjugate mantle shear zones that migrate with the rift axis, during increasing extension.
Bussweiler, Y., Grutzner, T., Rohrbach, A., Klenne, S.New insights into cratonic mantle metasomatism from HP-HT reaction experiments between saline fluids and mantle rocks.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 67.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Saline (Cl-rich) fluids potentially play an important role as metasomatic agents in the lithospheric mantle. Natural evidence for deep saline fluids exists as inclusions within diamonds and within groundmass minerals in kimberlites. Previous experimental studies have investigated melting relations in the chloride-carbonate-silicate system at upper mantle conditions, but a systematic experimental study of how saline fluids react with the lithospheric mantle is still lacking. Here, we present high-pressure, high-temperature (HP-HT) reaction experiments between a saline fluid and different mantle rocks (lherzolite, harzburgite, eclogite) at conditions corresponding to the lower cratonic lithosphere. Experiments were performed over a P-T range of 3-6 GPa and 1050-1300 °C using a multi-anvil apparatus. Preliminary results show that the interaction between saline fluid and mantle rocks is very reactive, compared to reactions with silico-carbonate melts. The reaction between saline fluid and lherzolite at 4 GPa and 1200 °C leads to extensive melting. The restite consists mainly of olivine and garnet, whereas pyroxenes are only observed as rare inclusions within garnet. In contrast, reactions between saline fluid and eclogite at 4 GPa and 1200 °C also lead to melting, but the melt is more enriched in Si. The restite consists exclusively of garnet. The experimental results demonstrate how saline fluids react with different components of the lithospheric mantle and support evolutionary models of high density fluids within diamonds.
Butler, J.E., Byrne, K.S., Wang, W., Post, J.E.Complex charge transfer in chameleon diamonds: a model of the color-change process,Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 303.Globaldiamond color

Abstract: A group of natural diamonds known as chameleon diamonds change color from green to yellow based on their exposure to light and heat. These diamonds also emit long-lived phosphorescence after UV excitation. We have observed the optical response of these diamonds to optical and thermal excitation and developed a model to explain the observed phenomena. A principal element of the model is the proposal of an acceptor state (figure 1), which should be observable in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Subsequently, we have observed the NIR absorption to this acceptor state, supporting our model of charge-transfer processes in these diamonds.
Byrnes, J.S., Bezada, M., Long, M.D., Benoit, M.H.The lithosphere beneath the central Appalachian Mountains: constraints from seismic attenuation beneath the MAGIC array.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 519, pp. 297-307.United Statesgeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The passive margin of the eastern coast of the United States is known to be geologically active, with recently rejuvenated topography, intraplate seismicity, and volcanism of Eocene age. This study uses seismic data from the Mid-Atlantic Geophysical Integrative Collaboration (MAGIC) experiment to constrain lateral variations in the attenuation of teleseismic P waves beneath the central Appalachian Mountains to shed light on the structure and dynamics of the upper mantle at this “active” passive margin. We use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate variations in attenuation along with both data and model uncertainties. The quality factor of the upper mantle dramatically decreases over a distance of less than 50 km on the western side of the central Appalachian Mountains, where a low-velocity anomaly has been previously inferred. Extrinsic factors such as scattering or focusing are rejected as explanations for the observations on the basis of finite-difference waveform modeling experiments. The peak in attenuation beneath the crest of the Appalachian Mountains requires that near- to super-solidus conditions occur in the upper mantle and is co-located with volcanism of Eocene age. Our preferred interpretation is that the attenuation reflects the removal of the mantle lithosphere via delamination beneath the mountains, followed by ongoing small-scale convection.
Campbell, D., Zurevinski, S., Elliott, B.Geochemistry and glacial dispersal patterns of kimberlite indicator minerals in the south Slave province, NT.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 68.Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeochemistry

Abstract: Drift prospecting has been utilized throughout the Slave Province in the Northwest Territories for decades, where glaciation and erosion within the past 10 000 years has produced the dispersion of minerals from their original host to till in their surrounding areas. This study is part of the greater Slave Province geophysical, surficial materials and permafrost study: a Northwest Territories Geological Survey (NTGS) led government-academic-industry research program. The purpose of this particular research is to assess kimberlite indicator minerals (KIMs) for any potential signature that may coincide with glacial dispersal trains through quantitative mineralogical and geochemical analysis. The NTGS has recently published data on Southern Slave Province surficial materials, which is useful as a comparative tool in the analysis of potential dispersal trains. Samples were collected from surficial sediment at various targets throughout the 75N and M NTS zones. Sample locations were chosen based on their down-ice position with respect to known kimberlites and gravity anomalies previously identified by the NTGS. Samples were preferentially collected from active and recently inactive frost boils. Overall, twenty-one 10 kg samples were collected and examined for KIMs. Several samples contain KIMs in moderate to high concentrations. Positive identifications of Cr-pyrope, chromite, Mg-ilmenite, and Cr-diopside have been confirmed in preliminary analysis. Of the identified KIMs garnet is the most abundant at 78 %, followed by chromite at 13 %, ilmenite at 8.9 %, and Cr-diopside at 0.5 %. Quantitative analyses are reported on confirmed KIMs: Cr-pyrope, Mg-ilmenite, Cr-diopside, chromite, and olivine for each sample site. The results of the analyses will be used to make further insights into till and kimberlite geochemistry of the Southern Slave Province.
Canil, D., Grundy, R., Johnston, S.T.Thermal history of the Donjek harzburgite massif in ophiolite from Yukon, Canada with implications for the cooling of oceanic mantle lithosphere.Lithos, Vol. 328-329, pp. 33-42.Canada, Yukongeothermometry

Abstract: We examine the partial melting and the cooling history of a ~5?km section of mantle lithosphere preserved in the Donjek massif, part of a Permian ophiolite in the northern Cordillera of Yukon, Canada. The mantle rocks are depleted spinel harzburgite containing <3% clinopyroxene displaying steep rare-earth element (REE) chondrite-normalized profiles and low (Gd/Yb)n (0.02 to 0.07) compared to most other ophiolites. The REE patterns of clinopyroxene can be modeled as 16-20% partial melts of typical depleted mid-ocean ridge (MOR) mantle. The REE exchange between coexisting ortho- and clinopyroxene preserves temperatures (TREE) of 1150-1360?°C, some of the highest values recorded in ophiolites and abyssal peridotites, and show a positive correlation with CaMg exchange (solvus) temperatures (TBKN) of 900-970?°C. The harzburgite represents lithosphere formed at an initial melting temperature of ~ 1350?°C that cooled at rate of 10-1 to 10-4?°C/year as deduced by TREE values with cation diffusion and grain size data. The TREE temperatures and cooling rates for the Donjek massif show a regular systematic variation with depth from the crust-mantle transition along a trend similar to the Samail ophiolite of Oman, consistent with conductive heat transfer beneath a cool lower crust. High near-solidus temperatures and the cooling rates in the massif were a consequence of rapid obduction against oceanic crust along either a transform or low angle detachment soon after melt extraction. Final emplacement of the ophiolite as klippen on underlying continental crust occurred ~ 40?m.y. later.
Carneiro, C.de C., Juliani, C., Carreiro-Araujo, S.A., Monteiro, L.V.S., Crosta, A.P., Fernandes, C.M.D.New crustal framework in the Amazon craton based on geophysical data: evidence of deep east-west trending suture zones.IEEE.org , Vol. 16, 1, pp. 20-24.South America, Brazilcraton

Abstract: The Tapajós mineral province (TMP), in the Brazilian Amazon Craton, comprises NW-SE Paleoproterozoic insular magmatic arcs accreted to the Carajás Archean Province (CAP). We present new geological and geophysical data pointing toward a different evolutionary model for the TMP. Results obtained from magnetic data indicate that NNW-SSE trending structures occur at shallow crustal levels. Furthermore, an E-W structural framework shows up at 15.4 km depth, in disagreement with the accreted island arc orientation. These E-W structures are associated with north-dipping blocks, reflecting ductile compressive tectonics, similar to the tectonic setting found in the CAP. We interpret these E-W structures of the TMP as the continuity westwards of similar structures from the CAP, under the Paleoproterozoic volcanic rocks of the Uatumã Supergroup. Based on this evidence, we propose that Paleoproterozoic arcs have been formed in an Archean active continental margin, instead of in island arcs. This novel tectonic setting for the TMP has significant implications for the tectonic evolution and the metallogenic potential of the southern portion of the Amazon craton, particularly for Paleoproterozoic magmatic-hydrothermal (epithermal and porphyry) precious and base metal systems.
Cartier, L.E., Ali, S.H., Krzemnicki, M.S.Blockchain, chain of custody and trace elements: an overview of tracking and traceability opoortunities in the gem industry.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, 3, pp. 212-227.Globalblockchain

Abstract: Dr. Laurent Cartier and Dr. Saleem Ali of the Knowledge Hub recently co-authored an overview article on traceability in the gem and jewellery industry. This paper was published in the Journal of Gemmology and is entitled 'Blockchain, Chain of Custody and Trace Elements: An Overview of Tracking and Traceability Opportunities in the Gem Industry'. Recent developments have brought due diligence, along with tracking and traceability, to the forefront of discussions and requirements in the diamond, coloured stone and pearl industries. This article provides an overview of current trends and developments in the tracking and traceability of gems, along with an explanation of the terms used in this context. Further, the article discusses current initiatives in the sector and provides an introduction blockchain concepts.
Cate, A.Machine learning for Prospectivity mapping? Not specific to diamondsPDAC Short Course, 56 ppts. PdfGlobaltarget - deposit
Cate, A., Perozzi, L., Gloaguen, E., Blouin, M.Machine learning as a tool for geologists. Not specific to diamondsThe leading Edge, https://dx.doi.org/10.1190/tle36030064.1Globaldata sets

Abstract: Machine learning is becoming an appealing tool in various fields of earth sciences, especially in resources estimation. Six machine learning algorithms have been used to predict the presence of gold mineralization in drill core from geophysical logs acquired at the Lalor deposit, Manitoba, Canada. Results show that the integration of a set of rock physical properties — measured at closely spaced intervals along the drill core — with ensemble machine learning algorithms allows the detection of gold-bearing intervals with an adequate rate of success. Since the resulting prediction is continuous along the drill core, the use of this type of tool in the future will help geologists in selecting sound intervals for assay sampling and in modeling more continuous ore bodies during the entire life of a mine.
Cavalcante, C., Hollanda, M.H., Vauchez, A., Kawata, M.How long can the middle crust remain partially molten during orogeny?Geology, Vol. 46, pp. 839-852.South America, Brazil, Africa, Congomelting

Abstract: Extensive partial melting of the middle to lower crustal parts of orogens, such as of the current Himalaya-Tibet orogen, significantly alters their rheology and imposes first-order control on their tectonic and topographic evolution. We interpret the late Proterozoic Araçuaí orogen, formed by the collision between the São Francisco (Brazil) and Congo (Africa) cratons, as a deep section through such a hot orogen based on U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon ages and Ti-in-zircon and Zr-in-rutile temperatures from the Carlos Chagas anatectic domain. This domain is composed of peraluminous anatexites and leucogranites that typically exhibit interconnected networks of garnet-rich leucosomes or a magmatic foliation. Zirconium-in-rutile temperatures range from 745 to 820 °C, and the average Ti-in-zircon temperature ranges from 712 to 737 °C. The geochronologic and thermometry data suggest that from 597 to 572 Ma this domain was partially molten and remained so for at least 25 m.y., slowly crystallizing between temperatures of ~815 and >700 °C. Significant crustal thickening must have occurred prior to 600 Ma, with initial continental collision likely before 620 Ma, a time period long enough to heat the crust to temperatures required for widespread partial melting at middle crustal levels and to favor a "channel flow" tectonic behavior.
Cawood, P. A., Hawkesworth, C.J.Continental crustal volume, thickness and area, and their geodynamic implications.Gondwana Research, Vol. 66, pp. 116-125.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Models of the volume of continental crust through Earth history vary significantly due to a range of assumptions and data sets; estimates for 3?Ga range from <10% to >120% of present day volume. We argue that continental area and thickness varied independently and increased at different rates and over different periods, in response to different tectonic processes, through Earth history. Crustal area increased steadily on a pre-plate tectonic Earth, prior to ca. 3?Ga. By 3?Ga the area of continental crust appears to have reached a dynamic equilibrium of around 40% of the Earth's surface, and this was maintained in the plate tectonic world throughout the last 3?billion?years. New continental crust was relatively thin and mafic from ca. 4-3?Ga but started to increase substantially with the inferred onset of plate tectonics at ca. 3?Ga, which also led to the sustained development of Earth's bimodal hypsometry. Integration of thickness and area data suggests continental volume increased from 4.5?Ga to 1.8?Ga, and that it remained relatively constant through Earth's middle age (1.8-0.8?Ga). Since the Neoproterozoic, the estimated crustal thickness, and by implication the volume of the continental crust, appears to have decreased by as much as 15%. This decrease indicates that crust was destroyed more rapidly than it was generated. This is perhaps associated with the commencement of cold subduction, represented by low dT/dP metamorphic assemblages, resulting in higher rates of destruction of the continental crust through increased sediment subduction and subduction erosion.
Cawthorn, R.G.Lopolith - a 100 year-old term. Is it still definitive?South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, pp. 253-260.Globalterminology

Abstract: The definition of a lopolith as a large planar-convex (downward) intrusion was coined by F.F. Grout one hundred years ago for the proposed shape of the Duluth gabbro. Subsequent research has challenged the concept that it is a single body, and that it has the lateral extent (under Lake Superior) and shape originally proposed. Other large basic intrusions have shapes, especially for their lower contacts, that are difficult to constrain, and none can be convincingly shown to be of the proposed shape of a lopolith. Their inferred or proposed shapes range from wedge to funnel to planar shaped, with a rarely exposed vertical feeder, and with angles to the sides that vary from minimal to very steep, and variably contorted surface plan. If no intrusions fit the definition, should the term lopolith be discontinued?
Cesare, B., Nestola, F., Mugnaioli, E., Della Ventura, G., Peruzzo, L., Bartoli, O., Viti, C., Johnson, T., Erickson, T.I was not born cubic, said low temperature metamorphic garnet. Geophysical Research Abstracts EGRU2019-3091, Vol. 21, 3091, 1p.Europe, Alpsgarnet

Abstract: Garnet is the paradigmatic cubic mineral of metamorphic and igneous rocks, and is generally regarded as optically isotropic. Nonetheless, evident birefringence is observed, particularly in the rare CaFe 3+ hydrogarnets, which is attributed to the coexistence of two or more cubic phases. A weak birefringence, with rare examples of optical sector zoning, has also been documented in much more common Fe 2+-Mg-Mn garnets, but an adequate explanation for its cause is, so far, lacking. Here we show that optically anisotropic garnets are much more widespread than previously thought, both in blueschists and blueschist-facies rocks, as well as in lower greenschist-facies phyllites, but they are frequently overlooked when working with conventional, 30-µm-thick thin sections. Utilizing a multi-technique approach including optical microstructural analysis, BSEM, EMPA, EBSD, FTIR, TEM, EDT and single-crystal XRD, we demonstrate here that the birefringence in these garnets is related to their tetragonal symmetry, that it is not due to strain, and that crystals are twinned according to a merohedral law. We also show that the birefringent garnets from blueschists and phyllites are anhydrous, lacking any hydrogarnet component, and have compositions dominated by almandine (58-79%) and grossular (19-30%) with variable spessartine (0-21%) and very low pyrope (1-7%). Considering the widespread occurrence of optically anisotropic OH-free garnets in blueschists and phyllites, their common low-grade metamorphic origin, and the occurrence of optically isotropic garnets with similar Ca-rich almandine composition in higher-grade rocks, we conclude that garnet does not grow with cubic symmetry in low-temperature rocks (< 400 • C). The tetragonal structure appears to be typical of Fe-Ca-rich compositions, with very low Mg contents. Cubic but optically sector-zoned garnet in a lower amphibolite-facies metapelite from the eastern Alps suggests that preservation of tetragonal garnet is favored in rocks which did not progress to T> ˜500 • C, where transition to the cubic form, accompanied by change of stable chemical composition, would take place. Our data show that the crystal-chemistry of garnet, its thermodynamics and, in turn, its use in unravelling petrogenetic processes in cold metamorphic environments need to be reassessed.
Chaika, I.F., Izokh, A.E.Dunites of Inagli massif ( Central Aldan), cumulates of lamproitic magma.Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 59, 11, pp. 1450-1460.Russia, Aldanlamproite

Abstract: We consider a hypothesis for the origin of PGE-bearing ultramafic rocks of the Inagli massif (Central Aldan) through fractional crystallization from ultrabasic high-potassium magma. We studied dunites and wehrlites of the Inagli massif and olivine lamproites of the Ryabinovy massif, which is also included into the Central Aldan high-potassium magmatic area. The research is focused on the chemistry of Cr-spinels and the phase composition of Cr-spinel-hosted crystallized melt inclusions and their daughter phases. Mainly two methods were used: SEM-EDS (Tescan Mira-3), to establish different phases and their relationships, and EPMA, to obtain precise chemical data on small (2-100 µm) phases. The obtained results show similarity in chromite composition and its evolutionary trends for the Inagli massif ultramafites and Ryabinovy massif lamproites. The same has been established for phlogopite and diopside from crystallized melt inclusions from the rocks of both objects. Based on the results of the study, the conclusion is drawn that the ultramafic core of the Inagli massif resulted from fractional crystallization of high-potassium melt with corresponding in composition to low-titanium lamproite. This conclusion is consistent with the previous hypotheses suggesting an ultrabasic high-potassium composition of primary melt for the Inagli ultramafites.
Chakhmouradian, A., Reid, K.Wekusko Lake dikes ( central Manitoba): long -overdue kimberlites, oddball carbonatites, or "a missing link?"GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 70.Canada, ManitobaCarbonatite

Abstract: Manitoba, with its 400 000 km2 of exposed Precambrian basement, remains the most conspicuous "white spot" on the map of Canadian kimberlites. The apparent absence of these rocks from the regional geological record seems all the more paradoxical, given the existence of large Phanerozoic kimberlite fields just across the provincial border in eastern Saskatchewan, and abundant evidence of mantle-derived carbonate-rich magmatism (carbonatites and ultramafic lamprophyres) across central Manitoba. Interestingly, rocks of this type were first identified in the Province in 1983 at Wekusko Lake, where they crosscut supracrustal assemblages of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon belt, and were tentatively logged as kimberlites. This interpretation, based to a large extent on their high Cr + Ni contents and the presence of indicator minerals in their modal composition, was challenged in subsequent research. Similar rocks have been recognized recently in similar settings south of Wekusko Lake. These discoveries expanded not only the area of known post-Paleoproterozoic mantle magmatism, but also the petrographic and geochemical spectrum of its products. The primary carbonate phase in these rocks is dolomite that shows a variable degree of subsolidus isotopic re-equilibration under CO2-rich conditions. Fluid-rock interaction was also responsible for the replacement of olivine, phlogopite and groundmass perovskite by secondary minerals and deposition of hydrothermal carbonates in fractures, although the relative timing of these processes with respect to dike emplacement is poorly understood at present. Notably, indicator minerals indistinguishable from those in bona fide kimberlites are common in all of the examined dikes. These recent discoveries may hold key to understanding the genetic relations between kimberlites and primitive carbonatites, and have practical implications for heavy-mineral-based diamond exploration.
Chakraborty, T., Upadhyay, D., Ranjan, S., Pruseth, K.L., Nanda, J.K.The geological evolution of the Gangpur schist belt, eastern India: constraints on the formation of the greater Indian landmass of the Proterozoic.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 37, 1, pp. 113-151.Indiageology

Abstract: The Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) is a Proterozoic suture along which the Northern and Southern Indian Blocks are inferred to have amalgamated forming the Greater Indian Landmass. In this study, we use the metamorphic and geochronological evolution of the Gangpur Schist Belt (GSB) and neighbouring crustal units to constrain crustal accretion processes associated with the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Indian Blocks. The GSB sandwiched between the Bonai Granite pluton of the Singhbhum craton and granite gneisses of the Chhotanagpur Gneiss Complex (CGC) links the CITZ and the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt. New zircon age data constrain the emplacement of the Bonai Granite at 3,370 ± 10 Ma, while the magmatic protoliths of the Chhotanagpur gneisses were emplaced at c. 1.65 Ga. The sediments in the southern part of the Gangpur basin were derived from the Singhbhum craton, whereas those in the northern part were derived dominantly from the CGC. Sedimentation is estimated to have taken place between c. 1.65 and c. 1.45 Ga. The Upper Bonai/Darjing Group rocks of the basin underwent major metamorphic episodes at c. 1.56 and c. 1.45 Ga, while the Gangpur Group of rocks were metamorphosed at c. 1.45 and c. 0.97 Ga. Based on thermobarometric studies and zircon-monazite geochronology, we infer that the geological history of the GSB is similar to that of the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt with the Upper Bonai/Darjing and the Gangpur Groups being the westward extensions of the southern and northern domains of the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt respectively. We propose a three-stage model of crustal accretion across the Singhbhum craton - GSB/North Singhbhum Mobile Belt - GC contact. The magmatic protoliths of the Chhotanagpur Gneisses were emplaced at c. 1.65 Ga in an arc setting. The earliest accretion event at c. 1.56 Ga involved northward subduction and amalgamation of the Upper Bonai Group with the Singhbhum craton followed by accretion of the Gangpur Group with the Singhbhum craton-Upper Bonai Group composite at c. 1.45 Ga. Finally, continent-continent collision at c. 0.96 Ga led to the accretion of the CGC with the Singhbhum craton-Upper Bonai Group-Gangpur Group crustal units, synchronous with emplacement of pegmatitic granites. The geological events recorded in the GSB and other units of the CITZ only partially overlap with those in the Trans North China Orogen and the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia, indicating that these suture zones are not correlatable.
Chambers, E.L., Harmon, N., Keir, D., Rychert, C.A.Using ambient noise to image the northern East African Rift.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 4, pp. 2091-2109.Africageophysics

Abstract: In Ethiopia, the African Continent is rifting apart to slowly form a new ocean basin, which will expand the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. How and why this rifting is occurring remains an important unanswered question in earth science. We know tectonic forces are partly responsible, but magmatism also seems a key ingredient for breaking up Africa. Here we use seismic images obtained from signals pulled out of noise, to understand the crustal structure of the region; In particular, how and where magma is stored in the crust, and its relationship to the different stages of continental breakup visible in the region. We find evidence for long-term melt storage in places where rifting is just beginning in southern Ethiopia; whereas in regions where the crust is thinner due to extensive rifting, magma erupts more regularly. The long-term storage of magma in unrifted crust may help to heat and weaken it, allowing rifting to accelerate and propagate further south. We are also able to image regions with hydrothermal fluids in the shallow parts of the crust in inactive fault zones. These results provide insight into the breakup process and the role magma plays at different stages of rifting.
Chang, S-J, Ferreira, A.M.G.Inference of water content in the mantle transition zone near subducted slabs from anisotropy tomography.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 1189-1201.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Tectonic plates plunge into the mantle at trenches, carrying water from the oceans. Some of this water may go down to the mantle transition zone between 410- and 660-km depth, where minerals have a large water storage capacity. In this study, we use observations of seismic anisotropy, the directional dependency of seismic wave speed, which is sensitive to the water content in the mantle transition zone. We find that the mantle transition zone beneath some subduction zones is drier than previously thought.
Chanturia, V.A., Dvoichenkova, G.P., Morozov, V.V., Kovalchuk, O.E., Podkamenny, Y.A., Yakolev, V.N.Experimental justification of luminophore composition for indication of diamonds in x-ray luminescence separation of kimberlite ore.Journal of Mineral Science, Vol. 54, 3, pp. 458-465.Russialuminescence

Abstract: Organic and inorganic luminophores of similar luminescence parameters as diamonds are selected. Indicators, based on the selected luminophores, are synthesized. Spectral and kinetic characteristics of luminophores are experimentally determined for making a decision on optimal compositions to ensure maximum extraction of diamonds in X-ray luminescence separation owing to extra recovery of non-luminescent diamond crystals. As the components of luminophore-bearing indicators, anthracene and K-35 luminophores are selected as their parameters conform luminescence parameters of diamonds detected using X-ray luminescence separator with standard settings.
Chebotarev, D.A., Veksler, I.V., Wohlgemuth-Uberwasser, C., Doroshkevich, A.G., Koch-Muller, M.Experimental study of trace element distribution between calcite, fluorite and carbonatitic melt in the systemCaCO3+CaF2+Na2CO3+-Ca3(P04)2 at 100MPa.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, 4, doi.org/10. 1007/s00410-018-1530-x 13p.Mantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Here we present an experimental study of the distribution of a broad range of trace elements between carbonatite melt, calcite and fluorite. The experiments were performed in the CaCO3 + CaF2 + Na2CO3 ± Ca3(PO4)2 synthetic system at 650-900 °C and 100 MPa using rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels. Starting mixtures were composed of reagent-grade oxides, carbonates, Ca3(PO4)2 and CaF2 doped with 1 wt% REE-HFSE mixture. The results show that the distribution coefficients of all the analyzed trace elements for calcite and fluorite are below 1, with the highest values observed for Sr (0.48-0.8 for calcite and 0.14-0.3 for fluorite) and Y (0.18-0.3). The partition coefficients of REE gradually increase with increasing atomic number from La to Lu. The solubility of Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta in the synthetic F-rich carbonatitic melts, which were used in our experiments, is low and limited by crystallization of baddeleyite and Nb-bearing perovskite.
Chen, M., Shu, J., Xie, X., Tan, D.Maohokite, a post-spinel polymorph of MgFe2O4 in shocked gneiss from the Xiuyan crater in China.Meteoritics & Planetary Science, doi.10.1111/ maps.13222 8p.Chinamineralogy

Abstract: Maohokite, a post-spinel polymorph of MgFe2O4, was found in shocked gneiss from the Xiuyan crater in China. Maohokite in shocked gneiss coexists with diamond, reidite, TiO2-II, as well as diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar. Maohokite occurs as nano-sized crystallites. The empirical formula is (Mg0.62Fe0.35Mn0.03)2+Fe3+2O4. In situ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction established maohokite to be orthorhombic with the CaFe2O4-type structure. The cell parameters are a = 8.907 (1) Å, b = 9.937(8) Å, c = 2.981(1) Å; V = 263.8 (3) Å3; space group Pnma. The calculated density of maohokite is 5.33 g cm-3. Maohokite was formed from subsolidus decomposition of ankerite Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2 via a self-oxidation-reduction reaction at impact pressure and temperature of 25-45 GPa and 800-900 °C. The formation of maohokite provides a unique example for decomposition of Fe-Mg carbonate under shock-induced high pressure and high temperature. The mineral and its name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA 2017-047). The mineral was named maohokite after Hokwang Mao, a staff scientist at the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, for his great contribution to high pressure research.
Chen, W., Liu, H-Y,m Jiang, S-Y., Simonetti, A., Xu, C., Zhang, W.The formation of the ore-bearing dolomite marble from the giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, Inner Mongolia: insights from micron-scale geochemical data.Mineralium Deposita, in press available, 16p.Asia, Mongoliadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The genesis of Earth’s largest rare earth element (REE) deposit, Bayan Obo (China), has been intensely debated, in particular whether the host dolomite marble is of sedimentary or igneous origin. The protracted (Mesoproterozoic to Paleozoic) and intricate (magmatic to metasomatic) geological processes complicate geochemical interpretations. In this study, we present a comprehensive petrographic and in situ, high-spatial resolution Sr-Pb isotopic and geochemical investigation of the host dolomite from the Bayan Obo marble. Based on petrographic evidence, the dolomite marble is divided into three facies including coarse-grained (CM), fine-grained (FM), and heterogeneous marble (HM). All carbonates are ferroan dolomite with high SrO and MnO contents (>?0.15 wt.%), consistent with an igneous origin. Trace element compositions of these dolomites are highly variable both among and within individual samples, with CM dolomite displaying the strongest LREE enrichment. In situ 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb ratios of the dolomite are generally consistent with mantle values. However, initial 208Pb/204Pb ratios define a large range from 35.45 to 39.75, which may result from the incorporation of radiogenic Pb released from decomposition of monazite and/or bastnäsite during Early Paleozoic metasomatism. Moreover, in situ Sr isotope compositions of dolomite indicate a large range (87Sr/86Sr?=?0.70292-0.71363). CM dolomite is characterized by a relatively consistent, unradiogenic Sr isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr?=?0.70295-0.70314), which is typical for Mesoproterozoic mantle. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios together with radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb signatures for dolomite within FM and HM possibly represents recrystallization during Early Paleozoic metasomatism with the contribution of radiogenic Sr and Pb from surrounding host rocks. Therefore, our in situ geochemical data support a Mesoproterozoic igneous origin for the ore-bearing dolomite marble in the Bayan Obo deposit, which subsequently underwent intensive metasomatism during the Early Paleozoic.
Chen, W., Ying, Y-C., Bai, T., Zhang, J-J., Jiang, S-Y., Zhao, K-D.In situ major and trace element analysis of magnetite from carbonatite related complexes: implications for petrogenesis and ore genesis.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 107, pp. 30-40.Chinacarbonatite

Abstract: Magnetite (Fe3O4) is one of the most common accessory minerals in magmatic rocks, and it can accommodate a wide variety of major, minor and trace elements that can be measured by laser ablation ICP-MS. In this study, we investigate the chemical compositions of magnetite from four carbonatite complexes (Oka, Mushgai Khudag, Hongcheon and Bayan Obo). The minor elements (Mg, Ti, Al, Mn) in magnetite vary significantly both within and between different complexes. High field strength elements (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th) are generally depleted in magnetite from carbonatite complexes, whereas K, Rb, Cs, Ca and P are commonly below detection limits. V and Zn display significant variations from tens to thousands of ppm. Co, Ni and Ga are present in ppm or tens of ppm, whereas Cu, Sr, Y, Ba and Pb are characterized by sub-ppm levels. Mo and Ge are identified at the ppm level, whereas a consistent concentration of 2-5?ppm is observed for Ge. The determined chemical compositions of magnetite from carbonatite complexes are quite distinguishable compared to those formed in silicate and sulfide melts. This is clearly shown using multielement variation diagrams, and the distinct signatures of carbonatite-related magnetite include strong positive anomalies of Mn and Zn and negative anomalies of Cu, Co and Ga. The discriminant diagrams of Ti vs. Zr?+?Hf, Ti vs. Nb?+?Ta and Ni/Cr vs. Ti are applicable for distinguishing magmatic and hydrothermal magnetite in carbonatite-related environments. In addition, the discriminant diagram of Zn/Co vs. Cu/Mo and Cu vs. Zr?+?Hf can be used to distinguish carbonatite-related magnetite from magnetite that formed in other environments.
Chepurov, A., Faryad, S.W., Agashev, A.M.Experimental crystallization of a subcalcic Cr-rich pyrope in the presence of REE bearing carbonatite.Chemical Geology, carbonatite

Abstract: This paper focuses on formation of subcalcic Cr-rich garnet (up to 14.25?wt% Cr2O3) in the model ultramafic system corresponding to natural harzburgite with the presence of REE-bearing fluid phase. The experiments were carried out using a “split-sphere” type multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus (BARS) at a pressure of 5?GPa and a temperature of 1300?°C. Natural serpentine, chromite, corundum and REE-carbonatite were used as starting components. Crystallization of garnet occurred in subsolidus conditions by the reaction of orthopyroxene and spinel in the presence of fluid phase. Composition of fluid was controlled by interaction of water released by decomposition of serpentine with carbonate. By using different amounts of carbonatite (0.5 and 1.5?wt%) as a source of calcium and REE, subcalcic Cr-rich garnets with up to 3.5?wt% CaO were crystallized, which are typical for inclusions of harzburgitic paragenesis in natural diamonds. The experiments demonstrated that the rare earth elements (REE) released from the initial carbonatite were transported by the fluid and were incorporated into the newly formed garnet. The distribution of REE in garnet revealed a vivid enrichment toward the heavy REE (HREE), showing the pattern with a very steep slope. These results confirmed high partitioning of HREE into garnet. The present study indicates that the mantle carbonatites, which contain very high proportions of light REE (LREE) to HREE, can play an important role as source material in formation of REE-rich fluids to crystallize garnets with typical REE patterns in mantle peridotites.
Cheskidov, V.I., Akishev, A.N., Sakantsev, G.G.Use of draglines in mining diamond ore deposits in Yakutia.Journal of Mining Science, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 628-637.Russia, Yakutiamining

Abstract: Potential ranges of use of draglines at steeply dipping diamond ore deposits in Yakutia are discussed. Technology of stripping with direct dumping and rehandling by draglines is substantiated for upper overburden layers. A variant of increasing height of stripping benches on haulage horizons through the use of draglines and crane lines is discussed. A resource saving technology is proposed for mining roundish and extended ore bodies with alternating advance of mining front and with internal dumping. The method of estimating efficient thickness of overburden in case of direct dumping is developed using the layer coefficient of overburden rehandling. Expediency of using blasting for displacement of broken overburden to internal dump is specified.
Chmyz, L., Arnaud, N., Biondo, J.C., Azzone, R.G., Bosch, D.Hf-Pb isotope and trace element constraints on the origin of the Jacupiranga Complex ( Brazil): insights into carbonatite genesis and multi-stage metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle.Gondwana Research, Vol. 71, pp. 16-27.South America, Brazilcarbonatite

Abstract: The Lower Cretaceous Jacupiranga complex, in the central-southeastern portion of the South American Platform, includes carbonatites in close association with silicate rocks (i.e. strongly and mildly silica-undersaturated series). Here we document the first hafnium isotope data on the Jacupiranga complex, together with new trace element and Pb isotope compositions. Even though liquid immiscibility from a carbonated silicate melt has been proposed for the genesis of several Brazilian carbonatites, isotopic and geochemical (e.g., Ba/La ratios, lack of pronounced Zr-Hf and Nb-Ta decoupling) information argues against a petrogenetic relationship between Jacupiranga carbonatites and their associated silicate rocks. Thus, an origin by direct partial melting of the mantle is considered. The isotopic compositions of the investigated silicate samples are coherent with a heterogeneously enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source of rather complex evolution. At least two metasomatic processes are constrained: (1) a first enrichment event, presumably derived from slab-related fluids introduced into the SCLM during Neoproterozoic times, as indicated by consistently old TDM ages and lamprophyre trace signatures, and (2) a Mesozoic carbonatite metasomatism episode of sub-lithospheric origin, as suggested by eNd-eHf values inside the width of the terrestrial array. The Jacupiranga parental magmas might thus derive by partial melting of distinct generations of metasomatic vein assemblages that were hybridized with garnet peridotite wall-rocks.
Chow, R., Fedortchouk, Y., Normandeau, P.Trace element partitioning between apatite and kimberlite-like melts: implications for volatile degassing and formation of different kimberlite facies.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 71.Mantlekimberlites

Abstract: Primary melt composition of kimberlites remains poorly constrained due to the contamination from mantle and crustal rocks, loss of volatiles during emplacement, significant alteration, and the lack of any quenched melts. Additionally, kimberlite bodies have multiple morphologies of which their emplacement mechanism remains elusive. Apatite is a common accessory mineral in kimberlite. Its structure incorporates many trace elements of which partitioning depends on the composition of the melt. Concentrations of trace elements in kimberlitic apatite can help to assess the content of carbonate and silicate components in kimberlite melt. Apatite is also often used as an indicator mineral of magma degassing in igneous systems. As such, it should be applied to kimberlitic systems to study the volatile behaviour during emplacement. However, the existing estimates for the trace elements partitioning in apatite provide controversial estimates for carbonatitic melts and estimates for silicate melts use compositions very different than the composition of kimberlites. This study experimentally determines partition coefficients of trace elements and kimberlite-like melts. The experiments were done in piston cylinder apparatus at 1250-1350 °C and 1-2 Gpa. Partition coefficients for Nb, Sr, Rb, Zr, Sm, Cs, Hf, La, Yb, and Eu were examined in synthetic compositions representing evolved kimberlite melts: three lamproitic compositions (17-23 wt % SiO2 and 9-33 wt % CO2) and a composition modelled after a magmatic kimberlite (14-29 wt % SiO2 and 7-33 wt % CO2). The effects of melt composition, temperature, pressure, water, and oxygen fugacity have been tested. The obtained partition coefficients were applied to natural kimberlitic apatites from Ekati Mine (Canada) and Orapa cluster (Botswana) to model kimberlite melt composition. Observed variation in the presence, textures, and composition of natural apatites relative to depth in kimberlite pipes of differing lithologies is compared to experimental run products to infer crystallization conditions of different kimberlite bodies.
CIMCIM Mineral Exploration Best Practice Guidelines.CIM , Nov. 23, 17p. Pdf Globalvaluation

Abstract: The CIM Mineral Exploration Best Practice Guidelines (the Exploration Guidelines) have been prepared to assist professional geoscientists and engineers to conduct consistently high-quality work in order to maintain public confidence. The Exploration Guidelines are meant to assist professional geoscientists and exploration practitioners in planning, supervising, and executing exploration programs. In Canada, there are generally two types of public resource reporting: “Disclosure”, as defined by NI 43-101, is the reporting of technical information to the public and market participants for securities legislation purposes where a Qualified Person (QP) must be involved, and reporting of exploration information for governmental agencies to support obligations under laws including the Mining Acts of each of the Provinces and Territories. The Exploration Guidelines are also relevant where the results will not be publicly reported but are intended for internal company use. While this document is intended as guidance for work conducted or supervised by geoscientists in Canada, many of the practices described herein can be adapted to mineral exploration activities in other countries. The Exploration Guidelines are not intended to inhibit original thinking, or to prevent the application of new approaches that may develop into fundamental components of successful mineral exploration programs. Rather than provide prescriptive solutions to specific issues, they include general guidelines for current professional practice and to demonstrate and defend the merits of new methods. These guidelines do not preclude individuals and companies from developing more detailed guidelines specific to their own requirements. The initial version of the Exploration Guidelines was prepared by the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Exploration Best Practices Committee and adopted by CIM Council on August 20, 2000. On January 9, 2018, CIM Council formed a new committee, the Mineral Resources and Reserves Committee (CIM MRMR Committee) with a mandate to, among other things, update the Exploration Best Practice Guidelines. The mandate for the committee was accepted by CIM Council on March 2, 2018. The new Exploration Guidelines document was adopted by the CIM Council on November 23, 2018.
Cizkova, H., Bina, C.R.Linked influences on slab stagnation: interplay between lower mantle viscosity structure, phase transitions, and plate coupling.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 509, 1, pp. 88-99.Mantlegeophysics - seismic

Abstract: An endothermic phase transition in mantle material at 660-km depth constitutes a barrier that in most cases prevents the direct penetration of subducted slabs. Seismic tomography shows that subducted material is in many subduction zones trapped at the bottom of the transition zone, just above the 660-km phase boundary. Recent tomographic models however also report subducted material that penetrates to the shallow lower mantle, and there it is observed to flatten at about 1000-km depth. Models of slab dynamics that generally assume sharp rheological transition at 660-km depth, however, mostly predict slab stagnation at the bottom of the transition zone. Multiple lines of evidence, including recent experiments, indicate that viscosity may gradually increase in the uppermost ~300 km of the lower mantle, rather than simply changing abruptly at the upper-lower mantle boundary. Here we present the results of a modeling study focused on the effects of rheological transition between upper and lower mantle material on slab deformation and stagnation. We test the effects of smoothing the viscosity increase over 300 km and shifting it to a depth of 1000 km or even deeper. We show that slab ability to penetrate to the lower mantle is mainly controlled by the trench migration rate, which in turn is affected by crustal viscosity. Coupling between the subducting and overriding plates thus plays a key role in controlling slab penetration to the lower mantle and stagnation in the deep transition zone or shallow lower mantle. Models with strong crust and consequently negligible rollback display penetration to the lower mantle without much hindrance and no stagnation above or below the 660-km interface, regardless of viscosity stratification in the shallow lower mantle. Models with weak crust are characterized by fast rollback, and penetration is very limited as slabs buckle horizontally and flatten above the 660-km boundary. Most interesting from the point of view of shallow lower mantle stagnation are models with intermediate crustal viscosity. Here rollback is efficient, though slower than in weak-crust cases. Horizontally lying slab segments are trapped in the transition zone if the sharp viscosity increase occurs at 660 km, but shifting the viscosity increase to 1000 km depth allows for efficient sinking of the flat-lying part and results in temporary stagnation below the upper-lower mantle boundary at about 1000 km depth.
Coetzee, A., Kisters, A.F.M., Chevallier, L.Sill complexes in the Karoo LIP: emplacement controls and regional implications.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 158, available 14p. pdf Africa, South Africamagmatism

Abstract: Field and sub-surface data from the Victoria West sill complex in the Karoo Large Igneous Province (ca. 180 Ma) of South Africa are used to constrain the emplacement controls of the regional-scale sill complexes in the central Karoo basin. Cross-cutting relationships point to the presence of five distinct and successively emplaced saucer-shaped sills. Growth of the sill complex was achieved through magmatic underaccretion of magma batches below earlier sills and associated uplift of the overlying strata. The magmatic underaccretion suggests that earlier sills were fully crystallized during the emplacement of later magma pulses and that the rigid (high E) dolerites, in particular, acted as stress barriers that impeded further upward propagation of steep feeder sheets. The resulting nested structure of sills-in-sills within a confined area of less than 2000 km2 also suggests the reutilization of the same or similar feeder system even after full crystallization thereof. The emplacement controls of sills in the central Karoo through stress barriers implies that sill emplacement occurred under very low deviatoric stresses or in a mildly compressional stress regime prior to the break-up of Gondwana. The swap from earlier (184-180?Ma), mainly sill complexes to later (182-174?Ma) dykes and dyke swarms is indicative of a switch in the stress field during the early stages of Gondwana break-up. We speculate that loading, thermal subsidence and lithospheric flexure associated with the emplacement of the earlier, stacked and voluminous sill complexes in the Karoo basins may have determined the formation of the large Karoo dyke swarms, particularly when coinciding with deeper crustal structures. The original and inherited basin geometry and lithospheric structure is pivotal in the development of later Karoo magmatism.
Cohen, H., Ruthstein, S.Evaluating the color and nature of diamonds via EPR spectroscopy.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 276.Globaldiamond color

Abstract: Diamond characterization is carried out via a wide variety of gemological and chemical analyses. An important analytical tool for this purpose is spectroscopic characterization utilizing both absorption and emission measurements. The main techniques are UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy, though Raman as well as cathodoluminescence spectroscopy are also used. We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to compare the properties of treated colored diamonds to the pretreated stones. The colors studied were blue, orange, yellow, green, and pink. The EPR technique determines radicals (atoms with unpaired electrons) and is very sensitive, capable of measuring concentrations as low as ~1 × 10–17 radicals/cm3. The results, shown in table 1, indicate that all the carbon radicals determined are affected by adjacent nitrogen atoms, with the spectra showing a hyperfine structure attributed to the presence of nitrogen. The highest concentration of radicals and hyperfine structures is observed in pink and orange treated diamonds. The results concerning nitrogen concentration were correlated with the infrared spectra, which determine the absorption peaks of the diamonds as well as those of the nitrogen contamination in their crystal structure.
Coint, N., Dahlgren, S.Assessing the distribution of REE mineralization in Fe-dolomite carbonatite drill cores from the Fen complex, Telemark, southern Norway.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 72.Europe, NorwayCarbonatite

Abstract: The Fen Complex is a 2 km-wide subcircular intrusion composed mainly of sovite, Fe-dolomite carbonatite, damtjernite (lamprophyre) and minor alkaline rocks such as nepheline syenite and ijolite, emplaced at 580 Ma through Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses forming the Fennoscandian Shield. Previous bulk-rock isotopic study indicates that the carbonatite magma originated in the upper mantle [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7029] and underwent contamination during its ascent throughout the crust. This study focuses on two deep cores (1000 m and 700 m), drilled to assess the distribution of REE mineralizations in the Fe-dolomite carbonatite. Hyperspectral data, allowing investigators to log cores objectively and quantify lithologies, were acquired using a SisuRock Gen 2 system composed of three cameras gathering data in the following wavelengths: RGB, Near-Visible Short-Wave Infrared (VN-SWIR) and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). In addition, every meter of the first core and 500 m of the second one were analyzed for bulk-rock geochemistry to characterize the distribution of elements. In this study, we compare the results obtained by the imaging technique with the bulk-rock data and present preliminary results of the textural variations observed in rare-earth mineralizations. Preliminary results indicate that neither of the deep bore holes reached the fenitized host-rock and that the Fe-dolomite carbonatite continues at depth. In both cores, the dominant carbonate is Fe-rich dolomite, although calcite and Fe-Mg carbonate have been observed locally. REE-minerals, composed mainly of bastnäsite, parisite/synchisite and monazite, display variable textural relationships and often occur together in clusters associated with barite and minor Fe-oxides, sulfides (pyrite ± sphalerite) and locally thorite.
Cole, B.G., Andrews, G.D.M., Brown, S.R., Prellwitz, H.The Masontown kimberlite, Fayette County, Pennsylvania: insights into emplacement processes by the characterization of xenocryst sizes and shapes using computed tomography.Joint 53rd Annual South-Central/53rd North Central/71st Rocky Mtn GSA section Meeting, Vol. 331 United States, Pennsylvaniadeposit - Masontown

Abstract: The late Jurassic Masontown dyke in Fayette County, SW Pennsylvania, preserves abundant rounded, mm to cm-diameter masses of olivine and serpentine cemented together in serpentine-rich kimberlite groundmass. Each mass is interpreted to be a partially serpentinized olivine xenocryst or peridotite xenocryst. Each rounded clast is jacketed by a distinct rim of serpentine; probably originally olivine. The (1) ubiquitous roundness of clasts and (2) the presence of distinct serpentine jackets around each clast, supports emplacement of the dyke by a 'kimberlite factory' (Brett et al., 2015). Due to the paucity of available samples, we have used non-destructive imaging by computed tomography (CT) at the National Energy Technology Lab in Morgantown, WV, to construct 3D models of the internal structure of hand samples loaned from the Smithsonian Institute's Museum of Natural History. MicroCT (1-3 micron resolution) and industrial CT (~15 microns resolution) serial scans processed in ImageJ and Blob3D allow for 3D characterizations of individual clasts, including their shape factors (sphericity, roughness, etc.) and sizes (i.e. crystal size distributions).
Coltice, N., Larrouturou, G., Debayle, E., Garnero, E.J.Interactions of scales of convection in the Earth's mantle.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 669-677.Mantleconvection

Abstract: The existence of undulations of the geoid, gravity and bathymetry in ocean basins, as well as anomalies in heat flow, point to the existence of small scale convection beneath tectonic plates. The instabilities that could develop at the base of the lithosphere are sufficiently small scale (< 500 km) that they remain mostly elusive from seismic detection. We take advantage of 3D spherical numerical geodynamic models displaying plate-like behavior to study the interaction between large-scale flow and small-scale convection. We find that finger-shaped instabilities develop at seafloor ages > 60 Ma. They form networks that are shaped by the plate evolution, slabs, plumes and the geometry of continental boundaries. Plumes impacting the boundary layer from below have a particular influence through rejuvenating the thermal lithosphere. They create a wake in which new instabilities form downstream. These wakes form channels that are about 1000 km wide, and thus are possibly detectable by seismic tomography. Beneath fast plates, cold sinking instabilities are tilted in the direction opposite to plate motion, while they sink vertically for slow plates. These instabilities are too small to be detected by usual seismic methods, since they are about 200 km in lateral scale. However, this preferred orientation of instabilities below fast plates could produce a pattern of large-scale azimuthal anisotropy consistent with both plate motions and the large scale organisation of azimuthal anisotropy obtained from recent surface wave models.
Condie, K.C., Puetz, S.J.Time series analysis of mantle cycles Part II: the geologic record in zircons, large igneous provinces and mantle lithosphere.Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 10, pp. 1327-1336Mantleboundary

Abstract: Igneous and detrital zircons have six major U/Pb isotopic age peaks in common (2700 Ma, 1875 Ma, 1045 Ma, 625 Ma, 265 Ma and 90 Ma). For igneous rocks, each age peak is comprised of subpeaks with distinct geographic distributions and a subpeak age range per age peak =100 Myr. There are eight major LIP age peaks (found on = 10 crustal provinces) of which only four are in common to major detrital zircon age peaks (2715 Ma, 1875 Ma, 825 Ma, 90 Ma). Of the whole-rock Re depletion ages, 58% have corresponding detrital zircon age peaks and 55% have corresponding LIP age peaks. Ten age peaks are found in common to igneous zircon, detrital zircon, LIP, and Re depletion age time series (3225 Ma, 2875 Ma, 2145 Ma, 2085 Ma, 1985 Ma, 1785 Ma, 1455 Ma, 1175 Ma, 825 Ma, and 90 Ma), and these are very robust peaks on a global scale as recorded in both crustal and mantle rocks. About 50% of the age peaks in each of these time series correspond to predicted peaks in a 94-Myr mantle cycle, including four of the ten peaks in common to all four time series (2875 Ma, 1785 Ma, 825 Ma and 90 Ma). Age peak widths and subpeak ranges per age peak suggest that mantle events responsible for age peaks are <100 Myr and many <50 Myr in duration. Age peak geographic distributions show three populations (=1000 Ma, 2500-1000 Ma, =2500 Ma), with the number of new provinces in which age peaks are represented decreasing with time within each population. The breaks between the populations (at 2.5 Ga and 1 Ga) fall near the onsets of two transitions in Earth history. The First Transition may represent a change from stagnant-lid tectonics into plate tectonics and the Second Transition, the onset of subduction of continental crust. The major factor controlling geographic distribution of age peaks is the changing locations of orogeny. Before ~2 Ga, age subpeaks and peaks are housed in orogens within or around the edges of crustal provinces, mostly in accretionary orogens, but beginning at 1.9 Ga, collisional orogens become more important. The coincidence in duration between magmatic flare-ups in Phanerozoic arcs and duration of age subpeaks (10-30 Myr) is consistent with subpeaks representing periods of enhanced arc-related magmatism, probably caused by increased subduction flux. The correlation of isotopic age peaks between time series supports a cause and effect relationship between mantle plume activity, continental magma production at convergent margins, and crustal deformation. Correlation of over half of the detrital zircon age peaks (and six of the nine major peaks) with Re depletion age peaks supports an interpretation of the zircon peaks as crustal growth rather than selective preservation peaks.
Cone, D., Kopylova, M., Swerjensky, D.Determining the origin of megacrysts from the Muskox kimberlite pipe, northwest Canada.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 73.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Muskox

Abstract: Megacrysts are mineral grains of garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, olivine, phlogopite and zircon larger than 10 mm frequently observed in kimberlite occurrences across the world, with reported sizes commonly exceeding 10 cm. Despite their common occurrence and decades of research into their origin, megacryst petrogenesis is still a debated topic amongst petrologists. A strictly phenocrystal origin is doubted, with recent research suggesting a multi-stage model involving isobaric formation over a wide temperature range, followed by metasomatism of a protokimberlite fluid that replaces mantle minerals. Our project aims to contribute to ongoing research by modeling the metasomatism of the ambient peridotitic mantle affected by the fluid using major and trace element data obtained from megacrysts from the Jurassic Muskox kimberlite pipe of the Slave province of Canada. We report major element compositions of 24 megacryst samples of garnet, olivine, clinopyroxene and ilmenite and employ DEW (Deep Earth Water) modelling to establish the composition of the potential metasomatizing agent and mineral trends that result from the mantle metasomatism. This project has important implications for not only constraining the composition of the source fluids, but also understanding the reactions in the cratonic mantle leading to the kimberlite melt formation.
Conover, E.Diamond detectors could aid the search for dark matter.sciencenews.org, June 17, 1p.Spacediamond morphology
Conover, E.The search for mysterious dark matter underdogs steps up.sciencenews.org, Vol. 99, April 9, 1p.Spacediamond morphology
Cook, T.Explaining the genesis of superdeep diamonds.EOS, 100, https://doi.org/101029 /2019EO117779Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Real-time tracking during diamond anvil cell experiments indicates reaction rates may control the unusual depth distribution of the extremely rare diamonds that form deep within Earth’s mantle.
Copjakova, R., Kotkova, J.Composition of barium mica in multiphase solid inclusions fro orogenic garnet peridotites as evidence of mantle metasomatism in a subduction zone setting.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 173, 12, pp. 106-Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Multiphase solid inclusions in minerals formed at ultra-high-pressure (UHP) provide evidence for the presence of fluids during deep subduction. This study focuses on barian mica, which is a common phase in multiphase solid inclusions enclosed in garnet from mantle-derived UHP garnet peridotites in the Saxothuringian basement of the northern Bohemian Massif. The documented compositional variability and substitution trends provide constraints on crystallization medium of the barian mica and allow making inferences on its source. Barian mica in the multiphase solid inclusions belongs to trioctahedral micas and represents a solid solution of phlogopite KMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2, kinoshitalite BaMg3(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2 and ferrokinoshitalite BaFe3(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2. In addition to Ba (0.24-0.67 apfu), mica is significantly enriched in Mg ( X Mg 0.85 to 0.95), Cr (0.03-0.43 apfu) and Cl (0.04-0.34 apfu). The substitution vector involving Ba in the I-site which describes the observed chemical variability can be expressed as BaFeIVAlClK-1Mg-1Si-1(OH)-1. A minor amount of Cr and VIAl enters octahedral sites following a substitution vector VI(Cr,Al)2?VI(Mg,Fe)-3 towards chromphyllite and muscovite. As demonstrated by variable Ba and Cl contents positively correlating with Fe, barian mica composition is partly controlled by its crystal structure. Textural evidence shows that barian mica, together with other minerals in multiphase solid inclusions, crystallized from fluids trapped during garnet growth. The unusual chemical composition of mica reflects the mixing of two distinct sources: (1) an internal source, i.e. the host peridotite and its garnet, providing Mg, Fe, Al, Cr, and (2) an external source, represented by crustal-derived subduction-zone fluids supplying Ba, K and Cl. At UHP-UHT conditions recorded by the associated diamond-bearing metasediments (c. 1100 °C and 4.5 GPa) located above the second critical point in the pelitic system, the produced subduction-zone fluids transporting the elements into the overlying mantle wedge had a solute-rich composition with properties of a hydrous melt. The occurrence of barian mica with a specific chemistry in barium-poor mantle rocks demonstrates the importance of its thorough chemical characterization.
Cordani, U.G., Ernesto, M., Da Silva Dias, M.A.F., de Alkmim, F.F., Medonca, C.A., Albrecht, R.Un pouco de historia: as Ciencias da Terra no Brasil colonial e no Imperio. ( IN PORT) History of Brazil gold and diamondsEstudos Avancados ( Ensino de Geosciencias na universidade), Vol. 32, (94), pp. 309-330. pdf available in PORT.South America, Brazilhistory
Cracknell, A.P.The development of remote sensing in the last 40 years.International Journal of remote sensing, Vol. 39, 23, pp. 8387-8427.GlobalRemote sensing

Abstract: This editorial has its origins in a keynote presentation entitled ‘The Evolution of the Development of Remote Sensing Technologies - the Last 40 years’ which I gave at the 9th International Conference and Exhibition on Geospatial and Remote Sensing (9 IGRSM 2018) in Kuala Lumpur 24-25 April 2018 ‘Geospatial Enablement’. The editorial is not intended to be a definitive history of remote sensing from the beginning up to the day of its submission for publication. Rather it represents a personal account to try to enable present-day practitioners of remote sensing to gain a slight appreciation of what went before the time when they were introduced to the subject. The fun in our group in the 1980s was being able to explore many possible new applications of remote sensing, some of which turned out to be successful and some of which turned out to be failures - for various reasons. At a first glance it may seem that the list of references is woefully inadequate. However this is not an encyclopaedic review of remote sensing as it now is, but an attempt to recall some of the history of how we got here. The references are only meant to document some of the things that are said. For other information we assume that readers will consult whatever search engine, Google, etc., that they commonly use. I chose 40 years because it seemed to me that 1978 was a landmark year for remote sensing. In that year three very important new satellite systems were launched into space, the TIROS-N satellite with the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) on board, the SEASAT satellite and the NIMBUS-7 satellite with the CZCS (Coastal Zone Colour Scanner) on board. In addition to all these, the third satellite in the Landsat programme (Landsat 3) was launched in March 1978. Of rather less importance, it was the year of my very first remote sensing project which involved attempting to use CZCS data to study water quality parameters; we learned the hard way about the difficulties involved in conducting field experiments on a rapidly changing environmental system simultaneously with satellite overflights. 1978 was also just before the launch of the International Journal of Remote Sensing (IJRS) in 1980 and so the initial work on the start up of the IJRS was being done in 1978. This editorial is therefore divided into three parts (a) Part 1 remote sensing before 1978, (b) Part 2 1978, the year of the launch of three very important polar-orbiting satellites and (c) Part 3 remote sensing since 1978. Textbooks sometimes define remote sensing to mean the observation of, or gathering of information about, a target by a device separated from it by some distance. In practice it is usually taken to be more restricted than that. It is sometimes claimed that the expression ‘remote sensing’ was coined by geographers at the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the 1960s at about the time that the use of ‘spy’ satellites was beginning to move out of the military sphere and into the civilian sphere. Remote sensing is often regarded as being synonymous with the use of artificial satellites, but there is an ongoing history of air photos that preceded the satellites and goes right up to the recent development of UAVs (drones) which are likely to supersede satellites in some areas
Crameri, F., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.Abrupt upper plate tilting during slab transition zone collision.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 199-211.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The sinking remnant of a surface plate crosses and interacts with multiple boundaries in Earth's interior. Here, we specifically investigate the prominent dynamic interaction of the sinking plate portion with the upper-mantle transition zone and its corresponding surface elevation signal. We unravel, for the first time, that the collision of the sinking slab with the transition zone induces a sudden, dramatic downward tilt of the upper plate towards the subduction trench. Unraveling this crucial interaction was only possible thanks to state-of-the-art numerical modelling and post-processing. The new model that is introduced here to study the dynamically self-consistent temporal evolution of subduction features accurate subduction-zone topography, robust single-sided plate sinking, stronger plates close to laboratory values, an upper-mantle phase transition, and simple continents at a free surface. To distinguish the impact of the new physical model features, three different setups are used: the simplest model setup includes a basic high-viscosity lower mantle, the second adds a 660-km phase transition, and the third includes, additionally, a continental upper plate. Common to all models is the clear topographic signal upon slab-transition-zone interaction: the upper plate tilts abruptly towards the subduction trench by about 0.05° and over around 10 Ma. This dramatic increase in upper-plate tilt can be related to the slab-induced excitation of the high-viscosity lower mantle, which introduces a wider flow pattern. A large change in horizontal extent of inundation of up to 900 km is observed as a direct consequence of the upper-plate tilting. Such an abrupt variation in surface topography and inundation extent should be clearly visible in temporal records of large-scale surface elevation and might explain continental tilting as observed in Australia since the Eocene and North America during the Phanerozoic.
Crosta, A.P., Reimold, W.U., Vasconcelos, M.A.R., Hauser, N., Oliveira, G.J.G.Impact cratering: the South American record - Part 2. Brazil was covered in Part 1. Geochemistry, Vol. 79, pp. 191-220.South Americameteorite

Abstract: In the first part of this review of the impact record of South America, we have presented an up-to-date introduction to impact processes and to the criteria to identify/confirm an impact structure and related deposits, as well as a comprehensive examination of Brazilian impact structures. The current paper complements the previous one, by reviewing the impact record of other countries of South America and providing current information on a number of proposed impact structures. Here, we also review those structures that have already been discarded as not being formed by meteorite impact. In addition, current information on impact-related deposits is presented, focusing on impact glasses and tektites known from this continent, as well as on the rare K-Pg boundary occurrences revealed to date and on reports of possible large airbursts. We expect that this article will not only provide systematic and up-to-date information on the subject, but also encourage members of the South American geoscientific community to be aware of the importance of impact cratering and make use of the criteria and tools to identify impact structures and impact deposits, thus potentially contributing to expansion and improvement of the South American impact record.
Crowell, R.Secrets from the New Madrid seismic zone's quaking past.EOS, https://doi.org/ 10.1029/2019EO120349 3p.United States, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennesseegeophysics, seismic
Cutts, J.A., Smit, M.A., Kooijman, E., Schmitt, M.Two stage cooling and exhumation of deeply subducted continents.Tectonics, Vol. 38, 3, pp. 863-877.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The burial and exhumation of continental crust during collisional orogeny exert a strong control on the dynamics of mountain belts and plateaus. Constraining the rates and style of exhumation of deeply buried crust has proven difficult due to complexities in the local geology and thermochronometric methods typically used. To advance this field, we applied trace-element and U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses to rutile from eclogite and amphibolite samples from the Western Gneiss Complex of Norway—an archetypal continental (ultra)high-pressure (UHP) terrane. Peak temperature and timing of midcrustal cooling were constrained for samples collected along a subduction- and exhumation-parallel transect, using Zr-in-rutile thermometry and U-Pb rutile geochronology, respectively. Peak temperatures decrease from 830 °C in the UHP domain to 730 °C at the UHP-HP transition, remain constant at 730 °C across most of the terrane, and decrease to 620 °C at the eclogite-out boundary. U-Pb results show that most of the terrane cooled through 500 °C at 380-375 Ma except for the lowest grade region, where cooling occurred approximately 20 million years earlier. The results indicate that exhumation was a two stage process, involving (1) flexural rebound and slab flattening at depth combined with foreland-directed extrusion, followed by (2) synchronous cooling below 500 °C across the, by then, largely flat-lying Western Gneiss Complex. The latter implies and requires relatively homogeneous mass removal across a large area, consistent with erosion of an overlying orogenic plateau. The Caledonides were at near-equatorial latitudes at the time. A Caledonian paleo-plateau thus may represent a so far unrecognized factor in Devonian and Carboniferous atmospheric circulation and climate forcing.
da Silva, B.V., Hackspacher, P.C., Siqueira Riberio, M.C., Glasmacher, U.A., Goncalves, A.O., Doranti-Tiritan, C., de Godoy, D.F., Constantino, R.R.Evolution of the southwestern Angolan margin: episodic burial and exhumation is more realistic than long term denudation.International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 108, pp. 89-113.Africa, Angolathermochronology

Abstract: There are two main points of view regarding how continental margins evolve. The first one argues that the present-day margins have been developed by long-term denudation since a major exhumation episode, probably driven by rifting or another relevant tectonic event. The second one argues that continental margins underwent alternating burial and exhumation episodes related to crustal tectonic and surface uplift and subsidence. To demonstrate that the proximal domain of the southwestern Angolan margin has evolved in a polycyclic pattern, we present a review of geological and thermochronological information and integrate it with new combined apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He data from Early Cretaceous volcanic and Precambrian basement samples. We also provide hypotheses on the possible mechanisms able to support the vertical crustal movements of this margin segment, which are also discussed based on some modern rifting models proposed for Central South Atlantic. The central apatite fission-track ages range from 120.6?±?8.9 to 272.9?±?21.6 Ma, with the mean track lengths of approximately 12 µm. The single-grain apatite (U-Th)/He ages vary between 52.2?±?1 and 177.2?±?2.6 Ma. The integration of the thermochronological data set with published geological constraints supports the following time-temperature evolution: (1) heating since the Carboniferous-Permian, (2) cooling onset in the Early Jurassic, (3) heating onset in the Early Cretaceous, (4) cooling onset in the Mid- to Late Cretaceous, (5) heating onset in the Late Cretaceous, and (6) cooling onset in the Oligocene-Miocene. The thermochronological data and the geological constraints, support that the proximal domain of the southwestern Angolan margin was covered in the past by pre-, syn-, and post-rift sediments, which were eroded during succeeding exhumation events. For this margin segment, we show that a development based on long-term denudation is less realistic than one based on burial and exhumation episodes during the last 130 Myr.
Dal Zilio, L., Faccenda, M., Capitanio, F.The role of deep subduction in supercontinent breakup.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 312-324.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The breakup of continents and their subsequent drifting plays a crucial role in the Earth's periodic plate aggregation and dispersal cycles. While continental aggregation is considered the result of oceanic closure during subduction, what drives sustained divergence in the following stages remains poorly understood. In this study, thermo-mechanical numerical experiments illustrate the single contribution of subduction and coupled mantle flow to the rifting and drifting of continents. We quantify the drag exerted by subduction-induced mantle flow along the basal surface of continental plates, comparing models of lithospheric slab stagnation above the upper-lower mantle boundary with those where slabs penetrate into the lower mantle. When subduction is upper-mantle confined, divergent basal tractions localise at distances comparable to the effective upper mantle thickness (~ 500 km), causing the opening of a marginal basin. Instead, subduction of lithosphere in the lower mantle reorganises the flow into a much wider cell localising extensional stresses at greater distances from the trench (~ 3000 km). Sub-continental tractions are higher and more sustained over longer time periods in this case, and progressively increase as the slab sinks deeper. Although relatively low, basal-shear stresses when integrated over large plates, generate tension forces that may exceed the strength of the continental lithosphere, eventually leading to breakup and opening of a distal basin. The models illustrate the emergence of a similar mechanism, which results in the formation of back-arc basins above upper-mantle confined subduction, and scales to much larger distances for deeper subduction. Examples include the Atlantic Ocean formation and drifting of the South and North American plates during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Farallon plate subduction.
de Wit, M.In the world of diamonds, the Big and Beautiful size does matter!Junior Indaba held Johannesburg June 4, 35 ppts. PdfGlobaldiamonds notable
Deales, J., Lenardic, A., Moore, W.Assessing the intrinsic uncertainty and structural stability of planetary models: 1) parameterized thermal/tectonic history models.Researchgate preprint, 21p. Pdf availableMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Thermal history models, that have been used to understand the geological history of Earth, are now being coupled to climate models to map conditions that allow planets to maintain surface water over geologic time - a criteria considered crucial for life. However, the lack of intrinsic uncertainty assessment has blurred guidelines for how thermal history models can be used toward this end. A model, as a representation of something real, is not expected to be complete. Unmodeled effects are assumed to be small enough that the model maintains utility for the issue(s) it was designed to address. The degree to which this holds depends on how unmodeled factors affect the certainty of model predictions. We quantify this intrinsic uncertainty for several parameterized thermal history models (a widely used subclass of planetary models). Single perturbation analysis is used to determine the reactance time of different models. This provides a metric for how long it takes low amplitude, unmodeled effects to decay or grow. Reactance time is shown to scale inversely with the strength of the dominant feedback (negative or positive) within a model. A perturbed physics analysis is then used to determine uncertainty shadows for model outputs. This provides probability distributions for model predictions and tests the structural stability of a model. That is, do model predictions remain qualitatively similar, and within assumed model limits, in the face of intrinsic uncertainty. Once intrinsic uncertainty is accounted for, model outputs/predictions and comparisons to observational data should be treated in a probabilistic way.
Decree, S., Demaiffe, D., Tack, L., Nimpagaritse, G., De Paepe, P., Bouvais, P., Debaille, V.The Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu alkaline plutonic complex ( Burundi) revisited: large scale syntectonic emplacement, magmatic differentiation and late stage circulations of fluids.Precambrian Research, Vol. 325, pp. 150-171.Africa, Burundicarbonatite

Abstract: The Upper Ruvubu Alkaline Plutonic Complex (URAPC) in Burundi consists of three separate intrusions, each with a specific emplacement age and petrological composition. Three main units are recognized: an outer unit with silica-saturated plutonic rocks (from gabbro to granite), an inner unit with silica-undersaturated plutonic rocks (feldspathoidal syenite with subordinate feldspathoidal monzonite and ijolite) and a carbonatitic body in the subsoil, known by drilling. The URAPC is quite large in size (~24?km long and up to 10?km wide). It is considered to have been intruded syntectonically in an overall extensional context, thanks to the kilometric shear zones that accommodated its emplacement. Radiometric ages from literature range from 748 to 705?Ma and point to structurally-controlled magmatic differentiation followed by long-lived circulations of late-stage fluids postdating the emplacement of a part of the undersaturated rocks and the carbonatites. In the north-western part of the outer unit, gabbro likely has been emplaced at a deeper structural level than the granite, which represents a more apical structural level of emplacement. This petrological, geochemical and isotopic (Sr-Nd-Hf) study concentrates on the processes that generated the URAPC: (i) fractional crystallization, evidenced by the chemical evolution trends of the major and trace elements, and by marked P, Ti and Ba anomalies in the trace element patterns; (ii) crustal assimilation/contamination, as shown by the wide range of Nd isotope compositions and the general increase of the Sr isotope ratios with increasing SiO2 contents, and (iii) late-magmatic/hydrothermal alteration inducing an increase of the Sr isotope composition without changing significantly the Nd isotope composition. The isotopic data are consistent with an asthenospheric mantle source, though less depleted than the Depleted Mantle (DM), contaminated by the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM). The silicate and carbonate magmatic series are cogenetic. The outer unit is clearly more contaminated than the inner unit, whereas the carbonatitic body could have evolved by liquid immiscibility. The URAPC lies within East Africa’s Western Rift Valley, which is marked by 23 alkaline plutonic complexes. Their emplacement has been ascribed to reactivation of Proterozoic lithospheric weakness zones resulting from the breakup of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia supercontinent.
Dekkers, M.J.Extraordinary Polar wander during the Late Jurassic?EOS, Apr. 28, 3p.Globalgeophysics - gravity

Abstract: Knowing how much Earth’s rotation axis has moved in the geological past - the so-called "polar wander" - has important implications for understanding geological processes. For example, it exposes significant areas on Earth to rapidly changing climatic conditions. The polar shift is a consequence of the Earth responding to a changed center of gravity, caused by processes such as slab-break-off...(no abstract, good graphics)
Deljanin, B., Chapman, J.Steps in screening and ID of laboratory-grown diamonds with synthetic diamond ID kit.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 305-6.Globalsynthetics

Abstract: Laboratory-grown diamonds are created using either high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). With the influx of manmade diamonds on the market over the past few years, instrument producers and labs have launched screening and detection instruments to help dealers and jewelers spot HPHTor CVD-grown specimens. Most standard instruments are inaccurate testers or just type I and type II screening devices that do not give a definite answer about diamond genesis. Over the last four annual Mediterranean Gemmological and Jewellery Conferences and more than 30 workshops given in 17 countries, we have assembled a portable new Synthetic Diamond Identification Kit. The kit comprises two portable instruments and two booklets: 1) A PL inspector (mini UV lamp with magnifier) to inspect laboratory-grown, treated, and natural diamonds using long- and short-wave fluorescence and phosphorescence 2) A 2017 handbook with images and explanation of longand short-wave reactions of diamonds of all types 3) A mini foldable polariscope with portable light to separate natural diamonds using characteristic birefringence patterns from HPHT and CVD diamonds 4) A 2010 handbook with images and explanations of crosspolarized filter reactions of diamonds of all types The combination of this kit with professional training could identify all HPHT-grown diamonds and most CVD-grown diamonds on the market, loose or mounted. Also available are melee and jewelry inspectors consisting of larger UV lamps with magnifiers designed for identification of small loose or mounted diamonds. Different diamond types and subtypes can exhibit different birefringence under cross-polarized filters. A clear majority of natural diamonds exhibit some degree of internal strain, with type II natural diamonds showing a weak “tatami” pattern. HPHTgrown diamonds are free of such strain, and CVD-grown diamonds show mostly coarse columnar patterns. Most natural diamonds have a strong reaction to long-wave UV; this reaction is usually weaker (mostly blue) at shorter wavelengths. Laboratory-grown diamonds generally exhibit more intense fluorescence with short-wave UV compared to long-wave UV, with a chalky coloring tinged with green or yellow. Most HPHT-grown diamonds also phosphoresce. If a diamond is free of inclusions, fluorescence is a reliable screening test to flag suspicious stones that should be further checked under cross-polarized filters (figure 1). In the case of some rare near-colorless clean CVD-grown diamonds that do not show fluorescence or have a birefringence pattern that is coarse but resembling tatami in type IIa and weak patterns in natural Ia diamonds, additional tests using advanced spectroscopy and strong short-wave UV light to observe growth patterns are needed to confirm diamond genesis.
Demarco, E.Erosion has erased most of Earth's impact craters. Here are the survivors. History and list of craters.sciencenews.org, Dec. 18, 5p.Europe, Greenlandcrater
Desharnais, G.How machine learning will disrupt mining. The power and pitfalls of predictive algorithms.researchgate.net, 2p. PdfGlobaldata sets
Desharnais, G., Paiement, J.P., Hatfield, D., Poupart, N.Mining BIG data: the future of exploration targeting using machine learning.PDAC Short Course, 5p. PdfGlobaldata sets
D'Haenens-Johansson, U.F.S.The Lesedi La Rona and the Constellation - the puzzle of the large rough diamonds from Karowe.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 273-4.Africa, Botswanadeposit - Karowe

Abstract: In November 2015, Lucara Diamond’s operation at the Karowe mine in Botswana gained notoriety due to the extraction of a series of large colorless diamonds, including the 1,109 ct Lesedi La Rona and the 812 ct Constellation. The Lesedi La Rona marks the largest gem diamond recovered since the Cullinan (3,106 ct) in 1905. The Constellation, considered to be the seventh-largest recorded diamond, attained the highest price ever paid for a rough, selling for $63.1 million ($77,649 per carat). Additionally, three other significant colorless diamonds were recovered during the same period, weighing 374, 296, and 183 ct. Due to the similarity in their external characteristics— which include cleavage faces—as well as their extraction locations and dates, it was suspected that these stones might have originated from a larger rough that had broken. Lucara demonstrated that the 374 ct diamond and the Lesedi La Rona fit together, yet a large cleavage plane is still unaccounted for. GIA was able to study several rough and/or faceted pieces of these five diamonds using a range of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to gain insight into the presence and distribution of point defects in these diamonds. Diamonds are commonly classified according to their nitrogen content measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy: Type I diamonds contain nitrogen in either isolated (Ib) or aggregated (IaAB) forms, while type II diamonds do not contain detectable nitrogen concentrations (IIa) but may contain boron (IIb). Analysis of faceted stones cut from the Lesedi La Rona indicates that the rough is a mixed-type diamond, containing both type IIa and pure type IaB regions. These types of diamonds, though exceedingly unusual, have been observed at GIA and reported by Delaunay and Fritsch (2017). The Constellation and the 374, 296, and 183 ct diamonds were determined to be type IaB, containing 20 ± 4 ppm B-aggregates (N4V), in agreement with the concentration for the type IaB pieces of the Lesedi La Rona. Pure type IaB diamonds such as these are actually quite rare, accounting for only 1.2% of a random suite of 5,060 large (>10 ct) D-to-Z diamonds submitted to GIA, whereas 24.6% were type II. Photoluminescence spectra further confirmed analogous defect content for the five large Karowe diamonds, with emissions from H4 (N4V2 0, 496 nm), H3 (NVN0, 503 nm), 505 nm, NV– (637 nm), and GR1 (V0, 741 nm) defects showing similar relative intensities and peak widths. Even for diamonds of the same type, parallel defect content and characteristics across such a variety of defects is unlikely for unrelated stones. The external morphologies of the diamonds showed primary octahedral, resorbed, and fractured faces, with the Constellation and the 296 ct diamond featuring fractures containing metallic inclusions and secondary iron oxide staining. Deep UV fluorescence (< 230 nm) imaging elucidated the internal growth structures of the samples. For the Constellation and the 374, 296, and 183 ct diamonds, at least two growth zones with differing blue fluorescence intensities were observed within single pieces. Combined with the spectroscopic data, these results provide compelling evidence that the Lesedi La Rona, the Constellation, and the 374, 296, and 183 ct diamonds from Karowe had comparable growth histories and likely originated from the same rough, with a combined weight of at least 2,774 ct.
Diggle, P.L., D'Haenens-Johannsson, U.F.S., Wang, W., Newton, M.E.Diamond and diffraction limit: optical characterization of synthetic diamond.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 265.GlobalDiamondView

Abstract: Diamond, known for its splendor in exquisite jewelry, has been synthesized since the 1950s. In the last six decades, the perfection of laboratory-grown single-crystal diamond has vastly improved through the research and development of two main synthesis techniques. One replicates Earth’s natural process, where the diamond is grown in the laboratory under conditions of diamond stability at high temperature and high pressure (HPHT). The other technique relies on the dissociation of methane (or other carbon-containing source gas) and hydrogen and the subsequent deposition of diamond at low pressures from the gaseous phase in a process known as chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In the latter case, diamond is not the stable form of carbon, but the kinetics in the CVD process are such that diamond wins out. Large gem-quality synthetic diamonds are now possible, and a 6 ct CVD (2018) and a 15.32 ct HPHT (2018) have been reported. It is of course possible to differentiate laboratory-grown from natural diamond based on how extended and point defects are incorporated into the crystal. Furthermore, treated diamond can be identified utilizing knowledge of how defects are produced and how they migrate and aggregate in both natural and synthetic diamond samples. Room-temperature confocal photoluminescence microscopy can be used to image the emission of light from defects in diamond with a spatial resolution limited only by the diffraction limit; a lateral spatial resolution approaching 300 nm is routinely achieved (figure 1). It is possible with this tool to identify point defects with concentrations less than 1 part per trillion (1011 cm–3). This talk will outline the experimental setup, how this tool has been used to identify the decoration of dislocations with point defects in CVD lab-grown diamond, and how different mechanisms for defect incorporation operate at growth sector boundaries in HPHT synthetic diamond.
Dixon, N.A., Durham, W.B.Measurement of activation volume for creep of dry olivine at upper-mantle conditions.Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 123, 10, pp. 8459-8473.Mantleolivine

Abstract: Olivine is the most abundant and among the weakest phases in Earth's upper mantle, and thus, its rheological properties play a critical role in governing thermal structure and convective flow in the upper mantle. A persistent obstacle to constraining the in situ flow properties of olivine by laboratory experiment has been the difficulty in resolving the effect of pressure, which is weak within the 0- to ~2-GPa pressure range of conventional laboratory deformation instruments but potentially strong over the 1- to ~14-GPa range of the upper mantle. Using a deformation-DIA, one of a new generation of bonafide deformation devices designed for operation to =10 GPa, we have deformed dry, polycrystalline San Carlos olivine in high-temperature creep with the singular intent of providing the best achievable measurement of activation volume V* and a comprehensive statement of uncertainty. Under strictly dry conditions, at constant temperature (1,373 K) and strain rate (1 × 10-5 s-1), varying only pressure (1.8 to 8.8 GPa), we measure V* = 15 ± 5 cm3/mol. We have reproduced the well-known mechanism change from [100]-slip to [001]-slip near 5 GPa and determined that, whatever the change in V* associated with the change in slip system, the effective value of 15 ± 5 cm3/mol is still accurate for modeling purposes in the 2- to 9-GPa pressure range. This is a substantial pressure effect, which in the absence of a temperature gradient would represent a viscosity increase from the top to bottom of the upper mantle of 5 ± 2 orders of magnitude.
Domeier, M., Torsvik, T.H.Full plate modelling in pre-Jurassic time.Geological Magazine, Vol. 156, 2, pp. 261-280.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: A half-century has passed since the dawning of the plate tectonic revolution, and yet, with rare exception, palaeogeographic models of pre-Jurassic time are still constructed in a way more akin to Wegener's paradigm of continental drift. Historically, this was due to a series of problems - the near-complete absence of in situ oceanic lithosphere older than 200 Ma, a fragmentary history of the latitudinal drift of continents, unconstrained longitudes, unsettled geodynamic concepts and a lack of efficient plate modelling tools - which together precluded the construction of plate tectonic models. But over the course of the last five decades strategies have been developed to overcome these problems, and the first plate model for pre-Jurassic time was presented in 2002. Following on that pioneering work, but with a number of significant improvements (most notably longitude control), we here provide a recipe for the construction of full-plate models (including oceanic lithosphere) for pre-Jurassic time. In brief, our workflow begins with the erection of a traditional (or ‘Wegenerian’) continental rotation model, but then employs basic plate tectonic principles and continental geology to enable reconstruction of former plate boundaries, and thus the resurrection of lost oceanic lithosphere. Full-plate models can yield a range of testable predictions that can be used to critically evaluate them, but also novel information regarding long-term processes that we have few (or no) alternative means of investigating, thus providing exceptionally fertile ground for new exploration and discovery.
Dongre, A., Tappe, S.Kimberlite and carbonatite dykes within the Premier diatreme root ( Cullinan diamond mine, South Africa: new insights to mineralogical-genetic classifications and magma CO2 degassing.Lithos, Vol. 338-339, pp. 155-173.Africa, South Africadeposit - Cullinan

Abstract: The ca. 1153?Ma Premier kimberlite pipe on the Kaapvaal craton has been intruded by late-stage kimberlite and carbonatite magmas forming discrete 0.5 to 5?m wide dykes within the lower diatreme. On the basis of petrography and geochemistry, the fresh kimberlite dykes represent archetypal monticellite phlogopite kimberlite of Group-1 affinity. Their mineral compositions, however, show marked deviations from trends that are typically considered as diagnostic for Group-1 kimberlite in mineralogical-genetic classification schemes for volatile-rich ultramafic rocks. Groundmass spinel compositions are transitional between magnesian ulvöspinel (a Group-1 kimberlite hallmark feature) and titanomagnetite trends, the latter being more diagnostic for lamproite, orangeite (formerly Group-2 kimberlite), and aillikite. The Premier kimberlite dykes contain groundmass phlogopite that evolves by Al- and Ba-depletion to tetraferriphlogopite, a compositional trend that is more typical for orangeite and aillikite. Although high-pressure cognate and groundmass ilmenites from the Premier hypabyssal kimberlites are characteristically Mg-rich (up to 15?wt% MgO), they contain up to 5?wt% MnO, which is more typical for carbonate-rich magmatic systems such as aillikite and carbonatite. Manganese-rich groundmass ilmenite also occurs in the Premier carbonatite dykes, which are largely devoid of mantle-derived crystal cargo, suggesting a link to the kimberlite dykes by fractionation processes involving development of residual carbonate-rich melts and fluids. Although mineralogical-genetic classification schemes for kimberlites and related rocks may provide an elegant approach to circumvent common issues such as mantle debris entrainment, many of the key mineral compositional trends are not as robust for magma type identification as previously thought. Utilizing an experimentally constrained CO2-degassing model, it is suggested that the Premier kimberlite dykes have lost between 10 and 20?wt% CO2 during magma ascent through the cratonic lithosphere, prior to emplacement near the Earth's surface. Comparatively low fO2 values down to -5.6 ?NNO are obtained for the kimberlite dykes when applying monticellite and perovskite oxybarometry, which probably reflects significant CO2 degassing during magma ascent rather than the original magma redox conditions and those of the deep upper mantle source. Thus, groundmass mineral oxybarometry may have little value for the prediction of the diamond preservation potential of ascending kimberlite magmas. After correction for olivine fractionation and CO2-loss, there remains a wide gap between the primitive kimberlite and carbonatite melt compositions at Premier, which suggests that these magma types cannot be linked by variably low degrees of partial melting of the same carbonated peridotite source in the deep upper mantle. Instead, fractionation processes produced carbonate-rich residual melts/fluids from ascending kimberlite magma, which led to the carbonatite dykes within Premier pipe.
Doroshkevich, A.G., Chebotarev, D.A., Sharygin, V.V., Prokopyev, I.R., Nikolenko, A.M.Petrology of alkaline silicate rocks and carbonatites of the Chuktukon massif, Chadobets upland, Russia: sources, evolution and relation to the Triassic Siberian LIP.Lithos, Vol. 332-333, pp. 245-260.Russiacarbonatites

Abstract: The petrogenesis of temporally and spatially associated carbonatitic and deeply derived carbonated alkaline silicate magmas provides an opportunity to gain insights into the nature of the deepest lithospheric mantle. The Chuktukon massif, which is part of the Chadobets alkaline ultramafic carbonatite complex (Chadobets upland, Siberian craton) is a carbonatite-melilitite-damtjernite intrusion, whose emplacement was coeval with the Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP). In this study, the sources of the primary melts are examined, the petrogenetic evolution of the complex is reconstructed and the relationship with the Siberian LIP is also discussed. Isotopic and geochemical information indicate that the source for the Chuktukon primary melts was isotopically moderately depleted and the primary melts were formed by low degree partial melting of garnet carbonated peridotite. Hydrothermal processes caused 18 O- and 13 C- enrichment. The weathering process was accompanied by trace element re-distribution and enrichment of the weathering crust in Zn, Th, U, Nb, Pb and REE, relative to the Chuktukon rocks and a change in radiogenic (Sr, Nd) isotope compositions.
Doroshkevich, A.G., Chebotarev, D.A., Sharygin, V.V.. Prokopyev, I.R., Nikolenko, A.M.Petrology of alkaline silicate rocks and carbonatites of the Chuktukon massif, Chadobets upland, Russia: sources, evolution and relation to the Triassic Siberian LIP.Lithos, Vol. 332-333, pp. 245-260.Russiacarbonatite

Abstract: The petrogenesis of temporally and spatially associated carbonatitic and deeply derived carbonated alkaline silicate magmas provides an opportunity to gain insights into the nature of the deepest lithospheric mantle. The Chuktukon massif, which is part of the Chadobets alkaline ultramafic carbonatite complex (Chadobets upland, Siberian craton) is a carbonatite-melilitite-damtjernite intrusion, whose emplacement was coeval with the Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP). In this study, the sources of the primary melts are examined, the petrogenetic evolution of the complex is reconstructed and the relationship with the Siberian LIP is also discussed. Isotopic and geochemical information indicate that the source for the Chuktukon primary melts was isotopically moderately depleted and the primarymelts were formed by lowdegree partial melting of garnet carbonated peridotite. Hydrothermal processes caused 18O- and 13C- enrichment. The weathering process was accompanied by trace element re-distribution and enrichment of the weathering crust in Zn, Th, U, Nb, Pb and REE, relative to the Chuktukon rocks and a change in radiogenic (Sr, Nd) isotope compositions.
Dransfield, M.H., Chen, T.Heli-borne gravity gradiometry in rugged terrain. (mentions Margaret Lake)Geophysical Prospecting, doi.org/10.1111/1365-2478.12736 Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeophysics
Dransfield, M.H., Chen, T.Heli-borne gravity gradiometry in rugged terrain ( mentions Margaret Lake)Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 67, 6, pp. 1626-1636.Global, Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeophysics - graviometry

Abstract: For airborne gravity gradiometry in rugged terrain, helicopters offer a significant advantage over fixed-wing aircraft: their ability to maintain much lower ground clearances. Crucially, this provides both better signal-to-noise and better spatial resolution than is possible with a fixed-wing survey in the same terrain. Comparing surveys over gentle terrain at Margaret Lake, Canada, and over rugged terrain at Mount Aso, Japan, demonstrates that there is some loss of spatial resolution in the more rugged terrain. The slightly higher altitudes forced by rugged terrain make the requirements for terrain correction easier than for gentle terrain. Transforming the curvature gradients measured by the Falcon gravity gradiometer into gravity and the complete set of tensor components is done by a Fourier method over gentle terrain and an equivalent source method for rugged terrain. The Fourier method is perfectly stable and uses iterative padding to improve the accuracy of the longer wavelengths. The equivalent source method relies on a smooth model inversion, and the source distribution must be designed to suit the survey design.
Drenth, B.J., Grauchm V.J.S.Finding the gap in America's magnetic maps. ( Apr. 16, 2019)EOS, https://spaces.hightail. com/receive/ 2jvDHdtWRrUnited States, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennesseegeophysics, magnetic
Drewitt, J.W.E., Walter, M.J., Zhang, H., McMahon, S.C., Edwards, D., Heinen, B.J., Lord, O.T., Anzellini, S., Kleppe, A.K.The fate of carbonate in oceanic crust subducted into Earth's lower mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 511, pp. 213-222.MantleBridgemanite

Abstract: We report on laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) experiments in the FeO-MgO-SiO2-CO2 (FMSC) and CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2 (CMSC) systems at lower mantle pressures designed to test for decarbonation and diamond forming reactions. Sub-solidus phase relations based on synthesis experiments are reported in the pressure range of ~35 to 90 GPa at temperatures of ~1600 to 2200 K. Ternary bulk compositions comprised of mixtures of carbonate and silica are constructed such that decarbonation reactions produce non-ternary phases (e.g. bridgmanite, Ca-perovskite, diamond, CO2-V), and synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy are used to identify the appearance of reaction products. We find that carbonate phases in these two systems react with silica to form bridgmanite ±Ca-perovskite + CO2 at pressures in the range of ~40 to 70 GPa and 1600 to 1900 K in decarbonation reactions with negative Clapeyron slopes. Our results show that decarbonation reactions form an impenetrable barrier to subduction of carbonate in oceanic crust to depths in the mantle greater than ~1500 km. We also identify carbonate and CO2-V dissociation reactions that form diamond plus oxygen. On the basis of the observed decarbonation reactions we predict that the ultimate fate of carbonate in oceanic crust subducted into the deep lower mantle is in the form of refractory diamond in the deepest lower mantle along a slab geotherm and throughout the lower mantle along a mantle geotherm. Diamond produced in oceanic crust by subsolidus decarbonation is refractory and immobile and can be stored at the base of the mantle over long timescales, potentially returning to the surface in OIB magmas associated with deep mantle plumes.
Driscoll, P.Geodynamics recharged. Nature Geoscience, Vol. 12, pp. 83-84.MantleGeophysics - magnetics

Abstract: Transition from a weak and erratic geomagnetic field to a more stable one around 560 million years ago, inferred from palaeomagnetic measurements, suggests that the inner core may have solidified around that time, much later than thought.
Dsmit, K.V., Stachel, T., Luth, R.W., Stern, R.A.Evaluating mechanisms for eclogitic diamond growth: an example from Zimmi Neoproterozoic diamonds ( West African Craton).Chemical Geology, doi.org/10,1016/j.chem geo.2019.04.014 37p.Africa, Sierra Leonedeposit - Zimmi

Abstract: Here we present SIMS data for a suite of Zimmi sulphide-bearing diamonds that allow us to evaluate the origin and redox-controlled speciation of diamond-forming fluids for these Neoproterozoic eclogitic diamonds. Low d13C values below -15‰ in three diamonds result from fluids that originated as carbon in the oceanic crust, and was recycled into the diamond-stable subcratonic lithospheric mantle beneath Zimmi during subduction. d13C values between -6.7 and -8.3‰ in two diamonds are within the range for mantle-derived carbon and could reflect input from mantle fluids, serpentinised peridotite, or homogenised abiogenic and/or biogenic carbon (low d13C values) and carbonates (high d13C values) in the oceanic crust. Diamond formation processes in eclogitic assemblages are not well constrained and could occur through redox exchange reactions with the host rock, cooling/depressurisation of CHO fluids or during H2O-loss from CHO fluids. In one Zimmi diamond studied here, a core to rim trend of decreasing d13C (-23.4 to -24.5‰) and decreasing [N] is indicative of formation from reduced CH4-bearing fluids. Unlike mixed CH4-CO2 fluids near the water maximum, isochemical diamond precipitation from such reduced CHO fluids will only occur during depressurisation (ascent) and should not produce coherent fractionation trends in single diamonds that reside at constant depth (pressure). Furthermore, due to a low relative proportion of the total carbon in the fluid being precipitated, measurable carbon isotopic variations in diamond are not predicted in this model and therefore cannot be reconciled with the 1‰ internal core-to- rim variation. Consequently, this Zimmi eclogitic diamond showing a coherent trend in d13C and [N] likely formed through oxidation of methane by the host eclogite, although the mineralogical evidence for this process is currently lacking.
Duncombe, J.The unsolved mystery of the Earth blobs.EOS, 100, https://doi.org/10.1029/ 2019EO117193Mantletomography

Abstract: Researchers peering into Earth’s interior found two continent-sized structures that upend our picture of the mantle. What could their existence mean for us back on Earth’s surface?
Eaton-Magana, S.Summary of CVD lab-grown diamonds seen at the GIA laboratory.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 269-270..United Statessynthetics

Abstract: While chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond growth technology has progressed significantly in recent years, with improvements in crystal size and quality, the use of these goods in the jewelry trade is still limited. Not all CVD-grown gem diamonds are submitted to GIA for grading reports, and they only account for about 0.01% of GIA’s annual diamond intake (both D–Z equivalents and fancy color; Eaton-Magaña and Shigley, 2016). The CVD process involves diamond growth at moderate temperatures (700–1300°C) but very low pressures of less than 1 atmosphere in a vacuum chamber (e.g., Angus and Hayman, 1988; Nad et al., 2015). This presentation summarizes the quality factors and other characteristics of the CVD-grown material submitted to GIA (e.g., figure 1) and discusses new research and products. Today the CVD process is used to produce high-color (as well as fancy-color) and high-clarity type II diamonds up to several carats in size. The majority of the CVD material seen at GIA consists of near-colorless (G–N equivalent) with colorless (D–F equivalent) and various “pink” hues. Additionally, CVD material is constantly setting new size milestones, with the announcement of an approximately 6 ct round brilliant earlier this year (Davis, 2018). However, the attainable sizes among CVD products are dwarfed by those from the HPHT process, with 15.32 ct as the current record for a faceted gem (Ardon and Eaton-Magaña, 2018). One particular challenge for gemologists (albeit very rarely encountered) comes from the lab-grown/natural hybrids (figure 2) that have been submitted to and documented by gemological laboratories (e.g., Moe et al., 2017; Tang et al., 2018). In these specimens, the grower places a natural diamond into the CVD reactor as the seed plate, with both components retained in the faceted gem. If the manufacturer is using a colorless natural type Ia diamond as a seed plate for near-colorless CVD growth, the hybrid cannot undergo any post-growth HPHT treatment, as this would radically alter the natural seed by turning the natural diamond yellow. If the manufacturer is creating a CVD overgrowth layer on a faceted natural diamond, the intent is to either add weight to a diamond that may be near a weight boundary or to achieve a color change, typically to blue. These hybrid products also make it more difficult to infer a diamond’s history based solely on its diamond type. The CVD process has also created some unique gems that have not been duplicated among natural, treated, or HPHT-grown diamonds. These include CVD-grown diamonds with a high concentration of silicon impurities, which create a pink to blue color shift. In those samples, a temporary effect was activated by UV exposure, which precipitated a charge transfer between negative and neutral silicon-vacancy centers (D’Haenens-Johansson et al., 2015). Also recently seen are type IIb CVD goods. Some that were submitted by clients had a low boron concentration (3 ppb, with G-equivalent color and 1.05 carat weight). Meanwhile, some research samples produced by a manufacturer in China and fashioned as flat plates had dark bluish coloration and very high boron concentration (2500 ppb and higher). Also among that suite of flat-plate CVD samples was one with a black color caused by extremely high amounts of nitrogen-vacancy centers. Although new CVD products are continually being manufactured and introduced to the trade, the laboratory-grown diamonds examined to date by GIA can be readily identified.
Eaton-Magana, S., Ardon, T., Smit, K.V., Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.Natural color pink, purple, red and brown diamonds: band of many colors.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 352-377.Global, Australiadiamond colour

Abstract: Diamond is one of Earth’s most extraordinary materials. It represents the pinnacle for several material and physical properties. As a gem, however, it is the near-perfect examples—diamonds attaining the D-Flawless distinction—and those with imperfections resulting in a vibrant or surprising color that create the most enduring impressions. Fancy-color natural diamonds are among the most highly valued gemstones due to their attractiveness and great rarity. The 18.96 ct Winston Pink Legacy, with a color grade of Fancy Vivid pink, recently made history by selling at over $50 million, its $2.6 million per carat price an all-time high for a pink diamond (Christie’s, 2018).
Ecclestone, C.Rare Earths .. Sunset for China's REE dominance.Hallgartenco.com, June 5, 21p. PdfChinaREE
Ekimov, E.A., Kondrin, M.V., Krivobok, V.S., Khomich, A.A., Vlasov, I.I., Khmelnitskiy, R.A.Effect of Si, Ge and Sn dopant elements on structure and photoluminescence of nano- and microdiamonds synthesized from organic compounds.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 93, pp. 75-83.Globalluminescence

Abstract: HPHT synthesis of diamonds from hydrocarbons attracts great attention due to the opportunity to obtain luminescent nano- and microcrystals of high structure perfection. Systematic investigation of diamond synthesized from the mixture of hetero-hydrocarbons containing dopant elements Si or Ge (C24H20Si and C24H20Ge) with a pure hydrocarbon - adamantane (C10H16) at 8?GPa was performed. The photoluminescence of SiV- and GeV- centers in produced diamonds was found to be saturated when Si and Ge contents in precursors exceed some threshold values. The presence of SiC or Ge as second phases in diamond samples with saturated luminescence indicates that ultimate concentrations of the dopants were reached in diamond. It is shown that SiC inclusions can be captured by growing crystals and be a source of local stresses up to 2?GPa in diamond matrix. No formation of Ge-related inclusions in diamonds was detected, which makes Ge more promising as a dopant in the synthesis method. Surprisingly, the synthesis of diamonds from the C24H20Sn hetero-hydrocarbon was ineffective for SnV- formation: only fluorescence of N-and Si-related color centers was detected at room temperature. As an example of great potential for the synthesis method, mass synthesis of 50-nm diamonds with GeV- centers was realized at 9.4?GPa. Single GeV- production in individual nanodiamond was demonstrated.
Elazar, O., Frost, D., Navon, O., Kessel, R.Melting H2O and CO2 bearing eclogite at 4-6 GPa and 900-1200 C: implications for the generation of diamond forming fluids.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 47p.Mantlemelting, subduction
Elazar, O., Frost, D., Navon, O., Kessel, R.Melting H2O and CO2 bearing eclogite at 4-6 Gpa and 900-1200C: implications for the generation of diamond forming fluids.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 255, pp. 69-87.Mantlediamond genesis

Abstract: Eclogites play a significant role in geodynamic processes, transferring large amounts of basaltic material and volatiles (chiefly CO2 and H2O species) into the earth's mantle via subduction. Previous studies of eclogite melting focused on two end member systems: either carbonated or hydrous eclogites. Here we focus on the hydrous carbonated eclogitic system in order to define the position of its solidus and determine the near solidus fluid and melt compositions at 4-6?GPa and 900-1200?°C. Experiments were performed on a rocking multi-anvil press. The total dissolved solids in the equilibrated fluids were analyzed following the cryogenic technique using a LA-ICP-MS. H2O and CO2 content were determined by mass balance calculations. Solid phases were chemically characterized using an EPMA. Garnet and clinopyroxene are present in all experiments, assembling the eclogitic rock. A carbonate phase was detected at all temperatures at 4?GPa and at temperatures below 1200?°C at 5 and 6?GPa. Coesite was observed at all pressures below 1200?°C. The solidus was crossed between 1000 and 1100?°C at 4 and 5?GPa. At 6?GPa we observed a relatively smooth decrease in the H2O and CO2 content of the fluid phase with rising temperature, suggesting the presence of a supercritical fluid. The second critical endpoint is thus defined in this system at ~5.5?GPa and 1050?°C. The composition of fluids and melts reported in this study indicates that the hydrous carbonated eclogite system is a plausible source-rock for high density fluids (HDFs) found in microinclusions in diamonds, specifically for the intermediate compositions along the array spanned between low-Mg carbonatitic HDFs and hydrous-silicic ones. Our results suggest that the whole array reflects melting in a heterogeneous mantle. Melting of water-rich eclogite produces silicic HDFs, carbonate-rich zones will produce carbonatitc HDFs, while source-rocks with varying H2O/CO2 ratios produce intermediate compositions.
Elliott, H.A.L., Broom-Fendley, S., Wall, F.Fenite exploration criteria surrounding carbonatite hosted critical metal deposits.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p. Abstract p. 38.Europe, Finlanddeposit - Sokli
Emry, E.L., Shen, Y., Nyblade, A.A., Flinders, A., Bao, X.Upper mantle Earth structure in Africa from full wave ambient noise tomography.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 1, pp. 120-147.Africatomography

Abstract: We use advanced seismic imaging techniques (full-waveform tomography), constrained by data from background (ambient) seismic noise to image the upper mantle beneath the African continent and search for low-velocity structures (hot spots) that might coincide with regions of volcanism, surface uplift, and continental rifting, particularly along the East African Rift. We also searched for high-velocity structures (old, rigid blocks) that could influence how warm, buoyant material flows within the Earth's upper mantle. Our seismic tomography method allowed us to obtain a clear image of structure beneath parts of Africa where no or very few seismometers are located (such as the Sahara Desert and the Congo Basin). Our results provide indications for segmented secondary (or shallow) upwellings in the upper mantle beneath East Africa, as opposed to earlier models suggesting one large, continuous plume within the upper mantle. Our results also suggest that the one large, rigid, cratonic block previously imaged beneath the Congo region may instead be composed of smaller, distinct blocks. These results provide insight into the factors that control continental rifting along East Africa and provide new testable models that help us to understand the relationships between upper mantle flow, rifting, volcanism, surface uplift, and sedimentation records.
Engwicht, N. The local translation of global norms: the Sierra Leonean diamond market.Conflict, Security and Develoment, Vol. 18, 6, pp. 463-492.Africa, Sierra Leoneeconomics

Abstract: Shortcomings in natural resource governance leading to economic mismanagement, political clientelism, underdevelopment and civil conflict, have caused an increase in global norms of ‘good governance’ of natural resource sectors. As a result, a growing number of global governance initiatives are targeting conflict-prone natural resource sectors. Whether these regulatory efforts stand a chance of being successful depends on their implementation in producer countries. As the transnational regulatory framework aimed at curbing the trade in conflict minerals is expanding, this article investigates the local translation of global norms of resource governance. Drawing on the ‘local-to-global’ research perspective developed in this special issue and norm diffusion theories, the article examines one of the most prominent cases of governance reform targeting conflict-affected natural resource sectors: The Sierra Leonean diamond market. Based on extensive field research, the article analyses the implementation of KPCS requirements on the national and subnational level of governance institutions. It evaluates the accomplishments, the challenges and the local adaption to and (formal and informal) interpretation of KPCS norms.
Eppelbaum, L.V., Kutasov, I.M.Well drilling in permafrost regions: dynamics of the thawed zone.Polar Research, Vol. 20, 3351 9p. PdfGlobalpermafrost

Abstract: In the cold regions, warm mud is usually used to drill deep wells. This mud causes formation thawing around wells, and as a rule is an uncertain parameter. For frozen soils, ice serves as a cementing material, so the strength of frozen soils is significantly reduced at the ice-water transition. If the thawing soil cannot withstand the load of overlying layers, consolidation will take place, and the corresponding settlement can cause significant surface shifts. Therefore, for long-term drilling or oil/gas production, the radius of thawing should be estimated to predict platform stability and the integrity of the well. It is known that physical properties of formations are drastically changed at the thawing-freezing transition. When interpreting geophysical logs, it is therefore important to know the radius of thawing and its dynamics during drilling and shut-in periods. We have shown earlier that for a cylindrical system the position of the phase interface in the Stefan problem can be approximated through two functions: one function determines the position of the melting-temperature isotherm in the problem without phase transitions, and the second function does not depend on time. For the drilling period, we will use this approach to estimate the radius of thawing. For the shut-in period, we will utilize an empirical equation based on the results of numerical modelling.
Esteve, C., Schaeffer, A.J., Audet, P.Upper mantle structure underlying the diamondiferous Slave craton from teleseismic body-wave tomography. Lac de GrasTectonophysics, in press available, 27p.Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Cratons are, by definition, the most tectonically stable and oldest parts of the continental lithosphere on Earth. The Archean Slave craton is located in the northwestern part of the Canadian Shield. The propensity of diamondiferous kimberlite pipes in the central Slave craton raises many questions regarding their structural environment and source. Here, we provide the most robust teleseismic P and S body wave tomography models over the Slave craton region based on 20,547 P-wave delay times, 6,140 direct S-wave delay times and 3,381 SKS delay times. The P-wave model reveals an alternating pattern of relative positive and negative anomalies over a fine broad scale region within the central Slave craton. Furthermore, the P-wave model revealed two fine structures located in the lithosphere beneath the Lac de Gras kimberlite cluster, with relatively slow anomalies (B - C) that extend from 75 km to 350 km depths with an apparent dip to the north. These relatively slow P- and S-wave anomalies are associated with metasomatised regions within the lithosphere. The S-wave model displays a slow S-wave anomaly lying from 300 km depth to the transition zone beneath the central Slave craton. This anomaly is located beneath the Lac de Gras kimberlite cluster. We suggest that this anomaly is not the cause of the actual kimberlites at the surface since last eruption occurred 75-45 Ma ago but may be related to a potential kimberlite magma ascent in the asthenosphere.
Evans, R.L., Elsenbeck, J., Zhu, J., Abdelsalam, M.G., Sarafian, E., Mutamina, D., Chilongola, F., Atekwana, E.A., Jones, A.G.Structure of the lithosphere beneath the Barotse basin, western Zambia, from magnetotelluric data.Tectonics, Vol. 38, 2, pp. 666-686.Africa, Zambiageophysics

Abstract: A magnetotelluric survey in the Barotse Basin of western Zambia shows clear evidence for thinned lithosphere beneath an orogenic belt. The uppermost asthenosphere, at a depth of 60-70 km, is highly conductive, suggestive of the presence of a small amount of partial melt, despite the fact that there is no surface expression of volcanism in the region. Although the data support the presence of thicker cratonic lithosphere to the southeast of the basin, the lithospheric thickness is not well resolved and models show variations ranging from ~80 to 150 km in this region. Similarly variable is the conductivity of the mantle beneath the basin and immediately beneath the cratonic lithosphere to the southeast, although the conductivity is required to be elevated compared to normal lithospheric mantle. In a general sense, two classes of model are compatible with the magnetotelluric data: one with a moderately conductive mantle and one with more elevated conductivities. This latter class would be consistent with the impingement of a stringer of plume-fed melt beneath the cratonic lithosphere, with the melt migrating upslope to thermally erode lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt that is overlain by the Barotse Basin. Such processes are potentially important for intraplate volcanism and also for development or propagation of rifting as lithosphere is thinned and weakened by melt. Both models show clear evidence for thinning of the lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt, consistent with elevated heat flow data in the region.
Evans, R.L., Elsenbeck, J., Zhu, J., Abelsalam, M.G., Sarafian, E., Mutamina, D., Chilongola, F., Atekwan, E., Jones, A.G.Structure of the lithosphere beneath the Barotse Basin, western Zambia from magnetotelluric data.Tectonics, in press available Africa, Zambiamelting

Abstract: A magnetotelluric survey in the Barotse Basin of western Zambia shows clear evidence for thinned lithosphere beneath an orogenic belt. The uppermost asthenosphere, at a depth of 60-70 km, is highly conductive, suggestive of the presence of a small amount of partial melt, despite the fact that there is no surface expression of volcanism in the region. Although the data support the presence of thicker cratonic lithosphere to the southeast of the basin, the lithospheric thickness is not well resolved and models show variations ranging from ~80 to 150 km in this region. Similarly variable is the conductivity of the mantle beneath the basin and immediately beneath the cratonic lithosphere to the southeast, although the conductivity is required to be elevated compared to normal lithospheric mantle. In a general sense, two classes of model are compatible with the magnetotelluric data: one with a moderately conductive mantle and one with more elevated conductivities. This latter class would be consistent with the impingement of a stringer of plume-fed melt beneath the cratonic lithosphere, with the melt migrating upslope to thermally erode lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt that is overlain by the Barotse Basin. Such processes are potentially important for intraplate volcanism and also for development or propagation of rifting as lithosphere is thinned and weakened by melt. Both models show clear evidence for thinning of the lithosphere beneath the orogenic belt, consistent with elevated heat flow data in the region.
Even-Zohar, C., Narvekar, P.The 2018 diamond pipeline: faking the diamond dream. Thediamondloupe, May 7p. Pdf availableGlobaldiamond pipeline

Abstract: Last year the diamond pipeline pretty well succeeded in Faking the Diamond Dream. Some of the largest companies discovered that defaulting on debts of hundreds of millions of dollars had become the new source of value. Lenders tried to recover lost value by suing clients - some of whom responded in kind. Court appointed forensic investigators revealed the myriad of fake corporate conduits established to facilitate carefully premeditated roundtripping, money laundering, banking and trading frauds, and schemes to syphon (other people's) money out of the diamond pipeline. Banks en masse were recusing themselves from future participation in the diamond pipeline. Selling undisclosed synthetic diamonds, especially in smaller goods, continues to remain the new source of value for some. This was the year in which De Beers betrayed its own slogans and revealed its ambitions to become a huge lab-grown gem diamond supplier, undercutting competitor pricing well before it sold its very first Lightbox stone. For the squeezed mid-stream of the diamond pipeline to succeed, it needed to fake the diamond dream. Or else. Or else - what? Some exasperated players came to believe that if you are a decent, honest, hardworking player, fully respecting all the treasured ethical, moral and legal norms, when you take pride in honoring commitments to fellow players, clients, suppliers, banks, etc. - then you most likely did not make money and were eroding your equity. Planning one's exit out of the business or "compromise" (and criminalize yourself) by joining the Diamond Dream Fakers too often seem the more viable option.
Extance, A.Perovskites on trial. The reality behind solar power's next star material. Companies say they are close to commercializing cheap perovskite films that could diisrupt solar power - but are they too optimistic?Nature, Vol. 570, June 27, pp. 429-432.Globalperovskites
Faccenda, M., Ferreira, A.M.G., Tisato, N., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., Stixrude, L., Pennacchioni, G.Extrinsic elastic anisotropy in a compositionally heterogeneous Earth's mantle.Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, https://doi,org/ 10.1029/2018JB016482Mantleanistropy

Abstract: Several theoretical studies indicate that a substantial fraction of the measured seismic anisotropy could be interpreted as extrinsic anisotropy associated with compositional layering in rocks, reducing the significance of strain-induced intrinsic anisotropy. Here we quantify the potential contribution of grain-scale and rock-scale compositional anisotropy to the observations by (i) combining effective medium theories with realistic estimates of mineral isotropic elastic properties and (ii) measuring velocities of synthetic seismic waves propagating through modeled strain-induced microstructures. It is shown that for typical mantle and oceanic crust subsolidus compositions, rock-scale compositional layering does not generate any substantial extrinsic anisotropy (<1%) because of the limited contrast in isotropic elastic moduli among different rocks. Quasi-laminated structures observed in subducting slabs using P and S wave scattering are often invoked as a source of extrinsic anisotropy, but our calculations show that they only generate minor seismic anisotropy (<0.1-0.2% of Vp and Vs radial anisotropy). More generally, rock-scale compositional layering, when present, cannot be detected with seismic anisotropy studies but mainly with wave scattering. In contrast, when grain-scale layering is present, significant extrinsic anisotropy could exist in vertically limited levels of the mantle such as in a mid-ocean ridge basalt-rich lower transition zone or in the uppermost lower mantle where foliated basalts and pyrolites display up to 2-3% Vp and 3-6% Vs radial anisotropy. Thus, seismic anisotropy observed around the 660-km discontinuity could be possibly related to grain-scale shape-preferred orientation. Extrinsic anisotropy can form also in a compositionally homogeneous mantle, where velocity variations associated with major phase transitions can generate up to 1% of positive radial anisotropy.
Farahbakhsh, E., Chandra, R., Olierook, H.K.H., Scalzo, R., Clark, C., Reddy, S.M., Muller, R.D.Computer vision based framework for extracting geological lineaments from optical remote sensing data.arXiv.1810,02320vl, researchgate 17p.Australialineaments
Farre-de-Pablo, J., Proenza, J.A., Gonzales-Jimenez, J.M., Garcia-Casco, A., Colas, V., Roque-Rossell, J., Camprubi, A., Sanchez-Navas, A.A shallow origin for diamonds in ophiolitic chromitites.Geology, Vol. 46, pp. 75-78.Mexico, Pueblaophiolite

Abstract: Recent findings of diamonds in ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites challenge our traditional notion of Earth mantle dynamics. Models attempting to explain these findings involve incorporation of diamonds into chromite near the mantle transition zone. However, the occurrence of metastable diamonds in this context has not been considered. Here, we report for the first time in situ microdiamonds in chromite from ophiolitic chromitite pods hosted in the Tehuitzingo serpentinite (southern Mexico). Here, diamonds occur as fracture-filling inclusions along with quartz, clinochlore, serpentine, and amorphous carbon, thus indicating a secondary origin during the shallow hydration of chromitite. Chromite chemical variations across the diamond-bearing healed fractures indicate formation during the retrograde evolution of chromitite at temperatures between 670 °C and 515 °C. During this stage, diamond precipitated metastably at low pressure from reduced C-O-H fluids that infiltrated from the host peridotite at the onset of serpentinization processes. Diamond was preserved as a result of fracture healing at the same temperature interval in which the chromite alteration began. These mechanisms of diamond formation challenge the idea that the occurrence of diamond in ophiolitic rocks constitutes an unequivocal indicator of ultrahigh-pressure conditions.
Fedortchouk, Y.A new approach to understanding diamond surface features based on a review of experimental and natural diamond studies.Earth-Science Reviews, 10.1016/j.earscirev .2019.02.013 56p.Canada, Northwest Territories, Africa, Botswanadiamond morphology

Abstract: Diamonds originate deep in the Earth's mantle since billions of years ago. Through their long history diamonds accumulate information about the Earth's evolution, and preserve it owing to their extreme chemical and mechanical stability. The surface of natural diamonds shows a variety of growth and dissolution features, which reflect the diversity of conditions in the mantle and in kimberlite magma, providing an important clue for understanding the deep regions of subcratonic mantle. However, such studies are hampered by an absence of a systematic approach for studying diamond surface features and morphology. This review integrates studies of natural diamonds with the results of diamond dissolution experiments to explore the origin of the most typical resorption features of diamonds and the information they provide. It uses detailed studies of over ~ 3500 diamonds from eight kimberlite bodies in the Northwest Territories in Canada and Orapa kimberlite cluster in Botswana, and the data from diamond dissolution experiments covering a pressure range of between 0.1?MPa - 7.5?GPa, temperature range of between 900?°C - 1750?°C, and over 12 log units of oxygen fugacity values. Examining the effects of these parameters on diamond resorption morphology shows that the shape and size of the etch pits depends on the temperature and H2O:CO2 ratio in the fluid, whereas pressure affects the efficiency of diamond crystal shape transformation from octahedral into rounded resorbed forms. The effect of pressure on the physical properties of the reacting fluid / melt controls the character of diamond etching. A comparison between the experimentally-induced and naturally occurring diamond resorption demonstrates a clear difference between the features developed in kimberlite magma and features inherited from the mantle source. Kimberlite-induced resorption on diamonds shows a strong correlation with the geology and emplacement mode of the hosting kimberlite unit. Low-relief surfaces develop on diamonds from pyroclastic kimberlites in all kimberlite classes, whereas surface features on diamonds from coherent kimberlites differ between kimberlite localities and often show corrosive character. Diamond resorption morphology can offer a robust method to better understand emplacement processes in different kimberlite localities, which are a matter of significant debate. The proposed here classification scheme for diamond resorption features is based on the features observable under a stereomicroscope. It helps differentiating resorption produced in the mantle source from that in the kimberlite magma and assigning diamond resorption to a particular mode of kimberlite emplacement, or a mantle metasomatic event.
Fedortchouk, Y., Liebske, C., McCammon, C.Diamond destruction and growth during mantle metasomatism: an experimental study of diamond resorption features.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 506, pp. 493-506.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Most diamonds found in kimberlites show complex patterns of growth and dissolution (resorption) surface features. Populations of diamonds from within single kimberlite bodies commonly contain a large diversity of diamond surface forms, some of which are a result of dissolution in kimberlite magma and others are inherited from the mantle. Morphological studies of natural diamonds differentiated features produced during dissolution in kimberlite magma and during mantle metasomatism. The former features were experimentally reproduced at 1 3 GPa and used to infer the presence and composition of magmatic fluid in different kimberlites. However, the mantle-derived resorption features have not been reproduced experimentally and the composition and origins of their formative solvents are unknown. Here we report the results of diamond dissolution experiments conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus at 6 GPa and 1200 to 1500 °C in synthetic CaO MgO SiO2 CO2 H2O system. The experiments produced very different diamond resorption morphologies in COH fluid, in silicate-saturated fluid, and in silicate and carbonate melts. Dissolution in SiO2-free COH fluid developed rounded crystal forms with shallow negative trigons, striations and hillocks, which are commonly observed on natural diamonds and are similar in 6 GPa and in 1 3 GPa experiments. However, silicate-saturated fluid produced very different resorption features that are rarely observed on natural diamonds. This result confirms that natural, SiO2-poor fluid-induced resorption develops under the comparatively low-pressures of kimberlite ascent, because at mantle pressures the high content of SiO2 in fluids would produce features like those from the silicate-saturated experiments. Comparison of the experimental products from this study to natural diamond resorption features from the literature suggests that natural diamonds show no record of dissolution by fluids during mantle metasomatism. Diamond resorption morphologies developed in experiments with silicate carbonate melts closely resemble many of the mantle-derived resorption features of natural diamonds, whose diversity can result from variable SiO2 concentration in carbonatitic melts and temperature variation. The experimental results imply that metasomatism by fluids does not dissolve diamond, whereas metasomatism by melts is diamond-destructive. The repetitive growth-dissolution patterns of natural diamonds could be due to diamond growth from fluids in harzburgitic lithologies followed by its dissolution in partial melts.
Ferreira, A.M.G., Faccenda, M., Sturgeon, W., Chang, S-J., Schardong, L.Ubiquitous lower mantle anisotropy beneath subduction zones.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 32, pp. 301-306.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Seismic anisotropy provides key information to map the trajectories of mantle flow and understand the evolution of our planet. While the presence of anisotropy in the uppermost mantle is well established, the existence and nature of anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle are still debated. Here we use three-dimensional global seismic tomography images based on a large dataset that is sensitive to this region to show the ubiquitous presence of anisotropy in the lower mantle beneath subduction zones. Whereas above the 660?km seismic discontinuity slabs are associated with fast SV anomalies up to about 3%, in the lower mantle fast SH anomalies of about 2% persist near slabs down to about 1,000-1,200?km. These observations are consistent with 3D numerical models of deformation from subducting slabs and the associated lattice-preferred orientation of bridgmanite produced in the dislocation creep regime in areas subjected to high stresses. This study provides evidence that dislocation creep may be active in the Earth’s lower mantle, providing new constraints on the debated nature of deformation in this key, but inaccessible, component of the deep Earth.
Fisher, D.Addressing the challenges of detecting synthetic diamonds.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, Fall 1p. Abstract p. 263-4Globalsynthetics

Abstract: The dream of growing synthetic diamonds existed for many centuries before it was achieved in the 1950s. The development of techniques to identify synthetic diamonds and enable their reliable separation from natural diamonds has not had the luxury of centuries to work with. Since the early reports on the characteristics of laboratory-grown stones, scientists have been working steadily to establish and improve the means of detection. For many years the De Beers Group has been developing equipment for rapidly screening and testing for potential synthetic and treated diamonds as part of a strategy aimed at maintaining consumer confidence in natural untreated diamonds. This work has been underpinned by extensive research into defects in natural and synthetic diamond, either conducted within De Beers’ own facilities or through financial and practical support of research in external institutions. Key to any detection technique for synthetic diamonds is a fundamental understanding of the differences between them and natural diamonds. This could take the form of differences in the atomic impurity centers or differences in the spatial distributions of these centers brought about by very significant distinctions in the growth environments. The former was used in the development of the Dia - mondSure instrument that, among other things, detects variance differences in the absorption spectra due to the presence or absence of the N3 feature. This absorption is from a nitrogen-related defect that is usually only produced in nitrogen-containing diamonds by extended periods at relatively high temperatures—that is, conditions generally experienced by natural diamonds. Growth-related differences in impurity distributions can be very accurately imaged using the DiamondView instrument. Short-wave ultraviolet (UV) light is used to excite luminescence from a very thin layer of diamond near the surface to give images free from the blurring encountered with more common longer-wavelength excitation sources. DiamondView has, since its launch, provided the benchmark for the detection of synthetic diamonds. A number of approaches involving absorption features have been developed, including the use of almost complete absorption in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum to indicate that a diamond is not synthetic. The UV absorption is produced by the A center (two adjacent nitrogen atoms) and is rarely encountered in as- grown synthetic diamonds. The main form of nitrogen in synthetic diamonds is a single substitutional nitrogen atom that absorbs in both the ultraviolet and visible regions to produce yellow color. The combination of UV absorption and no strong yellow color is therefore restricted to natural diamond. However, treatment of nitrogen-containing synthetic diamonds is capable of generating A centers, but generally does not produce a colorless stone. This effect accounts for the careful color ranges often applied to instruments relying on UV absorption for screening. This also highlights one of the limitations of absorption spectroscopy: When smaller stones are tested, the amount of absorption decreases and the technique becomes less reliable. In recent years we have seen a shift to smaller sizes (below 0.01 ct) in the synthetic diamonds being offered for sale to the jewelry market, and screening techniques have had to evolve to address this situation and the limitations of absorption-based approaches. Testing melee-sized diamonds, as well as introducing technical challenges around the measurement technique, has also led to the introduction of greater automation. In 2014 the De Beers Group introduced the first automated melee screening instrument (AMS1), which combined the measurement technique from Dia - mondSure with automated feeding and dispensing of stones in the range of 0.20 to 0.01 ct. While this instrument was well received and effectively addressed concerns around synthetic melee-sized stones in the trade at the time, there soon came calls for improvements— a faster instrument capable of measuring smaller stones, no restrictions on cut, and a lower referral rate for natural diamonds. These requirements proved impossible to meet with the limitations imposed by absorption measurements, and a new technique based on time-resolved spectroscopy was developed. This resulted in the AMS2 instrument, launched in March 2017. The AMS2 processes stones at a speed of one stone per second, 10 times faster than the AMS1. It measures round brilliants down to 0.003 ct (0.9 mm dia - meter) and can be used on other cuts for stones of 0.01 ct and above. The measurement technique itself has been incorporated into the SYNTHdetect (figure 1, left), an instrument launched in September 2017 that allows manual observation of the time-resolved emission. Besides providing the same testing capability as AMS2 (figure 1, right) for loose stones, various holders allow testing of mounted stones in a wide range of configurations. The benefit of this approach is that stones tested loose using AMS2 will generate a broadly consistent result when mounted on SYNTHdetect. Changes in growth processes for synthetic diamonds have also led to the gradual introduction of new characteristics. High - pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) synthetics have tended to be fairly consistent in their growth-related luminescence patterns, while significant variations in the features associated with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthetics have been observed. These continue to be well documented and have led to the gradual evolution of the DiamondView instrument and the way in which it is used. Post-growth treatment of synthetic diamonds can be applied for a number of reasons: improvement in the color, modification of the atomic defects to make the stones look more like a natural diamond, and removal of a characteristic that could be used to identify a synthetic diamond. The motivation for the latter two treatments can only be described as fraudulent. The challenge in developing detection instruments and techniques is to ensure that they are as robust as possible in the face of such challenges. Treatment techniques will rarely have any effect on the growth patterns associated with synthetic diamonds, and it is therefore very difficult to treat synthetics in a way that would make them undetectable using the DiamondView. Screening instruments tend to be based on a single technique, and it is important that the approach adopted not be vulnerable to simpler forms of treatment. This has been of primary concern to the De Beers Group in the development of our own screening instruments. It has also been necessary in certain cases to withhold detailed information about detection techniques where disclosure of this would lead to undermining of the detection technique itself. The De Beers Group continues to invest heavily in growth and treatment research in order to develop the next generation of instruments and techniques that will assist the trade in maintaining detection capability to support consumer confidence. The Group is uniquely placed in the industry to address these challenges due to its collaboration with Element Six (world leaders in synthesis of diamond for industrial and technical applications) and its indepth knowledge of the properties of natural diamonds with known provenance from its own mines.
Fitzpayne, A., Giuliani, A., Harris, C., Thomassot, E., Cheng, C., Hergt, J.Evidence for subduction related signatures in the southern African lithosphere from the N-O isotopic composition of metasomatic mantle minerals.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 21p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: Current understanding of the fate of subducted material (and related fluids) in the deep Earth can be improved by combining major and trace element geochemistry with stable isotopic compositions of mantle rocks or minerals. Limited isotopic fractionation during high temperature processes means that significant deviations from mantle-like isotope ratios in mantle rocks probably result from recycling of surficial material. To determine the effects and origins of mantle metasomatic fluids/melts, new d15N and d18O data have been collected for thirteen mantle xenoliths - harzburgites, wehrlites, lherzolites, and MARID (Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside) rocks - from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa), which show varying degrees of metasomatism. The d18O values of olivine and orthopyroxene in phlogopite-free harzburgites match the mantle composition (d18Oolivine?=?+5.2?±?0.3‰; d18Oorthopyroxene?=?+5.7?±?0.3‰; 2?s.d.), consistent with previous inferences that harzburgites were formed by interaction with ancient silica-rich melts unrelated to subduction processes. Wehrlite samples display mineral compositional characteristics (e.g., low La/Zr in clinopyroxene) resembling those of other products of kimberlite melt metasomatism, such as PIC (Phlogopite-Ilmenite-Clinopyroxene) rocks. The inferred interaction with kimberlite melts may be responsible for O isotopic disequilibrium between clinopyroxene and olivine (?18O?=?+0.2‰) in the wehrlites of this study. In contrast with broadly mantle-like d18O values, the d15N value of phlogopite in a wehrlite sample (+5.9‰) differs from the mantle composition (d15N?=?-5?±?2‰). This unusual N isotopic composition in kimberlite-related mantle products might indicate that a recycled crustal component occurred in the source of the Kimberley kimberlites, or was assimilated during interaction with the lithospheric mantle. Similar major and trace element characteristics in clinopyroxene from phlogopite-lherzolite and MARID samples suggest metasomatism by fluids of similar composition. Lherzolite and MARID clinopyroxene d18O values (as low as +4.4‰) extend below those reported in mantle peridotites (i.e. d18Oclinopyroxene?=?+5.6?±?0.3‰; 2?s.d.), and strong negative correlations are found between mineral d18O values and major element compositions (e.g., Na2O contents in clinopyroxene). Furthermore, phlogopite d15N values (+4 to +7‰) in the studied lherzolite and MARID samples are higher than mantle values. Combined, the low d18O-high d15N isotopic signatures of MARID and lherzolite samples suggest progressive mantle metasomatism by a melt containing a recycled oceanic crust (eclogitic) component. This study demonstrates that progressive enrichment of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle may be inextricably linked to plate tectonics via recycling of subducted crustal material into the deep mantle.
Fitzpayne, A., Giuliani, A., Maas, R., Hergt, J., Janney, P., Phillips, D.Progressive metasomatism of the mantle by kimberlite melts: Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions of MARID and PIC minerals.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 506, pp. 15-26.Africa, South Africadeposit - Newlands, Kimberley, Bultfontein

Abstract: MARID (Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside) and PIC (Phlogopite-Ilmenite-Clinopyroxene) rocks occur as mantle-derived xenoliths in kimberlites and other alkaline volcanic rocks. Both rock types are alkaline and ultramafic in composition. The H2O and alkali metal enrichments in MARID and PIC rocks, reflected in abundant phlogopite, have been suggested to be caused by extreme mantle metasomatism. Radiogenic (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) isotope and trace element compositions for mineral separates from MARID (clinopyroxene and amphibole) and PIC (clinopyroxene only) samples derived from Cretaceous kimberlites (Kimberley) and orangeites (Newlands) from South Africa are used here to examine the source(s) of mantle metasomatism. PIC clinopyroxene is relatively homogeneous, with narrow ranges in initial isotopic composition (calculated to the emplacement age of the host Bultfontein kimberlite; 87Sr/86Sri: 0.7037-0.7041; eNdi: +3.0 to +3.6; eHfi: +2.2 to +2.5; 206Pb/204Pbi: 19.72-19.94) similar to kimberlite values. This is consistent with PIC rocks representing peridotites modified by intense metasomatic interaction with kimberlite melts. The MARID clinopyroxene and amphibole separates () studied here display broader ranges in isotope composition (e.g., 87Sr/86Sri: 0.705-0.711; eNdi: -11.0 to -1.0; eHfi: -17.9 to -8.5; 206Pb/204Pbi: 17.33-18.72) than observed in previous studies of MARID rocks. The Nd-Hf isotope compositions of kimberlite-derived MARID samples fall below the mantle array (?eHfi between -13.0 and -2.4), a feature reported widely for kimberlites and other alkaline magmas. We propose that such displacements in MARID minerals result from metasomatic alteration of an initial “enriched mantle” MARID composition (i.e., 87Sr/86Sri = 0.711; eNdi = -11.0; eHfi = -17.9; and 206Pb/204Pbi = 17.3) by the entraining kimberlite magma (87Sr/86Sr; eNd; eHf; 206Pb/204Pb). A model simulating the flow of kimberlite magma through a mantle column, thereby gradually equilibrating the isotopic and chemical compositions of the MARID wall-rock with those of the kimberlite magma, broadly reproduces the Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions of the MARID minerals analysed here. This model also suggests that assimilation of MARID components could be responsible for negative ?eHfi values in kimberlites. The isotopic composition of the inferred initial MARID end-member, with high 87Sr/86Sr and low eNd, eHf, and 206Pb/204Pb, resembles those found in orangeites, supporting previous inferences of a genetic link between MARID-veined mantle and orangeites. The metasomatic agent that produced such compositions in MARID rocks must be more extreme than the EM-II mantle component and may relate to recycled material that experienced long-term storage in the lithospheric mantle.
Forster, M.W.Subduction zone metasomatism and its consequences for potassium rich magmatism and deep nitrogen cycling. ( mentions salty kimberlites Udachnaya)Ph.d Thesis Macquarie University, researchgate.com 250p. Pdf availableMantlelamproites

Abstract: In total, subduction zones span 40,000 km across Earth’s surface and recycle an average thickness of 500 m of sediment. During burial and heating these sediments eventually start melting at T >675 °C, following which Si-rich hydrous melts infiltrate the peridotites of the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. In this thesis, a high-pressure experimental approach is used to examine the reaction of sediments and peridotites at 2-6 GPa in subduction zones and its consequences on the generation of K-rich magmatism and on deep nitrogen cycling. All experiments are conducted in a layered arrangement, where the depleted peridotite is placed above the sediments in a 1:1 ratio. At 2-3 GPa, the reaction of melts of sediment with depleted peridotite, simulating the fore-arc of a subduction zone, leads to the formation of layered phlogopite pyroxenites and selective incorporation of major and trace elements in these metasomatic layers. Partial melting of these phlogopite pyroxenites produces melts rich in K2O (>9 wt%) with K/Na >>2 and a trace element pattern comparable to “orogenic lamproites”. At similar pressures, the reaction of hydrous mantle melts with depleted peridotites produces metasomatic layers that show K/Na ~1 and a trace element pattern that closely resembles “anorogenic lamproites”. In both cases, K-enrichment is facilitated by the crystallization of an eclogitic residue rich in Na, poor in K, and consequently with low K/Na. At 4-6 GPa, the reaction of melts of sediment with depleted peridotite is does not produce mica, instead resulting in alkali chlorides with K/Na ratios similar to saline fluid inclusions in diamonds. Besides the chlorides, magnesite also crystallises in the peridotite. Both phases are important ingredients for the generation of salty kimberlites such as Udachnaya East. The change in metasomatic style from mica- to chloride formation between 3 to 4 GPa corresponds to the depth of the mid-lithospheric discontinuity, a zone of low seismic velocities that is found intermittently beneath all continents at a depth of 80-100 km. The subduction of sediment is the main mechanism that recycles nitrogen back to Earth’s mantle. The partitioning of nitrogen between fluid and melt (DN(Fluid/Melt)) and fluid and bulk residue (melt+mica) (DN(Fluid/Bulk)) was found to increase linearly with temperature normalized to pressure. Using the new partition coefficients, the amount of N recycled to Earth’s mantle since the onset of subduction is calculated as 50 ±6 %.
Forster, M.W., Foley, S.F., Marschall, H.R., Alard, O., Buhre, S.Melting of sediments in the deep mantle produces saline fluid inclusions in diamonds.Science Advances, Vol. 5, 5, eaau 2620 7p.Mantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: Diamonds growing in the Earth’s mantle often trap inclusions of fluids that are highly saline in composition. These fluids are thought to emerge from deep in subduction zones and may also be involved in the generation of some of the kimberlite magmas. However, the source of these fluids and the mechanism of their transport into the mantle lithosphere are unresolved. Here, we present experimental results showing that alkali chlorides are stable solid phases in the mantle lithosphere below 110 km. These alkali chlorides are formed by the reaction of subducted marine sediments with peridotite and show identical K/Na ratios to fluid inclusions in diamond. At temperatures >1100°C and low pressures, the chlorides are unstable; here, potassium is accommodated in mica and melt. The reaction of subducted sediments with peridotite explains the occurrence of Mg carbonates and the highly saline fluids found in diamonds and in chlorine-enriched kimberlite magmas.
Forster, M.W., Prelevic, D., Buhre, S., Mertz-Kraus, R., Foley, S.F.An experimental study of the role of partial melts of sediments versus mantle melts in the sources of potassic magmatism.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 177, pp. 76-88.Mantlelamproite

Abstract: Potassium-rich lavas with K/Na of >2 are common in orogenic and anorogenic intraplate magmatic provinces. However, in the primitive mantle, the concentration of Na exceeds that of K by 10 times. The source of K-rich lavas thus needs to be either K-enriched or Na-depleted to account for high K/Na ratios. The geochemical and isotopic compositions of high 87Sr/86Sr post-collisional lavas show that their mantle source contains a recycled crustal component. These highly K-enriched lavas with crustal like trace element patterns are termed “orogenic lamproites” and are compositionally distinct from K-rich “anorogenic lamproites” that show lower 87Sr/86Sr and a trace element pattern that resembles that of primary mantle melts. For both groups the processes of K-enrichment within their source are uncertain and are thought to be linked to melts of sedimentary rocks for “orogenic lamproites” and low-degree melts of ultramafic mantle rocks for “anorogenic lamproites”. In both cases, metasomatism of the mantle lithosphere is the precursor to K-rich magmatism. In this study we experimentally determine the effects of mantle metasomatism by sediment- and hydrous mantle melts. The experiments simulate the interaction of refractory lithospheric mantle and metasomatizing melt in a 2-layer reaction experiment. The sediment/dunite reaction experiments lead to formation of a strongly K-enriched phlogopite-pyroxenite layer sandwiched between the two starting materials. The low temperature of the sediment/dunite reaction runs at <1000?°C simulates a fore-arc subduction environment, in which the melts of sediment are consumed during interaction with dunite as the temperature is below the solidus of the produced phlogopite-pyroxenites. The hydrous mantle melt/dunite reaction run is simulated by reacting a hydrated basanite with dunite. Since the temperature of the reaction is higher than the solidus of the resulting phlogopite-pyroxenites (1200?°C), the hydrous melt is not consumed but flows further, increasing in K2O and K/Na as it reacts with the refractory peridotite. In both cases, melts are enriched in K and K/Na increases by crystallizing a low K and low K/Na eclogitic residue. Compositions of glass and phlogopite from both types of reactions are comparable to glasses and phlogopites found within post-collisional lavas. Since the enrichment of K within the reaction zone is strongly controlled by the formation of low K/Na and low-K residues, metasomatic enrichment of the mantle lithosphere in K does not need a highly K-enriched metasomatic agent.
Francke, J.Applications of GPR in mineral resource applications. Mentions kimberliteIEEE.org * note date , 5p.Globalgeophysics - GPR

Abstract: Since the commercialisation of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the 1970s, radar technology has been employed for niche applications in the mining industry. Although reliant on electrically resistive environments, GPR has gained acceptance in recent years as a standard exploration method for a number of deposit types, ranging from paleochannel delineation to iron ore mapping and kimberlite imaging. Numerous case studies have been published on GPR's applications to specific mineral exploration projects. Provided herein is an overview of commercialised GPR applications for surface mineral resource evaluations, covering examples of alluvial channels, nickel and bauxitic laterites, iron ore deposits, mineral sands, coal, kimberlite and massive sulphide examples.
Friedrich, A.M.Palaeogeological hiatus surface mapping: a tool to visualize vertical motion of the continents.Geological Magazine, Vol. 156, 2, pp. 308-319.Mantletomography

Abstract: Dynamic topography is a well-established consequence of global geodynamic models of mantle convection with horizontal dimensions of >1000 km and amplitudes up to 2 km. Such physical models guide the interpretation of geological records on equal dimensions. Continent-scale geological maps therefore serve as reference frames of choice to visualize erosion/non-deposition as a proxy for long-wavelength, low-amplitude vertical surface motion. At a resolution of systems or series, such maps display conformable and unconformable time boundaries traceable over hundreds to thousands of kilometres. Unconformable contact surfaces define the shape and size of time gap (hiatus) in millions of years based on the duration of time represented by the missing systems or series. Hiatus for a single system or series base datum diminishes laterally to locations (anchor points) where it is conformable at the mapped resolution; it is highly dependent upon scale. A comparison of hiatus area between two successive system or series boundaries yields changes in location, shape, size and duration, indicative of the transient nature of vertical surface motion. As a single-step technique, it serves as a quantitative proxy for palaeotopography that can be calibrated using other geological data. The tool magnifies the need for geological mapping at the temporal resolution of stages, matching process rates. The method has no resolving power within conformable regions (basins) but connects around them. When applied to marine seismic sections that relate to rock record, not to time, biostratigraphic and radiometric data from deep wells are needed before hiatus areas - that relate to time - can be mapped.
Frigo, C., Stalder, R., Ludwig, T.OH defects in coesite and stishovite during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism of continental crust. Dora Massif, KochetavPhysics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 46, pp. 77-89.Russia, Europe, AlpsUHP

Abstract: The high-pressure silica polymorphs coesite and stishovite were synthesized under water-saturated conditions from a natural granitic composition doped with Li and B. Experiments were performed in a Multi-Anvil apparatus between 4 and 9.1 GPa and 900 and 950 °C, based on the conditions of a subducting continental crust as realistic for the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic units Dora Maira and Kochetav massifs. Run products consisted of coesite/stishovite?+?kyanite?±?phengite?±?omphacite, and quench material. The synthesized silica polymorphs were successively analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). No hydrous defects were observed in coesite synthesized at 4 GPa and 900 °C, whereas coesite grown at higher pressures revealed a triplet of infrared absorptions bands at 3575, 3523, and 3459 cm-?1, two minor bands at 3535 and 3502 cm-?1, and a small band at 3300 cm-?1 that was only visible at 7.7 GPa. The total amount of Al was charge-balanced by H and the other monovalent cations. However, the band triplet could not be associated with AlOH defects, while the band doublet was inferred to BOH defects and the small band probably corresponded to interstitial H. Stishovite displayed one dominant band at 3116 cm-?1 with a shoulder at 3170 cm-?1, and a minor band at 2665 cm-?1, probably all associated with AlOH defects. BOH defects were not observed in stishovite, and LiOH defects were neither observed in coesite nor stishovite, probably because of preferentially partition of Li in other phases such as omphacite. The total amount of defect protons increased with pressure and with metal impurity concentrations. The general increase in OH defects in silica polymorphs with increasing pressure (this study) contrasted the negative pressure trend of OH in quartz observed previously from the same starting material, and revealed an incorporation minimum of OH in silica polymorphs around the quartz/coesite phase transition.
Frost, B.B., Frost, C.The Wyoming province, a long-lived craton on the periphery of Laurentia.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 91.United States, Canadacraton

Abstract: The Wyoming craton is one of the three cratons, Wyoming, Slave, and Nain, with Hadean roots that lie on the margins of Laurentia. The Wyoming and Slave provinces show many similarities, most notably a widespread supracrustal sequence that formed around 2.86 Ga. It is possible that the two cratons rifted apart at 2.86 Ga and docked onto Laurentia as separate entities in the Paleoproterozoic. The Wyoming province is characterized by elevated 207Pb/204Pb indicative of cratons that have a Hadean origin. The earliest rocks contain 3.8 to 4.0 Ga detrital and xenocrystic zircon grains. The 3.82 Ga xenocrystic zircon grains from 3.4 Ga tonalitic gneisses in the Granite Mountains have Hf isotopic compositions requiring Hadean precursors. The transition from tonalitic to granodioritic plutonism is diachronous; it occurs around 3.3 Ga in the Granite Mountains and around 2.85 Ga in the Bighorn Mountains. Granitic plutonism since 2.85 Ga is dominantly magnesian and calc-alkalic, compositionally identical to Phanerozoic arc magmas. The Teton Range, on the western margin of the province, records the earliest Himalayan orogeny on Earth at 2.7 Ga, further evidence that much of the Wyoming Province was constructed by processes similar to those operating in the Phanerozoic. The latest structural and metamorphic event in the evolution of the craton was accretion of crustal fragments along structures that trend broadly NE-SW at 2.62 Ga. The latest major magmatic event was the intrusion of the peraluminous granites of the Mount Owen batholith in the Teton Range at 2.55 Ga. The Wyoming craton was accreted to Laurentia in the Paleoproterozoic, probably during the later stages of the Trans-Hudson orogeny.
Fulop, A., Kopylova, M., Kurszlaukis, S., Hilchie, L., Ellemers, P.A reply to the comment by Germon et al. on the Petrography of the Snap Lake kimberlite dyke ( Northwest Territories, Canada) and its interaction with country rock granitoids.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 60, 3, pp. 661-671.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Snap Lake
Fulop, A., Kopylova, M., Kurszlaukis, S., Hilchie, L., Ellemers, P., Squibb, C.Petrography of Snap Lake kimberlite dyke ( Northwest Territories, Canada) and its interaction with country rock granitoids.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 59, 12, pp. 2493-2518.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Snap Lake

Abstract: Carbonate-rich intrusions in contact with felsic rocks theoretically should show the effects of interaction between the two rock types, due to their contrasting compositions. In reality, though, such interaction is rarely reported at kimberlite contacts. We present the first documented case of lithological and mineralogical zonation at the margin of a kimberlite, the Snap Lake dyke, in contact with the wall-rock granitoid. Our detailed petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical study shows that the fresh hypabyssal kimberlite consists of olivine macrocrysts and microcrysts, and phlogopite macrocrysts set in a groundmass of serpentinized monticellite, phlogopite, spinel, perovskite and apatite, with interstitial lizardite and calcite. This typical Group I kimberlite mineralogy does not match the bulk-rock composition, which resembles a Group II micaceous kimberlite. The mismatch between the chemical and mineralogical properties is ascribed to contamination by granitoid xenoliths and metasomatic reactions with the felsic country rocks, the Snap Lake kimberlite has extremely low bulk-Ca compared to other documented Group I kimberlites. Reaction with deuteric H2O and CO2 has led to Ca removal, serpentinization of olivine, replacement of calcite by dolomite, alteration of perovskite and decomposition of apatite. Adjacent to the contact with the host granitoid and in haloes around granitoid clasts, poikilitic phlogopite and lizardite are replaced by subsolidus phlogopite and a multiphase phyllosilicate composed of phlogopite+?lizardite+?chlorite+?talc. A modified isocon analysis accounts for felsic xenolith assimilation and isolates metasomatic changes. Enrichment of altered kimberlites in Si owes solely to xenolith incorporation. The metasomatic ingress of granitoid-derived Al for a limited distance inside the dyke was counteracted by a flux of Mg and Fe to the granitoid. Metasomatic changes in K and Ca tend to be positive in all lithologies of kimberlite and in the granitoids implying distal transport. The combination of xenolith digestion with metasomatic element transport is expected in hybrid zones where kimberlite magmas interact with felsic wall-rocks.
Gaillou, E., Rossman, G.R.Color in natural diamonds .. The beauty of defects. Note date ***Rocks & Minerals, 12p.Globaldiamond colour

Abstract: In its pure form, diamond is colorless. However, in nature (or even when made in laboratories), diamonds are never composed of 100 percent carbon atoms. Even colorless diamonds will contain some defects: missing carbon atoms or containing trace amounts of nitrogen or hydrogen, for example. When present in certain atomic arrangements and concentrations, most minor components cause absorption of specific wavelengths of light, giving rise to color. The color in diamond is not source specific, even if some mines are known to produce more of certain colors, such as blue diamonds from the Premiere mine in South Africa, or brown and pink diamonds from the Argyle mine in Australia. Virtually every single diamond mine could produce any kind of colored diamond. At auction, record prices for gems are currently held by pink and blue diamonds: for example, $2,155,332 per carat for a 24.78-carat Fancy vivid pink diamond (sold at Sotheby's in 2010) and $1.8 million per carat for a 5.3-carat Fancy deep blue diamond (sold at Bonhams in London in April 2013).
Gain, S.E.M., Greau, Y., Henry, H., Belousova, E., Dainis, I., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y.Mud Tank zircon: long term evaluation of a reference material for U-Pb dating, Hf-isotope analysis and trace element analysis. ( Carbonatite)Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, in press available, 16p.Australiadeposit - Mud Tank

Abstract: Zircon megacrysts from the Mud Tank carbonatite, Australia, are being used in many laboratories as a reference material for LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and trace element measurement, and LA-MC-ICP-MS determination of Hf isotopes. We summarise a database of > 10000 analyses of Mud Tank zircon (MTZ), collected from 2000 to 2018 during its use as a secondary reference material for simultaneous U-Pb and trace element analysis, and for Hf-isotope analysis. Trace element mass fractions are highest in dark red-brown stones and lowest in colourless and gem-quality ones. Individual unzoned grains can be chemically homogeneous, while significant variations in trace element mass fraction are associated with oscillatory zoning. Chondrite-normalised trace element patterns are essentially parallel over large mass fraction ranges. A Concordia age of 731.0 ± 0.2 Ma (2s, n = 2272) is taken as the age of crystallisation. Some grains show lower concordant to mildly discordant ages, probably reflecting minor Pb loss associated with cooling and the Alice Springs Orogeny (450-300 Ma). Our weighted mean 176Hf/177Hf is 0.282523 ± 10 (2s, n = 9350); the uncertainties on this ratio reflect some heterogeneity, mainly between grains. A few analyses suggest that colourless grains have generally lower 176Hf/177Hf. MTZ is a useful secondary reference material for U-Pb and Hf-isotope analysis, but individual grains need to be carefully selected using CL imaging and tested for homogeneity, and ideally should be standardised by solution analysis.
Gaina, C., Niocaill, C.M., Conrad, C.P., Steinberger, B., Svensen, H.H.Linking plate tectonics and volcanism to deep Earth dynamics - a tribute to Torsvik.Tectonophysics, in press available 6p.Mantlegeodynamics
Galli, A., Grassi, D., Sartori, G., Gianola, O., Burg, J-P., Schmidt, M.W.Jurassic carbonatite and alkaline magmatism in the Ivrea zone ( European Alps) related to the breakup of Pangea.Geology, Vol. 47, 3, pp. 199-202..Europecarbonatite

Abstract: We report on pipe-like bodies and dikes of carbonate rocks related to sodic alkaline intrusions and amphibole mantle peridotites in the Ivrea zone (European Southern Alps). The carbonate rocks have bulk trace-element concentrations typical of low-rare earth element carbonatites interpreted as cumulates of carbonatite melts. Faintly zoned zircons from these carbonate rocks contain calcite inclusions and have trace-element compositions akin to those of carbonatite zircons. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon dating yields concordant ages of 187 ± 2.4 and 192 ± 2.5 Ma, coeval with sodic alkaline magmatism in the Ivrea zone. Cross-cutting relations, ages, as well as bulk and zircon geochemistry indicate that the carbonate rocks are carbonatites, the first ones reported from the Alps. Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are comagmatic and were emplaced in the nascent passive margin of Adria during the Early Jurassic breakup of Pangea. Extension caused partial melting of amphibole-rich mantle domains, yielding sodic alkaline magmas whose fractionation led to carbonatite-silicate melt immiscibility. Similar occurrences in other rifts suggest that small-scale, sodic and CO2-rich alkaline magmatism is a typical result of extension and decompression-driven reactivation of amphibole-bearing lithospheric mantle during passive continental breakup and the evolution of magma-poor rifts.
Garanin, K.Alrosa - world top diamond producer.7th Symposio Brasleiro de geologia do diamante, 54p ppts AvailableRussiaoverview
Gem News InternationalColombian emeralds and Mozambican rubies from Fura Gems….. Comments from Fura GemsGems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 1, pp. 125-126.South America, Columbiaemerald
Gem News InternationalPotentate's Montana sapphire mine: an interview with Warren Boyd.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 1, pp. 134.United States, Montanasapphire

Abstract: The history of the American West is told in stories of frontiersmen seeking fortune in gold and other precious metals. It was serendipity when these intrepid adventurers arrived in western Montana and discovered strange, shiny pebbles—sapphires—while looking for gold. Little did they know the gem wealth they had uncovered with the sapphires, which were simply a nuisance to the gold miners at first. More than 100 years later, this legacy of mining is carried on by several small-scale miners across Montana, and with the arrival of Potentate Mining at the Rock Creek sapphire deposit. We had the chance to sit down in Tucson with Potentate’s director of marketing, Warren Boyd, for an update on their mining activities and their plans to find a place for Montana sapphires in the market...(No abstract - full article)
Gems & JewelleryMazarin's passion for diamonds left to Louis IVX by Cardinal Mazarin. ( Sancy)Gems&Jewellery, Vol. 28, 1. pp. 32-38.Europe, Francehistory
Gibsher, A.Mineral inclusions in Siberian diamonds: mineralogy, geochemistry and application to diamond exploration.7th Symposio Brasleiro de geologia do diamante, 22 ppts. Pdf availableRussia, Siberiadiamond inclusions
Giebel, R.J., Marks, M.A.W., Gauert, C.K., Markl, G.A model for the formation of carbonatite-phoscorite assemblages based on the compositonal variations of mica and apatite from the Palabora carbonatite complex, South AfricaLithos, Vol. 324, pp. 68-73.Europe, Azoresdeposit - Palabora

Abstract: A detailed electron microprobe study has been carried out on the compositional variations of mica and apatite from carbonatites, phoscorites and associated pyroxenites (and fenites) of the Loolekop deposit, Palabora Carbonatite Complex (South Africa). Mica in pyroxenites and fenites is Mg-rich biotite, whilst micas in carbonatites and phoscorites are compositionally diverse including phlogopite, Ba-rich phlogopite (up to 30% kinoshitalite component), IVAl-rich phlogopite (up to 30% eastonite component) and tetraferriphlogopite. The various types of phlogopites are interpreted as orthomagmatic phases, whereas tetraferriphlogopite precipitation was a late-magmatic to hydrothermal process that additionally introduced REE into the system. Orthomagmatic apatite is generally REE- and Sr-poor fluorapatite and does not show large compositional differences between rock types. Apatite associated with the late-stage tetraferriphlogopite mineralization reaches higher levels of REE (up to 4.9?wt%), Si (up to 1.5?wt% SiO2), Sr (up to 2.6?wt% SrO) and Na (up to 1.0?wt% Na2O). The compositional variation of micas and apatites, which is affiliated with distinct rock types, reflects the multi-stage evolution of the Loolekop deposit and provides detailed insight into the relationships of the carbonatite-phoscorite assemblage. The obtained data support the separation of phoscorite and carbonatite by immiscibility from a common parental magma, which may happen due to a decrease of temperature and/or pressure during the ascent of the magma. This results in a density contrast between the carbonatitic and phoscoritic components that will lead to descending phoscorite accumulations at the outer zones of the magma channel and a jet-like ascent (further promoted by its extremely low viscosity) of the carbonatite magma. The genetic model deduced here explains the peculiar association of carbonatites, phoscorites and silicate rocks in many alkaline complexes worldwide.
Giovanardi, T., Girardi, V.A.V., Teixeira, W., Mazzucchelli, M.Mafic dyke swarms at 1882, 535 and 200 Ma in the Carajas region Amazonian Craton: Sr-Nd isotopy, trace element geochemistry and inferences on their origin and geological settings.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 92, pp. 197-208.South America, Brazilcraton

Abstract: The Carajás-Rio Maria region, together with the Rio Maria domain of the Central Amazonian province, comprises the eastern margin of the Amazonian Craton with the Neoproterozoic Araguaia belt. This region hosts several basaltic dyke swarms whose UPb baddeleyite ages highlighted three intrusive events at 1882, 535 and 200?Ma. New geochemical and SrNd isotopic data were obtained for the different groups of the Carajás dykes allowing new insights on i) the mantle source composition beneath the Carajás region through time and ii) the geodynamic setting of the intrusive events. The 1882?Ma swarm is coeval to the Uatumã SLIP event which is one of the oldest intraplate events of the proto-Amazonian craton. Trace elements and isotopic values suggest that the dyke parent melt for those dykes have a crustal component derived from a sedimentary source similar to GLOSS (GLObal Subducting Sediment compositions). This is consistent with the emplacement of the dykes in a supra-subduction setting or in a post-collisional setting. Trace and isotopic values of the 535?Ma dyke swarm are consistent with an enriched mantle source from EMII component. These geochemical features suggest an enrichment of the mantle from an oceanic lithosphere poor in sediments, different to that of the 1882?Ma source. The age of this swarm matches magmatic activity during a post-collisional extensive-transtensive event recorded in the marginal Araguaia belt after the amalgamation of the Amazonian Craton to the Western Gondwana during Neoproterozoic. The 200?Ma dyke swarm which is related to the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province) and opening of the Atlantic Ocean shows trace element composition similar to Atlantic E-MORB. The coupled isotopic values are consistent with an enriched mantle source with EMII component. These particular geochemical features suggest that the plume activity responsible for the CAMP near the rifting zone has not affected the mantle beneath the Carajás region.
Giuliani, A., Martin, L.A.J., Soltys,A., Griffin, W.L.Mantle like oxygen isotopes in kimberlites determined by in situ SIMS analyses of zoned olivine.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available, 19p.Africa, South Africa, Canada, South America, Brazildeposit - Lac de Gras, Paranaiba

Abstract: Kimberlites are the deepest melts produced on Earth that are erupted at the surface and can therefore provide unique insights into the composition and evolution of the mantle. Radiogenic isotopes provide ambiguous evidence for the occurrence of recycled crustal material in kimberlite sources. Oxygen isotopes can fractionate significantly only in the shallow crust, and thus represent a powerful tracer of subducted material in the sources of kimberlite. To constrain the oxygen isotope composition of kimberlite melts, we have examined olivine grains in eleven Cretaceous to Eocene archetypal kimberlites from southern Africa, Lac de Gras (Canada) and Alto Paranaiba (Brazil), which exhibit radiogenic isotope evidence for recycled crustal material in their sources including highly radiogenic Pb isotopes and Nd-Hf isotope compositions deviating below the mantle array. Olivine grains are commonly zoned between a mantle-derived xenocrystic core and one or more magmatic overgrowths, i.e. occasional internal zones, ubiquitous rims and rare rinds (moving outward from the core). The oxygen isotope composition of different olivine zones was determined in situ within separated olivine grains by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) after point selection using back-scattered electron (BSE) images combined with major and minor element analyses. With the exception of a few cores, the d18O values of different olivine zones do not deviate from typical mantle olivine values of 5.18?±?0.28‰ (Mattey et al., 1994). There are no correlations between oxygen isotopes and major/minor element compositions for internal zones and rims from individual localities or in the entire dataset. This indicates that the oxygen isotope composition of kimberlite melts is not affected by melt differentiation to the point of olivine rim crystallisation. However, olivine rinds from the Koala kimberlite (Canada) display an inverse correlation between d18O and Mn-Ca concentrations, with d18O values extending below the mantle range, which is probably due to carbonate fractionation, CO2 degassing and/or assimilation of serpentine-rich material after kimberlite emplacement in the upper crust. The mantle-like d18O composition of olivine internal zones and rims suggests that assimilation of mantle material and liberation of a CO2-rich phase during ascent in the mantle do not significantly modify the original d18O signature of kimberlite melts. Modelling of oxygen isotope fractionation shows that up to 15 wt% of CO2 can be lost by kimberlites en route to the upper crust. Our results combined with mass balance calculations indicate that only a limited amount (<5-10 wt%) of recycled crustal material could occur in the source of kimberlites from southern Africa, Lac de Gras and Alto Paranaiba, or that the recycled material had an oxygen isotope composition similar to the mantle.
Goes, S., Agrusta, R., van Hunen, J., Garel, F.Subduction - transition zone interaction: a review.Geosphere, Vol. 13, 3, pp. 644-664.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: As subducting plates reach the base of the upper mantle, some appear to flatten and stagnate, while others seemingly go through unimpeded. This variable resistance to slab sinking has been proposed to affect long-term thermal and chemical mantle circulation. A review of observational constraints and dynamic models highlights that neither the increase in viscosity between upper and lower mantle (likely by a factor 20-50) nor the coincident endothermic phase transition in the main mantle silicates (with a likely Clapeyron slope of -1 to -2 MPa/K) suffice to stagnate slabs. However, together the two provide enough resistance to temporarily stagnate subducting plates, if they subduct accompanied by significant trench retreat. Older, stronger plates are more capable of inducing trench retreat, explaining why backarc spreading and flat slabs tend to be associated with old-plate subduction. Slab viscosities that are ~2 orders of magnitude higher than background mantle (effective yield stresses of 100-300 MPa) lead to similar styles of deformation as those revealed by seismic tomography and slab earthquakes. None of the current transition-zone slabs seem to have stagnated there more than 60 m.y. Since modeled slab destabilization takes more than 100 m.y., lower-mantle entry is apparently usually triggered (e.g., by changes in plate buoyancy). Many of the complex morphologies of lower-mantle slabs can be the result of sinking and subsequent deformation of originally stagnated slabs, which can retain flat morphologies in the top of the lower mantle, fold as they sink deeper, and eventually form bulky shapes in the deep mantle.
Golovin, A.V., Sharygin, I.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Korsakov, A.V., Yaxley, G.M.Alkali-carbonate melts from the base of cratonic lithospheric mantle: links to kimberlites.Chemical Geology, Vol. 483, pp. 261-274.Russia, Yakutiadeposit - Udachnaya -East

Abstract: Identification of the primary compositions of mantle-derived melts is crucial for understanding mantle compositions and physical conditions of mantle melting. However, these melts rarely reach the Earth's surface unmodified because of contamination, crystal fractionation and degassing, processes that occur almost ubiquitously after melt generation. Here we report snapshots of the melts preserved in sheared peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe, in the central part of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths are among the deepest mantle samples and were delivered by kimberlite magma from 180-230?km depth interval, i.e. from the base of the cratonic lithosphere. The olivine grains of the sheared peridotites contain secondary inclusions of the crystallized melt with bulk molar (Na?+?K)/Ca?~?3.4. Various Na-K-Ca-, Na-Ca-, Na-Mg-, Ca-Mg- and Ca-carbonates, Na-Mg-carbonates with additional anions, alkali sulphates and halides are predominant among the daughter minerals in secondary melt inclusions, whereas silicates, oxides, sulphides and phosphates are subordinate. These inclusions can be considered as Cl-S-bearing alkali-carbonate melts. The presence of aragonite, a high-pressure polymorph of CaCO3, among the daughter minerals suggests a mantle origin for these melt inclusions. The secondary melt inclusions in olivine from the sheared peridotite xenoliths and the melt inclusions in phenocrystic olivines from the host kimberlites demonstrate similarities, in daughter minerals assemblages and trace-element compositions. Moreover, alkali-rich minerals (carbonates, halides, sulphates and sulphides) identified in the studied melt inclusions are also present in the groundmass of the host kimberlites. These data suggests a genetic link between melt enclosed in olivine from the sheared peridotites and melt parental to the Udachnaya-East kimberlites. We suggest that the melt inclusions in olivine from mantle xenoliths may represent near primary, kimberlite melts. These results are new evidence in support of the alkali-carbonate composition of kimberlite melts in their source regions, prior to the kimberlite emplacement into the crust, and are in stark contrast to the generally accepted ultramafic silicate nature of parental kimberlite liquids.
Gorce, J.S., Caddick, M.J., Bodnar, R.J.Thermodynamic contraints on carbonate stability and carbon volatility during subduction.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 519, pp. 213-222.Mantlecarbon cycle

Abstract: The breakdown of carbonate minerals at high pressure is frequently cited as an important mechanism that leads to carbon release from subducted rocks. However, carbonate minerals in the subducting slab are predicted to be stable to depths that are greater than arc-generating magma depths of approximately 150 km, implying that breakdown of carbonate phases in dehydrated MORB may not be a major contributor to arc volcano carbon budgets. To account for this discrepancy, previous studies have suggested that addition of H2O-rich fluids promotes the breakdown of carbonate-rich lithologies, thus generating volatile C species that could be incorporated into arc magmas. Here, we explore the feasibility of H2O-mediated decarbonation with a simple thermodynamic model. We calculate equilibrium mineral assemblages and accompanying fluid H2O/CO2 ratios for typical subducted lithologies, assuming a range of subduction zone geotherms, and explore the implications of addition of external fluids that are generated from deserpentinization of ultramafic lithologies at various stages. Results suggest that the liberation of C along volcanic arcs is facilitated by either the breakdown of carbonate minerals due to thermodynamically favorable conditions in hotter subduction systems, or by the breakdown of carbonate minerals during periods of higher fluid productivity associated with deserpentinization at appropriate depths along colder subduction geotherms. A comparison of C fluxes measured at volcanic arcs shows that colder subduction zones generate higher C fluxes, implying that the depth at which deserpentinization reactions occur strongly controls the availability of aqueous fluids for slab decarbonation, and that fluid availability represents the dominant control on carbon volatility during subduction.
Gorczyk, W., Mole, D.R., Barnes, S.J.Plume lithosphere interaction at craton margins throughout Earth history.Tectonophysics, Vol. 746, pp. 678-694.Mantlecraton

Abstract: Intraplate continental magmatism represents a fundamental mechanism in Earth's magmatic, thermal, chemical and environmental evolution. It is a process intimately linked with crustal development, large-igneous provinces, metallogeny and major global environmental catastrophes. As a result, understanding the interactions of continental magmas through time is vital in understanding their effect on the planet. The interaction of mantle plumes with the lithosphere has been shown to significantly affect the location and form of continental magmatism, but only at modern mantle conditions. In this study, we perform numerical modelling for Late Archean (1600 °C), Paleoproterozoic (1550 °C), Meso-Neoproteroic (1500 °C) and Phanerozoic (1450 °C) mantle potential temperatures (Tp) to assess the time-space magmatic effects of ambient-mantle- and plume- lithosphere interaction over Earth's thermal history. Within these experiments, we impinge a mantle plume, with a time-appropriate Tp, onto a ‘step-like’ lithosphere, to evaluate the effect of craton margins on continental magmatism through time. The results of this modelling demonstrate that lithospheric architecture controls the volume and location of continental magmatism throughout Earth history, irrespective of ambient mantle or plume Tp. In all plume models, mantle starting plumes (diameter 300 km) impinge on the base of the lithosphere, and spread laterally over > 1600 km, flowing into the shallowest mantle, and producing the highest volume magmas. In ambient-mantle only models, Archean and Paleoproterozoic Tp values yield significant sub-lithospheric melt volumes, resulting in ‘passive’ geodynamic emplacement of basaltic magmatic provinces, whereas no melts are extracted at > 100 km for Meso-Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic Tp. This indicates a major transition in non-subduction related continental magmatism from plume and ambient mantle to a plume-dominated source around the Mesoproterozoic. While the experiments presented here show the variation in plume-lithosphere interaction through time, the consistency in melt localisation indicates the lithosphere has been a first-order control on continental magmatism since its establishment in the Mesoarchean.
Gouza, M., Paton, D.A.The role of inherited lithospheric heterogeneities in defining the crustal architecture of rifted margins and the magmatic budget during continental breakup.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 4, pp. 1836-1853.Mantlemagmatism

Abstract: During the final stage of continental rifting, stretching localizes in the future distal domain where lithospheric necking occurs resulting in continental breakup. In magma-poor margins, the lithospheric necking is accompanied by crustal hyperextension, serpentinization, and exhumation of mantle lithosphere in the continent-ocean transition domain. In magma-rich margins, the necking is accomplished by the emplacement of large amounts of volcanics in the continental-ocean transition, in the form of seaward dipping wedges of flood basalts (seaward dipping reflections). This study examines the factors controlling the final crustal architecture observed in rifted margins and the magmatic budget during continental breakup, using observations from the Labrador Sea. The latter shows magma-rich breakup with seaward dipping reflections documented in the north and magma-poor breakup with a wide domain of exhumed serpentinized mantle recorded in the south. The pre-rift strength of the lithosphere, defined by the inherited thermal structure, composition, and thickness of the lithospheric layers, controls the structural evolution during rifting. While variations in the magmatic budget associated with breakup are controlled primarily by the interaction between the pre-rift inheritance, the timing and the degree of mantle melting, in relation to lithospheric thinning and mantle hydration.
Grantham, G., Eglinton, B., Macey, P.H., Ingram,B., Radeneyer, M., Kaiden, H., Manhica, V.The chemistry of Karoo age andesitic lavas along the northern Mozambique coast, southern Africa and possible implications for Gondwana breakup.South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 121, pp. 271-286.Africa, Mozambiquegeodynamics

Abstract: Major, trace, radiogenic isotope and stable isotope data from lavas along the northeastern coast of Mozambique are described. The whole rock composition data demonstrate that the rocks are dominantly andesitic with compositions typical of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from arc environments. SHRIMP U/Pb data from zircons indicate that the zircons are xenocrystic, having ages of between 500 Ma and 660 Ma, with the age of the lava constrained by Rb/Sr data at ~184 Ma. Strontium, Nd and Pb radiogenic isotope data support an interpretation of extensive mixing between a Karoo age basaltic magma (dolerite) from Antarctica and continental crust similar in composition to the Mozambique basement. Oxygen isotope data also imply a significant crustal contribution to the lavas. Possible tectonic settings for the lavas are at the margin of a plume or from a locally restricted compressional setting during Gondwana breakup processes.
Greaux, S., Yamada, A.Density variations of Cr-rich garnets in the upper mantle inferred from the elasticity of uvarovite garnet.Comptes Rendu Geoscience, doi.org/10.16/ j.crte.2018.09.012 9p.MantleUHP

Abstract: The thermoelastic parameters of Ca3Cr2Si3O12 uvarovite garnet were examined in situ at high pressure up to 13 GPa and high temperature up to 1100 K by synchrotron radiation energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction within a 6-6-type multi-anvil press apparatus. A least-square fitting of room T data to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan (BM3) EoS yielded K0 = 164.2 ± 0.7 GPa, V0 = 1735.9 ± 0.3 Å3 (K’0 fixed to 4.0). P-V-T data were fitted simultaneously by a modified HT-BM3 EoS, which gave the isothermal bulk modulus K0 = 163.6 ± 2.6 GPa, K’0 = 4.1 ± 0.5, its temperature derivative (?K0,T/?T)P = -0.014 ± 0.002 GPa K-1, and the thermal expansion coefficients a0 = 2.32 ± 0.13 ×10-5 K-1 and b0 = 2.13 ± 2.18 ×10-9 K-2 (K’0 fixed to 4.0). Our results showed that the Cr3+ enrichment in natural systems likely increases the density of ugrandite garnets, resulting in a substantial increase of mantle garnet densities in regions where Cr-rich spinel releases chromium through a metasomatic reaction.
Greaux, S., Yamada, A.Density variations of Cr-rich garnets in the upper mantle inferred from the elasticity of uvarovite garnet.Comptes Rendus Geoscience, in press available 9p.Mantlegarnets

Abstract: The thermoelastic parameters of Ca3Cr2Si3O12 uvarovite garnet were examined in situ at high pressure up to 13 GPa and high temperature up to 1100 K by synchrotron radiation energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction within a 6-6-type multi-anvil press apparatus. A least-square fitting of room T data to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan (BM3) EoS yielded K0 = 164.2 ± 0.7 GPa, V0 = 1735.9 ± 0.3 Å3 (K’0 fixed to 4.0). P-V-T data were fitted simultaneously by a modified HT-BM3 EoS, which gave the isothermal bulk modulus K0 = 163.6 ± 2.6 GPa, K’0 = 4.1 ± 0.5, its temperature derivative (?K0,T/?T)P = -0.014 ± 0.002 GPa K-1, and the thermal expansion coefficients a0 = 2.32 ± 0.13 ×10-5 K-1 and b0 = 2.13 ± 2.18 ×10-9 K-2 (K’0 fixed to 4.0). Our results showed that the Cr3+ enrichment in natural systems likely increases the density of ugrandite garnets, resulting in a substantial increase of mantle garnet densities in regions where Cr-rich spinel releases chromium through a metasomatic reaction.
Grewal, D.S., Dasgupta, R., Holems, A.K., Costin, G., Li, Y., Tsuno, K.The fate of nitrogen during core-mantle separation on Earth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 251, pp. 87-115.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen, the most dominant constituent of Earth’s atmosphere, is critical for the habitability and existence of life on our planet. However, its distribution between Earth’s major reservoirs, which must be largely influenced by the accretion and differentiation processes during its formative years, is poorly known. Sequestration into the metallic core, along with volatility related loss pre- and post-accretion, could be a critical process that can explain the depletion of nitrogen in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) relative to the primitive chondrites. However, the relative effect of different thermodynamic parameters on the alloy-silicate partitioning behavior of nitrogen is not well understood. Here we present equilibrium partitioning data of N between alloy and silicate melt () from 67 new high pressure (P?=?1-6?GPa)-temperature (T?=?1500-2200?°C) experiments under graphite saturated conditions at a wide range of oxygen fugacity (logfO2?~??IW -4.2 to -0.8), mafic to ultramafic silicate melt compositions (NBO/T?=?0.4 to 2.2), and varying chemical composition of the alloy melts (S and Si contents of 0-32.1?wt.% and 0-3.1?wt.%, respectively). Under relatively oxidizing conditions (~?IW -2.2 to -0.8) nitrogen acts as a siderophile element ( between 1.1 and 52), where decreases with decrease in fO2 and increase in T, and increases with increase in P and NBO/T. Under these conditions remains largely unaffected between S-free conditions and up to ~17?wt.% S content in the alloy melt, and then drops off at >~20?wt.% S content in the alloy melt. Under increasingly reduced conditions (<~?IW -2.2), N becomes increasingly lithophile ( between 0.003 and 0.5) with decreasing with decrease in fO2 and increase in T. At these conditions, fO2 along with Si content of the alloy under the most reduced conditions (<~?IW -3.0), is the controlling parameter with T playing a secondary role, while, P, NBO/T, and S content of the alloy have minimal effects. A multiple linear least-squares regression parametrization for based on the results of this study and previous studies suggests, in agreement with the experimental data, that fO2 (represented by Si content of the alloy melt and FeO content of the silicate melt), followed by T, has the strongest control on . Based on our modeling, to match the present-day BSE N content, impactors that brought N must have been moderately to highly oxidized. If N bearing impactors were reduced, and/or there was significant disequilibrium core formation, then the BSE would be too N-rich and another mechanism for N loss, such as atmospheric loss, would be required.
Grewal, D.S., Dasgupta, R., Holmes, A.K., Costin, G., Li, Y., Tsuno, K.The fate of nitrogen during core-mantle seperation on Earth.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 251. pp. 87-115.Mantlenitrogen

Abstract: Nitrogen, the most dominant constituent of Earth’s atmosphere, is critical for the habitability and existence of life on our planet. However, its distribution between Earth’s major reservoirs, which must be largely influenced by the accretion and differentiation processes during its formative years, is poorly known. Sequestration into the metallic core, along with volatility related loss pre- and post-accretion, could be a critical process that can explain the depletion of nitrogen in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) relative to the primitive chondrites. However, the relative effect of different thermodynamic parameters on the alloy-silicate partitioning behavior of nitrogen is not well understood. Here we present equilibrium partitioning data of N between alloy and silicate melt () from 67 new high pressure (P?=?1-6?GPa)-temperature (T?=?1500-2200?°C) experiments under graphite saturated conditions at a wide range of oxygen fugacity (logfO2?~??IW -4.2 to -0.8), mafic to ultramafic silicate melt compositions (NBO/T?=?0.4 to 2.2), and varying chemical composition of the alloy melts (S and Si contents of 0-32.1?wt.% and 0-3.1?wt.%, respectively). Under relatively oxidizing conditions (~?IW -2.2 to -0.8) nitrogen acts as a siderophile element ( between 1.1 and 52), where decreases with decrease in fO2 and increase in T, and increases with increase in P and NBO/T. Under these conditions remains largely unaffected between S-free conditions and up to ~17?wt.% S content in the alloy melt, and then drops off at >~20?wt.% S content in the alloy melt. Under increasingly reduced conditions (<~?IW -2.2), N becomes increasingly lithophile ( between 0.003 and 0.5) with decreasing with decrease in fO2 and increase in T. At these conditions, fO2 along with Si content of the alloy under the most reduced conditions (<~?IW -3.0), is the controlling parameter with T playing a secondary role, while, P, NBO/T, and S content of the alloy have minimal effects. A multiple linear least-squares regression parametrization for based on the results of this study and previous studies suggests, in agreement with the experimental data, that fO2 (represented by Si content of the alloy melt and FeO content of the silicate melt), followed by T, has the strongest control on . Based on our modeling, to match the present-day BSE N content, impactors that brought N must have been moderately to highly oxidized. If N bearing impactors were reduced, and/or there was significant disequilibrium core formation, then the BSE would be too N-rich and another mechanism for N loss, such as atmospheric loss, would be required.
Grewal, D.S., Dasgupta, R., Sun, C., Tsuno, K., Costin, G.Delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur to the silicate Earth by a giant impact.Science Advances, Vol. 5, 1, Jan. 23, 10.1126/sciadv.aau3669 13p.Mantlecrater

Abstract: Earth’s status as the only life-sustaining planet is a result of the timing and delivery mechanism of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and hydrogen (H). On the basis of their isotopic signatures, terrestrial volatiles are thought to have derived from carbonaceous chondrites, while the isotopic compositions of nonvolatile major and trace elements suggest that enstatite chondrite-like materials are the primary building blocks of Earth. However, the C/N ratio of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) is superchondritic, which rules out volatile delivery by a chondritic late veneer. In addition, if delivered during the main phase of Earth’s accretion, then, owing to the greater siderophile (metal loving) nature of C relative to N, core formation should have left behind a subchondritic C/N ratio in the BSE. Here, we present high pressure-temperature experiments to constrain the fate of mixed C-N-S volatiles during core-mantle segregation in the planetary embryo magma oceans and show that C becomes much less siderophile in N-bearing and S-rich alloys, while the siderophile character of N remains largely unaffected in the presence of S. Using the new data and inverse Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the impact of a Mars-sized planet, having minimal contributions from carbonaceous chondrite-like material and coinciding with the Moon-forming event, can be the source of major volatiles in the BSE.
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Bindi, L., Toledo, V., Camara, F., Saunders, M., O'Reilly, S.Y.Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4011, a new mineral trapped in corundum from volcanic rocks of Mt Carmel, northern Israel.Minerals ( mdpi.com), Vol. 8, 12, 11p. PdfEurope, Israelmineralogy

Abstract: The new mineral species carmeltazite, ideally ZrAl2Ti4O11, was discovered in pockets of trapped melt interstitial to, or included in, corundum xenocrysts from the Cretaceous Mt Carmel volcanics of northern Israel, associated with corundum, tistarite, anorthite, osbornite, an unnamed REE (Rare Earth Element) phase, in a Ca-Mg-Al-Si-O glass. In reflected light, carmeltazite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark brown to dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Under crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (%) (? in nm)) are: 21.8, 22.9 (471.1); 21.0, 21.6 (548.3), 19.9, 20.7 (586.6); and 18.5, 19.8 (652.3). Electron microprobe analysis (average of eight spot analyses) gave, on the basis of 11 oxygen atoms per formula unit and assuming all Ti and Sc as trivalent, the chemical formula (Ti3+3.60Al1.89Zr1.04Mg0.24Si0.13Sc0.06Ca0.05Y0.02Hf0.01)S=7.04O11. The simplified formula is ZrAl2Ti4O11, which requires ZrO2 24.03, Al2O3 19.88, and Ti2O3 56.09, totaling 100.00 wt %. The main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are (d in Å (relative visual intensity)): 5.04 (65), 4.09 (60), 2.961 (100), 2.885 (40), and 2.047 (60). The crystal structure study revealed carmeltazite to be orthorhombic, space group Pnma, with unit-cell parameters a = 14.0951 (9), b = 5.8123 (4), c = 10.0848 (7) Å, V = 826.2 (1) Å3, and Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.0216 for 1165 observed reflections with Fo > 4s(Fo). Carmeltazite exhibits a structural arrangement similar to that observed in a defective spinel structure. The name carmeltazite derives from Mt Carmel (“CARMEL”) and from the dominant metals present in the mineral, i.e., Titanium, Aluminum and Zirconium (“TAZ”). The mineral and its name have been approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (2018-103).
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O'Reilly, S.Y.A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mount Carmel, Israel.American Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 207-219.Europe, Israelmelting

Abstract: Hibonite (CaAl12O19) is a constituent of some refractory calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous meteorites, commonly accompanied by grossite (CaAl4O7) and spinel. These phases are usually interpreted as having condensed, or crystallized from silicate melts, early in the evolution of the solar nebula. Both Ca-Al oxides are commonly found on Earth, but as products of high-temperature metamorphism of pelitic carbonate rocks. We report here a unique occurrence of magmatic hibonitegrossite-spinel assemblages, crystallized from Ca-Al-rich silicate melts under conditions [high-temperature, very low oxygen fugacity (fO2)] comparable to those of their meteoritic counterparts. Ejecta from Cretaceous pyroclastic deposits on Mt Carmel, N. Israel, include aggregates of hopper/skeletal Ti-rich corundum, which have trapped melts that crystallized at fO2 extending from 7 log units below the iron-wustite buffer (?IW = -7; SiC, Ti2O3, Fe-Ti silicide melts) to ?IW = -9 (native V, TiC, and TiN). The assemblage hibonite + grossite + spinel + TiN first crystallized late in the evolution of the melt pockets; this hibonite contains percentage levels of Zr, Ti, and REE that reflect the concentration of incompatible elements in the residual melts as corundum continued to crystallize. A still later stage appears to be represented by coarse-grained (centimeter-size crystals) ejecta that show the crystallization sequence: corundum + Liq ? (low-REE) hibonite ? grossite + spinel ± krotite ? Ca4Al6F2O12 + fluorite. V0 appears as spheroidal droplets, with balls up to millimeter size and spectacular dendritic intergrowths, included in hibonite, grossite, and spinel. Texturally late V0 averages 12 wt% Al and 2 wt% Mn. Spinels contain 10-16 wt% V in V0-free samples, and <0.5 wt% V in samples with abundant V 0. Ongoing paragenetic studies suggest that the fO2 evolution of the Mt Carmel magmatic system reflects the interaction between OIB-type mafic magmas and mantle-derived CH4+H2 fluids near the crust-mantle boundary. Temperatures estimated by comparison with 1 atm phase-equilibrium studies range from ca. 1500 °C down to 1200-1150 °C. When fO2 reached ca. ?IW = -7, the immiscible segregation of Fe,Ti-silicide melts and the crystallization of SiC and TiC effectively desilicated the magma, leading to supersaturation in Al2O3 and the rapid crystallization of corundum, preceding the development of the hibonite-bearing assemblages. Reports of Ti-rich corundum and SiC from other areas of explosive volcanism suggest that these phenomena may be more widespread than presently realized, and the hibonite-grossite assemblage may serve as another indicator to track such activity. This is the first reported terrestrial occurrence of krotite (CaAl2O4), and of at least two unknown Zr-Ti oxides.
Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y.Making and unmaking continental mantle: geochemical and geophysical perspectives.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 93, 1, pp. 249-250.Mantlegeochemistry

Abstract: Earth Scientists have two ways of examining and mapping the structure and composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM): geophysical surveys, and studies of mantle samples from volcanic rocks or exposed terranes. Interpretation of both types of data requires an understanding of some basic strengths and limitations of each approach.
Groat, L.Scientific study of colored gem deposits and modern fingerprinting methods.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 277-8.Globalgemstones

Abstract: Most colored gemstones form near the earth’s surface in a wide range of different environments; for example, they can crystallize from igneous magmas or hydrothermal solutions, or via the recrystallization of preexisting minerals during metamorphism. The specific environment determines the types of gem minerals that form, as well as their physical and chemical properties. Field studies of colored gem deposits provide the basis for the scientific understanding of natural gemstone formation and, in turn, the basis for criteria for gem identification. Gem deposits are of scientific interest because they represent unusual geologic and geochemical conditions; for example, emeralds are rare because they require beryllium and chromium (and/or vanadium), which generally travel in very different geochemical circles. Scientists study gem deposits by collecting rock and mineral samples in the field, mapping geological formations and structures, documenting the environment in which the gems occur, and examining the collected samples back in the laboratory. Such examination yields information on the chemical, temperature, and pressure conditions of gem formation, the associated minerals (often found as distinctive inclusions in the gems themselves), and the age of the deposit. Determining the origin of a gem deposit usually requires a small amount of very specific data. The results are published in publicly available peerreviewed publications. Such field studies provide clues that can be used to explore for similar types of gem deposits. Challenges include the remoteness of locations that have not been previously studied by geologists, the small size of deposits that precludes study by large mining companies, and the rarity of the gems themselves. There is much left to do in gem deposit research. For example, despite its growing popularity as a gemstone, there are few studies of gem spinel deposits, especially cobalt-blue spinel (figure 1), for which only one deposit has been studied. To date we know little about what factors control spinel genesis and color. Recently there has been another reason to study gem deposits: gem fingerprinting, in which modern methods are used to obtain characteristic information. This information is then compared to information obtained from stones from known localities to estimate where a stone with no locality information originated. Modern fingerprinting methods analyze the chemistry of the stones (using electron probe microanalysis, isotopic analysis, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and/or their solid and fluid inclusions. We know that the chemistry of the stones must reflect the chemistry of the host rock environment; for example, the chromophore in emerald from Lened in Canada is vanadium, and not the typical chromium, because there are no chromium-bearing rocks in the area. With respect to solid inclusions, rubies from Aappaluttoq in Greenland have phlogopite mica inclusions because they recrystallized in a rock at pressures and temperatures where phlogopite is the stable potassium-bearing phase. An example of diagnostic fluid inclusions is the three-phase variety seen in Colombian emeralds (and now also observed elsewhere). New is the use of ICP-MS on fluid inclusions to define part of the fluid assemblage from which the stones were formed; this tells us about the environment of formation, but also may assist in defining a fingerprint for the stone. Where scientific studies require only very specific data, the more data available from stones of known origin, and the more representative those stones are of the full range of compositions and inclusions found in a specific deposit or country of origin, the more accurate the estimation should be. Unfortunately, these data are generally not made public, so every lab doing fingerprinting is essentially working independently, and there is no way to know how accurate their data and the resulting country- or deposit-oforigin estimates are. We also note that a serious problem in origin determination is that some of the best gemstones will be lacking diagnostic inclusions altogether, which then restricts the tools and observations can be used.
Gu, T., Ohfuji, H., Wang, W.Origin of milky optical features in type 1aB diamonds: dislocations, nano-inclusions, and polycrystalline diamond.American Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 652-658.Globaldiamond morphology
Gu, T., Valley, J., Kitajima, K., Spicuzza, M., Fournelle, J., Stern, R., Ohfuji, H., Wang, W.Evidence of subducted altered oceanic crust into deep mantle from inclusions of type IaB diamonds,Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 306-7.Mantlediamond inclusions

Abstract: Nitrogen is one of the most common impurities in diamond, and its aggregation styles have been used as criteria for diamond classification. Pure type IaB diamonds (with 100% nitrogen in B aggregation) are rather rare among natural diamonds. The occurrence of the B center is generally associated with high temperature and a long residence time of the host diamond, which would potentially provide information on the earth’s deep interior. Seawater circulation is the unique process that shapes the surface of our planet and potentially has a profound effect on its interior due to slab subduction. In about 50 type IaB diamonds with detectable micro-inclusions submitted to GIA for screening, we found that more than 70% of them contained a typical mineral assemblage from the sublithosphere. Jeffbenite (TAPP), majorite garnet, enstatite, and ferropericlase have been observed, which could be retrograde products of former bridgmanite. CaSiO3-walstromite with larnite and titanite is the dominant phase present in approximately 40% of all diamond samples. Direct evidence from oxygen isotope ratios measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, or SIMS, (d18OVSMOWin the range +10.7 to +12.5‰) of CaSiO3-walstromite with coexisting larnite and titanite that retrograde from CaSiO3-perovskite suggest that hydrothermally altered oceanic basalt can subduct to depths of >410 km in the transition zone. Incorporation of materials from subducted altered oceanic crust into the deep mantle produced diamond inclusions that have both lower mantle and subduction signatures. Ca(Si,Al)O3-perovskite was observed with a high concentration of rare earth elements (>5 wt.%) that could be enriched under P-Tconditions in the lower mantle. Evidence from ringwoodite with a hydroxide bond, coexisting tuite and apatite, precipitates of an NH3phase, and cohenite with trace amounts of Cl imply that the subducted brines can potentially introduce hydrous fluid to the bottom of the transition zone. In the diamonds with subducted materials, the increasing carbon isotope ratio from the core to the rim region detected by SIMS (d13C from -5.5‰ to -4‰) suggests that an oxidized carbonate-dominated fluid was associated with recycling of the subducted hydrous material. The deep subduction played an important role in balancing redox exchange with the reduced lower mantle indicated by precipitated iron nanoparticles and coexisting hydrocarbons and carbonate phases.
Guo, D., Liu, Y.Occurrence and geochemistry of bastnasite in carbonatite related REE deposits, Mianning Dechang REE belt, Sichuan Province SW China.Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 107, pp. 266-282.Chinacarbonatite

Abstract: Bastnäsite is the main ore mineral in many carbonatite-related rare earth element (REE) deposits, which account for ~51% of rare-earth oxide reserves worldwide. However, the occurrence, geochemistry, and genetic significance of bastnäsite has not been methodically investigated. The Cenozoic Mianning-Dechang (MD) REE belt in Sichuan Province, SW China, contains the Maoniuping, Dalucao, Lizhuang, and Muluozhai deposits as well as numerous smaller REE occurrences. Individual deposits within the belt contain different types of bastnäsite-bearing ore, which provides a unique opportunity to explore in detail the common mechanisms controlling the formation of bastnäsite-rich REE deposits. Here, we present detailed results from field observations and petrographic, geochemical, and fluid inclusion studies of bastnäsite from the main MD deposits. Calcite, fluorite, and barite form stable mineral assemblages that are commonly overprinted by bastnäsite. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in bastnäsite of ~150-270?°C (Dalucao and Lizhuang deposits) and 155-210?°C (Maoniuping deposit) are systematically lower than those of fluid inclusions in gangue minerals. Therefore, the petrographic studies and homogenization temperatures both show that large-scale crystallization of bastnäsite took place during the later stage of the hydrothermal system. The bastnäsite, relatively geochemically homogeneous within all of the MD deposits, is enriched in Ba (293-8425?ppm), Th (16.4-2527?ppm), and U (4.19-92.7?ppm), and relatively depleted in high field strength elements such as Nb (0.15-17.4?ppm), Ta (0.06-6.48?ppm), Zr (0.71-31.1?ppm), Hf (0.62-5.65?ppm), and Ti (<60?ppm), the same to carbonatite, and ore veins. In comparison, the samples from the study area show an increase in average REE contents from syenites to carbonatites to ore veins (i.e., bastnäsite-bearing ores) and finally to bastnäsite. Lanthanum and Ce were commonly substituted by Th, U, Sc, Ba, and Sr supplied by more evolved hydrothermal fluids. Combining the present results with existing data, we present a three-stage model for the formation of carbonatite-related REE deposits. First, partial melting of metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle, fluxed by REE- and CO2-rich fluids, forms the parental carbonatite-syenite magma. Second, Sr, Ba, and REEs are strongly partitioned into carbonatite melts during liquid immiscibility in the carbonatite-syenite magmatic system. Third, hydrothermal fluids exsolved from the crystalizing syenite and carbonatite magmas form ore veins with early gangue minerals and later bastnäsite overgrowths. Consequently, barite, calcite, and fluorite assemblages are a valuable guide in REE exploration.
Guotana, J.M., Morishita, T., Yamaguschi, R., Nishio, I., Tamura, A., Tani, K., Harigane, Y., Szilas, K., Pearson, D.G.Contrasting textural and chemical signatures of chromitites in the Mesoarchean Ulamertoq peridotite body, southern west Greenland.Geosciences ( MDPI), Vol. 8, 328- 19p.Europe, Greenlandchromitite

Abstract: Peridotites occur as lensoid bodies within the Mesoarchaean orthogneiss in the Akia terrane of Southern West Greenland. The Ulamertoq peridotite body is the largest of these peridotites hosted within the regional orthogneiss. It consists mainly of olivine, orthopyroxene, and amphibole-rich ultramafic rocks exhibiting metamorphic textural and chemical features. Chromitite layers from different localities in Ulamertoq show contrasting characteristics. In one locality, zoned chromites are hosted in orthopyroxene-amphibole peridotites. Compositional zonation in chromites is evident with decreasing Cr and Fe content from core to rim, while Al and Mg increase. Homogeneous chromites from another locality are fairly uniform and Fe-rich. The mineral chemistry of the major and accessory phases shows metamorphic signatures. Inferred temperature conditions suggest that the zoned chromites, homogeneous chromites, and their hosts are equilibrated at different metamorphic conditions. In this paper, various mechanisms during the cumulus to subsolidus stages are explored in order to understand the origin of the two contrasting types of chromites.
Gutscher, M-A.Scraped by flat-slab subduction. Laramie OrogenyNature Geoscience, Vol. 11, 12, pp. 890-891.United States, Wyomingsubduction

Abstract: During flat subduction, material is scraped off the base of the continental mantle lithosphere, building a migrating keel. This testable mechanism for flat subduction recreates features of the Laramide orogeny.
Guzmics, T., Berkesi, M, Bodnar, R.J., Fall, A., Bali, E., Milke, R., Vetlenyi, E., Szabo, C.Natrocarbonatites: a hidden product of three phase immiscibility.Geology, Vol. 47, 6, pp. 527-530.Africa, Tanzaniadeposit - Oldoinyo Lengai

Abstract: Earth’s only active natrocarbonatite volcanism, occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), Tanzania, suggests that natrocarbonatite melts are formed through a unique geological process. In the East African Rift, the extinct Kerimasi (KER) volcano is a neighbor of OL and also contains nephelinites hosting melt and fluid inclusions that preserve the igneous processes associated with formation of natrocarbonatite melts. Here, we present evidence for the presence of coexisting nephelinite melt, fluorine-rich carbonate melt, and alkali carbonate fluid. The compositions of these phases differ from the composition of OL natrocarbonatites; therefore, it is unlikely that natrocarbonatites formed directly from one of these phases. Instead, mixing of the outgassing alkali carbonate fluid and the fluorine-rich carbonate melt can yield natrocarbonatite compositions at temperatures close to subsolidus temperatures of nephelinite (<630-650 °C). Moreover, the high halogen content (6-16 wt%) in the carbonate melt precludes saturation of calcite (i.e., formation of calciocarbonatite) and maintains the carbonate melt in the liquid state with 28-41 wt% CaO at temperatures =600 °C. Our study suggests that alkali carbonate fluids and melts could have commonly formed in the geological past, but it is unlikely they precipitated calcite that facilitates fossilization. Instead, alkali carbonates likely precipitated that were not preserved in the fossil nephelinite rocks. Thus, alkali carbonate fluids and melts have been so far overlooked in the geological record because of the lack of previous detailed inclusion studies.
Guzmics, T., Berkesi, M., Bodnar, R.J., Fall, A., Bali, E., Milke, R., Vetlenyi, E., Szabo, C.Natrocarbonatites: a hidden product of three phase immiscibility. ( Oldoinyo Lengai)Geology, https://doi.org/ 10.1130/G46125.1 Africa, Tanzaniacarbonatite

Abstract: Earth’s only active natrocarbonatite volcanism, occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), Tanzania, suggests that natrocarbonatite melts are formed through a unique geological process. In the East African Rift, the extinct Kerimasi (KER) volcano is a neighbor of OL and also contains nephelinites hosting melt and fluid inclusions that preserve the igneous processes associated with formation of natrocarbonatite melts. Here, we present evidence for the presence of coexisting nephelinite melt, fluorine-rich carbonate melt, and alkali carbonate fluid. The compositions of these phases differ from the composition of OL natrocarbonatites; therefore, it is unlikely that natrocarbonatites formed directly from one of these phases. Instead, mixing of the outgassing alkali carbonate fluid and the fluorine-rich carbonate melt can yield natrocarbonatite compositions at temperatures close to subsolidus temperatures of nephelinite (<630-650 °C). Moreover, the high halogen content (6-16 wt%) in the carbonate melt precludes saturation of calcite (i.e., formation of calciocarbonatite) and maintains the carbonate melt in the liquid state with 28-41 wt% CaO at temperatures =600 °C. Our study suggests that alkali carbonate fluids and melts could have commonly formed in the geological past, but it is unlikely they precipitated calcite that facilitates fossilization. Instead, alkali carbonates likely precipitated that were not preserved in the fossil nephelinite rocks. Thus, alkali carbonate fluids and melts have been so far overlooked in the geological record because of the lack of previous detailed inclusion studies.
Hagedorn, G., Ross, M., Paulen, R., Smith, R., Neudorf, C., Gingerich, T., Lian, O.Ice-flow and deglacial history of the Laurentide Ice sheet in the southwestern Great Slave Lake area.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 102.Canada, Northwest Territoriesgeomorphology

Abstract: Limited field studies and sparse chronological constraints in the southwestern Great Slave Lake area creates uncertainties about the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) flow history and deglacial chronology. Improved understanding of the western LIS ice-margin morphology and retreat history is required to refine larger ice-sheet interpretations and timing for northwest drainage of glacial Lake McConnell. Using new field observations and geochronology we establish ice-flow history and better constrain regional deglaciation. Paleo-ice flow indicators (n = 66) show an oldest southwestern flow (230°), an intermediate northwesterly flow (305°), and a youngest westerly flow (250°). Till samples bulk sediment and matrix properties (n = 160) allowed identification of two till units. A lower grey till sourced mainly from local Paleozoic sediments produced clast fabrics indicating a southwesterly flow direction, overlain by a brown till that contained an increased Canadian Shield content with lodged elongate boulders a-axes and boulder-top striation orientations indicating a west to northwest ice-flow direction. Ice-flow results show a clockwise shift in direction interpreted as evidence for ice-divide migration followed by topographically controlled deglacial westward flow influenced by the Mackenzie River valley. Minimum deglacial timing estimates were constrained through optical dating of fine-sand deposits in a well-developed strandline (n = 2) and seven aeolian dunes; ages range from 9.9 ± 0.6 to 10.8 ± 0.7 ka BP. These ages are from dunes located below glacial Lake McConnell maximum water level and may thus provide new local lake level age constraints. Ice retreat is informed by a newly-mapped segment of the Snake River moraine, which is an understudied feature in the region. New ice-flow history and ice-margin retreat interpretations will be integrated into the larger body of work on the western LIS providing more confident conclusions on ice-sheet evolution and meltwater drainage pathways, specifically in the southwestern Great Slave Lake area.
Haggerty, S.E.Micro-diamonds: proposed origins, crystal growth laws, and the underlying principle governing resource predictions.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available, 43p.Globalmicrodiamonds

Abstract: The origin of micro-diamonds is controversial and although the application to determine the grade and value of macro-diamonds in kimberlite/lamproite bodies continues to receive widespread usage there are several outstanding factors generally not considered, the most important of which is genesis. The issue is addressed in this study in the context that two classes of small diamonds (generally <0.5?mm and rarely <1?mm) are recognized. Micro-diamonds sensu-stricto (MDS) are typically sharp-edged octahedra, free of mineral inclusions and surface etching or corrosion, increase exponentially with decreasing size and are in overwhelming larger concentrations, by orders of magnitude, relative to macro-diamonds (>0.5?mm). The second class of small diamonds (SD <0.5?mm), used in industrial applications, may have modified solution-growth morphologies (e.g. dodecahedra, tetrahexahedra and related forms), and include loosely bonded polycrystalline diamonds (framesite), boart, fibrous cubes and broken fragments. There are large differences in volume to surface-area ratios between MDS and SD, demonstrating unequivocally that pristine and solution-modified forms could not have co-existed in equilibrium under the same P-T-t-fO2 conditions in the mantle. From detailed studies of N and C in diamond, and experimental results on the redox-partitioning of N in the presence of metallic Fe, it is concluded that MDS are plume-related from the D? core-mantle boundary, and are melt-derived in lower mantle proto-kimberlite. The lower mantle is expectedly saturated in metallic Fe, and is highly depleted in N which is siderophile under very low f O2 conditions, a setting in which excessively large (~100 to 3000 ct), but rare Type II mega-diamonds (but also MDS) are inferred to have originated. These diamonds (Type II, Ib, IaA) are distinct from the majority of N-rich Type Ia upper mantle macro-diamonds that grew slowly by metasomatic processes and annealed over long periods. Two crystal growth laws are possibly applicable to the size-distribution of diamonds encountered in kimberlites/lamproites. Gibrat’s Law of proportionate, short-term crystal growth in open systems by advection is applicable to magmatic MDS, whereas macro-diamonds bear some relation to McCabe’s Law of long-term, relatively constant crystal growth, by diffusion metasomatism. The range from small to large diamonds (SFD size-frequency-distribution) is lognormal but is composed of two segments: the smaller size (<0.5?mm) fraction has an overall linear distribution, whereas macro-diamonds (>0.5?mm) are quadratic. The two distributions meet or overlap in a marked discontinuity, implying but not proving distinct origins. The power law governing SFD lognormal distributions is fundamental and is widespread across an enormous number of disciplines (from biology to economics), and may be universal (e.g. it is applicable to planetary scale meteorite impact craters, and to the SFD of cosmic-diamonds from supernovae explosions). Industry applications in resource predictions are from mixtures of diamonds (MDS and SD), and extrapolation to larger stones is valid because the fundamental law is independent of origins.
Han, Y-S., Santosh, M., Ganguly, S., Li, S-S.Evolution of a Mesoarchean suprasubduction zone mantle wedge in the Dharwar Craton, southern India: evidence from petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, and Lu-Hf isotopes.Geological Journal, doi:10.1002/gj.3440Indiacraton

Abstract: Petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological features of Archean ultramafic-mafic complexes formed in subduction-related settings provide significant insights into mantle source and geodynamic processes associated with subduction-accretion-collision events in the early Earth. Here, we investigate a suite of serpentinized dunite, dunite, pyroxenite, and clinopyroxenite from an ultramafic complex along the collisional suture between the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) and the Central Dharwar Craton (CDC) in southern India. We present petrology, mineral chemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, rare earth element (REE), Lu-Hf isotopes, and whole-rock geochemistry including major, trace element, and platinum-group element (PGE) data with a view to investigate the magmatic and metasomatic processes in the subduction zone. Mineral chemistry data from chromite associated with the serpentinised ultramafic rocks show distinct characteristics of arc-related melt. Zircon U-Pb data from the ultramafic suite define different age populations, with the oldest ages at 2.9 Ga, and the dominant age population showing a range of 2.8-2.6 Ga. The early Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.4 Ga) metamorphic age is considered to mark the timing of collision of the two WDC and CDC. Zircon REE patterns suggest the involvement continental crust components in the magma source. Zircon Lu-Hf analysis yields both positive and negative eHf(t) values from -3.9 to 1.5 with Hf-depleted model ages (TDM) of 3,041-3,366 Ma for serpentinised dunite and -0.2-2.0 and 2,833-2,995 Ma for pyroxenite, suggesting that the magma was sourced from depleted mantle and was contaminated with the ancient continental crust. Geochemical data show low MgO/SiO2 values and elevated Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, implying subduction-related setting. The serpentinized dunites and dunites show mild LREE enrichment over HREE, with relatively higher abundance of LILE (Ba, Sr) and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Zr), suggesting fluid-rock interaction, melt impregnation, and refertilization processes. The PGE data suggest olivine, chromite, and sulphide fractionations associated with subduction processes. Our study on the Mesoarchean to Neoarchean ultramafic complex provides important insights to reconstruct the history of the crust-mantle interaction in an Archean suprasubduction zone mantle wedge.
Harms, T., Baldwin, J.Paleoproterozoic metasupracrustal suites on the NW flank of the Wyoming province: the stories they do and do not tell about an evolving continent.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 103.United States, Canadacraton

Abstract: Metasupracrustal sequences interlayered with quartzofeldspathic gneisses distinguish the Montana Metasedimentary terrane on the NW flank of the Wyoming Province (WP). Early thinking correlated marble-bearing suites and considered them younger than carbonate-absent sequences, promoting models of WP continental crust evolution toward thick lithosphere supporting a stable marine platform in the period ~ 3.5-2.5 Ga. Metasupracrustal suite depositional ages constrained by (1) detrital zircons; (2) times of metamorphism; and (3) cross-cutting meta-igneous rocks now indicate a more complex pattern of tectonic environments along the NW margin of the WP. Carbonate-bearing metasupracrustal suites in the Tobacco Root Mountains and Ruby Range include marble, amphibolite, orthoamphibolite, pelitic gneiss, quartzite, and iron formation. Detrital zircons constrain the protolith age to 2.45 Ga. Interlayered quartzofeldspathic gneiss with calc-alkaline geochemistry were previously interpreted as suggesting a continental fringing arc superimposed on Archean basement. An episode of metamorphism and anatexis followed at 2.45 Ga, demonstrated by metamorphic monazite and intrusive ages of cross-cutting mylonitic leucogneiss. We interpret this to be a time of collision along the NW WP. Cross-cutting mafic sills and dikes suggest continental rifting at 2.06 Ga. Diverse metasupracrustal suites whose protoliths must be 1.8 Ga occur in the Ruby, Tobacco Root, and Highland mountains. A carbonate-absent suite of amphibolite, orthoamphibolite, pelitic schist and quartzite in the Tobacco Root Mountains represents oceanic crust, while aluminous schist and interlayered amphibolite in the Highland Mountains are consistent with a back-arc basin setting. The Ruby Range suite includes prominent marble, amphibolite, orthoamphibolite, pelitic schist, quartzite and iron formation and may represent a second, post-rift carbonate platform facing that basin. These suites collapsed against the WP during the 1.78-1.72 Ga Big Sky orogeny as a consequence of subduction directed beneath the WP.
Harris, G.Mantle composition, age and geotherm beneath the Darby kimberlite field, west central Rae Craton.University of Alberta, Msc thesis https://doi.org /10.7939/R3NC5SV24 availableCanada, Nunavutdeposit - Darby

Abstract: The Rae Craton, northern Canada, contains several diamondiferous kimberlite fields that have been a focus of episodic diamond exploration. Relatively little is known about the deep mantle lithosphere underpinning the architecturally complex crust. We present bulk and mineral element and isotopic compositional data for peridotite and pyroxenite/eclogite xenoliths from the Darby kimberlites representing fragments of the west central Rae lithosphere, as well as the first kimberlite eruption age of 542.2±2.6 Ma (2 s; phlogopite Rb-Sr isochron). Darby peridotites have low bulk Al2O3 contents with highly-depleted olivine (median Mg#?=?92.5) characteristic of cratonic lithosphere globally, but more depleted than peridotites from other Rae Craton localities. One peridotite xenolith contains a harzburgitic G10D garnet. Re-Os TRD model ages appear to be the oldest measured to date from peridotites of the Rae lithosphere, having a mode in the early Neoarchean and ranging to the Paleoproterozoic (~2.3 Ga). Concentrate clinopyroxene defines a well constrained mantle geotherm indicating the existence of a ~200 km thick lithosphere at the time of kimberlite eruption, greater than the lithospheric thickness beneath Somerset Island and in good agreement with modern seismic constraints. Nickel-in-garnet thermometry in grains that record temperatures below the mantle adiabat, indicates mantle sampling dominantly in the graphite stability field whereas Al-in-olivine thermometry shows a distinct mantle sampling mode in the diamond stability field. Abundant pyroxenite and eclogite xenoliths are recovered across the Darby property and low-Cr garnet (Cr2O3?
Hartmann, J. Plate tectonics, carbon, and climate.Science, Vol. 364, 6436, pp. 126-127.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Over the past 541 million years (the Phanerozoic eon), Earth's climate has been relatively stable compared to preceding eons. However, there have been periods of longer glaciations, which have been attributed to changes in the balance between CO2 sources and sinks. The major CO2 sources are thought to be mantle degassing at hotspot volcanoes, mid-ocean ridges, and rifts; subduction zone volcanoes; metamorphosis of carbonate rocks into silicate rocks; and oxidative weathering (see the figure) (1). The main CO2 sink is chemical weathering and the subsequent transfer of carbon to the ocean, where carbonate sediments lock up CO2 for long periods of time. During arc-continent collisions, rocks from volcanic arcs are accreted to continents. On page 181 of this issue, Macdonald et al. (2) propose that weathering can rise after the accreted rocks are exposed at Earth's surface. This mechanism may explain the glaciations seen during the Phanerozoic.
Hartnady, M.I.H., Kirkland, C.L.A gradual transition to plate tectonics on Earth between 3.2 and 2.7 billion years ago.Terra Nova, Vol. 31, 2, pp. 129-134.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Zircon crystals precipitated from granitoid magmas contain a robust record of the age and chemistry of continental magmatism spanning some 4.375 Ga of Earth history, a record that charts initiation of plate tectonics. However, constraining when exactly plate tectonics began to dominate crustal growth processes is challenging as the geochemical signatures of individual rocks may reflect local subduction processes rather than global plate tectonics. Here we apply counting statistics to a global database of coupled U-Pb and Hf isotope analyses on magmatic zircon grains from continental igneous and sedimentary rocks to quantify changes in the compositions of their source rocks. The analysis reveals a globally significant change in the sources of granitoid magmas between 3.2 and 2.7 Ga. These secular changes in zircon chemistry are driven by a coupling of the deep (depleted mantle) and shallow (crustal) Earth reservoirs, consistent with a geodynamic regime dominated by Wilson cycle style plate tectonics.
Hazarika, B., Malpe, D.B., Dongre, A.Petrology and geochemistry of a boninite dyke from the western Bastar craton of central India.Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 128:32Indiacraton

Abstract: The Dongargarh Supergroup along with the basal Amgaon Gneissic Complex constitutes the northwestern part of the central Indian Bastar craton. In the present study, we report a new finding of a boninite dyke intruded in the Amgaon gneisses of this area. The dyke composed of mainly pyroxenes, amphiboles and subordinate amount of plagioclase. The higher contents of SiO2 (51-54 wt.%), MgO (12-14 wt.%), Ni (375-473 ppm), Cr (1416-1580 ppm) and very low TiO2 (0.2-0.4 wt.%) are consistent with the boninite nature of the dyke as well as the unevolved primary nature of the source magma. The extraordinarily high CaO content (15.97-17.7 wt.%) with higher CaO/Al2O3 (3.13-3.96) ratios classifies it as high-Ca boninite. The trace element ratios including Zr/Ti, Ti/V, Ti/Sc and Ti/Yb further show its geochemical similarity with the Archaean boninite. The dyke also shows negative high-field strength element (Nb, Ta and Ti) anomalies which are the characteristics of the boninite rocks reported elsewhere and along with the enriched light rare earth element pattern, it shows more affinity particularly with the northern Bastar boninite dyke. The mineralogical and geochemical similarities of the boninite dykes from the Bastar craton indicate a widespread boninitic event during the Palaeoproterozoic having a similar origin. These boninite dykes indicate the preservation of subduction-related signatures in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Bastar craton at the time of its evolution or may be during the convergence of the Bastar and Bundelkhand cratons.
Hazen, R.M.An evolutionary system of mineralogy: proposal for a classification of planetary materials based on natural kind of clustering. Not specific to diamondAmerican Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 810-816.Globalmineralogy

Abstract: Minerals reveal the nature of the co-evolving geosphere and biosphere through billions of years of Earth history. Mineral classification systems have the potential to elucidate this rich evolutionary story; however, the present mineral taxonomy, based as it is on idealized major element chemistry and crystal structure, lacks a temporal aspect, and thus cannot reflect planetary evolution. A complementary evolutionary system of mineralogy based on the quantitative recognition of “natural kind clustering” for a wide range of condensed planetary materials with different paragenetic origins has the potential to amplify, though not supersede, the present classification system.
Herzberg, C.From hot oceanic ridges to cool cratons. Peridotite Geology, Vol. 4, 12, pp. 1079-1080.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The fraction of radioactive heat production in Earth’s mantle to convective heat loss has decreased with the aging of Earth, as more of its nuclear fuel became spent and more of its heat was lost to space. Earth was therefore hotter in its past, but there is no consensus as to how much higher the mantle’s temperature was in early Earth compared to the present. This is an important problem to understand because it is expected to have imposed secular changes in the formation of oceanic lithosphere at ridges and its cycling at subduction zones (Herzberg and Rudnick, 2012; Foley, 2018). In a hotter early Earth, the ambient mantle melted more extensively, to make thicker basaltic oceanic crust and residual mantle peridotite, the latter of which was depleted in chemical elements that entered the magmas. Sometime later, the basaltic oceanic crust became hydrated by seawater, and it in turn melted to make silicic continental crust. As discussed in more detail below, this transformation led to the juxtaposition of continental crust on top of oceanic lithospheric mantle (Herzberg and Rudnick, 2012). The original “oceanic mantle lithosphere” is now called "continental mantle lithosphere" because it is located below continental crust in cratons. This hypothesis is explored by Servali and Korenaga (2018, p. 1047 in this issue of Geology), and is the reason why they entitle their paper an "oceanic origin of continental mantle lithosphere".
Hidas, K., Garrido, C.J., Booth-Rea, G., Marchesi, C., Bodinier, J-L., Dautria, J-M., Louni-Hacini, A., Azzouni-Sekkal, A.Lithosphere tearing along STEP faults and synkenetic formation of lherzolite and wehrlite in the shallow subcontinental mantle. OranSolid Earth, https://doi.org/10.5194 /se-2019-32 36p.Mantle, Africa, Algeriasubduction

Abstract: Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) faults are the locus of continual lithospheric tearing at slab edges, resulting in sharp changes in the lithospheric and crustal thickness and triggering lateral and/or near-vertical mantle flow. However, the mechanisms at the lithospheric mantle scale are still poorly understood. Here, we present the microstructural study of olivine-rich lherzolite, harzburgite and wehrlite mantle xenoliths from the Oran volcanic field (Tell Atlas, NW Algeria). This alkali volcanic field occurs along a major STEP fault responsible for the Miocene westward slab retreat in the westernmost Mediterranean. Mantle xenoliths provide a unique opportunity to investigate the microstructures in the mantle section of a STEP fault system. The microstructures of mantle xenoliths show a variable grain size ranging from coarse granular to fine-grained equigranular textures uncorrelated with modal variations. The major element composition of the mantle peridotites provides temperature estimates in a wide range (790-1165?°C) but in general, the coarse-grained and fine-grained peridotites suggest deeper and shallower provenance depth, respectively. Olivine grain size in the fine-grained peridotites depends on the size and volume fraction of the pyroxene grains, which is consistent with pinning of olivine grain growth by pyroxenes as second phase particles. In the coarse-grained peridotites, well-developed olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) is characterized by orthorhombic and [100]-fiber symmetries, and orthopyroxene has a coherent CPO with that of olivine, suggesting their coeval deformation by dislocation creep at high-temperature. In the fine-grained microstructures, along with the weakening of the fabric strength, olivine CPO symmetry exhibits a shift towards [010]-fiber and the [010]- and [001]-axes of orthopyroxene are generally distributed subparallel to those of olivine. These data are consistent with deformation of olivine in the presence of low amounts of melts and the precipitation of orthopyroxenes from a melt phase. The bulk CPO of clinopyroxene mimics that of orthopyroxene via a topotaxial relationship of the two pyroxenes. This observation points to a melt-related origin of most clinopyroxenes in the Oran mantle xenoliths. The textural and geochemical record of the peridotites are consistent with interaction of a refractory harzburgite protolith with a high-Mg# melt at depth (resulting in the formation of coarse-grained clinopyroxene-rich lherzolite and wehrlite), and with a low-Mg# evolved melt in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle (forming fine-grained harzburgite). We propose that pervasive melt-peridotite reaction - promoted by lateral and/or near-vertical mantle flow associated with lithospheric tearing - resulted in the synkinematic crystallization of secondary lherzolite and wehrlite and played a key effect on grain size reduction during the operation of the Rif-Tell STEP fault. Melt-rock reaction and secondary formation of lherzolite and wehrlite may be widespread in other STEP fault systems worldwide.
Higgins, M., Bedard, L.P., dos Santos, E., Vander Auwera, J.Lamprophyres, carbonatites and phoscorites of the Saguenay City alkali province, Quebec, CanadaGAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 108.Canada, QuebecCcrbonatite

Abstract: The Saguenay City alkali province (~ 580 Ma) comprises the Saint-Honoré alkaline complex (carbonatite-syenite), lesser-known minor subsurface carbonatite intrusions and several sets of lamprophyre (sl) dykes. Flat-lying, north-dipping dykes (l-100 cm) that crop out close the Saguenay River/Fjord were formed by multiple intrusions of a very fluid magma. The dykes are continuously variable in composition from carbonatite to ultramafic lamprophyre. Olivine phenocrysts (l-3 mm) are pseudomorphed by serpentine but phlogopite phenocrysts (l-5 mm) are well preserved in a matrix of a fine-grained serpentine, chlorite and carbonate. A few dykes are phoscorites, with abundant phenocrysts of phlogopite, oxides, apatite and accessory baddeleyite. In all dykes, the matrix may have been originally fine-grained or even glassy, and subsequently altered by water dissolved in the original magma. Several dykes contain abundant xenoliths: mostly crustal and possibly one of mantle origin. Low-carbonate dykes have a narrow range in Sr isotopes (0.7030-0.7033) versus the wider range of high-carbonate dykes (0.7032-0.7046), but this distinction is not seen in eNd (3.4-4.9). Overall, it appears that each batch of magma was small and came from independent mantle sources. Recently, we found a new set of vertical, NW-directed lamprophyres around the Baie des Ha! Ha!, about 15 km south of the main swarm. They have phlogopite phenocrysts to 50 mm and olivine pseudomorphs. Their contrasting orientation suggests that they have a different age to the Saguenay River dykes, but they have yet to be dated. The overall pattern is of an extensive mantle source that delivered small volumes of volatile-rich ultramafic magmas over a long period. We consider that some of these magma batches accumulated and differentiated in a magma chamber beneath the Saint-Honoré alkaline complex, whereas others rose uninterrupted to high levels of the crust where they were emplaced as dykes.
Hillbom, E., Bolt, J.Botswana - a modern economic history: an African diamond in the rough.Palgrave Macmillan, 235p. ISBN 9783319731438Africa, BotswanaHistory

Abstract: Together with Mauritius, Botswana is often categorized as one of two growth miracles in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to its spectacular long-run economic performance and impressive social development, it has been termed both an economic success story and a developmental state. While there is uniqueness in the Botswana experience, several aspects of the country’s opportunities and challenges are of a more general nature. Throughout its history, Botswana has been both blessed and hindered by its natural resource abundance and dependency, which have influenced growth periods, opportunities for economic diversification, strategies for sustainable economic and social development, and the distribution of incomes and opportunities. Through a political economy framework, Hillbom and Bolt provide an updated understanding of an African success story, covering the period from the mid-19th century, when the Tswana groups settled, to the present day. Understanding the interaction over time between geography and factor endowments on the one hand, and the development of economic and political institutions on the other, offers principle lessons from Botswana’s experience to other natural resource rich developing countries.
Hoffman, P.F.Big Time. Proterozoic Eon … Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 2-19.Globalplate tectonics

Abstract: The Proterozoic Eon was once regarded as the neglected middle half of Earth history. The name refers to early animals, but they did not appear until the eon (2.5-0.54 Ga) was nearly over. Eukaryotic cells and sexual reproduction evolved much earlier in the eon, as did chloroplasts. Molecular dioxygen, the presence of which altered the geochemical behavior of nearly every element essential to life, rose from negligible to near-modern levels, and then plummeted before rising fitfully again. Plate tectonics took on a modern form, and two supercontinents, Nuna and Rodinia, successively congregated and later dispersed. Climate regulatory failures, i.e., Snowball Earth, appear to be a uniquely Proterozoic phenomenon, having occurred twice in rapid succession near the end of the eon (from 717 to 660 Ma and from 650 to 635 Ma) and arguably once near its beginning (ca. 2.43 Ga). Dynamic sea glaciers covered Snowball Earth oceans from pole to pole, and equatorial sublimation drove slow-moving ice sheets on land. Ultimately, the gradual accumulation of CO2 triggered rapid deglaciation and transient greenhouse aftermaths. Physically based and geologically tested, Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth appears to have molecular legacies in ancient bitumens and modern organisms. This is the story of my love affair with an eon that is now a little less neglected.
Holden, E-J., Liu, W., Horrocks, T., Wang, R., Wedge, D., Duuring, P., Beardsmore, T.GeoDocA - fast analysis of geological content in mineral exploration reports: a text mining approach. Not specific to diamondOre Geology Reviews, in press available, 20p.AustraliaAnalysis system
Holler, J.Teaching critical open GIS.The Canadian Geographer, doi.org/10.1111/ cag.12521GlobalGIS

Abstract: Higher-education geographic information system (GIS) curricula largely marginalize and separate instruction of critical GIS and open GIS, paralleling a divide between GIS and non-GIS in geography. GIS is typically represented as a singular, infallibly objective, and universally applicable technology. GIS generally dismisses the critiques from human geography, while critical human geography dismisses GIS for its association with positivism and unethical applications. Teaching critical open GIS may bridge this divide, creating a transformative pedagogical space for human geography to affectively and effectively engage with open GIS technology at the level of code. Critical open GIS students practice and critique GIS as conflicted insiders, bridging the divide between GIS and non-GIS in their geography education. Reviews of GIS curricula find support for teaching critical and open GIS, but reviews of texts and syllabi confirm their marginalization and separation. A new critical open GIS course is introduced, using GIS in development and political ecology as integrative frameworks.
Honing, D., Tosi, N., Hansen-Goos, H., Spohn, T.Bifurcation in the growth of continental crust. (Water-land ratio)Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 287, pp. 37-50.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Is the present-day water-land ratio a necessary outcome of the evolution of plate tectonic planets with a similar age, volume, mass, and total water inventory as the Earth? This would be the case - largely independent of initial conditions - if Earth’s present-day continental volume were at a stable unique equilibrium with strong self-regulating mechanisms of continental growth steering the evolution to this state. In this paper, we question this conjecture. Instead we suggest that positive feedbacks in the plate tectonics model of continental production and erosion may dominate and show that such a model can explain the history of continental growth. We investigate the main mechanisms that contribute to the growth of the volume of the continental crust. In particular, we analyze the effect of the oceanic plate speed, depending on the area and thickness of thermally insulating continents, on production and erosion mechanisms. Effects that cause larger continental production rates for larger values of continental volume are positive feedbacks. In contrast, negative feedbacks act to stabilize the continental volume. They are provided by the increase of the rate of surface erosion, subduction erosion, and crustal delamination with the continental volume. We systematically analyze the strengths of positive and negative feedback contributions to the growth of the continental crust. Although the strengths of some feedbacks depend on poorly known parameters, we conclude that a net predominance of positive feedbacks is plausible. We explore the effect of the combined feedback strength on the feasibility of modeling the observed small positive net continental growth rate over the past 2-3 billion years. We show that a model with dominating positive feedbacks can readily explain this observation in spite of the cooling of the Earth’s mantle acting to reduce the continental production rate. In contrast, explaining this observation using a model with dominating negative feedbacks would require the continental erosion and production rates to both have the same or a sufficiently similar functional dependence on the thermal state of the mantle, which appears unreasonable considering erosion to be largely dominated by the surface relief and weathering. The suggested scenario of dominating positive feedbacks implies that the present volume of the continental crust and its evolution are strongly determined by initial conditions. Therefore, exoplanets with Earth-like masses and total water inventories may substantially differ from the Earth with respect to their relative land/surface ratios and their habitability.
Horsburgh, N.J., Finch, A.A.Smart sorting of minerals. Spectroscopy3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p.abstract p. 41.Globalluminescence
Howarth, G.H., Buttner, S.H.New constraints on archetypal South African kimberlite petrogenesis from quenched glass-rich melt inclusions in olive megacrysts.Gondwana Research, Vol. 68, pp. 116-126.Africa, South Africadeposit - Monastery
Howarth, G.H., Buttner, S.H.New constraints on archtypal South African kimberite petrogenesis from quenched glass-rich melt inclusions in olivine megacrysts.Gondwana Research, Vol. 68, 1, pp. 116-126.Africa, South Africapetrology

Abstract: The evaluation of primary kimberlite compositions is hindered by significant melt modifications during ascent through the lithosphere by entrainment of xenolithic material, volatile degassing, and near surface alteration. Consequently, hypabyssal kimberlite emplaced in the upper crust may not provide a true reflection of the primary kimberlite magma. This contribution places new constraints on kimberlite melt composition by providing an assessment of quenched glass-rich polymineralic melt inclusions hosted in olivine megacrysts from the Monastery kimberlite, South Africa. Melt inclusions predominantly contain variable proportions of euhedral or skeletal grains of calcite, phlogopite, spinel, perovskite, serpentine, and fresh to devitrified glass. Estimates of the bulk compositions of melt inclusions, and the compositions of crystalline phases present therein, are compatible to those of hypabyssal kimberlites worldwide and show a volatile-rich (CO2?+?H2O ~10-17?wt%) carbonated silicate (SiO2 ~27-41?wt%) composition. The glass component has a Si-Mg-Fe-rich and largely CaO-, K2O- and TiO2-free major element composition and is REE-depleted. It also contains approximately 10?wt% H2O but is CO2-free. The glass represents a residual melt that existed after crystallization of the observed mineral assemblage. From some, but not all melt inclusions, apophyses radiate outwards. These fractures typically contain partially devitrified glass that is compositionally identical to the fresh residual glass within the melt inclusions, indicating fracture formation during decompression of the hosting megacryst and at a stage after the melt had evolved. These features are consistent with a trapping of the melt inclusions at high pressure, prior to kimberlite ascent to the surface, in the SCLM at a depth corresponding to 4.5-6?GPa. Textures and compositions of phases within the melt inclusions represent stages of the kimberlite melt and magma evolution. They provide evidence in support of high-pressure experimental studies suggesting a carbonated silicate primary melt rather than a carbonatite. Furthermore, the composition of fresh glass in the melt inclusions, which is compositionally similar to serpentine, suggests that much groundmass serpentine in hypabyssal kimberlites may have formed from similar silicate melt or devitrified glass.
Howarth, G.H., Moore, A.E., Harris, C., van der Meer, Q.H.A., Le Roux , P.Crustal versus mantle origin of carbonate xenoliths from Kimberley region kimberlites using C-O-Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes and trace element abundances.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 42p.Africa, South Africageochronology
Howarth, G.H., Moore, A.E., Harris, C., van der Meer, Q.H.A., Le Roux, P.Crustal versus mantle origin of carbonate xenoliths from Kimberly region kimberlites using C-O-Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes and trace element abundances.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available, 16p.Africa, South Africadeposit - Kimberly region

Abstract: Carbonate-bearing assemblages in the mantle have been interpreted to be the source for Si-undersaturated, CO2-rich magmas, including kimberlites. However, direct evidence for carbonate in the mantle is rare in the contemporary literature. Here we present petrography, trace element, and C-O-Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition for a suite of carbonate xenoliths from the Kimberley region kimberlites to ascertain their mantle or crustal origin and gain insight to the potential for the occurrence of carbonate in the mantle. Carbonate xenoliths were found in large kimberlite blocks from the Bultfontein kimberlite and Big Hole region. The xenoliths are characterised by pale green alteration margins made of fine-grained microlites of an unknown mineral as well as spherules surrounded by glassy material. They are generally 1–4?cm in size, coarse-grained (1–2?mm), and comprised entirely of calcite. Carbonate xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite have low total REE concentrations (0.2–4.9?ppm), constant 87Sr/86Sri (0.7047–0.7049) combined with variable ?Ndi (-0.1 to -26.2) and 206Pb/204Pbi, 207Pb/204Pbi, and 208Pb/204Pbi of 16.7–18.8, 15.3–15.6, 36.5–38.4, respectively. Xenoliths from the Big Hole sample have higher 87Sr/86Sri (0.7088–0.7095), lower ?Ndi (-24.5 to -3.8), and 206Pb/204Pbi, 207Pb/204Pbi, and 208Pb/204Pbi of 18.9–19.9, 15.7–15.8, 38.4–38.8, respectively. The d13C values for both Bultfontein (-5.7 to -6.6‰) and Big Hole (-4.7 to -5.4‰) carbonates are within the typical range expected for mantle-derived carbonate. The d18O values (15.5–17.5‰) are higher than those of mantle silicate rocks, indicative of late-stage low-temperature interaction with fluids; a common feature of groundmass calcite in the Kimberley kimberlites. The Sr- and C- isotope composition of the Bultfontein xenoliths indicates a mantle origin whereas the Big Hole xenolith Sr- and C-isotopes are more ambiguous. Isotope mixing models are inconsistent with interaction between the host kimberlite and carbonate xenoliths. Correlation between ?Ndi and d18O values for the Bultfontein xenoliths indicates late-stage interaction with low-temperature fluids, which may also be responsible for the large range in ?Ndi. This in turn indicates that the highest ?Ndi of -0.1 represents the primary carbonate xenolith signature, and this value overlaps typical Group I kimberlites. We discuss two possible origins for the carbonate xenoliths. (1) Carbonate xenoliths from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), where quenched margins and the large range of ?Ndi are related to formation in the mantle. (2) Carbonate xenoliths from an earlier phase of carbonatite magmatism. The similarity of isotope signatures of the Bultfontein carbonates to Group I kimberlite may further suggest a link between kimberlite and carbonatite volcanism such as observed elsewhere in the world.
Howell, D., Collins, A.T., Loudin, L.C., Diggle, P.L., D;Haenens-Johansson, U.F.S., Smit, K.V., Katrusha, A.N., Butler, J.E., Nestola, F.Automated FTIR mapping of boron distribution in diamond. Type IlbDiamond and Related Materials, in press available 33p.GlobalDiaMap

Abstract: Type IIb diamonds are those that contain more boron than nitrogen. The presence of this uncompensated boron gives rise to absorption in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending into the visible region and often resulting in blue colouration. Here we report on the expansion of the DiaMap freeware (for the automated spectral deconvolution of Type I [nitrogen containing] diamonds) to work on Type IIb diamonds, returning concentrations from three boron-related absorption bands, and determining which band provides the most reliable value. The program uses the calibration coefficients of Collins (2010), which show good relative agreement between the three bands, but might require some further study to confirm their absolute accuracy to the uncompensated boron concentration. The methodology of DiaMap_IIb is applicable to all Type IIb diamonds, both natural and synthetic. Analysis of high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) maps of two high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamonds using DiaMap_IIb, confirm the growth sector dependence of the boron incorporation. Partitioning of boron strongly favours the octahedral {111} sectors.
Hu, L., Li, Y-K., Wu, Z-J., Bai, Y., Wang, A-J.Two metasomatic events recorded in apatite from the ore hosting dolomite marble and implications for genesis of the giant Bayan Obo REE deposit, Inner Mongolia, northern China.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 172, pp. 56-65.China, Mongoliadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: In the Bayan Obo REE deposit in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, three major orebodies are hosted in dolomite marble of the Bayan Obo Group. There are carbonatite dikes in the ore district. Apatite is a common accessary mineral in the ore-hosting dolomite marble (DM apatite) and in carbonatite dikes (IC apatite). These two types of apatite are both fluorapatite, and have low SiO2, uniform P2O5, and variable CaO contents. Total REY (REEs?+?Y) contents are correlated with Na2O contents, indicating that REY of both types of apatite enter lattice via the substitution reaction: Na+ + (REY)3+ = 2Ca2+. These features, combined with high REY (6230-18,906?ppm) and Sr (9653-17,200?ppm) contents of DM apatite, indicate that DM apatite likely had a carbonatite origin. Some DM apatite grains are partially replaced by albite and quartz. Fluid inclusions crosscutting both apatite and albite or quartz indicate that they formed later than quartz and albite replacement. The back-scattered electron images show that DM apatite grains contain many micro-pores (fluid inclusions), and monazite inclusions formed from the fluid inclusions. However, no monazite inclusions are observed within quartz and albite, excluding the possibility that the monazite inclusions were precipitated directly from the fluids. The monazite inclusions were therefore formed during fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation processes, where DM apatite served as the source of LREEs. This also explains the depletion of some LREEs in DM apatite. The formation of monazite inclusions in apatite requires fluids with relatively low Na and Si concentrations, different from the fluids responsible for quartz and albite replacement. DM apatite was affected by two stages of fluid activities: the first stage of metasomatism by alkaline fluids that were likely derived from carbonatite magmas when the deposit first formed (represented by quartz and albite replacement), followed by a second stage of modification that caused LREEs depletion and the formation of new REE minerals. Thus, the Bayan Obo REE ore deposit was modified by a significant thermal event after the formation, which provided negligible or only small amounts of REEs.
Huang, D-L., Wanf, X-L., Xia, X-P., Wan, Y-S., Zhang, F-F., Li, J-Y., Du, D-H.Neoproterozoic low delta 180 zircons revisited: implications for Rodinia configuration.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 2, pp. 678-688.Globalcraton

Abstract: Low-d18O magma has received great attention and it has profound implications on geological and climate evolution. Neoproterozoic era is a unique period to breed low-d18O magmas and snowball Earth. This manuscript first report Neoproterozoic moderately 18O-depleted zircons from the central part of the Cathaysia Block in South China, and it builds a four end-member Hf-O isotopic mixing model to explain the global low-d18O magmas at Neoproterozoic era. Our compilation of low-d18O zircon data and our new data confirms that globally Neoproterozoic 18O-depleted magmatic activities generally began after 800 Ma and reached a peak at 780-760 Ma. This provides new information on the rifting of Rodinia supercontinent and suggests close connections between northwest India, Madagascar, and South China in the Rodinia supercontinent. This manuscript deals with the hot-debated topics on oxygen isotopes and supercontinent cycle. We believe that this manuscript will attract international readers from a wide scope of geosciences.
Huang, F., Sverjensky, D.A.Extended deep Earth water model for predicting major element mantle metasomatism.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available, 93p.Mantlemetasomatism

Abstract: Fluids in the deep crust and upper mantle appear to have played roles in the long-term evolution of the subcratonic lithospheric mantle and the stabilities of the continents, in the geochemical cycles of the elements from subduction zones to Earth’s surface environment, and in the formation of diamonds. Much evidence of the chemistry of deep fluids has accumulated from studies of fluid inclusions in diamonds and xenoliths. But the origins of the fluids and their behavior are still unclear. In part, this is due to the lack of a comprehensive theoretical model of aqueous, high-pressure fluids. Traditional models have used a C-O-H-type of model, which contains no major rock-forming elements or aqueous ions or metal-complexes. In the present study, we use experimentally measured solubility data for multicomponent K-free eclogite, K-free peridotite and K-bearing peridotite rocks at upper mantle conditions from the literature to construct aqueous speciation solubility models that enabled calibration of the thermodynamic properties of ions and metal-complex species involving the elements Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, Si, and C in an extended Deep Earth Water (DEW) model. New equilibrium constants were retrieved for the aqueous bisilicate anion, a silica trimer, silicate complexes of Ca, Fe, and Al, a silicate complex of Mg and bicarbonate, and formate complexes of Fe and Ca. The aqueous speciation and solubility model also took account of decreases in the activity of water and aqueous activity coefficients of neutral dissolved gases and included consideration of. Based on the temperature and pressure dependences of the equilibrium constants, and supporting data covering a wide range of conditions, we then developed aqueous equation of state characterizations of the ions and metal-complex species. Overall, the results form a basis for modeling fluid-rock interactions under upper mantle conditions consistent with experimental solubility measurements.
Huang, W., Liu, Y., Dong, S., Chao, D.Nominal type IaB diamond with detectable uncompensated boron. FTIRGems & Gemology, Vol. 54, 4, pp. 454-455.Globaldiamond mineralogy

Abstract: n recent years, nominal type IaAB and IIa diamonds with transient 2800 cm-1 FTIR absorption peaks arising from uncompensated boron produced under UV radiation have been reported (J. Li et al., A diamond with a transient 2804 cm-1 absorption peak, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 35, 2016, pp. 248-252; Winter 2016 Lab Notes, pp. 412-413). The National Center of Supervision and Inspection on Quality of Gold and Silver Products recently examined a type IaB diamond that exhibited instantaneous 2803 cm-1 FTIR absorption shortly after exposure to an ultra-short-wave (< 230 nm) UV source.
Hunt, L.E., Lamb, W.M.Application of mineral equilibria to estimate fugacities of H2O, H2, and O2 in mantle xenoliths from the southwestern U.S.A.American Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 333-347.United Statesxenoliths

Abstract: Small amounts of H2O, on the order of tens to hundreds of parts per million, can significantly influence the physical properties of mantle rocks. Determining the H2O contents of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) is one relatively common technique that has been applied to estimate mantle H2O contents. However, for many mantle NAMs, the relation between H2O activity and H2O content is not well known. Furthermore, certain mantle minerals may be prone to H2O loss during emplacement on Earth’s surface. The goal of this study is to apply mineral equilibria to estimate values of aH2O in rocks that originated below the Moho. The chemical compositions of olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + amphibole + spinel ± garnet were used to estimate values of temperature (T), pressure (P), aH2O, hydrogen fugacity (fH2), and oxygen fugacity (fO2) in 11 amphibole-bearing mantle xenoliths from the southwestern U.S.A. Application of amphibole dehydration equilibria yields values of aH2O ranging from 0.05 to 0.26 for these 11 samples and the compositions of coexisting spinel + olivine + orthopyroxene yield ?logfO2 (FMQ) of -1 to +0.6. For nine of the samples, values of fH2 were estimated using amphibole dehydrogenation equilibria, and these values of fH2 ranged from 6 to 91 bars. Values of fH2 and fO2 were combined, using the relation 2H2O = 2H2 + O2, to estimate a second value of aH2O that ranged from 0.01 to 0.57 for these nine samples. Values of aH2O, estimated using these two methods on the same sample, generally agree to within 0.05. This agreement indicates that the amphibole in these samples has experienced little or no retrograde H-loss and that amphibole equilibria yields robust estimates of aH2O that, in these xenoliths, are generally <0.3, and are often 0.1 or less.
ICMMMining with principles.ICMM, Dec. 18p.GlobalCSR
Ionov, D.A., Doucet, L.S., Xu, Y., Golovin, A.V., Oleinikov, O.B.Reworking of Archean mantle in the NE Siberian craton by carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism: evidence from a carbonate bearing, dunite to websterite xenolith suite from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 224, pp. 132-153.Russia, Siberiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: The Obnazhennaya kimberlite in the NE Siberian craton hosts a most unusual cratonic xenolith suite, with common rocks rich in pyroxenes and garnet, and no sheared peridotites. We report petrographic and chemical data for whole rocks (WR) and minerals of 20 spinel and garnet peridotites from Obnazhennaya with Re-depletion Os isotope ages of 1.8-2.9?Ga (Ionov et al., 2015a) as well as 2 pyroxenites. The garnet-bearing rocks equilibrated at 1.6-2.8?GPa and 710-1050?°C. Some xenoliths contain vermicular spinel-pyroxene aggregates with REE patterns in clinopyroxene mimicking those of garnet. The peridotites show significant scatter of Mg# (0.888-0.924), Cr2O3 (0.2-1.4?wt.%) and high NiO (0.3-0.4?wt.%). None are pristine melting residues. Low-CaO-Al2O3 (=0.9?wt.%) dunites and harzburgites are melt-channel materials. Peridotites with low to moderate Al2O3 (0.4-1.8?wt.%) usually have CaO?>?Al2O3, and some have pockets of calcite texturally equilibrated with olivine and garnet. Such carbonates, exceptional in mantle xenoliths and reported here for the first time for the Siberian mantle, provide direct evidence for modal makeover and Ca and LREE enrichments by ephemeral carbonate-rich melts. Peridotites rich in CaO and Al2O3 (2.7-8.0?wt.%) formed by reaction with silicate melts. We infer that the mantle lithosphere beneath Obnazhennaya, initially formed in the Mesoarchean, has been profoundly modified. Pervasive inter-granular percolation of highly mobile and reactive carbonate-rich liquids may have reduced the strength of the mantle lithosphere leading the way for reworking by silicate melts. The latest events before the kimberlite eruption were the formation of the carbonate-phlogopite pockets, fine-grained pyroxenite veins and spinel-pyroxene symplectites. The reworked lithospheric sections are preserved at Obnazhennaya, but similar processes could erode lithospheric roots in the SE Siberian craton (Tok) and the North China craton, where ancient melting residues and reworked garnet-bearing peridotites are absent. The modal, chemical and Os-isotope compositions of the Obnazhennaya xenoliths produced by reaction of refractory peridotites with melts are very particular (high Ca/Al, no Mg#-Al correlations, highly variable Cr, low 187Os/188Os, continuous modal range from olivine-rich to low-olivine peridotites, wehrlites and websterites) and distinct from those of fertile lherzolites in off-craton xenoliths and peridotite massifs. These features argue against the concept of ‘refertilization’ of cratonic and other refractory peridotites by mantle-derived melts as a major mechanism to form fertile to moderately depleted lherzolites in continental lithosphere. The Obnazhennaya xenoliths represent a natural rock series produced by ‘refertilization’, but include no rocks equivalent in modal, major and trace element to the fertile lherzolites. This study shows that ‘refertilization’ yields broad, continuous ranges of modal and chemical compositions with common wehrlites and websterites that are rare among off-craton xenoliths.
Ionov, D.A., Qi, Y-H., Kang, J-T., Golovin, A.V., Oleinikov, O.B., Zheng, W., Anbar, A.D., Zhang, Z-F., Huang, F.Calcium isotopic signatures of carbonatite and silicate metasomatism, melt percolation and crustal recycling in the lithospheric mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 248, pp. 1-13.Russia, Siberiacarbonatite

Abstract: Ca isotopes can be strongly fractionated at the Earth’s surface and thus may be tracers of subducted carbonates and other Ca-rich surface materials in mantle rocks, magmas and fluids. However, the d44/40Ca range in the mantle and the scope of intra-mantle isotope fractionation are poorly constrained. We report Ca isotope analyses for 22 mantle xenoliths: four basalt-hosted refractory peridotites from Tariat in Mongolia and 18 samples from the Obnazhennaya (Obn) kimberlite on the NE Siberian craton. Obn peridotites are Paleoproterozoic to Archean melting residues metasomatised by carbonate-rich and/or silicate melts including unique xenoliths that contain texturally equilibrated carbonates. d44/40Ca in 15 Obn xenoliths shows limited variation (0.74-0.97‰) that overlaps the value (0.94?±?0.05‰) inferred for the bulk silicate Earth from data on fertile lherzolites, but is lower than d44/40Ca for non-metasomatised refractory peridotites from Mongolia (1.10?±?0.03‰). Bulk d44/40Ca in four Obn peridotites containing metasomatic carbonates ranges from 0.81?±?0.08‰ to 0.83?±?0.06‰, with similar values in acid-leachates and leaching residues, indicating isotopic equilibration of the carbonates with host rocks. We infer that (a) metasomatism tends to decrease d44/40Ca values of the mantle, but its effects are usually limited (=0.3‰); (b) Ca isotopes cannot distinguish "carbonatite" and "silicate" types of mantle metasomatism. The lowest d44/40Ca value (0.56‰) was obtained for a phlogopite-bearing Obn peridotite with a very high Ca/Al of 8 suggesting that the greatest metasomatism-induced Ca isotope shifts may be seen in rocks initially low in Ca that experienced significant Ca input leading to high Ca/Al. Two Obn peridotites, a dunite (melt channel material) and a veined spinel wehrlite, have high d44/40Ca values (1.22‰ and 1.38‰), which may be due to isotope fractionation by diffusion during silicate melt intrusion and percolation in the host mantle. Overall, we find no evidence that recycling of crustal carbonates may greatly affect Ca isotope values in the global mantle or on a regional scale.
Ionov, D.A., Qi, Y-H., Kang, J-T., Golovin, A.V., Oleinikov, O.B., Zheng, W., Anbar, A.D., Zhang, Z-F., Huang, F.Calcium isotopic signatures of carbonatite and silicate metasomatism, melt percolation and crustal recyclying in the lithospheric mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 248, pp. 1-13.Mantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Ca isotopes can be strongly fractionated at the Earth’s surface and thus may be tracers of subducted carbonates and other Ca-rich surface materials in mantle rocks, magmas and fluids. However, the d44/40Ca range in the mantle and the scope of intra-mantle isotope fractionation are poorly constrained. We report Ca isotope analyses for 22 mantle xenoliths: four basalt-hosted refractory peridotites from Tariat in Mongolia and 18 samples from the Obnazhennaya (Obn) kimberlite on the NE Siberian craton. Obn peridotites are Paleoproterozoic to Archean melting residues metasomatised by carbonate-rich and/or silicate melts including unique xenoliths that contain texturally equilibrated carbonates. d44/40Ca in 15 Obn xenoliths shows limited variation (0.74-0.97‰) that overlaps the value (0.94?±?0.05‰) inferred for the bulk silicate Earth from data on fertile lherzolites, but is lower than d44/40Ca for non-metasomatised refractory peridotites from Mongolia (1.10?±?0.03‰). Bulk d44/40Ca in four Obn peridotites containing metasomatic carbonates ranges from 0.81?±?0.08‰ to 0.83?±?0.06‰, with similar values in acid-leachates and leaching residues, indicating isotopic equilibration of the carbonates with host rocks. We infer that (a) metasomatism tends to decrease d44/40Ca values of the mantle, but its effects are usually limited (=0.3‰); (b) Ca isotopes cannot distinguish "carbonatite" and "silicate" types of mantle metasomatism. The lowest d44/40Ca value (0.56‰) was obtained for a phlogopite-bearing Obn peridotite with a very high Ca/Al of 8 suggesting that the greatest metasomatism-induced Ca isotope shifts may be seen in rocks initially low in Ca that experienced significant Ca input leading to high Ca/Al. Two Obn peridotites, a dunite (melt channel material) and a veined spinel wehrlite, have high d44/40Ca values (1.22‰ and 1.38‰), which may be due to isotope fractionation by diffusion during silicate melt intrusion and percolation in the host mantle. Overall, we find no evidence that recycling of crustal carbonates may greatly affect Ca isotope values in the global mantle or on a regional scale.
Ionov, D.A., Qi, YpH., Kang, J-T., Golovin, A.V., Oleinkov, O.B., Zheng, W., Anbar, A.D., Zhang, Z-F., Huang, F.Calcium isotopic signatures of carbonatite and silicate metasomatism, melt percolation and crustal recycling in the lithospheric mantle.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 248, pp. 1-13.Mantle, Asia, Mongolia, Russia, Siberiametasomatism

Abstract: Ca isotopes can be strongly fractionated at the Earth’s surface and thus may be tracers of subducted carbonates and other Ca-rich surface materials in mantle rocks, magmas and fluids. However, the d44/40Ca range in the mantle and the scope of intra-mantle isotope fractionation are poorly constrained. We report Ca isotope analyses for 22 mantle xenoliths: four basalt-hosted refractory peridotites from Tariat in Mongolia and 18 samples from the Obnazhennaya (Obn) kimberlite on the NE Siberian craton. Obn peridotites are Paleoproterozoic to Archean melting residues metasomatised by carbonate-rich and/or silicate melts including unique xenoliths that contain texturally equilibrated carbonates. d44/40Ca in 15 Obn xenoliths shows limited variation (0.74-0.97‰) that overlaps the value (0.94?±?0.05‰) inferred for the bulk silicate Earth from data on fertile lherzolites, but is lower than d44/40Ca for non-metasomatised refractory peridotites from Mongolia (1.10?±?0.03‰). Bulk d44/40Ca in four Obn peridotites containing metasomatic carbonates ranges from 0.81?±?0.08‰ to 0.83?±?0.06‰, with similar values in acid-leachates and leaching residues, indicating isotopic equilibration of the carbonates with host rocks. We infer that (a) metasomatism tends to decrease d44/40Ca values of the mantle, but its effects are usually limited (=0.3‰); (b) Ca isotopes cannot distinguish “carbonatite” and “silicate” types of mantle metasomatism. The lowest d44/40Ca value (0.56‰) was obtained for a phlogopite-bearing Obn peridotite with a very high Ca/Al of 8 suggesting that the greatest metasomatism-induced Ca isotope shifts may be seen in rocks initially low in Ca that experienced significant Ca input leading to high Ca/Al. Two Obn peridotites, a dunite (melt channel material) and a veined spinel wehrlite, have high d44/40Ca values (1.22‰ and 1.38‰), which may be due to isotope fractionation by diffusion during silicate melt intrusion and percolation in the host mantle. Overall, we find no evidence that recycling of crustal carbonates may greatly affect Ca isotope values in the global mantle or on a regional scale.
Ivanov, A.V., Levitskii, I.V., Levitskii, V.I., Corfu, F., Demonterova, E.I., Reznitskii, L.Z., Pavlova, L.A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Savatenkov, V.M., Powerman, V.I.Shoshonitic magmatism in the Paleoproterozoic of the south-western Siberian Craton: an analogue of the modern post-collisiion setting.Lithos, Vol. 328-329, pp. 88-100.Russiadeposit - Sharyzhalgay

Abstract: The Siberian Craton was assembled in a Paleoproterozoic episode at about 1.88?Ga by the collision of older blocks, followed at about 1.86?Ga by post-collisional felsic magmatism. We have found a set of extremely fresh mica-bearing lamprophyre-looking rocks within the Sharyzhalgay metamorphic complex of the south-western Siberian Craton. Zircon from these rocks yields a UPb TIMS age of 1864.7?±?1.8?Ma, which coincides perfectly with the peak of the post-collisional granite ages and postdates by ~15?Ma the peak of ages obtained for metamorphism. The same ages were reported earlier for a mafic dyke with ocean island basalt (OIB) geochemical signatures and a Pt-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion found in the same region. Mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes show that the studied rocks (1) have shoshonitic affinity, (2) are hybrid rocks with mineral assemblages which could not be in equilibrium, (3) where derived by recycling of an Archean crustal source and (4) resemble post-collision Tibetan shoshonitic series. The genesis of these rocks is considered to be due to melting of crustal lithologies and metasomatized lithospheric mantle within a subducted slab. Some of the resulting melts ascended through the lithospheric column and fractionated to low-Mg absarokites, whereas other melts were contaminated by orthopyroxenitic mantle material and attained unusual high-Mg mafic compositions. According to our model, the post-collisional magmatism (shoshonite- and OIB-type) occurred due to upwelling of hot asthenosphere through a slab window, when the active collision ceased as a result of the slab break off and loss of the slab pull force. Overall, our study shows that in the Paleoproterozoic shoshonitic melts were emplaced within a similar tectonic setting as seen today in modern orogenic systems.
Ivanov, A.V., Mukasa, S.B., Kamenetsky, V.S., Ackerson, M., Zedgenizov, D.A.Volatile concentrations in olivine hosted melt inclusions from meimechite and melanephenelinite lavas of the Siberian Trap Large Igneous Province: evidence for flux related high Ti, high Mg magmatism.Chemical Geology, Vol. 483, pp. 442-462.Russiameimechite
Ivanyuk, G.Y., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Panikorovskii, T.L., Konoplyova, N., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Bazai, A.V., Bocharov, V.N., Krivovichev, S.V.Hydroxynatropyrochlore, ( Na, Ca, Ce)2 Nb2O6(OH), a new member of the pyrochlore group from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe, Kola Peninsula, Russia.Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 83, pp. 107-113.Russia, Kola Peninsulacarbonatite

Abstract: Hydroxynatropyrochlore, (Na,?a,Ce)2Nb2O6(OH), is a new Na-Nb-OH-dominant member of the pyrochlore supergroup from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is cubic, Fd-3m, a = 10.3211(3) Å, V = 1099.46 (8) Å3, Z = 8 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 10.3276(5) Å, V = 1101.5(2) Å3, Z = 8 (from single-crystal diffraction data). Hydroxynatropyrochlore is a characteristic accessory mineral of low-carbonate phoscorite of the contact zone of the phoscorite-carbonatite pipe with host foidolite as well as of carbonate-rich phoscorite and carbonatite of the pipe axial zone. It usually forms zonal cubic or cubooctahedral crystals (up to 0.5 mm in diameter) with irregularly shaped relics of amorphous U-Ta-rich hydroxykenopyrochlore inside. Characteristic associated minerals include rockforming calcite, dolomite, forsterite, hydroxylapatite, magnetite,and phlogopite, accessory baddeleyite, baryte, barytocalcite, chalcopyrite, chamosite-clinochlore, galena, gladiusite, juonniite, ilmenite, magnesite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quintinite, spinel, strontianite, valleriite, and zirconolite. Hydroxynatropyrochlore is pale-brown, with an adamantine to greasy lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is average on {111}, the fracture is conchoidal. Mohs hardness is about 5. In transmitted light, the mineral is light brown, isotropic, n = 2.10(5) (??= 589 nm). The calculated and measured densities are 4.77 and 4.60(5) g•cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: F 0.05, Na2O 7.97, CaO 10.38, TiO2 4.71, FeO 0.42, Nb2O5 56.44, Ce2O3 3.56, Ta2O5 4.73, ThO2 5.73, UO2 3.66, total 97.65 wt. %. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Nb+Ta+Ti = 2 apfu is (Na1.02Ca0.73Ce0.09Th0.09 U0.05Fe2+0.02)?2.00 (Nb1.68Ti0.23Ta0.09)?2.00O6.03(OH1.04F0.01)?1.05. The simplified formula is (Na, Ca,Ce)2Nb2O6(OH). The mineral slowly dissolves in hot HCl. The strongest X-ray powderdiffraction lines [listed as (d in Å)(I)(hkl)] are as follows: 5.96(47)(111), 3.110(30)(311), 2.580(100)(222), 2.368(19)(400), 1.9875(6)(333), 1.8257(25)(440) and 1.5561(14)(622). The crystal structure of hydroxynatropyrochlore was refined to R1 = 0.026 on the basis of 1819 unique observed reflections. The mineral belongs to the pyrochlore structure type A2B2O6Y1 with octahedral framework of corner-sharing BO6 octahedra with A cations and OH groups in the interstices. The Raman spectrum of hydroxynatropyrochlore contains characteristic bands of the lattice, BO6, B-O and O-H vibrations and no characteristic bands of the H2O vibrations. Within the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe, hydroxynatropyrochlore is the latest hydrothermal mineral of the pyrochlore supergroup, which forms external rims around grains of earlier U-rich hydroxykenopyrochlore and separated crystals in voids of dolomite carbonatite veins. The mineral is named in accordance with the pyrochlore supergroup nomenclature.
Iwanuch, W.50 anos de geologia do diamante no Brasil.7th Symposio Brasleiro de geologia do diamante, 54 ppts. AvailableSouth America, Brazilreview
Jackson, M.D., Blundy, J., Sparks, R.S.J. Chemical differentiation, cold storage and remobilization of magma in the Earth's crust.Nature, Vol. 564, pp. 405-409.Mantlemagmatism

Abstract: The formation, storage and chemical differentiation of magma in the Earth’s crust is of fundamental importance in igneous geology and volcanology. Recent data are challenging the high-melt-fraction ‘magma chamber’ paradigm that has underpinned models of crustal magmatism for over a century, suggesting instead that magma is normally stored in low-melt-fraction "mush reservoirs". A mush reservoir comprises a porous and permeable framework of closely packed crystals with melt present in the pore space1,10. However, many common features of crustal magmatism have not yet been explained by either the ‘chamber’ or ‘mush reservoir’ concepts. Here we show that reactive melt flow is a critical, but hitherto neglected, process in crustal mush reservoirs, caused by buoyant melt percolating upwards through, and reacting with, the crystals. Reactive melt flow in mush reservoirs produces the low-crystallinity, chemically differentiated (silicic) magmas that ascend to form shallower intrusions or erupt to the surface. These magmas can host much older crystals, stored at low and even sub-solidus temperatures, consistent with crystal chemistry data. Changes in local bulk composition caused by reactive melt flow, rather than large increases in temperature, produce the rapid increase in melt fraction that remobilizes these cool- or cold-stored crystals. Reactive flow can also produce bimodality in magma compositions sourced from mid- to lower-crustal reservoirs. Trace-element profiles generated by reactive flow are similar to those observed in a well studied reservoir now exposed at the surface. We propose that magma storage and differentiation primarily occurs by reactive melt flow in long-lived mush reservoirs, rather than by the commonly invoked process of fractional crystallization in magma chambers.
Jacob, J., Grobbelaar, G.Onshore and nearshore diamond mining on the south-western coast of Namibia: recent activities and future exploration techniques.Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, 6, pp. 524-533.Africa, Namibiamining
Jain, C., Rozel, A.B., Tackley, P.J.Quantifying the correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle.Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 3, pp. 1358-1386.Mantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Continents influence the mantle's convective wavelength and the heat flow escaping from the planet's surface. Over the last few decades, many numerical and analytical studies have contributed to the debate about whether the continents can warm up the subcontinental mantle or not and if they do, then to what extent? However, a consensus regarding the exact nature and magnitude of this correlation between continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle remains to be achieved. By conducting a systematic parameter study using 2-D global mantle convection simulations with mobile continents, we provide qualitative and quantitative observations on the nature of this correlation. In our incompressible and compressible convection models, we observe the general processes of downwellings bringing cold material into the mantle along continental margins and a subsequent buildup of warm thermal anomalies underneath the continents. We compute the amplitude and degree of this correlation using spectral decomposition of the temperature and composition fields. The dominant degree of correlation evolves with time and changes with continental configuration. Using simple empirical fits, we observe that this correlation decreases with increasing core temperature, number of continents, internal heating, or decreasing reference viscosity. We also report simple regressions of the time dependence of this correlation. Additionally, we show that decompression melting as a result of a mantle upwelling or small-scale sublithospheric convection leads to voluminous volcanism. The emplacement of this dense basalt-eclogite material breaks the continents apart and destroys the correlation.
Jaupart, C., Mareschal, J-C., Roman, A.The formation of continental crust from a physics perspective.Geochemistry International, Vol. 56, 13, pp. 1289-1321.Mantlegeophysics

Abstract: The generation of crustal material and the formation of continental crust with a thickness of ˜40 km involve different physical mechanisms operating over different time-scales and length-scales. This review focusses on the building of a thick crustal assemblage and on the vertical dimension where the consequences of gravity-driven processes are expressed most clearly. Continental crustal material is produced by a sequence of crust and mantle mlelting, fractionation of basaltic melts and sinking of dense mafic cumulates. The repeated operation of these mechanisms over tens of million years leads to a thick stably stratified crust. We evaluate the main mechanisms involved from a physics perspective and identify the key controls and constraints, with special attention to thermal requirements. To form magma reservoirs able to process significant magma volumes and to allow the foundering of mafic cumulates, melt must be fed locally at rates that are larger than that of average crustal growth. This requires the temporary focussing of magmatic activity in a few centers. In some cases, foundering of dense cumulates does not go to completion, leaving a deformed residual body bearing tell-tale traces of the process. Crust must be thicker than a threshold value in a 30-45 km range for mafic cumulates to sink into the mantle below the crust. Once that threshold thickness has been reached, further additions lead to increase the proportion of felsic material in the crust at the expense of mafic lithologies which disappear from the crust. This acts to enhance radiogenic heat production in the crust. One consequence is that crustal temperatures can be kept at high values in times of diminished melt input and also when magmatic activity stops altogether, which may lead to post-orogenic intracrustal melting and differentiation. Another consequence is that the crust becomes too weak mechanically to withstand the elevation difference with neighbouring terranes, which sets a limit on crustal thickening. The thermal structure of the evolving crust is a key constraint on the overall process and depends strongly on radiogenic heat production, which is surely one of the properties that make continental crust very distinctive. In the Archean Superior Province, Canada, the formation of juvenile continental crust and its thermal maturation 2.7 Gy ago can be tracked quite accurately and reproduced by calculations relying on the wealth of heat flow and heat production data available there. Physical models of magma ascent and storage favour the formation of magma reservoirs at shallow levels. This suggests that crustal growth proceeds mostly from the top down, with material that gets buried to increasingly large depths. Vertical growth is accompanied by lateral spreading in two different places. Within the crust, magma intrusions are bound to extend in the horizontal direction. Deeper down, lateral variations of Moho depth that develop due to the focussing of magmatic activity get relaxed by lower crustal flow. This review has not dealt with processes at the interface between the growing crust and the mantle, which may well be where dikes get initiated by mechanisms that have so far defied theoretical analyses. Research in this particular area is required to further our understanding of continental crust formation.
Jerram, D.A., Sharp, I.R., Torsvik, T.H., Poulsen, R., Machado, V.Volcanic constraints on the unzipping of Africa from South America: insights from new geochronological controls along the Angola margin.Tectonophysics, in press available 27p.Africa, Angola, South Americageochronology

Abstract: The breakup of Africa from South America is associated with the emplacement of the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province from around 134?Ma and the Tristan da Cunha plume. Yet many additional volcanic events occur that are younger than the main pulse of the Paraná-Etendeka and straddle the rift to drift phases of the main breakup. This contribution reports on new geochronological constraints from the Angolan part of the African Margin. Three coastal and one inland section have been sampled stretching across some 400?Km, with 39Ar/40Ar, U-Pb and Palaeontology used to provide age constraints. Ages from the new data range from ~100 to 81?Ma, with three main events (cr. 100, 91 and 82-81?Ma). Volcanic events are occurring within the Early to Late Cretaceous, along this part of the margin with a general younging towards Namibia. With the constraints of additional age information both onshore and offshore Angola, a clear younging trend at the early stages of rift to drift is recorded in the volcanic events that unzip from North to South. Similar age volcanic events are reported from the Brazilian side of the conjugate margin, and highlight the need to fully incorporate these relatively low volume volcanic pulses into the plate tectonic breakup models of the South Atlantic Margin.
Jing, J-J., Su, B-X., Xiao, Y., Zhang, H-F., Uysal, I., Chen, C., Lin, W., Chu, Y., Saka, S.Reactive origin of mantle harzburgite: evidence from orthopyroxene-spinel association.Lithos, Vol. 342-343, pp. 175-186.Europe, Turkeymelting

Abstract: Harzburgites with high modal orthopyroxene (generally >23?vol%) in Archean craton, mantle wedge and oceanic lithospheric mantle are considered to be produced by the interaction between Si-rich liquids and rocks. However, the absence of samples from continental margin hinders the recognition whether this process is prevalent. Mantle xenoliths entrained in Miocene basalts from the Thrace Basin, the margin of Eurasian continent, are dominated by harzburgites with anomalously high orthopyroxene modes. These orthopyroxene grains closely associate with spinel and occasionally with clinopyroxene. In these orthopyroxene-spinel associations, orthopyroxene grains can be up to 1?cm in diameter and display high Al2O3 contents (1.41-4.61?wt%) and Mg# values (89.6-92.4), while spinel crystals are anhedral and bud-shaped and are commonly foliated, with a wide variation in Cr# values ranging from 7.8 to 52.7. The Fe2+/Fe3+ vs. TiO2 diagram shows lots of these spinels are “magmatic” (i.e. spinel crystallized from melts). The orthopyroxene grains have LREE diverging from the modelled melting trends, indicating possible metasomatism following partial melting. They are present in elongated shape, cutting across olivine grains and also replacing olivine as surrounding rims. Fine-grained olivine is occasionally enclosed in the orthopyroxene-spinel association. We, therefore, propose that the association of orthopyroxene and spinel developed from the melt/fluid-rock interaction. These features indicate mineral phase transformation from olivine to orthopyroxene, which can be expressed by the equation: ‘Mg2SiO4 (Ol)?+?SiO2?=?Mg2Si2O6 (Opx)’. The observed Al-rich rim of spinel and bud-shaped Al-spinel, suggest sufficient amount of Al in the Si-rich liquids. The mechanism involved here is the consumption of olivine to produce orthopyroxene and spinel as in the equation: ‘Mg2SiO4 (Ol)?+?Al2O3?=?MgSiO3 (Opx)?+?MgAl2O4 (Sp)’. The Si and Al were enriched in the percolating liquids. Both the high-Cr# and low-Cr# spinels with ‘magmatic’ features imply the percolating liquids were multi-staged or inhomogeneous Cr contents in the liquids. This melt/fluid-rock interaction may account for the formation of abundant harzburgites with high orthopyroxene modes in the Eurasian continental margin. Thus, it indicates the reacting harzburgites are prevalent in the lithospheric mantle beneath oceanic crust, Archean craton and mantle wedge, as well as in the continental margin.
Joel, L.Isotope geochemists glimpse Earth's impenetrable interior.EOS, 100, https://doi.org/10.1029 /2019EO117415Mantlegeochemistry

Abstract: Painstaking measurements of isotopes and their relative abundance in rocks have illuminated the hidden inner Earth and our planet’s origins and shadowy past for much of the preceding century.
Johnson, T.E., Kirkland, C.L., Gardiner, C.L., Gardiner, N.J., Brown, M., Smithies, R.H., Santosh, M.Secular change in TTG compositions: implications for the evolution of Archean geodynamics.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 505, pp. 65-75.Mantlegeothermometry

Abstract: It is estimated that around three quarters of Earth's first generation continental crust had been produced by the end of the Archaean Eon, 2.5 billion years ago. This ancient continental crust is mostly composed of variably deformed and metamorphosed magmatic rocks of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite that formed by partial melting of hydrated mafic rocks. However, the geodynamic regime under which TTG magmas formed is a matter of ongoing debate. Using a filtered global geochemical dataset of 563 samples with ages ranging from the Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean (4.0-2.5 Ga), we interrogate the bulk rock major oxide and trace element composition of TTGs to assess evidence for secular change. Despite a high degree of scatter in the data, the concentrations or ratios of several key major oxides and trace elements show statistically significant trends that indicate maxima, minima and/or transitions in the interval 3.3-3.0 Ga. Importantly, a change point analysis of K2O/Na2O, Sr/Y and LaN/YbN demonstrates a statistically significant (>99% confidence) change during this 300 Ma period. These shifts may be linked to a fundamental change in geodynamic regime around the peak in upper mantle temperatures from one dominated by non-uniformitarian, deformable stagnant lid processes to another dominated by the emergence of global mobile lid or plate tectonic processes by the end of the Archaean. A notable change is also evident at 2.8-2.7 Ga that coincides with a major jump in the rate of survival of metamorphic rocks with contrasting thermal gradients, which may relate to the emergence of more potassic continental arc magmas and an increased preservation potential during collisional orogenesis. In many cases, the chemical composition of TTGs shows an increasing spread through the Archaean, reflecting the irreversible differentiation of the lithosphere.
Jones, T.J., Russell, J.K., Sasse, D.Modification of mantle cargo by turbulent ascent of kimberlite.Frontiers in Earth Science, Vol. 7, pp. 134-145. pdfGlobalkimberlite genesis

Abstract: Kimberlite magmas transport cratonic mantle xenoliths and diamonds to the Earth's surface. However, the mechanisms supporting the successful and efficient ascent of these cargo-laden magmas remains enigmatic due to the absence of historic eruptions, uncertainties in melt composition, and questions concerning their rheology. Mantle-derived xenocrystic olivine is the most abundant component in kimberlite and is uniquely rounded and ellipsoidal in shape. Here, we present data from a series of attrition experiments designed to inform on the transport of low-viscosity melts through the mantle lithosphere. The experimental data suggest that the textural properties of the mantle-derived olivine are records of the flow regime, particle concentration, and transport duration of ascent for kimberlitic magmas. Specifically, our results provide evidence for the rapid and turbulent ascent of kimberlite during their transit through the lithosphere; this transport regime creates mechanical particle-particle interactions that, in combination with chemical processes, continually modify the mantle cargo and facilitate mineral assimilation.
Kamber, B.S., Tomlinson, E.L.Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical pecularities of Archaean cratons.Chemical Geology, Vol. 511, 1, pp. 122-151.Globalcraton

Abstract: The most outstanding features of Archaean cratons are their extraordinary thickness and enduring longevity. Seismically, Archaean cratonic fragments are sharply-bounded deep roots of mechanically strong, cold lithospheric mantle, clearly distinguishable from non-cratonic lithosphere. Rhenium-depletion of deep cratonic xenolith whole rocks and sulphide inclusions in diamond indicate that melting was broadly coeval with formation of the overlying proto-cratonic crust, which was of limited mechanical strength. A very important process of proto-cratonic development was vertical crustal reorganisation that eventually yielded a thermally stable, cratonised crust with a highly K-U-Th-rich uppermost crust and much more depleted deeper crust. Clastic sedimentary rocks available for geochemical study are predominantly found in the youngest parts of supracrustal stratigraphies and over-represent the highly evolved rocks that appeared during cratonisation. Vertical crustal reorganisation was driven by crustal radiogenic heat and emplacement of proto-craton-wide, incubating and dense supracrustal mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks. Statistical analysis of these cover sequences shows a preponderance of basalt and a high abundance of ultramafic lavas with a dearth of picrite. The ultramafic lavas can be grouped into Ti-enriched and Ti-depleted types and high pressure and temperature experimental data indicate that the latter formed from previously depleted mantle at temperatures in excess of 1700?°C. Most mantle harzburgite xenoliths from cratonic roots are highly refractory, containing very magnesian olivine and many have a high modal abundance of orthopyroxene. High orthopyroxene mode is commonly attributed to metasomatic silica-enrichment or a non-pyrolitic mantle source but much of the excess silica requirement disappears if melting occurred at high pressures of 4-6?GPa. Analysis of experimental data demonstrates that melting of previously depleted harzburgite can yield liquids with highly variable Si/Mg ratios and low Al2O3 and FeO contents, as found in komatiites, and complementary high Cr/Al residues. In many harzburgites, there is an intimate spatial association of garnet and spinel with orthopyroxene, which indicates formation of the Al-phase by exsolution upon cooling and decompression. New and published rare earth element (REE) data for garnet and orthopyroxene show that garnet has inherited its sinusoidal REE pattern from the orthopyroxene. The lack of middle-REE depletion in these refractory residues is consistent with the lack of middle- over heavy-REE fractionation in most komatiites. This suggests that such pyroxene or garnet (or precursor phases) were present during komatiite melting. In the Kaapvaal craton, garnet exsolution upon significant cooling occurred as early as 3.2?Ga and geobarometry of diamond inclusions from ancient kimberlites also supports cool Archaean cratonic geotherms. This requires that some mantle roots have extended to 300 to possibly 400?km and that early cratons must have been much larger than 500?km in diameter. We maintain that the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary continues to be of geological significance, despite the recognition that upper crustal chemistry, as sampled by sedimentary rocks, became more evolved from ca. 3?Ga onwards. The boundary coincides with the disappearance of widespread komatiite and marks the end of formation of typical refractory cratonic lithosphere. This may signify a fundamental change in the thermal structure of the mantle after which upwellings no longer resulted in very high temperature perturbations. One school of thought is that the thermal re-ordering occurred at the core-mantle boundary whereas others envisage Archaean plumes to have originated at the base of the upper mantle. Here we speculate that Archaean cratonic roots may contain remnants of older domains of non-convecting mantle. These domains are potential carriers of isotope anomalies and their base could have constituted a mechanical and thermal boundary layer. Above laterally extensive barriers, emerging proto-cratons were protected from the main mantle heat loss. The eventual collapse of these mechanical barriers terminated very high temperature upwellings and dismembered portions of the barrier were incorporated into the cratonic mantle during the final Neoarchaean ‘superplume’ event. The surviving cratons may therefore preserve biased evidence of geological processes that operated during the Archaean.
Kaminski, E., Okaya, D.A.How to detect water in the mantle wedge of a subduction zone using seismic anisotropy.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, 24, pp. 13,298-13,305.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: A subduction zone's mantle wedge can have a complex pattern of seismic anisotropy where the fast direction often rotates from trench-parallel close to the trench to trench-normal in the backarc. This pattern can be interpreted as induced by either 3-D trench-parallel flow or by the presence of water close to the trench. Almost all models so far favored the trench-parallel flow hypothesis, usually based on indirect or complementary indicators such as the evolution of geochemical signatures of volcanoes along the arc. Here we examine a seismic anisotropy observational signature that can be used to discriminate between the two explanations. The concept is defined using an interdisciplinary approach linking a direct modeling of the flow in the subduction wedge and a computation of seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media. We define a unique water-induced signature that is the presence of a “morph zone” characterized by a weak anisotropy and a decrease of seismic velocities. We apply the model to the Lau Basin where we find this predicted signature, demonstrating for the first time that water rather than trench-parallel flow is responsible for the observed anisotropy pattern there.
Kaminsky, F., Wirth, R., Anikin, L.P., Schreiber, A.Kamchatite diamond aggregate from northern Kamchatka, Russia: new find of diamond formed by gas phase condensation or chemical vapor deposition.American Mineralogist, Vol. 104, pp. 140-149.Russia, Kamchatkamineralogy

Abstract: A series of polycrystalline diamond grains were found within the Valizhgen Peninsula in Koryakia, northern Kamchatka, Russia. A grain from the Aynyn River area is studied in detail with TEM. Diamond crystallites, 2-40 µm in size are twinned and have high dislocation density. They are cemented with tilleyite Ca5(Si2O7)(CO3)2, SiC, Fe-Ni-Mn-Cr silicides, native silicon, graphite, calcite, and amorphous material. Among SiC grains, three polymorphs were discriminated: hexagonal 4H and 6H and cubic C3 (ß-SiC). Silicides have variable stoichiometry with (Fe,Ni,Mn,Cr)/Si = 0.505-1.925. Native silicon is an open-framework allotrope of silicon S24, which has been observed, to date, as a synthetic phase only; this is a new natural mineral phase. Three types of amorphous material were distinguished: a Ca-Si-C-O material, similar in composition to tilleyite; amorphous carbon in contact with diamond, which includes particles of crystalline graphite; and amorphous SiO2. No regularity in the distribution of the amorphous material was observed. In the studied aggregate, diamond crystallites and moissanite are intensively twinned, which is characteristic for these minerals formed by gas phase condensation or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The synthetic analogs of all other cementing compounds (ß-SiC, silicides, and native silicon) are typical products of CVD processes. This confirms the earlier suggested CVD mechanism for the formation of Avacha diamond aggregates. Both Avacha and Aynyn diamond aggregates are related not to "classic" diamond locations within stable cratons, but to areas of active and Holocene volcanic belts. The studied diamond aggregates from Aynyn and Avacha, by their mineralogical features and by their origin during the course of volcanic eruptions via a gas phase condensation or CVD mechanism, may be considered a new variety of polycrystalline diamond and may be called "kamchatite". Kamchatite extends the number of unusual diamond localities. It increases the potential sources of diamond and indicates the polygenetic character of diamond.
Karevangelou, M., Kopylova, M.G., Loudon , P.Cretaceous diamondiferous mantle of the Kaapvaal craton: evidence from mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Lace kimberlite, South Africa.AME Roundup, 1p. Abstract pp. 28-31.Africa, South Africadeposit - Lace
Kaur, G., Mitchell, R.H.Mineralogy of the baotite-bearing Gundrapalli lamproite, Nalginda district, Telangana.Mineralogical Magazine, in press available, 38p.Indiadeposit - Gundrapalli

Abstract: We describe the mineralogy of a lamproite dyke from Gundrapalli village (Nalgonda district), Telangana, India. The dyke consists of a mineral assemblage characteristic of lamproites in terms of the presence of amphiboles (mainly potassic-richterite together with potassic-arfvedsonite, magnesio-riebeckite, Ti-rich potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite, potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite, katophorite and potassic-ferri-katophorite), Al-poor pyroxene, phlogopite (Ti-rich, Al-poor), pseudomorphed leucite, spinel (chromite-magnesiochromite), fluoroapatite, barite, titanite, rutile, baritocalcite, calcite, ilmenite, hydro-zircon, baotite, strontianite, allanite, quartz and pyrite. The absence of wadeite and priderite have been compensated for by presence of baotite, rutile, titanite, barite, and hydro-zircons. The presence of the secondary phases: allanite, hydro-zircon, chlorite, quartz, and cryptocrystalline silica, implies that the dyke has undergone deuteric alteration. The Gundrapalli dyke on the basis of its typomorphic mineralogy has been classified as a pseudoleucite-phlogopite-amphibole-lamproite. We report the presence of the rare mineral baotite from this lamproite, the first recognition of baotite from a lamproite in India. The mineralogy of the baotite- bearing Gundrapalli lamproite is analogous to the baotite- bearing Kvaløya lamproite from Troms, Norway. Ultrapotassic magmatism is quite prevalent in the Eastern Dharwar Complex of south India. Numerous new finds of lamproite dykes from and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin gives an opportunity to understand the nature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in southern India. We present the mineralogy of a newly discovered lamproite dyke at Gundrapalli village (Nalgonda district) northwest of Cuddapah basin (Figure 1 inset). The lamproite dyke at Gundrapalli village, intruded into the Paleoproterozoic biotite granite unit of Peninsular Gneissic Complex form part of eastern Dharwar Complex. (Figure 1; Kumar et al., 2013, Ahmed et al., 2012).
Ke, J., Lu, T., Lan, Y., Song, Z., Tang, S., Zhang, J., Chen, H.Recent developments in detection and gemology in China, particularly for Chinese synthetic diamonds.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 268.Chinasynthetics

Abstract: China is the world’s largest producer of HPHT-grown industrial diamonds. Its 2016 production of about 20 billion carats accounted for 98% of the global supply. Since the beginning of 2015, meleesized colorless HPHT synthetic diamonds have been tested at the National Gemstone Testing Center’s (NGTC) Shenzhen and Beijing laboratories in parcels submitted by different clients, which means that colorless HPHT synthetic diamonds have entered the Chinese jewelry market and may be mistaken for natural diamonds. CVD synthesis technology has grown rapidly in recent years. Large colorless and colored (blue, pink) CVD-grown diamonds have been entering the market, and a few have been fraudulently sold as natural diamonds. China has independently developed gem-grade HPHT synthetic diamond production technology since 2002, and can grow gem-grade type Ib, IIa, and IIb and high-nitrogen-content synthetic diamonds in volume, depending on market needs. Gemgrade type Ib, IIa, and IIb HPHT synthetic diamonds have been grown using the temperature gradient method, under a cubic press at high pressure (e.g., 5.4 GPa) and high temperature (1300-1600°C). Driven by a specific temperature gradient, the carbon source from high-purity graphite (>99.9%) located at the high-temperature zone can diffuse into the seed crystals in the cubic press, resulting in the crystallization of synthetic diamonds. Chinese production of melee-sized colorless to near-colorless HPHT synthetic diamonds accounts for about 90% of the global output. Gem-grade type IIa and IIb CVD synthetic diamonds are grown using the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and direct current (DC) arc plasma methods. Faceted colorless CVD diamonds can be grown in sizes up to 6 ct by at least two Chinese companies (table 1). After testing and analyzing thousands of natural and synthetic diamonds collected directly from the Chinese companies, NGTC independently developed the GV5000, PL5000, DS5000, and ADD6000 instruments for rapidly screening and identifying the diamonds based on the gemological characteristics obtained. Besides HPHT and CVD synthetic diamonds, a thickly layered hybrid diamond consisting of both natural and CVD material was identified at the NGTC Beijing laboratory (figure 1). The identification features and properties of regrown CVD synthetic diamonds using natural type Ia diamond crystals as seeds will be reported. The current status and features of colored stones examined at NGTC laboratories, including several cases studies, will be discussed.
Keller, C.B., Husson, J.M., Mitchell, R.N., Bottke, W.F., Gernon, T.M., Boehnke, P., Bell, E.A., Swanson-Hysell, N.L., Peters, S.E.Neoproterozoic glacial origin of the Great Unconformity.PNAS, pnas.org/cqi/doi/10.1073/ pnas.1804350116 10p.Mantlegeomorphology

Abstract: The Great Unconformity, a profound gap in Earth’s stratigraphic record often evident below the base of the Cambrian system, has remained among the most enigmatic field observations in Earth science for over a century. While long associated directly or indirectly with the occurrence of the earliest complex animal fossils, a conclusive explanation for the formation and global extent of the Great Unconformity has remained elusive. Here we show that the Great Unconformity is associated with a set of large global oxygen and hafnium isotope excursions in magmatic zircon that suggest a late Neoproterozoic crustal erosion and sediment subduction event of unprecedented scale. These excursions, the Great Unconformity, preservational irregularities in the terrestrial bolide impact record, and the first-order pattern of Phanerozoic sedimentation can together be explained by spatially heterogeneous Neoproterozoic glacial erosion totaling a global average of 3-5 vertical kilometers, along with the subsequent thermal and isostatic consequences of this erosion for global continental freeboard.
Kiseeva, E.S., Vasiukov, D.M., Wood, B.J., McCammon, C., Stachel, T., Bykov, M., Bykova, E., Chumakov, A., Cerantola, V., Harris, J.W., Dubrovinsky, L.Oxidized iron in garnets from the mantle transition zone.Nature Geoscience, Vol. 11, pp. 144-147. Africa, South Africadeposit - Jagersfontein

Abstract: The oxidation state of iron in Earth’s mantle is well known to depths of approximately 200?km, but has not been characterized in samples from the lowermost upper mantle (200-410?km depth) or the transition zone (410-660?km depth). Natural samples from the deep (>200?km) mantle are extremely rare, and are usually only found as inclusions in diamonds. Here we use synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy complemented by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to measure the oxidation state of Fe in inclusions of ultra-high pressure majoritic garnet in diamond. The garnets show a pronounced increase in oxidation state with depth, with Fe3+/(Fe3++ Fe2+) increasing from 0.08 at approximately 240?km depth to 0.30 at approximately 500?km depth. The latter majorites, which come from pyroxenitic bulk compositions, are twice as rich in Fe3+ as the most oxidized garnets from the shallow mantle. Corresponding oxygen fugacities are above the upper stability limit of Fe metal. This implies that the increase in oxidation state is unconnected to disproportionation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ plus Fe0. Instead, the Fe3+ increase with depth is consistent with the hypothesis that carbonated fluids or melts are the oxidizing agents responsible for the high Fe3+ contents of the inclusions.
Kitawaki, H., Emori, K., Hisanaga, M., Yamamoto, M., Okano, M.LPHT treated pink CVD synthetic diamond.Gems & Gemology, Sixth International Gemological Symposium Vol. 54, 3, 1p. Abstract p. 267.Globalsynthetics

Abstract: Pink diamond is extremely popular among fancy-color diamonds, which has prompted numerous attempts to produce pink diamond artificially. Pink CVD synthetic diamonds appeared on the gem market around 2010. Their color was produced by a multistep process combining post-growth HPHT treatment to remove the brown hue and subsequent electron irradiation, followed by low-temperature annealing. Pink CVD synthetic diamonds treated only with low pressure and high temperature (LPHT), without additional post-growth irradiation, have also been reported but are rarely seen on the market. Recently, a loose pink stone (figure 1) was submitted to the Central Gem Laboratory in Tokyo for grading purposes. Our examination revealed that this 0.192 ct brilliant-cut marquise was a CVD synthetic diamond that had been LPHT treated. Visually, this diamond could not be distinguished from natural diamonds with similar color. However, three characteristics of CVD origin were detected: 1. C-H related absorption peaks between 3200 and 2800 cm-1, located with infrared spectroscopy 2. A luminescence peak at 737 nm, detected with photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy 3. A trace of lamellar pattern seen in the DiamondView However, irradiation-related peaks such as at 1450 cm-1 (H1a), 741.1 nm (GR1), 594.3 nm, or 393.5 nm (ND1) that are seen in the pink CVD diamonds treated with common multi-step processes were not detected. The presence of four peaks at 3123, 2901, 2870, and 2812 cm-1 between 3200 and 2800 cm-1 suggests this stone was LPHT treated; the following observations indicate that it was not HPHT treated: 1) The 3123 cm-1 peak presumably derived from NVH0 disappears after a normal HPHT treatment. 2) The 2901, 2870, and 2812 cm-1 peaks are known to shift toward higher wavenumbers as the annealing temperature rises. Our own HPHT treatment experiments on CVDgrown diamonds proved that the 2902 and 2871 cm-1 peaks detected after 1600°C annealing shifted to 2907 and 2873 cm-1 after 2300°C annealing. The peak shift of 2901, 2870, and 2812 cm-1 is also related to the pressure during the annealing, as these peaks shifted to 2902, 2871, and 2819 cm-1 at the higher pressure of 7 GPa compared to 2900, 2868, and 2813 cm-1 at the ambient pressure under the same annealing temperature of 1600°C. 3) Absorption peaks at 7917 and 7804 cm-1 in the infrared region and at 667 and 684 nm in the visible range were also detected, which coincide with the features seen in LPHTtreated stones. From the combination of the intensity ratios of optical centers such as H3 and NV centers that were detected with PL measurement, this sample is presumed to have been treated with LPHT annealing at about 1500- 1700°C as a post-growth process. In recent years, CVD synthetic diamonds have been produced in a wider range of colors due to progress in the crystal growth techniques and post-growth treatments. Although HPHT treatment has been employed mainly to improve the color in a diamond, LPHT annealing may become widespread as the technique is further developed. Gemologists need to have deep knowledge about the optical defects in such LPHT-treated specimens.
Kobayashi, M., Sumino, H., Burgess, R., Nakai, S., Iizuka, T., Nagao, J. Kagi, H., Nakamura, M., Takahashi, E., Kogiso, T., Ballentine, C.J.Halogen heterogeneity in the lithosphere and evolution of mantle halogen abundances inferred from intraplate mantle xenoliths. Kilbourne HoleGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 20, 2, pp. 952-973.United States, New Mexicoxenoliths

Abstract: Elemental and isotopic compositions of volatile species such as halogens, noble gases, hydrogen, and carbon can be used to trace the evolution of these species in the Earth. Halogens are important tracers of subduction recycling of surface volatiles into the mantle: however, there is only limited understanding of halogens in the mantle. Here we provide new halogen data of mantle xenoliths from intraplate settings. The mantle xenoliths show a wide range of halogen elemental ratios, which are expected to be related to later processes after the xenoliths formed. A similar primary halogen component is present in the xenoliths sampled from different localities. This suggests that the mantle has the uniform halogen composition over a wide scale. The halogen composition in the convecting mantle is expected to have remained constant over more than 2 billion years, despite subduction of iodine-rich halogens. We used mass balance calculations to gain understanding into evolution rate of I/Cl ratio in the mantle. Calculations suggest that, in order to maintain the I/Cl ratio of the mantle over 2 Gyr, the I/Cl ratio of the subducted halogens must be no more than several times higher than the present-day mantle value.
Kogarko, L., Veselovsky, R.V.Geodynamic regimes of carbonatite formation according to the Paleo-reconstruction method.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 484, 1, pp. 25-27.Russiacarbonatite

Abstract: Three models of geodynamic regimes of carbonatite formation are now actively being developed because of the high trace metal potential of this rock type: carbonatite melt generation within the lithosphere mantle; carbonatite relation to orogenic zones; the formation of carbonatite complexes as a result of the ascent of deep mantle plumes. The application for the first time of a modern model of “absolute” paleotectonic reconstructions combined with databases (both our own and published) demonstrates the general relationship of occurrences of the Phanerozoic carbonatite magmatism to Large Low S-wave Velocity Provinces: those are allocated in the lower mantle and are zones of generation of deep mantle plumes.
Kogarko, L.N., Veselovskiy, R.V.Geodynamic origin of carbonatites from the absolute paleotectonic reconstructions. Maymecha-KotuyJournal of Geodynamics, Vol. 125, pp. 13-21.Russia, Siberiacarbonatites

Abstract: Geodynamic origin of carbonatites is debated for several decades. One of hypotheses links their origin to large-volume mantle plumes rising from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Some evidence exists for temporal and spatial relationships between the occurrences of carbonatites and large igneous provinces (LIPs), and both carbonatites and LIPs can be related to mantle plumes. A good example is the carbonatites of the Maymecha-Kotuy Province in the Polar Siberia, which were formed at the same time as the Siberian superplume event at ca. 250 Ma. In this study we use a recently published absolute plate kinematic modelling to reconstruct the position of 155 Phanerozoic carbonatites at the time of their emplacement. We demonstrate that 69% of carbonatites may be projected onto the central or peripheral parts of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle. This correlation provides a strong evidence for the link between the carbonatite genesis and the locations of deep-mantle plumes. A large group of carbonatites (31%) has no obvious links to LLSVPs and, on the contrary, they plot above the "faster-than-average S-wave" zones in the deep mantle, currently located beneath North and Central America and China. We propose that their origin may be associated with remnants of subducted slabs in the mantle.
Koptev, A., Beniest, A., Gerya, T., Ehlers, T.A., Jolivet, L., Leroy, S.Plume induced breakup of a subducting plate: microcontinent formation without cessation of the subduction process.Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, 7, pp. 3663-3675.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: Separation of microcontinental blocks from their parent continent is usually attributed to abrupt relocation of concentrated extension from the mid-oceanic ridge to the adjacent continental margin. In the context of extensional passive margin evolution, previous extensive numerical and analog studies have revealed that hot upwelling mantle flow plays a key role in the mechanical weakening of the passive margin lithosphere needed to initiate a ridge jump. This, in turn, results in continental breakup and subsequent microcontinent isolation. However, the consequences of mantle plume impingement on the base of a moving lithospheric plate that is already involved into subduction are still unexplored quantitatively. Here we present the results of 3-D thermo-mechanical models showing that even in the context of induced plate motion (contractional boundary conditions), which are necessary to sustain continuous convergence, thermal and buoyancy effects of the mantle plume emplaced at the bottom of the continental part of the subducting plate are sufficient to initiate continental breakup and the subsequent opening of a new oceanic basin that separates the microcontinental block from the main body of the continent. With these models, we show that it is physically possible to form microcontinents in a convergent setting without the cessation of subduction.
Kopylova, M., Tso, E., Ma, F., Liu, J., Pearson, D.G.From regional to local metasomatism in the peridotitic mantle of the Chidliak kimberlite province ( Southern Baffin Island).GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 124.Canada, Baffin Islanddeposit - Chidliak

Abstract: We studied the petrography, mineralogy, thermobarometry and whole rock chemistry of 120 peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths collected from the 156 - 138 Ma Chidliak kimberlites CH-1, -6, -7 and -44. The xenoliths have higher CaO contents relative to Al2O3, and high Al for a given Mg/Si ratio compared to other cratonic peridotites. We assign the complex Ca-Al systematics of the Chidliak peridotites to repeated episodes of Ca-rich, Si-poor metasomatism, which introduced clinopyroxene and garnet, and later replaced orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with secondary clinopyroxene and monticellite. This carbonatitic metasomatism, manifest in formation of wehrlites, acted upon the entire sampled mantle depth on a regional scale, including the proximal blocks of the North Atlantic Craton and the Chidliak mantle, where clinopyroxene and garnet modes are uniformly and heterogeneously high in the ~ 110 km deep mantle segment. Another, more recent type of mantle metasomatism, is expressed as elevated Ti in clinopyroxene and elevated Na and Ti in garnet, typical of sheared peridotites from CH-1, -7, and -44, but absent from CH-6 xenolith suite. The Ti-Na imprint is most intense in xenoliths derived from depths equivalent to 5.5 to 6.5 GPa, where it is associated with higher strain, the presence of sheared peridotites and higher temperatures varying isobarically by up to 200 °C. The horizontal scale of the thermal-metasomatic imprint is more ambiguous and could be as regional as 10's of kilometers or as local as < 1 km. The latter is constrained by the varied abundance of Ti-enriched garnets within a single kimberlite. The time-scale of this metasomatism relates to a conductive length-scale and could be as short as 100's ka, shortly predating the kimberlite formation. The Ti-Na, megacryst-like metasomatism may have resulted from a highly localized influx of hot hydrous proto-kimberlite fluids that weakened the mantle and triggered the formation of sheared peridotites.
Kopylova, M.G., Fulop, A., Gaudet, M., Hilchie, L.Kimberlite skarns: more common and more complex.Goldschmidt Conference, 1p. AbstractMantlepetrology

Abstract: When carbonate-rich and silicate rocks are juxtaposed at high subsolidus temperature, their contrasting elemental chemical potentials trigger metasomatism. Kimberlites in contact with felsic-to-mafic rocks should theoretically develop skarn alteration, replacing both the wall rocks and magmatic rocks. Although some kimberlites are well exposed from mining, metasomatic effects in them are difficult to isolate because of the common presence of marginal country rock breccias and assimilated country rock xenoliths. The volatilerich nature of kimberlite melts and faulting prior to the emplacement results in country rock brecciation and incorporation of as much as 70% xenoliths in kimberlite. We discuss several examples of mineralogical, textural and chemical zonation at contacts between felsic-to-mafic xenoliths, in-situ country rocks and kimberlites (Renard, Gahcho Kue, Snap Lake and Orapa). The subsolidus skarn reactions are preceded by magmatic assimilation. It partially melts feldspars and forms diopside and phlogopite coronas on xenoliths. To distinguish between incorporation and assimilation of xenoliths and contact metasomatism, we employed an improved isocon analysis that enables estimation of metasomatic contributions to geochemical diversity. Skarn reactions replace the original kimberlite minerals with serpentine, phlogopite, hydrogarnet, while xenoliths are replaced by serpentine, clinopyroxene, carbonate, chlorite, and pectolite. If the mode of felsic-to-mafic xenoliths exceeds 30%, the textures and the mineralogy of the kimberlite altered by assimilation and skarn reactions may resemble those of the Kimberly-type pyroclastic kimberlite (KPK). The distinct mineralogy of the KPK interclast matrix, the correlation between xenolith modes and the kimberlite texture, the spatial distribution of KPK in Renard and Gahcho Kue kimberlites indicate the principal role of crustal xenoliths in the KPK formation. Our data suggest that metasomatic recrystallization of kimberlites is more widespread than previously recognized, but is complex and accompanied by xenolith assimilation.
Kostrovitsky, S.Deciphering kimberlite field structure using ilmenite composition: example of Dalydyn field ( Yakutia).European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 30, 6, pp. 1083-1094.Russia, Yakutiadeposit - Dalydyn

Abstract: The spatial distribution patterns of Mg-bearing ilmenite (Ilm) composition were studied on 54 kimberlite bodies of the Daldyn field in the Yakutian kimberlite province. The representativity of the ilmenites sampled in this study is ensured by analysing ca. 100 grains from each kimberlite body. The major conclusions are as follows: (1) ilmenites from neighbouring pipes within the same linear cluster have similar average compositions and compositional fields on the MgO-Cr2O3 plots; (2) ilmenites from different clusters of pipes show different average compositions and compositional fields on the MgO-Cr2O3 plots. (3) regardless of belonging to different clusters, low-Mg Ilm across the whole Daldyn field is characterized by a direct correlation between Al2O3 and MgO; (4) significant changes of MgO content are observed in high-Mg Ilm, while Al2O3 content remains at the same level. The similarity of Ilm compositions across the kimberlite field, as shown by the MgO-Al2O3 plots, is due to a common asthenospheric source. The similar Ilm compositions in different bodies within cluster of pipes is accounted for by a single supply of magma via a lithospheric mantle channel for all pipes of the cluster. The composition of the kimberlite melts can be altered owing to the incorporation and assimilation of lithospheric mantle rocks rich in Mg and Cr. These changes of the melt cause corresponding changes in the Ilm macrocryst composition, both during and after crystallization of Ilm. Thus, the Ilm macrocryst composition follows a trend from low-Mg/low-Cr for Ilm crystallizing in the asthenosphere, to high-Mg/high-Cr at higher levels in the lithosphere. The key conclusion of this study is that Ilm can be used to decipher the structure of kimberlite fields. This can provide a reliable geological criterion for grouping an association of pipes together in clusters, which were previously identified only through subjective considerations of the spatial proximity of kimberlite bodies.
Kourim, F., Beinlich, A., Wang, K.L., Michibayashi, K., O'Reilly, S.Y., Pearson, N.J.Feedback of mantle metasomatism on olivine micro-fabric and seismic properties of the deep lithosphere. Lithos, Vol. 328, pp. 43-57.Asia, Taiwanmetasomatism

Abstract: The interaction of hydrous fluids and melts with dry rocks of the lithospheric mantle inevitably modifies their viscoelastic and chemical properties due to the formation of compositionally distinct secondary phases. In addition, melt percolation and the associated metasomatic alteration of mantle rocks may also facilitate modification of the pre-existing rock texture and olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and thus seismic properties. Here we explore the relationship between mantle metasomatism, deformation and seismic anisotropy using subduction-related mantle xenoliths from the Penghu Islands, western Taiwan. The investigated xenoliths have equilibrated at upper lithospheric mantle conditions (879?°C to 1127?°C) based on pyroxene geothermometry and show distinct variations in clinopyroxene chemical composition, texture and olivine CPO allowing for the classification of two distinct groups. Group 1 xenoliths contain rare earth element (REE) depleted clinopyroxene, show a porphyroclastic texture and olivine grains are mostly characterized by [100]-axial pattern symmetries. In contrast, REE-enriched clinopyroxene from Group 2 xenoliths occur in a fine-grained equigranular texture and coexisting olivine frequently displays [010]-axial pattern symmetries. The clinopyroxene compositions are indicative of cryptic and modal to stealth metasomatic alteration of Group 1 and Group 2 xenoliths, respectively. Furthermore, the observed olivine [100]-axial pattern of Group 1 xenoliths reflects deformation by dislocation creep at high temperature, low pressure and dry conditions, whereas olivine [010]-axial patterns of Group 2 xenoliths imply activation of olivine [001] glide planes along preferentially wet (010) grain boundaries. This correlation indicates that the variation in olivine CPO symmetry from [100]- to [010]-axial pattern in Penghu xenoliths results from deformation and intra-crystalline recovery by subgrain rotation during metasomatic alteration induced by melt percolation. The microstructural observations and olivine CPO combined with petrological and geochemical data suggest that Group 1 xenoliths preserve microstructural and chemical characteristics of an old, probably Proterozoic lithosphere, while Group 2 xenoliths record localized Miocene deformation associated with wall-rock heating and metasomatism related to melt circulation. Furthermore, the observed transition of olivine CPO from [100]-axial pattern to [010]-axial pattern by deformation in the presence of variable melt fractions and associated metasomatic alteration can be inferred to modify the physical properties of mantle rocks.
Kourim, F., Beinlich, A., Wang, K-L., Michibayashi, K., O'Reilly, S.Y., Pearson, N.J.Feedback of mantle metasomatism on olivine micro-fabric and seismic properties of the deep lithosphere.Lithos, Vol. 328-329, pp. 43-57.Asia, Taiwan, Penghu Islandsmetasomatism

Abstract: The interaction of hydrous fluids and melts with dry rocks of the lithospheric mantle inevitably modifies their viscoelastic and chemical properties due to the formation of compositionally distinct secondary phases. In addition, melt percolation and the associated metasomatic alteration of mantle rocks may also facilitate modification of the pre-existing rock texture and olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and thus seismic properties. Here we explore the relationship between mantle metasomatism, deformation and seismic anisotropy using subduction-related mantle xenoliths from the Penghu Islands, western Taiwan. The investigated xenoliths have equilibrated at upper lithospheric mantle conditions (879?°C to 1127?°C) based on pyroxene geothermometry and show distinct variations in clinopyroxene chemical composition, texture and olivine CPO allowing for the classification of two distinct groups. Group 1 xenoliths contain rare earth element (REE) depleted clinopyroxene, show a porphyroclastic texture and olivine grains are mostly characterized by [100]-axial pattern symmetries. In contrast, REE-enriched clinopyroxene from Group 2 xenoliths occur in a fine-grained equigranular texture and coexisting olivine frequently displays [010]-axial pattern symmetries. The clinopyroxene compositions are indicative of cryptic and modal to stealth metasomatic alteration of Group 1 and Group 2 xenoliths, respectively. Furthermore, the observed olivine [100]-axial pattern of Group 1 xenoliths reflects deformation by dislocation creep at high temperature, low pressure and dry conditions, whereas olivine [010]-axial patterns of Group 2 xenoliths imply activation of olivine [001] glide planes along preferentially wet (010) grain boundaries. This correlation indicates that the variation in olivine CPO symmetry from [100]- to [010]-axial pattern in Penghu xenoliths results from deformation and intra-crystalline recovery by subgrain rotation during metasomatic alteration induced by melt percolation. The microstructural observations and olivine CPO combined with petrological and geochemical data suggest that Group 1 xenoliths preserve microstructural and chemical characteristics of an old, probably Proterozoic lithosphere, while Group 2 xenoliths record localized Miocene deformation associated with wall-rock heating and metasomatism related to melt circulation. Furthermore, the observed transition of olivine CPO from [100]-axial pattern to [010]-axial pattern by deformation in the presence of variable melt fractions and associated metasomatic alteration can be inferred to modify the physical properties of mantle rocks.
Kovalev, S.G., Puchkov, V.N., Kovalev, S.S., Vysotsky, S.I.Rare Th-Sc minerals in picrites of the southern Urals and their genetic value.Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 484, 2, pp. 138-141.Russia, Uralspicrites

Abstract: The first data on the discovery of Th-Sc mineralization in the pyritic complexes of the Southern Urals are presented. The minerals of Th (thorite) and Sc-containing thorium minerals are described. The conclusion is made that the Th-Sc mineralization formed due to crystallization of a residual melt in the local volume.
Krebs, M.Y., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T., Laiginhas, F., Woodland, S., Chinn, I., Kong, J.A common parentage low abundance trace element data of gem diamonds reveals similar fluids to fibrous diamonds.Lithos, Vol. 324, 1, pp. 356-370.Canada, Ontario, Africa, South Africadeposit - Victor, Finsch, Newlands

Abstract: Quantitative trace element data from high-purity gem diamonds from the Victor Mine, Ontario, Canada as well as near-gem diamonds from peridotite and eclogite xenoliths from the Finsch and Newlands mines, South Africa, acquired using an off-line laser ablation method show that we see the same spectrum of fluids in both high-purity gem and near-gem diamonds that was previously documented in fibrous diamonds. "Planed" and "ribbed" trace element patterns characterize not only the high-density fluid (HDF) inclusions in fibrous diamonds but also in gem diamonds. Two diamonds from two Finsch harzburgite xenoliths show trace element patterns similar to those of saline fluids, documenting the involvement of saline fluids in the precipitation of gem diamonds, further strengthening the link between the parental fluids of both gem and fibrous diamonds. Differences in trace element characteristics are evident between Victor diamonds containing silicate inclusions compared with Victor diamonds containing sulphide inclusions. The sulphide-bearing diamonds show lower levels of inter-element fractionation and more widely varying siderophile element concentrations - indicating that the silicate and sulphide-bearing diamonds likely formed by gradations of the same processes, via melt-rock reaction or from a subtly different fluid source. The shallow negative LREEN-HREEN slopes displayed by the Victor diamonds establish a signature indicative of original derivation of the diamond forming agent during major melting (~10% melt). Consequently, this signature must have been passed on to HDFs separating from such silicate melts.
Krishnamurthy, P.Carbonatites: enigmatic magmatic rocks, with special reference to India.Journal of the Geological Society of India, extended abstract of Monthly Scientific Lecture March 12, 1p.Indiacarbonatites

Abstract: Carbonatites, defined as carbonate-rich rocks of igneous origin, pose considerable challenges in understanding their genesis and evolution. These mantle-derived, rare, magmatic rocks are enigmatic in many facets compared to their associated co-magmatic rocks. These include: (a) The very-low viscous, water-soluble, Na- and K-carbonate (nyererieite and gregoryite respectively)-bearing lavas with low temperature (500-600°C) of eruption with only one active volcano as an example (e.g. Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania) in contrast to the numerous acid and basic lava eruptive centres that are well-known around the world. (b). Carbonatites show very high solubilities of many elements considered rare in silicate magmas, and they have the highest known melt capacities for dissolving water and other volatile species like halogens at crustal pressures. With such ‘fluxing and fusing’ characters, carbonatite magma, actively reacts and ‘fenitises’ the country rocks through Na and K metasomatism when they get emplaced. Thus the carbonatite magma loses its Na and K, a feature rare to other magmatic rocks. (c) Primary mineralogy is highly variable from simple carbonate species to a variety of silicate, oxide, phosphate, niobates, rare-earth carbonates and others not found in more common igneous rocks. This feature, unlike other magmatic rocks, influences the variety and size of mineral deposits including the formation of ‘super-giant’ resources such as Nb (Araxa, Brazil) and rare-earths (Bayan Obo, China). (d) They can be direct partial melts or comagmatic with a variety of mantle-derived silicate magmas such as nephelinite, melilitite, kimberlite, phonolite, trachyte, basanite, alkali pyroxenite, ijolite and others from which they can form through liquidimmiscibility or through crystal-liquid differentiation. (e) Carbonatites can also be formed as low-temperature, carbo-thermal residual fluids rich in CO2, H2O and fluorine forming calcite-barite-fluorite veins which may lack the higher abundances of some trace elements. Carbonatites of India, found in some twenty four (24) localities, are associated with a variety of rocks as mentioned above and range in age from late Achaean (e.g. Hogenakal and Khambamettu, Tamil Nadu) to late Cretaceous (e.g. Amba Dongar, Gujarat). These are briefly reviewed with regard to their anomalous features.
Kroonenberg, S., Mason, P.R.D., Kriegsman, L. de Roever, E.W.F., Wong, T.E.Geology and mineral deposits of the Guiana Shield.SAXI-XI Inter Guiana Geological Conferene 2019: Paramaribo, Suriname, 6p. PdfSouth America, Brazil, VenezuelaGuiana shield

Abstract: The Guiana Shield records a long history that starts in the Archean, but culminates in the Trans-Amazonian Orogeny between 2.26-2.09 Ga as a result of an Amazonian-West-Africa collision. This event is responsible for the emplacement of a major part of its mineralisations, especially gold, iron and manganese. The diamondiferous Roraima Supergroup represents its molasse. Between 1.86 and 1.72 Ga the Rio Negro Block accreted in the west. The Grenvillian Orogeny caused shearing and mineral resetting between 1.3 and 1.1 Ga when Amazonia collided with Laurentia. Younger platform covers contain placer gold mineralisation. Several suits of dolerite dykes record short-lived periods of crustal extension. Bauxite plateaus cover various rock units.
Kruse, F.A., Boardman, J.W.Characterization and mapping of kimberlites and related diatremes using hyperspectral remote sensing.IEEE.org * note date , pp. 299-304.United States, Colorado, Wyomingdeposit - Kelsey Lake

Abstract: Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and commercially-available HyMap hyperspectral data were used to study the occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of limberlite diatremes in the State-Line district of Colorado/Wyoming. A mosaic of five flightlines of AVIRIS data acquired during 1996 with 20-m resolution is being used to locate and characterize the kimberlite diatremes. Higher spatial resolution data (1.6 m AVIRIS and 4m HyMap acquired in 1998 and 1999, respectively) are being used to map additional detail. Poor exposures, vegetation cover, and weathering, however, make identification of characteristic kimberlite minerals difficult except where exposed by mining. Minerals identified in the district using the hyperspectral data include calcite, dolomite, illite/muscovite, and serpentine (principally antigorite), however, most spectral signatures are dominated by both green and dry vegetation. The goal of this work is to determine methods for characterizing subtle mineralogic changes associated with kimberlites as a guide to exploration in a variety of geologic terrains.
Kueter, N., Lilley, M.D., Schmidt, M.W., Bernasconi, S.M.Experimental carbonatite/graphite carbon isotope fractionation and carbonate/graphite geothermometry.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press available 38p.Mantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Carbon isotope exchange between carbon-bearing high temperature phases records carbon (re-) processing in the Earth's interior, where the vast majority of global carbon is stored. Redox reactions between carbonate phases and elemental carbon govern the mobility of carbon, which then can be traced by its isotopes. We determined the carbon isotope fractionation factor between graphite and a Na2CO3-CaCO3 melt at 900-1500 °C, 1 GPa using a piston-cylinder device. The failure to isotopically equilibrate preexisting graphite led us to synthesize graphite anew from organic material during the melting of the carbonate mixture. Graphite growth proceeds by (1) decomposition of organic material into globular amorphous carbon, (2) restructuring into nano-crystalline graphite, and (3) recrystallization into hexagonal graphite flakes. Each transition is accompanied by carbon isotope exchange with the carbonate melt. High-temperature (1200 - 1500 °C) equilibrium isotope fractionation with type (3) graphite can be described by (temperature T in K). As the experiments do not yield equilibrated graphite at lower temperatures, we combined the =1200 °C experimental data with those derived from upper amphibolite and lower granulite facies carbonate-graphite pairs (Kitchen and Valley, 1995, Valley and O'Neil, 1981). This yields the general fractionation function usable as a geothermometer for solid or liquid carbonate at = 600 °C. Similar to previous observations, lower-temperature experiments (=1100 °C) deviate from equilibrium. By comparing our results to diffusion and growth rates in graphite, we show that at =1100 °C carbon diffusion is slower than graphite growth, hence equilibrium surface isotope effects govern isotope fractionation between graphite and carbonate melt and determine the isotopic composition of newly formed graphite. The competition between diffusive isotope exchange and growth rates requires a more careful interpretation of isotope zoning in graphite and diamond. Based on graphite crystallization rates and bulk isotope equilibration, a minimum diffusivity of Dgraphite = 2x10-17 m2s-1 for T >1150 °C is required. This value is significantly higher than calculated from experimental carbon self-diffusion constants (~1.6x10-29 m2s-1) but in good agreement with the value calculated for mono-vacancy migration (~2.8x10-16 m2s-1).
Kueter, N., Lilley, M.D., Schmidt, M.W., Bernasconi, S.M.Experimental carbonatite/graphite carbon isotope fractionation and carbonate/graphite geochronology.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 253, pp. 290-306.Mantlecarbonatite
Kueter, N., Lilley, M.D., Schmidt, M.W., Bernasconi, S.M.Experimental carbonatite/graphite carbon isotope fractionation and carbonate/graphite geothermometry.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 253, pp. 290-306.Mantlegeothermometry

Abstract: Carbon isotope exchange between carbon-bearing high temperature phases records the carbon (re-) processing in the Earth's interior, where the vast majority of global carbon is stored. Redox reactions between carbonate phases and elemental carbon govern the mobility of carbon, which then can be traced by its isotopes. We determined the carbon isotope fractionation factor between graphite and a Na2CO3-CaCO3 melt at 900-1500?°C and 1?GPa; The failure to isotopically equilibrate preexisting graphite led us to synthesize graphite anew from organic material during the melting of the carbonate mixture. Graphite growth proceeds by (1) decomposition of organic material into globular amorphous carbon, (2) restructuring into nano-crystalline graphite, and (3) recrystallization into hexagonal graphite flakes. Each transition is accompanied by carbon isotope exchange with the carbonate melt. High-temperature (1200-1500?°C) equilibrium isotope fractionation with type (3) graphite can be described by (temperature T in K). As the experiments do not yield equilibrated bulk graphite at lower temperatures, we combined the =1200?°C experimental data with those derived from upper amphibolite and lower granulite facies carbonate-graphite pairs (Kitchen and Valley, 1995; Valley and O'Neil, 1981). This yields the general fractionation function usable as a geothermometer for solid or liquid carbonate at =600?°C. Similar to previous observations, lower-temperature experiments (=1100?°C) deviate from equilibrium. By comparing our results to diffusion and growth rates in graphite, we show that at =1100?°C carbon diffusion is slower than graphite growth, hence equilibrium surface isotope effects govern isotope fractionation between graphite and carbonate melt and determine the isotopic composition of newly formed graphite. The competition between diffusive isotope exchange and growth rates requires a more careful interpretation of isotope zoning in graphite and diamond. Based on graphite crystallization rates and bulk isotope equilibration, a minimum diffusivity of Dgraphite?=?2?×?10-17 m2s-1 for T?>?1150?°C is required. This value is significantly higher than calculated from experimental carbon self-diffusion constants (~1.6?×?10-29?m2?s-1) but in good agreement with the value calculated for mono-vacancy migration (~2.8?×?10-16?m2?s-1).
Kumar, P., Tewari, H.C., Sreenivas, B.Seismic structure of the Central Indian crust and its implications on the crustal evolution.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 93, 2, pp. 163-170.Indiageophysics - seismic

Abstract: The crustal structures of the Narmada region in Central India bounded by fault system (Narmada- North and South faults : NNF and NSF) has been derived from deep seismic sounding (DSS) studies along the two profiles trending almost north-south direction. The wide-angle phases have been modeled kinematically and dynamically using the 2-D asymptotic ray tracing technique. The combined seismic and gravity modeling reveals a multilayer crust in the region. The crustal wide-angle reflection phases map the Moho discontinuity, where the P-wave velocity jumps from 7.2 km s-1 to 8.0-8.1 km s-1, at depth varying between 38 km and 44 km. A layer with velocity 7.2 km s-1, exists above the Moho in most parts of the profiles and is attributed to the magmatic underplating related to the Deccan volcanism (~65 Ma). The intriguing observation of the study is a zone characterized by anomalous high velocity (6.5-6.6 km s-1) within the upper crust. 2-D gravity modeling demonstrates that this anomalous layer has a density of ~2.9 gm cm-3, which is equivalent to the rocks metamorphosed to granulite/amphibolite facies. This high velocity layer probably represents the granulite enclaves within the Archaean granites/gneiss rocks and was formed during the cratonization of the Achaean crust. Importantly, this high velocity layer shows an average upward displacement of ~8.5 km within the region bounded by NNF and NSF as compared to the regions beyond it. The studies suggest that the observed displacement in the high velocity layer of the upper crust is a result of repeated reactivation of the Narmada fault system.
Kupenko, G.A., Vasilukov, D.M., McCammon, C., Charleton, S., Cerantola, V., Kantor, I., Chumakov, A.I.., Ruffer, R., Dubrovinsky, L, Sanchez-Valle, C.Magnetism in cold subducting slabs at mantle transition zone depths.Nature, Vol. 570, 7759, p. 102.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The Earth’s crust-mantle boundary, the Mohorovicic discontinuity, has been traditionally considered to be the interface between the magnetic crust and the non-magnetic mantle1. However, this assumption has been questioned by geophysical observations2,3 and by the identification of magnetic remanence in mantle xenoliths4, which suggest mantle magnetic sources. Owing to their high critical temperatures, iron oxides are the only potential sources of magnetic anomalies at mantle depths5. Haematite (a-Fe2O3) is the dominant iron oxide in subducted lithologies at depths of 300 to 600 kilometres, delineated by the thermal decomposition of magnetite and the crystallization of a high-pressure magnetite phase deeper than about 600 kilometres6. The lack of data on the magnetic properties of haematite at relevant pressure-temperature conditions, however, hinders the identification of magnetic boundaries within the mantle and their contribution to observed magnetic anomalies. Here we apply synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to investigate the magnetic transitions and critical temperatures in Fe2O3 polymorphs7 at pressures and temperatures of up to 90 gigapascals and 1,300 kelvin, respectively. Our results show that haematite remains magnetic at the depth of the transition zone in the Earth’s mantle in cold or very cold subduction geotherms, forming a frame of deep magnetized rocks in the West Pacific region. The deep magnetic sources spatially correlate with preferred paths of the Earth’s virtual geomagnetic poles during reversals8 that might not reflect the geometry of the transitional field. Rather, the paths might be an artefact caused by magnetized haematite-bearing rocks in cold subducting slabs at mid-transition zone depths. Such deep sources should be taken into account when carrying out inversions of the Earth’s geomagnetic data9, and especially in studies of planetary bodies that no longer have a dynamo10, such as Mars.
Kurinsky, N., Yu, C., Hochberg, Y., Cabrera, B.Diamond detectors for direct detection of sub-GeV dark matter.Physical Review, Vol. 99, June 15, 123005Spacediamond morphology

Abstract: We propose to use high-purity lab-grown diamond for the detection of sub-GeV dark matter. Diamond targets can be sensitive to both nuclear and electron recoils from dark matter scattering in the MeV and above mass range, as well as to absorption processes of dark matter with masses between sub-eV to 10's of eV. Compared to other proposed semiconducting targets such as germanium and silicon, diamond detectors can probe lower dark matter masses via nuclear recoils due to the lightness of the carbon nucleus. The expected reach for electron recoils is comparable to that of germanium and silicon, with the advantage that dark counts are expected to be under better control. Via absorption processes, unconstrained QCD axion parameter space can be successfully probed in diamond for masses of order 10 eV, further demonstrating the power of our approach.
Kusham, A.P., Naick, B.P., Naganjaneyulu, K.Crustal and lithospheric mantle conductivity structure in the Dharwar craton, India.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 176, pp. 253-263.Indiageophysics - magnetotellurics

Abstract: The vertical extension and structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Archean Dharwar craton is the main attraction of the work presented here. To delineate the electrical conductivity structure of the Dharwar craton, a magnetotelluric study is carried out. This study comprises magnetotelluric data at 22 stations along a west-east slanting profile. Inter-station spacing is approximately 15?km. This magnetotelluric study is initiated from Dandeli (in the west) to Sindhanur (in the east side). The preferable geoelectric strike directions for the crust and lithospheric mantle are N3°E and N16°E respectively. A 2-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model derived by using the crustal and lithospheric mantle strike azimuths, identified conductive features in the stable continental Dharwar craton. In the crust, prominent conductors are present in the eastern and western part of the profile. A conducting feature is present in the deeper crust associated with the Chitradurga shear zone (CSZ). The study infers a thick lithosphere beneath Dharwar craton as a preserved cratonic nucleus on the eastern and a few conductive anomalies in the western part of the Dharwar craton. The model shows two separate conductors in the depth range of 110-250?km. This study shows, the possibility of presence of kimberlite melt in the western Dharwar craton in the depth range of 110-150?km.
Kynicky, J., Smith, M.P., Song, W., Fryzova, R., Brtnicky, M.The role of carbonate-flouride melt immiscibility in shallow REE deposits evolution: new evidence from Mongolia.3rd International Critical Metals Meeting held Edinburgh, 1p. abstract p. 52.Asia, MongoliaREE
Lab notesThe largest diamond ever discovered in North America 552.7 ct. DiavikGems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 1, p. 91-2.Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Diavik

Abstract: In October 2018, a diamond weighing a remarkable 552.7 ct was recovered from the Diavik mine in Canada. This is by far the largest known gem diamond found to date in North America. It is nearly three times larger than the 187.63 ct Diavik Foxfire which was unearthed from the same mine in August 2015, and about twice the size of a 271 ct white diamond mined from the Victor mine in Canada. GIA’s New York laboratory had the opportunity to examine this notable diamond in late January 2019, before it went on public display at the Phillips Auctions in New York...(no abstract, full article)
Lab notesCVD layer grown on natural diamondGems & Gemology, Vol. 55, 1, pp. 97-99.Globalsynthetic

Abstract: A 0.64 ct Fancy grayish greenish blue cushion modified brilliant (figure 1) was recently found to be a composite of synthetically grown and natural diamond. During testing, the infrared spectrum showed both strong absorption of nitrogen and the absorption of uncompensated boron, features characteristic of type Ia and type IIb diamonds, respectively (figure 2). The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum showed “cape” peaks, which are nitrogen-related defects, but also a sloping absorption into the red portion of the spectrum caused by uncompensated boron. It is very unusual for boron- and nitrogen-related defects to be seen together in natural diamonds, though an example has been seen before (Spring 2009 Lab Notes, pp. 55-57). Mixed-type diamonds always call for additional scrutiny...(no abstract, full article)
Lahtinen, R., Huhma, H.A revised geodynamic model for the Lapland - Kola Orogen.Precambrian Research, Vol. 330, pp. 1-19.Europe, Fennoscandia, Russia, Kola Peninsulatectonics

Abstract: The Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogen in Fennoscandia has been studied for decades and several plate tectonic models have been proposed including one-sided subduction zone, either towards SW or NW, or two opposite-verging subduction zones before the collision. Based on new structural and isotope data from Finland and recently published data from Russia, we propose a revised tectonic model for the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogen. The main components are foreland in the NE followed by cryptic suture, Inari arc, retro-arc basin and retro-arc foreland in the SW. The latter three constitute the Inari Orocline. Subduction towards present SW and subsequent arc magmatism (Inari arc) started at ca. 1.98?Ga followed by voluminous sedimentation in the deepening retro-arc basin. Underplating of a mid-ocean ridge caused flat subduction and magmatic flare at 1.92?Ga over a broad distance in the retro-arc basin. Rapid heating led to melting of the retro-arc basin sediments and voluminous amounts of granulite-facies diatexites formed. During collision (D1) at 1915-1910?Ma, large thrust nappes formed on the foreland. Deformation in the retro-arc basin is seen as recumbent folding and shearing of diatexites in the lower parts of the basin and thrusting of metatextite-diatexite packages in the upper parts. A post-collisional stage is seen as 1904?Ma appinites and decompression derived granites at 1.90-1.89?Ga. Renewed shortening (D2), due to far-field effects in SW at 1.88-1.87?Ga, led to thick-skin shortening of the Archean middle crust, large-scale crustal duplexing of already cooled granulites towards the retro-arc foreland and inclined upright folding of granulites in the opposite direction towards the Inari arc. A switch in the stress field from NE-SW to NW-SE led to orogen-parallel contraction and buckling started along a dextral strike-slip fault zone to form the Inari Orocline. Buckling is seen in the bending of pre-orocline fabrics and formation of syn-orocline fabrics: radial conical folds (D3), radial fractures, a strike-slip fault zone and thrusting at the hinge zone. The end-result is a mega-scale parallel multi-layer fold composed of the Inari arc, retro-arc basin and possibly also the heated retro-arc foreland.
Lamarque, G., Agostinetti, N.P., Julia, J., Evain, M.Joint interpretation of SKS-splitting measurements and receiver function data for detecting seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle: feasibility and limitations.AGU, 1p. abstract Mantlegeophysics -seismic

Abstract: Measuring seismic anisotropy within the Earth is essential as it constitutes a proxy for inferring upper mantle deformation related to mantle flow, that develops preferred orientations of the minerals in response to tectonic strain. The most-used method to detect anisotropy beneath a seismic station is the measurement of teleseismic SKS wave splitting on two horizontal recordings, i.e. measuring the delay time (dt) between two fast- and slow- polarized shear-waves and the orientation of polarization (F). This technique allows a integrative measurement (SKS data, hereinafter) that estimates the average F and dt along the entire SKS ray-path. Despite its importance for large-scale anisotropy within the upper mantle, the analysis of SKS data suffers from several limitations : (1) SKS data become difficult to interpret in regions where several anisotropic layers occur; (2) SKS waves fail to provide robust information about anisotropy related to thin layers; and (3) SKS data can investigate rock volumes with an horizontal symmetry axis only. During the last decade a new method, called harmonic decomposition of teleseismic Receiver Functions (RFs) has been developed in order to detect more complex anisotropic layering. This methodology is based on the extraction of back-azimuth harmonics of the RF dataset. Briefly, it constitutes a tool to appreciate the value of F and dt at every depth-level affording a detailed study of the rock anisotropy with both plunging and horizontal symmetry axis. RFs studies are however commonly limited to the first 10-15s of the signal and do not sample the deepest anisotropy. In this work we investigate in details both SKS data and RFs harmonic decomposition for a pool of stations deployed in northeastern Brasil, in order to understand how results from the analysis of these two observables can be jointly interpreted. We focus our study on the permanent station RCBR and on temporary seismic stations deployed in the area. We show that comparison and/or joint interpretation is not straightforward as both results can vary according to the amount of data available and their distribution in back-azimuth, and filtering. However, tacking into account those issues, the integration of these two observables represent a great step-forward for robust detection of upper mantle anisotropy.
Lambart, S., Koorneef, J., Millet, M-A., Davies, G.R., Cook, M., Lissenberg, J.Mantle heterogeneity revealed in the Lower Oceanic crust.American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting. , V23A-05 1p.Mantlegeophysics

Abstract: Variations in radiogenic isotopes in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are interpreted to reflect the presence of enriched and depleted mantle components in their source regions and have been used to infer the abundance and time scales of crustal recycling. However, MORB are homogenized via magma mixing prior to eruption and may not capture the full heterogeneity of melts generated in their upper mantle source. Here we show that primitive cumulate minerals, formed by crystallization of mantle melts in the lower crust, retain the signature of the recycled material. We performed high spatial resolution Nd and Sr isotopic analyses on clinopyroxene and plagioclase of gabbroic cumulates from the Atlantis massif, located on a depleted ridge segment on the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and compared these data with whole rock isotopic compositions of diabase and microgabbros collected on the same core, associated basalts flows, and MORB data from the literature. We find that cumulate minerals: (1) are significantly more isotopically heterogeneous than the associated diabase and lavas, exceeding the range of 143Nd/144Nd in MORB by a factor of seven; and (2) contain the full Nd isotopic heterogeneity of all of North Atlantic MORB. Furthermore, we find that isotopic heterogeneity occurs down to the sample scale, with plagioclase and clinopyroxene from individual samples commonly not in isotopic equilibrium. We further demonstrate that the MORB and cumulate mineral data can be reconciled with constant high magnitude, small length scale heterogeneity through the North Atlantic upper mantle, with limited magma mixing in the mantle and extensive mixing in the oceanic crust.The isotopic heterogeneity revealed in the lower oceanic crust provides strong evidence that MORB is not an accurate representation of the heterogeneity of its mantle source. Hence, the true isotopic variation of the upper mantle requires rigorous further examination, and models of convective thinning and stretching and melt migration must be re-evaluated to account for greater local variation.
Lambert, S., Koornneef, J.M., Millet, M-A., Davies, G.R., Cook, M., Lissenberg, C.J.Highly heterogeneous depleted mantle recorded in the lower oceanic crust. ( MAR)Nature Geoscience, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0368-9 8p.Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: The Earth’s mantle is heterogeneous as a result of early planetary differentiation and subsequent crustal recycling during plate tectonics. Radiogenic isotope signatures of mid-ocean ridge basalts have been used for decades to map mantle composition, defining the depleted mantle endmember. These lavas, however, homogenize via magma mixing and may not capture the full chemical variability of their mantle source. Here, we show that the depleted mantle is significantly more heterogeneous than previously inferred from the compositions of lavas at the surface, extending to highly enriched compositions. We perform high-spatial-resolution isotopic analyses on clinopyroxene and plagioclase from lower crustal gabbros drilled on a depleted ridge segment of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These primitive cumulate minerals record nearly the full heterogeneity observed along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, including hotspots. Our results demonstrate that substantial mantle heterogeneity is concealed in the lower oceanic crust and that melts derived from distinct mantle components can be delivered to the lower crust on a centimetre scale. These findings provide a starting point for re-evaluation of models of plate recycling, mantle convection and melt transport in the mantle and the crust.
Langenhorst, F., Campione, M.Ideal and real structures of different forms of carbon, with some remarks on their geological significance.Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 176, pp. 337-347.Globalcarbon

Abstract: Carbon is found in nature in a huge variety of allotropic forms and recent research in materials science has encouraged the development of technological materials based on nanocarbon. Carbon atoms with sp2 or sp3 hybridization can be thought of as building blocks. Following a bottom-up approach, we show how graphene and diamond molecules are built up and how their properties vary with size, reaching an upper limit with bulk graphite and diamond. Carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization give rise to an impressive number of different materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons, porous carbon and fullerene. As in any crystalline phase, the crystal structures of natural carbon allotropes (i.e. graphite and diamond) contain various types of imperfections. These so-called lattice defects are classified by their dimensions into 0D (point), 1D (line), 2D (planar) and 3D (volume) defects. Lattice defects control the physical properties of crystals and are often a fingerprint of the geological environment in which they formed and were modified. Direct observations of lattice defects are commonly accomplished by transmission electron microscopy. We present and discuss the ideal and real structures of carbon allotropes, the energetics of lattice defects and their significance in understanding geological processes and conditions.
Latypov, R., Chisryakova, S., Griev, R., Huhma, H.Evidence for igneous differentiation in Sudbury Igneous Complex and impact driven evolution of Terrestrial planet proto-crusts.Nature Communications, Vol. 10, # 508, pp. 1-13.Canada, Ontariometeorite

Abstract: Bolide impact is a ubiquitous geological process in the Solar System, which produced craters and basins filled with impact melt sheets on the terrestrial planets. However, it remains controversial whether these sheets were able to undergo large-scale igneous differentiation, or not. Here, we report on the discovery of large discrete bodies of melanorites that occur throughout almost the entire stratigraphy of the 1.85-billion-year-old Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) - the best exposed impact melt sheet on Earth - and use them to reaffirm that conspicuous norite-gabbro-granophyre stratigraphy of the SIC is produced by fractional crystallization of an originally homogeneous impact melt of granodioritic composition. This implies that more ancient and compositionally primitive Hadean impact melt sheets on the Earth and other terrestrial planets also underwent large-volume igneous differentiation. The near-surface differentiation of these giant impact melt sheets may therefore have contributed to the evolution and lithological diversity of the proto-crust on terrestrial planets.
Lavayssiere, A., Drooff, C., Ebinger, C., Gallacher, R., Illsley-Kemp, F., Finnigan, Oliva, S.J., Keir, D.Deep extent and kinematics of faulting in the southern Tanganyika Rift, Africa.Tectonics, Vol. 38, 3, pp. 842-862.Africarifting

Abstract: Unusually deep earthquakes occur beneath rift segments with and without surface expressions of magmatism in the East African Rift system. The Tanganyika rift is part of the Western rift and has no surface evidence of magmatism. The TANG14 array was deployed in the southern Tanganyika rift, where earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.4 have occurred, to probe crust and upper mantle structure and evaluate fault kinematics. Four hundred seventy-four earthquakes detected between June 2014 and September 2015 are located using a new regional velocity model. The precise locations, magnitudes, and source mechanisms of local and teleseismic earthquakes are used to determine seismogenic layer thickness, delineate active faults, evaluate regional extension direction, and evaluate kinematics of border faults. The active faults span more than 350 km with deep normal faults transecting the thick Bangweulu craton, indicating a wide plate boundary zone. The seismogenic layer thickness is 42 km, spanning the entire crust beneath the rift basins and their uplifted flanks. Earthquakes in the upper mantle are also detected. Deep earthquakes with steep nodal planes occur along subsurface projections of Tanganyika and Rukwa border faults, indicating that large offset (=5 km) faults penetrate to the base of the crust, and are the current locus of strain. The focal mechanisms, continuous depth distribution, and correlation with mapped structures indicate that steep, deep border faults maintain a half-graben morphology over at least 12 Myr of basin evolution. Fault scaling based on our results suggests that M > 7 earthquakes along Tanganyika border faults are possible.
Lentz, D., Steele-MacInnis, M., Charlier, B.Carbonatitic to limestone syntectic decarbonation reactions in silicate magmas: CO2 oxidant enhancing IOA liquid immiscibility.GAC/MAC annual Meeting, 1p. Abstract p. 130.Mantlecarbonatites

Abstract: The formation of Iron Oxide-Apatite (IOA) systems has long been enigmatic. The compositions of both magnetite and apatite and the other component elements suggest derivation from high temperature (T) magmatic systems, with genetic models including iron oxide magmas or igneous magnetite and apatite flotation. Ideas related to the role of H2O and associated oxidative mechanisms have resurfaced from models of the late 1960s. As such, salt melts forming in open, differentially degassing systems could represent an end-member to the formation of IOA deposits. Another end-member involves autometasomatic decarbonation reactions involving ferroan carbonatites with co-genetic melts or host rocks generating CO2 capable of oxidizing carbonatites to enhance magnetite-apatite saturation. The syntectic decarbonation end-member presented here examines the reactions of carbonate melts of mantle origin or from syntectic reactions with limestone, with cogenetic silicate magmas. Although carbonate and silicate melts can coexist at magmatic pressure (P) and T, their compositions must be peralkalic. However, as P decreases, immiscibility or reactivity between these melts is such that CO2 is exsolved (decarbonation) to the point that at near surface conditions, decarbonation is complete. The addition of CO2 to silicate melt will drive the conversion of FeO to Fe2O3 in order to make carbon monoxide (CO), thus shifting the redox equilibria. For most silicate magmas, the amount of dissolved carbonate and CO2 is quite limited, and differential CO2 degassing results. These carbonate: silicate melt reactions then may result in oxidation of the silicate magma, to enhance immiscibility of IOA (liquation) and elemental partitioning associated with liquid-liquid immiscibility. This could be an oxidative mechanism for Fe-Ti tholeiites (ferrobasalts) and diorites to reach a two-liquid field and form IOA melts via liquation. Carbonates would typically be consumed in these reactions, although CO2 is an important degassing product that would substantially increase ?V of the reaction, which has implications during high-level emplacement.
Li, K., Li, L., Pearson, D.G., Stachel, T.Diamond isotope compositions indicate altered igneous oceanic crust dominates deep carbon recycling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 516, pp. 190-201.Mantlecarbon

Abstract: A long-standing unresolved problem in understanding Earth's deep carbon cycle is whether crustal carbon is recycled beyond arc depths. While isotopic signatures of eclogitic diamonds and their inclusions suggest deep recycling of crustal material, the crustal carbon source remains controversial; seafloor sediment - the widely favored crustal carbon source - cannot explain the combined carbon and nitrogen isotopic characteristics of eclogitic diamonds. Here we examined the carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of bulk-rock carbonate for 80 geographically diverse samples from altered mafic-ultramafic oceanic crust (AOC), which comprises 95 vol% of the crustal material in subducting slabs. The results show: (i) AOC contains carbonate with C values as low as -24‰, indicating the presence of biogenic carbonate; (ii) carbonate in AOC was mainly formed during low-temperature (<100 °C) alteration processes. Modeling accounting for this newly recognized carbon source in the oceanic crust with formation temperatures <100 °C yields a global carbon influx of 1.5±0.3 × 1012 mol C/yr carried by subducting AOC into the trench, which is 50-90% of previous estimates, but still of the same order of the carbon influx carried by subducting sediments into the trench. The AOC can retain carbon better than sediment during subduction into the asthenosphere, transition zone and lower mantle. Mixing of asthenospheric and AOC fluids provides the first consistent explanation of the diverse record of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in diamonds, suggesting that AOC, instead of sediment, is the key carrier of crustal carbon into the deep mantle.
Li, Z.X., Mitchell, R.N., Spencer, C.J., Ernst, R., Pisarevsky, S., Kirscher, U., Murphy, J.B.Decoding Earth's rhythms: modulation of supercontinent cycles by longer superocean episodes.Precambrian Research, Vol. 323, pp. 1-5.Mantlesubduction

Abstract: The supercontinent cycle of episodic assembly and breakup of almost all continents on Earth is commonly considered the longest period variation to affect mantle convection. However, global zircon Hf isotopic signatures and seawater Sr isotope ratios suggest the existence of a longer-term variation trend that is twice the duration of the supercontinent cycle. Here we propose that since ~2 billion years ago the superocean surrounding a supercontinent, as well as the circum-supercontinent subduction girdle, survive every second supercontinent cycle. This interpretation is in agreement with global palaeogeography and is supported by variations in passive margin, orogen, and mineral deposit records that each exhibits both ~500-700 million years periodic signal and a 1000-1500 million years variation trend. We suggest that the supercontinent cycle is modulated by an assembly that alternates between dominantly extroversion after a more complete breakup, and dominantly introversion after an incomplete breakup of the previous supercontinent.
Liao, A.C-Y., Shellnutt, J.G., Hari, K.R., Denyszyn, S.W., Vishwakarma, N., Verma, C.B.A petrogenetic relationship between 2.37 Ga boninitic dyke swarms of the Indian Shield: evidence from the Central Bastar Craton and NE Dharwar Craton.Gondwana Research, Vol. 69, pp. 193-211.Indiacraton

Abstract: The Indian Shield is cross-cut by a number of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms. The density of dykes in the Dharwar and Bastar Cratons is amongst the highest on Earth. Globally, boninitic dyke swarms are rare compared to tholeiitic dyke swarms and yet they are common within the Southern Indian Shield. Geochronology and geochemistry are used to constrain the petrogenesis and relationship of the boninitic dykes (SiO2?=?51.5 to 55.7?wt%, MgO?=?5.8 to 18.7?wt%, and TiO2?=?0.30?wt% to 0.77?wt%) from the central Bastar Craton (Bhanupratappur) and the NE Dharwar Craton (Karimnagar). A single U-Pb baddeleyite age from a boninitic dyke near Bhanupratappur yielded a weighted-mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2365.6?±?0.9?Ma that is within error of boninitic dykes from the Dharwar Craton near Karimnagar (2368.5?±?2.6?Ma) and farther south near Bangalore (2365.4?±?1.0?Ma to 2368.6?±?1.3?Ma). Rhyolite-MELTS modeling indicates that fractional crystallization is the likely cause of major element variability of the boninitic dykes from Bhanupratappur whereas trace element modeling indicates that the primary melt may be derived from a pyroxenite mantle source near the spinel-garnet transition zone. The Nd isotopes (eNd(t)?=?-6.4 to +4.5) of the Bhanupratappur dykes are more variable than the Karimnagar dykes (eNd(t)?=?-0.7 to +0.6) but they overlap. The variability of Sr-Nd isotopes may be related to crustal contamination during emplacement or is indicative of an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source. The chemical and temporal similarities of the Bhanupratappur dykes with the dykes of the Dharwar Craton (Karimnagar, Penukonda, Chennekottapalle) indicate they are members of the same giant radiating dyke swarm. Moreover, our results suggest that the Bastar and Dharwar Cratons were adjacent but likely had a different configuration at 2.37?Ga than the present day. It is possible that the 2.37Ga dyke swarm was related to a mantle plume that assisted in the break-up of an unknown or poorly constrained supercontinent.
Liebske, C., Khan, A.On the principal building blocks of Mars and Earth.Icarus, Vol. 322, pp. 121-134.Mantlechondrites

Abstract: The terrestrial planets are believed to have been formed from primitive material sampling a broad region of the inner solar system. Several meteoritic mixing models attempting to reconcile isotopic characteristics of Mars and Earth have been proposed, but, because of the inherent non-uniqueness of these solutions, additional independent observations are required to resolve the question of the primary building blocks of the terrestrial planets. Here, we consider existing isotopic measurements of O, ?48Ca, ?50Ti, ?54Cr, ?62Ni, and ?84Sr for primitive chondrites and differentiated achondrites and mix these stochastically to reproduce the isotopic signatures of Mars and Earth. For both planets we observe ~ 105 unique mixing solutions out of 108 random meteoritic mixtures, which are categorised into distinct clusters of mixtures using principal component analysis. The large number of solutions implies that isotopic data alone are insufficient to resolve the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. To further discriminate between isotopically valid mixtures, each mixture is converted into a core and mantle component via mass balance for which geophysical properties are computed and compared to observations. For Mars, the geophysical parameters include mean density, mean moment of inertia, and tidal response, whereas for Earth upper mantle Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio and core size are employed. The results show that Mars requires an oxidised, FeO-rich differentiated object next to chondritic material as main building blocks. In contrast, Earth's origin remains enigmatic. From a redox perspective, it appears inescapable that enstatite chondrite-like matter constitutes a dominant proportion of the building blocks from which Earth is made. The apparent need for compositionally distinct building blocks for Mars and Earth suggests that dissimilar planetesimal reservoirs were maintained in the inner Solar System during accretion.
Lin, J-F, Mao, Z., Yang, J., Fu, F.Elasticity of lower-mantle bridgemanite.Nature, Vol. 564, pp. E18-E26.Mantlebridgmanite
Litasov, K.D., Kagi, H., Voropaev, S.A., Hirata, T., Ohfuji, H., Ishibashi., Makino, Y., Bekker, T.B., Sevastyanov, V.S., Afanasiev,V.P., Pokhilenko, N.P.Comparison of enigmatic diamonds from the Tolbachik arc volcano ( Kamchatka) and Tibetan ophiolites: assessing the role of contamination by synthetic materials. Gondwana Research, in press available 38p.Russia, Asia, Tibetdeposit - Tolbachik

Abstract: The enigmatic appearance of cuboctahedral diamonds in ophiolitic and arc volcanic rocks with morphology and infrared characteristics similar to synthetic diamonds that were grown from metal solvent requires a critical reappraisal. We have studied 15 diamond crystals and fragments from Tolbachik volcano lava flows, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). FTIR spectra of Tolbachik diamonds correspond to typical type Ib patterns of synthetic diamonds. In TEM films prepared using focused ion beam technique, we find Mn-Ni and Mn-Si inclusions in Tolbachik diamonds. SRXRF spectra indicate the presence of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-Mn inclusions with Cr, Ti, Cu, and Zn impurities. LA-ICP-MS data show variable but significantly elevated concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu reaching up to 70?ppm. These transition metal concentration levels are comparable with those determined by LA-ICP-MS for similar diamonds from Tibetan ophiolites. Mn-Ni (+Fe) solvent was widely used to produce industrial synthetic diamonds in the former USSR and Russia with very similar proportions of these metals. Hence, it appears highly probable that the cuboctahedral diamonds recovered from Kamchatka arc volcanic rocks represent contamination and are likely derived from drilling tools or other hard instruments. Kinetic data on diamond dissolution in basaltic magma or in fluid phase demonstrate that diamond does not form under the pressures and temperature conditions prevalent within the magmatic system beneath the modern-day Klyuchevskoy group of arc volcanoes. We also considered reference data for inclusions in ophiolitic diamonds and compared them with the composition of solvent used in industrial diamond synthesis in China. The similar inclusion chemistry close to Ni70Mn25Co5 for ophiolitic and synthetic Chinese diamonds scrutinized here suggests that most diamonds recovered from Tibetan and other ophiolites are not natural but instead have a synthetic origin. In order to mitigate further dubious reports of diamonds from unconventional tectonic settings and source rocks, we propose a set of discrimination criteria to better distinguish natural cuboctahedral diamonds from those produced synthetically in industrial environments and found as contaminants in mantle- and crust-derived rocks.
Liu, C., Runyon, S.E., Knoll, A.H., Hazen, R.M.The same and not the same: ore geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of Rodinia assembly versus other supercontinents.Earth Science Reviews, doi.org/10.1016 /j.earscrev.2019.05.04Mantleplate tectonics

Abstract: It has been long observed that the amalgamation of supercontinents, including Rodinia, is coeval with peaks of UPb ages of global detrital zircons. However, our new compilation of global geochemical, mineralogical, and ore geologic records shows that the assembly of Rodinia stands out from others, in terms of whole-rock trace element geochemistry, as well as records of mineralogy and ore deposits. During the assembly of Rodinia, Nb, Y, and Zr concentrations were enriched in igneous rocks, with prolific formation of zircon and minerals bearing Th, Nb or Y, and formation of NYF-type pegmatites and REE ore deposits. At the same time, many types of ore deposits are relatively poorly represented in Rodinin terranes, including deposits of orogenic gold, porphyry copper, and volcanic hosted massive sulfide deposits, with a corresponding paucity of many minerals (e.g., minerals bearing Au, Sb, Ni) associated with these deposits. We interpret these records as indicating the prevalence of ‘non-arc’ magmatism and a relative lack of subduction-related arc magma preserved in the surviving pieces of the Rodinia supercontinent, distinct fro