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Sheahan Diamond Literature Technical Reference Compilation 2021

The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation
The Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation is compiled by Patricia Sheahan who publishes on a monthly basis a list of new scientific articles related to diamonds as well as media coverage and corporate announcementscalled the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service that is distributed as a free pdf to a list of followers. Pat has kindly agreed to allow her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds and related geology can benefit. The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to an online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly. Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Scientific Articles by Author for all years
A-An Ao+ B-Bd Be-Bk Bl-Bq Br+ C-Cg Ch-Ck Cl+ D-Dd De-Dn Do+ E F-Fn Fo+ G-Gh Gi-Gq Gr+ H-Hd He-Hn Ho+ I J K-Kg Kh-Kn Ko-Kq Kr+ L-Lh
Li+ M-Maq Mar-Mc Md-Mn Mo+ N O P-Pd Pe-Pn Po+ Q R-Rh Ri-Rn Ro+ S-Sd Se-Sh Si-Sm Sn-Ss St+ T-Th Ti+ U V W-Wg Wh+ X Y Z
Sheahan Diamond Literature Reference Compilation - Media/Corporate References by Name for all years
A B C D-Diam Diamonds Diamr+ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tips for Users
Posted/Published Reference CodesThe SDLRC provides 3 types of references identified in the reference code. DS for scientific article, DM for a media article, and DC for a corporate announcement. Consider DS0512-0001. The DS stands for "diamond scientific". 05 stands for 2005, the year the reference was posted. 12 represents the month the reference was posted. For all years prior to 2015 the default month is 12. -0001 is the reference's identifier and it does not mean anything. The number below the refence code, ie 2015, is the year the article was published. Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than the published year.
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2021 Technical Reference Compilation
Armistad, S.E., Collins, A.S., Schmitt, R.S., Costa, R.L., De Waele, B., Razakamanana, T., Payne, J.L., Foden, J.D.Proterozoic basin evolution and tectonic geography of Madagascar: implications for an East Africa connection during the Paleoproterozoic. ( zircon analyses link Tanzania craton and India)Tectonics, doi/epdf/10. 10292020Tc006498 Africa, Madagascarcraton

Abstract: Madagascar hosts several Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sequences that are key to unravelling the geodynamic evolution of past supercontinents on Earth. New detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf data, and a substantial new database of ~15,000 analyses are used here to compare and contrast sedimentary sequences in Madagascar, Africa and India. The Itremo Group in central Madagascar, the Sahantaha Group in northern Madagascar, the Maha Group in eastern Madagascar, and the Ambatolampy Group in central Madagascar have indistinguishable age and isotopic characteristics. These samples have maximum depositional ages > 1700 Ma, with major zircon age peaks at c. 2500 Ma, c. 2000 Ma and c. 1850 Ma. We name this the Greater Itremo Basin, which covered a vast area of Madagascar in the late Paleoproterozoic. These samples are also compared with those from the Tanzania and the Congo cratons of Africa, and the Dharwar Craton and Southern Granulite Terrane of India. We show that the Greater Itremo Basin and sedimentary sequences in the Tanzania Craton of Africa are correlatives. These also tentatively correlate with sedimentary protoliths in the Southern Granulite Terrane of India, which together formed a major intra-Nuna/Columbia sedimentary basin that we name the Itremo-Muva-Pandyan Basin. A new Paleoproterozoic plate tectonic configuration is proposed where central Madagascar is contiguous with the Tanzania Craton to the west and the Southern Granulite Terrane to the east. This model strongly supports an ancient Proterozoic origin for central Madagascar and a position adjacent to the Tanzania Craton of East Africa.
Aulbach, S., Giuliani, A., Fiorentini, M.L., Baumgartner, R.J., Davard, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Caruso, S., Danyushevsky, L.V., Powell, W., Griffin, W.L.Siderophile and chalcophile elements in spinels, sulphides and native Ni in strongly metasomatised xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite (South Africa).Lithos, doi.org/10.1016/ jlithos.2020.105880, 26p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Bultfontein

Abstract: The metasomatised continental mantle may play a key role in the generation of some ore deposits, in particular mineral systems enriched in platinum-group elements (PGE) and Au. The cratonic lithosphere is the longest-lived potential source for these elements, but the processes that facilitate their pre-concentration in the mantle and their later remobilisation to the crust are not yet well-established. Here, we report new results on the petrography, major-element, and siderophile- and chalcophile-element composition of native Ni, base metal sulphides (BMS), and spinels in a suite of well-characterised, highly metasomatised and weakly serpentinised peridotite xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite in the Kaapvaal Craton, and integrate these data with published analyses. Pentlandite in polymict breccias (failed kimberlite intrusions at mantle depth) has lower trace-element contents (e.g., median total PGE 0.72 ppm) than pentlandite in phlogopite peridotites and Mica-Amphibole-Rutile-Ilmenite-Diopside (MARID) rocks (median 1.6 ppm). Spinel is an insignificant host for all elements except Zn, and BMS and native Ni account for typically <25% of the bulk-rock PGE and Au. High bulk-rock Te/S suggest a role for PGE-bearing tellurides, which, along with other compounds of metasomatic origin, may host the missing As, Ag, Cd, Sb, Te and, in part, Bi that are unaccounted for by the main assemblage. The close spatial relationship between BMS and metasomatic minerals (e.g., phlogopite, ilmenite) indicates that the lithospheric mantle beneath Bultfontein was resulphidised by metasomatism after initial melt depletion during stabilisation of the cratonic lithosphere. Newly-formed BMS are markedly PGE-poor, as total PGE contents are <4.2 ppm in pentlandite from seven samples, compared to >26 ppm in BMS in other peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal craton. This represents a strong dilution of the original PGE abundances at the mineral scale, perhaps starting from precursor PGE alloy and small volumes of residual BMS. The latter may have been the precursor to native Ni, which occurs in an unusual Ni-enriched zone in a harzburgite and displays strongly variable, but overall high PGE abundances (up to 81 ppm). In strongly metasomatised peridotites, Au is enriched relative to Pd, and was probably added along with S. A combination of net introduction of S, Au +/- PGE from the asthenosphere and intra-lithospheric redistribution, in part sourced from subducted materials, during metasomatic events may have led to sulphide precipitation at ~80-120 km beneath Bultfontein. This process locally enhanced the metallogenic fertility of this lithospheric reservoir. Further mobilisation of the metal budget stored in these S-rich domains and upwards transport into the crust may require interaction with sulphide-undersaturated melts that can dissolve sulphides along with the metals they store.
Barry, P.H., Broadley, M.W.Nitrogen and noble gases reveal a complex history of metasomatism in the Siberian lithospheric mantle.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 556, doi.org/10.1016 /j.epsl.2020. 116707 12p. PdfRussianitrogen

Abstract: The Siberian flood basalts (SFB) erupted at the end of the Permian period (~250 Ma) in response to a deep-rooted mantle plume beneath the Siberian Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM). Plume-lithosphere interaction can lead to significant changes in the structure and chemistry of the SCLM and trigger the release of metasomatic material that was previously stored within the stable craton. Here, we investigate the nature of the Siberian-SCLM (S-SCLM) by measuring nitrogen abundances and isotopes (N) in 11 samples of two petrologically-distinct suites of peridotitic xenoliths recovered from kimberlites which bracket the eruption of the SFB: the 360 Myr old Udachnaya and 160 Myr old Obnazhennaya pipes. Nitrogen isotope (N) values range from -5.85 ± 1.29‰ to +3.94 ± 0.63‰, which encompasses the entire range between depleted Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) mantle (DMM; -5 ± 2‰) and plume-derived (+3 ± 2‰) endmembers. In addition, we present neon (n=7) and argon (n=8) abundance and isotope results for the same two suites of samples. The 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne range from atmospheric-like values of 9.88 up to 11.35 and from 0.0303 to 0.0385, respectively, suggesting an admixture of DMM and plume-derived components. Argon isotopes (40Ar/36Ar) range from 336.7 to 1122 and correlate positively with 40Ar contents. We show that volatile systematics of Siberian xenoliths: (1) exhibit evidence of ancient metasomatic and/or recycled signatures, and (2) show evidence of subsequent plume-like re-fertilization, which we attribute to the emplacement of the SFB. Metasomatic fluids are highly enriched in radiogenic gases and have elevated Br/Cl and I/Cl values, consistent with an ancient subducted crustal component. The metasomatic component is marked by light N isotope signatures, suggesting it may be derived from an anoxic Archean subducted source. Taken together, these N2-Ne-Ar isotope results suggest that mantle plume impingement has profoundly modified the S-SCLM, and that N, Ne and Ar isotopes are sensitive tracers of metasomatism in the S-SCLM. Metasomatic fluids that permeate the S-SCLM act to archive a “subduction-fingerprint” that can be used to probe relative volatile-element recycling efficiencies and thus provide insight into volatile transport between the surface and mantle reservoirs over Earth history.
Bergman, S.C., Eldrett, J.S., Minisini, D.Phanerozoic Large Igneous Province, Petroleum system, and source rock links.American Geophysical Union and Wiley editors Ernst, R.E., Dickson, A.J., Bekker, A. Monograph 255, Chapter 9, 38p. Pdf doi:10.1002/ 9781119507444 open accessMantleplumes

Abstract: This chapter summarizes geochronologic and other data for major Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and organic-rich petroleum source rocks. It also evaluates the models that support or refute genetic links between the three groups. The evidence appears to favor genetic links between the three groups, however, additional high precision age and geochemical data are needed to validate several events. Furthermore, the chapter provides insights into the importance of LIPs in hydrocarbon exploration.
Bettucci, L.S., Loureiro, J., Demarco, P.N.Airborne geophysical characterization of Uruguayan basement.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 108, 103206, 17p. PdfSouth America, Uruguaygeophysics

Abstract: The integrated observation of geology, gammaspectrometry and magnetometry of southern Uruguay was made possible by the high-resolution aerogeophysical survey carried out during 2014 and 2015. This survey covers nearly the outcropping area of the Uruguayan basement. Previous studies focused on the Proterozoic and Mesozoic dike swarms present in the Uruguayan basement. In this work we address features previously undescribed and unstudied in the Uruguayan basement. Structures previously grouped with the dike swarm are separated (subcircular structures and a lava river) and the basement general patterns were studied. Distinctive magnetic and radiometric features characterize each structural block in the Uruguayan basement, supporting the main tectonic units previously described, but improving the location of their limits.
Bindi, L., Camara, F., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L., Huang, J-X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V.Kishonite, VH2 and oreillyite, Cr2N, two new minerals from the conundrum xenocrysts of Mt. Carmel, northern Israel.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1118, doi:10.3390/ min10121118 10p. PdfEurope, Israeldeposit - Mt. Carmel

Abstract: Here, we describe two new minerals, kishonite (VH2) and oreillyite (Cr2N), found in xenoliths occurring in pyroclastic ejecta of small Cretaceous basaltic volcanoes exposed on Mount Carmel, Northern Israel. Kishonite was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and was found to be cubic, space group Fm3¯m, with a = 4.2680(10) Å, V = 77.75(3) Å3, and Z = 4. Oreillyite was studied by both single-crystal X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and was found to be trigonal, space group P3¯1m, with a = 4.7853(5) Å, c = 4.4630(6) Å, V = 88.51 Å3, and Z = 3. The presence of such a mineralization in these xenoliths supports the idea of the presence of reduced fluids in the sublithospheric mantle influencing the transport of volatile species (e.g., C, H) from the deep Earth to the surface. The minerals and their names have been approved by the Commission of New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (No. 2020-023 and 2020-030a).
Blanks, D.E., Holwell, D.A., Fiorentini, M.L., Moroni, M., Giuliani, A., Tassara, S., Gonzales-Jiminez, J.M., Boyce, A.J., Ferrari, E.Fluxing of mantle carbon as a physical agent for metallogenic fertilization of the crust.Nature Communications, doi.org/10.1038/ s41467-020-18157-6 11p. Pdf Mantlecarbon

Abstract: Magmatic systems play a crucial role in enriching the crust with volatiles and elements that reside primarily within the Earth’s mantle, including economically important metals like nickel, copper and platinum-group elements. However, transport of these metals within silicate magmas primarily occurs within dense sulfide liquids, which tend to coalesce, settle and not be efficiently transported in ascending magmas. Here we show textural observations, backed up with carbon and oxygen isotope data, which indicate an intimate association between mantle-derived carbonates and sulfides in some mafic-ultramafic magmatic systems emplaced at the base of the continental crust. We propose that carbon, as a buoyant supercritical CO2 fluid, might be a covert agent aiding and promoting the physical transport of sulfides across the mantle-crust transition. This may be a common but cryptic mechanism that facilitates cycling of volatiles and metals from the mantle to the lower-to-mid continental crust, which leaves little footprint behind by the time magmas reach the Earth’s surface.
Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F., Brenker, L., Peruzo, L., Harris, J.WOrigin, properties, and structure of breyite: the second most abundant mineral inclusion in super-deep diamonds.The American Mineralogist, Vol. 106, pp. 38-43. pdfMantleperovskites, mineral inclusions

Abstract: Earth's lower mantle most likely mainly consists of ferropericlase, bridgmanite, and a CaSiO3- phase in the perovskite structure. If separately trapped in diamonds, these phases can be transported to Earth's surface without reacting with the surrounding mantle. Although all inclusions will remain chemically pristine, only ferropericlase will stay in its original crystal structure, whereas in almost all cases bridgmanite and CaSiO3-perovskite will transform to their lower-pressure polymorphs. In the case of perovskite structured CaSiO3, the new structure that is formed is closely related to that of walstromite. This mineral is now approved by the IMA commission on new minerals and named breyite. The crystal structure is triclinic (space group: P1) with lattice parameters a0 = 6.6970(4) Å, b0 = 9.2986(7) Å, c0 = 6.6501(4) Å, a = 83.458(6)°, ß = 76.226(6)°, ? = 69.581(7)°, and V = 376.72(4) Å. The major element composition found for the studied breyite is Ca3.01(2)Si2.98(2)O9. Breyite is the second most abundant mineral inclusion after ferropericlase in diamonds of super-deep origin. The occurrence of breyite has been widely presumed to be a strong indication of lower mantle (=670 km depth) or at least lower transition zone (=520 km depth) origin of both the host diamond and the inclusion suite. In this work, we demonstrate through different formation scenarios that the finding of breyite alone in a diamond is not a reliable indicator of the formation depth in the transition zone or in the lower mantle and that accompanying paragenetic phases such as ferropericlase together with MgSiO3 are needed.
Brennan, M.C., Fischer, R.A,m Couper, S., Miyagi, L., Antonangeli, D., Morard, G.High-pressure deformation of iron-nickel-silicon alloys and implications for Earth's inner core.Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth, https://eartharxiv.org /repository/ view/1694/ 21p. PdfMantleGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The inner core is a Moon-sized ball of solid metal at the very center of the Earth. Vibrations from earthquakes move faster through the inner core if they travel parallel to Earth's axis (the line between the North and South Poles) than if they travel parallel to the Equator. This probably means that the grains of metal in the inner core are themselves aligned with Earth's axis. Previous studies determined that this alignment likely happened after the inner core had formed, but those experiments were done on pure iron, whereas the inner core is mostly iron but also contains other elements. We did experiments at high pressures and temperatures on a more realistic core metal containing iron, nickel, and silicon. We found that this metal would be much stronger than pure iron at inner core pressures and temperatures; it is still possible for it to produce a north-south alignment, but it is much more difficult for it to do so. This could mean that the alignment occurred while the inner core was forming (rather than afterward), which might change how we think about the forces present in the deep Earth today.
Carniel, L.C., Conceicao, R.V., Klemme, S., Berndt,J., Jalowitzki, T.Origin and redox conditions of the Rosario-6 alnoite of southern Brazil: implications for the state of the mantle during Gondwana breakup.Lithos, Vol. 376-377, 105751, 13p. PdfSouth America, Brazildeposit - Rosario do Sul

Abstract: The Rosário-6 alnöite is an alkaline occurrence that belongs to the Rosário do Sul kimberlitic field, situated in the south-eastern edge of the Paraná Basin, in the South of Brazil, and erupted concomitant or just after the volcanism of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP). Following recent published nomenclature, Rosário-6 was classified as a kimberlite from a deep mantle source with a distinctive inequigranular texture resulting from the presence of olivine macrocrysts set in a finer-grained matrix. Trace element compositions of olivine, monticellite, spinel, phlogopite, perovskite and apatite show an enrichment of Nb, Ce, Ta and U, which implies that the Rosário-6 mantle source was enriched by recycled oceanic crust. The positive anomalies of Rb, Ba and Sr, the enrichment in LREE, and the negative anomalies of HREE in the Rosário-6 minerals, are indicative of a metasomatic process in the mantle source that could be caused by fluids from recycled oceanic crust. Temperature, pressure and redox conditions (fO2) of Rosário-6 crystallization are estimated from olivine, spinel, perovskite and monticellite compositions: Rosário-6 crystallization temperatures using olivine-spinel geothermobarometry were around 1390(±56)°C at a pressure of 2 GPa, and 1405(±56)°C at 3 GPa with ?NNO = 2.8, at pressures constrained by the silica activity limited by the crystallization of monticellite. Using a perovskite oxybarometer, we obtained a larger range of ?NNO (from -2.8 to 3.4), whereas the monticellite oxybarometer results in fO2 of -2.6 to -0.8 ?NNO units. The fO2 indicate that the mantle source of Rosário-6 at the time of crystallization was possibly oxidized by materials from ancient subduction, which may be the cause for Rosário-6's low potential to carry and preserve diamonds. Horizontal tomographic images derived from P-wave velocity data constrain the thickness of the lithosphere in this region and the overall information indicates that mantle cooling at depths below 200 km may have resulted of an accumulation of oceanic plate slabs from old subduction. The geochemical data in conjunction with the geophysical characterizes the conditions of Rosário-6 mineral crystallization and also the mantle of this part of South America during Gondwana breakup.
Chakhmouradian, A.R., Dahlgren, S.Primary inclusions of burbankite in carbonatites from the Fen complex, southern Norway.Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org/10.1007/ s00710-021-00736-0 11p. PdfEurope, Norwaycarbonatite

Abstract: Carbonatites in the Fen intrusive complex (southern Norway) contain abundant burbankite (confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy) as inclusions in calcite, dolomite and, less commonly, fluorapatite and pyrochlore. Typically the inclusions occur in the core of calcite or dolomite grains relatively unaffected by subsolidus processes, and are associated with Fe-poor dolomite or Sr-rich calcite, respectively. Burbankite does not exceed 30?×?50 µm in size and is characteristically absent from the peripheral areas of carbonate grains affected by recrystallization or interaction with fluids. Compositionally, the mineral falls within the following range: (Na1.51-2.16Ca0.58-1.21)(Sr1.50-2.42Ca0.28-0.57LREE0.05-0.64Ba0.06-0.41)(CO3)5 and contains low Th, but no detectable Mg, Fe or F (LREE?=?light rare-earth elements: Ce?>?La?>?Nd?>?Pr?>?Sm). Burbankite inclusions at Fen are interpreted as primary and indicative of Na enrichment in their parental carbonatitic magma. Dissociation of burbankite during subsolidus re-equilibration of its host phases with fluids undoubtedly served as one of the sources of LREE for the development of late-stage mineralization in the Fen complex.
Chayka, I., Izokh, A.E., Vasyukova, E.A.Can low-titanium lamproite magmas produce ore deposits? Evidence from Mesozoic Aldan Shield lamproites. *** note dateResearchgate Conference paper, 335395794 5p. PdfRussialamproites

Abstract: Lamproites and lamprophyres from Ryabinovoye gold deposit (Aldan Shield, Siberia) were studied. We demonstrate that these rocks, varying from Ol-Di-Phl-lamproites to syenite-porphyries, form a continuous series of lamproite magma differentiation. At the stage of phlogopite and clinopyroxene crystallization, silicate-carbonate and then carbonate-salt immiscibilities occur. A suggestion is that during these processes LREE, Y, U, Sr and Ba distribute to a phosphate-fluoride fraction and probably accumulate in apatite-fluorite gangues. Based on our results and considering existing data onore-bearing massifs within Central Aldan (lnagli, Ryabinoviy) and also of the Nam-Xe ore-bearing province (Vietnam), we concluded that Au, PGE and Th-U-Ba-REE deposits can be genetically connected with low-titanium lamproite magmas.
Chayka, I., Kamenetsky, V.S., Vasilyev, Y., Prokopyev, I.R.Spinel-group minerals in peridotites of the Guli and Bor-Uryakh intrusions ( Meimecha-Kotuy Province, northern Siberia).SGEM Conference 20th., doi:10.5593/ sgem2020/1.1. /s01.038Russia, Siberiaperidotites

Abstract: The Guli and Bor-Uryakh massifs, a part of the Siberian Large igneous province (LIP) are mafic-ultramafic intrusive complexes, withstrongalkaline affinity. They contain deposits of apatite and arealsoknown to be source rocks ofOs-Ir-Ruplacers.These massifs are of great interest for petrologists worldwide, as they are composed of an unusual variety of rocks (dunites/olivinites, shonkinites, melilitites, alkali syenites and carbonatites) and being coeval with Siberian trap volcanic rocks, includingdiamondiferous kimberlites. Since mineralogical approaches based on spinel-group minerals have been proved to be efficient in constraining origin of the ultramafics, we present the first descriptive study of chromite and magnetite mineralization, observed in olivine-dominated rocks of the Guli and Bor-Uryakh intrusions. In dunites of Guli massif spinel-group minerals are dominated by Mg-poor chromite (FeMg)Cr2O4and Cr-Ti-rich magnetiteFeFe2O4, while in Bor-Uryakh massif spinel-group minerals are predominantly magnetite with only minor Mg-poor chromite.These minerals form either small euhedral inclusions in olivine or largesubhedral to anhedral grains in serpentinized fractures and interstitial space. The lattertype of grainscan have intricated irregular shapeand contain inclusions. We also observed abundant Cr-magnetite lamellae in olivine and chromite/magnetite micro-grains within olivine-hosted multiphase inclusions.Spinel (MgAl2O4) is occasionally found in intergrowths with chromite and magnetite.The obtained data show that spinel-group minerals in the massifsdo not correspond to primary-magmatic varieties and suggestextensive alteration during post-magmatic processes. Textural and chemical evidenceof substantial modification of initially-cumulative lithologies of Guli and Bor-Uryakh massifsfavorsmeta-magmatic origin for these massifs.
Choudhary, S., Sen, K., Kumar, S., Rana, S., Ghosh, S.Forsterite reprecipitation and carbon dioxide entrapment in the lithospheric mantle during its interaction with carbonatitic melt: a case study from the Sung Valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, NE India.Geological Magazine, doi:1017/S001 6756820000631, 12p.Indiadeposit - Sung Valley

Abstract: Carbonatite melts derived from the mantle are enriched in CO2- and H2O-bearing fluids. This melt can metasomatize the peridotitic lithosphere and liberate a considerable amount of CO2. Experimental studies have also shown that a CO2-H2O-rich fluid can form Fe- and Mg-rich carbonate by reacting with olivine. The Sung Valley carbonatite of NE India is related to the Kerguelen plume and is characterized by rare occurrences of olivine. Our study shows that this olivine is resorbed forsterite of xenocrystic nature. This olivine bears inclusions of Fe-rich magnesite. Accessory apatite in the host carbonatite contains CO2-H2O fluid inclusions. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that the carbonatites are primary igneous carbonatites and are devoid of any alteration or fractionation. We envisage that the forsterite is a part of the lithospheric mantle that was reprecipitated in a carbonatite reservoir through dissolution-precipitation. Carbonation of this forsterite, during interaction between the lithospheric mantle and carbonatite melt, formed Fe-rich magnesite. CO2-H2O-rich fluid derived from the carbonatite magma and detected within accessory apatite caused this carbonation. Our study suggests that a significant amount of CO2 degassed from the mantle by carbonatitic magma can become entrapped in the lithosphere by forming Fe- and Mg-rich carbonates.
Choudhary, S., Sen, K., Kumar, S., Rana, S., Ghosh, S.Forsterite reprecipitation and carbon dioxide entrapment in the lithospheric mantle during its interaction with carbonatitic melt: a case study from the Sung Valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, NE India.Geological Magazine, Vol. 158, 3, pp. 475-486.Indiadeposit - Sung Valley

Abstract: Carbonatite melts derived from the mantle are enriched in CO2- and H2O-bearing fluids. This melt can metasomatize the peridotitic lithosphere and liberate a considerable amount of CO2. Experimental studies have also shown that a CO2-H2O-rich fluid can form Fe- and Mg-rich carbonate by reacting with olivine. The Sung Valley carbonatite of NE India is related to the Kerguelen plume and is characterized by rare occurrences of olivine. Our study shows that this olivine is resorbed forsterite of xenocrystic nature. This olivine bears inclusions of Fe-rich magnesite. Accessory apatite in the host carbonatite contains CO2-H2O fluid inclusions. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that the carbonatites are primary igneous carbonatites and are devoid of any alteration or fractionation. We envisage that the forsterite is a part of the lithospheric mantle that was reprecipitated in a carbonatite reservoir through dissolution-precipitation. Carbonation of this forsterite, during interaction between the lithospheric mantle and carbonatite melt, formed Fe-rich magnesite. CO2-H2O-rich fluid derived from the carbonatite magma and detected within accessory apatite caused this carbonation. Our study suggests that a significant amount of CO2 degassed from the mantle by carbonatitic magma can become entrapped in the lithosphere by forming Fe- and Mg-rich carbonates.
Cimen, O., Corcoran, L., Kuebler, C., Simonetti, S., Simonetti, A.Geochemical stable (O, C, and B) and radiogenic ( Sr, Nd, Pb) isotopic data from the of carbonate hosted mineralization.Eskisehir- Kizilcaoren ( NW Anatolia) and the Malatya-Kuluncak( E-central Anatolia) F-REE-Th deposits, Turkey: implications for natureTurkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 798-814. pdfEurope, TurkeyREE

Abstract: In Turkey, the largest fluorine (F)-rare earth element (REE)-thorium (Th) deposits are located within the Eskisehir-Kizilcaören (north-western Anatolia) and the Malatya-Kuluncak (east-central Anatolia) regions, and these are associated with Oligocene extensional alkaline volcanic and Late Cretecaous-Early Paleocene postcollisional intrusive rocks, respectively. In the Kizilcaören region, the basement units include the Triassic Karakaya Complex and the Late Cretaceous oceanic units (Neotethyan suture) that are cut and overlain by phonolite and carbonatite intrusions and lava flows. In the Kuluncak region, the plutonic rocks are mainly composed of syenite, quartz syenite, and rare monzonite, and these cut the late-Cretaceous Karapinar limestone, which hosts the F-REE-Th mineralization in contact zones. A carbonatite sample from the Kizilcaören region displays both a total rare earth element (TREE) concentration (4795 ppm) and d11B (-6.83‰) isotope composition consistent with mantle-derived carbonatite; whereas it is characterized by heavier d13C (+1.43‰) and d18O (+20.23‰) isotope signatures compared to those for carbonatites worldwide. In contrast, the carbonates which host the F-REE-Th mineralization in the Kuluncak region are characterized by lower TREE concentrations (5.13 to 55.88 ppm), and heavier d13C (-0.14 to -0.75‰), d18O (+27.36 to +30.61‰), and d11B (+5.38 to +6.89‰) isotope ratios compared to mantle-derived carbonatites. Moreover, the combined initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.70584 to 0.70759) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512238 to 0.512571) isotope ratios for samples investigated here are distinct and much more radiogenic compared to those for carbonatites worldwide, and therefore indicate significant crustal input and/or hydrothermal metasomatic-related alteration. Overall, stable and radiogenic isotope data suggest that the host carbonate rocks for the F-REE-Th mineralization in both the Kizilcaören and the Kuluncak regions consist of hydrothermally metasomatized carbonatite and limestone, respectively. The mineralization in the Kizilcaören region may potentially be related to carbonatite magmatism, whereas the mineralization in the Kuluncak region, which most likely formed through interactions between the plutonic rocks and surrounding limestone at contact metamorphism zone, involved hydrothermal/magmatic fluids associated with extensive postcollisional magmatism.
Cleland, C.E., Hazen, R.M., Morrison, S.M.Historical natural kinds and mineralogy: systematizing contingency in the context of necessity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS, Vol. 118, 1 doi.org/10.1073 /pnas.2015370118 9p. PdfGlobalmineral classification

Abstract: The advancement of science depends upon developing classification protocols that systematize natural objects and phenomena into “natural kinds”—categorizations that are conjectured to represent genuine divisions in nature by virtue of playing central roles in the articulation of successful scientific theories. In the physical sciences, theoretically powerful classification systems, such as the periodic table, are typically time independent. Similarly, the standard classification of mineral species by the International Mineralogical Association’s Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification relies on idealized chemical composition and crystal structure, which are time-independent attributes selected on the basis of theoretical considerations from chemical theory and solid-state physics. However, when considering mineral kinds in the historical context of planetary evolution, a different, time-dependent classification scheme is warranted. We propose an "evolutionary" system of mineral classification based on recognition of the role played by minerals in the origin and development of planetary systems. Lacking a comprehensive theory of chemical evolution capable of explaining the time-dependent pattern of chemical complexification exhibited by our universe, we recommend a bootstrapping approach to mineral classification based on observations of geological field studies, astronomical observations, laboratory experiments, and analyses of natural samples and their environments. This approach holds the potential to elucidate underlying universal principles of cosmic chemical complexification.
Clements, B.Diamond Exploration in Covid times . 1hr 28 mins.Vancouver Kimberlite Cluster talk Dec. 4, https://www.youtube.com /channel/UCcZvay DnqDDazIHAh1OtregCanadaHistory of diamond discoveries in Canada
Cohen, T.Crowning glory ( Almod Diamonds) patented diamond cut.Gems & Jewellery, Vol. 29, 4, pp. 42-44. pdfUnited States, New Yorkdiamond cutting
Cone, D., Kopylova, M.Origin of megacrysts by carbonate-bearing metasomatism - case study for the Muskox kimberlite, Slave craton, Canada.Journal of the Geological Society, doi.org/10.1144 /jgs2020-184 53p. Pdf Canada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Muskox

Abstract: Low-Cr and high-Cr clinopyroxene, garnet, olivine, and ilmenite megacrysts from the Muskox kimberlite (Canada) have been analyzed for major and trace elements, as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes. Samples display compositional overlap with respective phases in websterite, while clinopyroxene isotope systematics reveal similarities with both websteritic and metasomatic clinopyroxene in peridotites from the same kimberlite, in addition to Muskox and Jericho kimberlite. All lithologies may represent the products of mixing between EM1 mantle, relic Proterozoic enriched mantle and HIMU carbonatitic fluid. Equilibrium melts calculated from clinopyroxene trace element data using experimental distribution coefficients for feasible proto-kimberlitic melts yield a range of possible metasomatic agents. Conclusion on the carbonate-bearing nature of the metasomatism was based on the presence of a HIMU isotopic signature and results obtained from thermodynamic modeling using the Deep Earth Water model. The latter shows that mineral compositions analogous to megacrysts cannot be produced by metasomatism of mantle peridotite by H2O-rich kimberlitic fluids, or fluids in equilibrium with either asthenospheric or eclogitic mantle. Isotope systematics argue against a strictly cognate relationship between megacrysts and their host kimberlite, instead suggesting megacrysts and websterites may represent products of regional metasomatism by carbonatitic HIMU fluids shortly predating kimberlite magmatism.
Cooper, C.M., Farrington, R.J., Miller, M.S.On the destructive tendencies of cratons.Geology, Vol. 49, pp. 195-200. pdfMantlesubduction

Abstract: We propose that subducting slabs may cause lithospheric removal by directing mantle flow along the craton margin. This process could carve and shape the cratons, leading to conditions that impact the overall (in)stability of the lithosphere. We use three-dimensional geodynamic models to investigate how subduction-driven directed flow interacts with cratonic lithosphere of differing shape, concluding that the margin shape controls both channelization of flow around the craton as well as the potential for destruction. While the simulations show that all craton shapes aid in channelization, the cratons with straight vertical margins are the most resistant to deformation, and the cratons with gradually thickening margins are less resistant to deformation. The dependence on shape could contribute to the progressive removal of cratonic lithosphere along its margin in a runaway process until a more stable vertical margin shape evolves.
Corrigan, D., van Roogen, D., Wodicka, N.Indenter tectonics in the Canadian shield: a case study for Paleoproterozoic lower crust exhumation, orocline development, and lateral extrusion.Precambrian Research, Vol. 355, 106083, 23p. PdfCanada, Quebec, Ungava tectonics

Abstract: There are lingering questions about how far back in geologic time plate tectonic processes began. In the Paleoproterozoic of eastern Laurentia, accretion of intra-oceanic juvenile terranes along the leading edge of the Superior craton apex (Ungava indenter) during the interval 1.87-1.83 Ga was followed by collision with the Churchill plate at ca. 1.83-1.79 Ga. Orthogonal shortening along the indenter led to early obduction of the juvenile terranes including the ca. 2.0 Ga Watts Group ophiolite, followed by out-of-sequence thrusting at ca. 1.83 Ga of granulite-facies crystalline basement of the Sugluk block (Churchill plate) along the Sugluk suture. Exhumation and erosion of the Sugluk block led to deposition of a foreland/delta fan sequence in the Hudson Bay re-entrant (Omarolluk and Loaf formations of the Belcher Group), with detritus sourced exclusively from the Sugluk block. Continued collision led to critical wedge development and orocline formation in the Hudson Bay re-entrant, forming a strongly arcuate fold-thrust belt. On the other (eastern) side of the indenter, material flow during crustal shortening was accommodated by lateral extrusion of microplates towards a then open ocean basin, in a manner similar to present-day extrusion of Indochina as a response to India - South China craton convergence. In the Churchill plate hinterland W-NW of the indenter, propagating strike-slip faults resulted in the far-field extrusion and oblique exhumation of Archean crustal slices of the Rae crustal block. The 1.83-1.79 Ga Superior-Churchill collision accommodated a minimum of 500 km of continent-continent convergence, with resulting style and mechanisms of orogenic growth and material flow similar to those observed in the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system.
Cui, D., Liao, Z., Qi, L., Zhong, Q., Zhou, Z.A study of emeralds from Davdar, north-western China.Journal of Gemology, Vol. 37, 4, pp. 374-392Chinaemerald

Abstract: At the Davdar mine in Xinjiang, north-western China, emeralds are hosted mainly by carbonate, quartz-carbonate and quartz veins cutting metasedimentary rocks, and are associated with minerals such as hematite, dolomite, quartz, orthoclase and albite. Sixteen rough emeralds obtained during the authors’ visit to the mining area in 2019 were studied by standard gemmolog-ical techniques and various spectroscopic methods (FTIR, Raman, UV-Vis-NIR and EPR), as well as LA-ICP-MS chemical analysis. The analysed samples were mostly coloured by Cr, and showed a wide range of Fe, V, Mg and alkali contents, along with relatively low Cs, Rb and Sc. UV-Vis-NIR spectra showed features at 370 nm (Fe3+), 430 nm (Cr3+ with contributions from V3+ and possibly Fe3+), 580-630 nm (Cr3+ and V3+), 638 and 683 nm (Cr3+), and 850 nm (Fe2+ and possibly Fe2+-Fe3+interactions). In addition, the more V-rich emeralds displayed a distinct V3+ absorption band at about 385-395 nm. Notably, the chemical composition of Davdar emeralds shows significant overlap with those from Panjshir, Afghanistan.
Decree, S., Savolainen, M., Mercadier, J., Debaille, V., Hohn, S., Frimmel, H., Baele, J-M.Geochemical and spectroscopic investigation of apatite in the Siilinjarvi carbonatite complex: keys to understanding apatite forming processes and assessing potential for rare earth elements.Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 123, 104778 17p. PdfEurope, Finlanddeposit - Siilinjarvi

Abstract: The Siilinjärvi phosphate deposit (Finland) is hosted by an Archean carbonatite complex. The main body is composed of glimmerite, carbonatite and combinations thereof. It is surrounded by a well-developed fenitization zone. Almost all the rocks pertaining to the glimmerite-carbonatite series are considered for exploitation of phosphate. New petrological and in-situ geochemical as well as spectroscopic data obtained by cathodoluminescence, Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy make it possible to constrain the genesis and evolution of apatite through time. Apatite in the glimmerite-carbonatite series formed by igneous processes. An increase in rare earth elements (REE) content during apatite deposition can be explained by re-equilibration of early apatite (via sub-solidus diffusion at the magmatic stage) with a fresh carbonatitic magma enriched in these elements. This late carbonatite emplacement has been known as a major contributor to the overall P and REE endowment of the system and is likely connected to fenitization and alkali-rich fluids. These fluids - enriched in REE - would have interacted with apatite in the fenite, resulting in an increase in REE content through coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Finally, a marked decrease in LREE is observed in apatite hosted by fenite. It highlights the alteration of apatite by a REE-poor fluid during a late-magmatic/hydrothermal stage. Regarding the potential for REE exploitation, geochemical data combined with an estimation of the reserves indicate a sub-economic potential of REE to be exploited as by-products of phosphate mining. Spectroscopic analyses further provide helpful data for exploration, by determining the P and REE distribution and the enrichment in carbonatite and within apatite.
Dessai, A.G., Viegas, A., Griffin, W.L.Thermal architecture of cratonic India and implications for decratonization of the western Dharwar craton: evidence from mantle xenoliths in the Deccan traps.Lithos, in press available, 56p. PdfIndiageothermometry

Abstract: The mantle beneath the Western Dharwar Craton of the Indian shield comprises a suite of refractory and fertile peridotites and mafic granulites. Detailed petrographic studies coupled with new mineral analysis and geothermobarometric estimations permit to decipher the thermal architecture and get an insight into the evolution of this ancient craton. The refractory rocks are coarse grained harzburgites/dunites, whereas the more fertile ones are at times, porphyroclastic lherzolites. Both show a similar range of equilibration temperatures and pressures indicating intermixing between the two at various levels. The peridotites contain undeformed interstitial REE-enriched clinopyroxene, phlogopite, apatite and carbonates recording post-kinematic modal and cryptic metasomatic events in the Precambrian cratonic lithosphere. Xenoliths of mafic granulite contain layers of clinopyroxenite which also vein the granulite. The P-T range of the granulites overlaps that of the ultramafic rocks. This study in combination with previous investigations reveals a distinct change in the thermal architecture of the craton from a warm/hot geotherm in the Proterozoic to a highly perturbed, still hotter geotherm of the Palaeocene. The Cenozoic thermotectonic rifting episodes heated, refertilized and thinned the bulk of the cratonic lithosphere beneath the Western Dharwar Craton, which has witnessed the most re-activation among cratons of the Indian shield. The waning of the Deccan Traps volcanism in Palaeocene time saw the reworking of ancient cratonic lithosphere and its replacement by non-cratonic, juvenile mantle and magmatic accretions, indicated by compound xenoliths. Differing petrological and geochemical characteristics of refractory xenoliths and fertile lherzolites serve to constrain the relative timing and composition of non-cratonic lithosphere. By the end of the Palaeocene the Western Dharwar Craton was characterised by a thermal high, an attenuated continental lithosphere (60-80 km), and a thin crust (<10- ~ 21 km), reflecting the decratonization of at least the western part of the Western Dharwar Craton.
Dey, M., Mitchell, R.H., Bhattacharjee, S., Chakrabarty, A., Pal, S., Pal, S., Sen, A.K.Composition and genesis of albitite-hosted antecrystic pyrochlore from the Sevattur carbonatite complex, India.Mineralogical Magazine, 20p. Doi:10.1180/mgm.2021.6 24p. PdfIndiadeposit - Sevattur
Dilissen, N., Hidas, K., Garrido, C.J., Kahl, W-A., Sanchez-Vizcaino, V.L.Graphical abstract: Morphological transition during prograde olivine growth formed by high-pressure dehydration of antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite in a subduction setting.Lithos, doi. 10.1016/j. lithos.2020.105949 1p. PdfMantlesubduction

Abstract: Crystal morphologies are essential for deciphering the reaction history of igneous and metamorphic rocks because they often record the interplay between nucleation and growth rates controlled by the departure from equilibrium. Here, we report an exceptional record of the morphological transition of olivine formed during subduction metamorphism and high-pressure dehydration of antigorite-serpentinite to prograde chlorite-harzburgite in the Almirez ultramafic massif (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain). In this massif, rare varied-textured chlorite-harzburgite (olivine+enstantite+chlorite+oxides) —formed after high-P dehydration of antigorite-serpentinite— exhibits large olivine porphyroblasts made up of rounded cores mantled by coronas of tabular olivine grains, similar to single tabular olivines occurring in the matrix. The correlative X-ray µ-CT and EBSD study of two varied-textured chlorite-harzburgite samples show that tabular olivine in coronas is tabular on (100)Ol with c > b >> a, and grew in nearly the same crystallographic orientation as the rounded olivine cores of the porphyroblast. Quantitative textural analysis and mass balance indicate that varied-textured chlorite-harzburgite is the result of a two-stage nucleation and growth of olivine during the progress of the high-P dehydration of antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite reaction. The first stage occurred under a low affinity (?Gr) and affinity rate (?Gr/dt) of the antigorite dehydration reaction that resulted in a low time-integrated nucleation rate and isotropic growth of olivine, forming rounded olivine porphyroblasts. With further progress of the dehydration reaction, a second stage of relatively higher affinity and affinity rate resulted in a higher time-integrated nucleation rate of olivine coeval with a shift from isotropic to anisotropic olivine growth, leading to tabular olivines. The two-stage evolution resulted in olivine porphyroblasts made up of rounded cores mantled by coronas of tabular olivine grains characteristic of varied-texture chlorite-harzburgite. Although a switch to anisotropic tabular olivine in the second stage is consistent with the relative increase in the affinity and affinity rate, these changes cannot solely account for the growth of Almirez olivine tabular on (100). Tabular olivines in komatiites and other igneous rocks are tabular on (010)Ol with either a > c >> b, or a ˜ c > > b, in agreement with experimentally determined growth rates of olivine phenocrysts under moderate to high undercooling and cooling rates. On the other hand, olivine tabular on (100) is expected in the presence of highly polymerized fluids where inhibited growth of the olivine (100) and (010) interfaces occurs, respectively, due to dissociative and molecular adsorption of water monolayers. Rounded and tabular olivines in Almirez varied-textured chlorite-harzburgite show differing trace element compositions that we interpret as due to the infiltration of external fluids during antigorite dehydration. Isothermal infiltration of highly polymerized fluids would explain the shift in the affinity and affinity rate of the antigorite dehydration reaction, as well as the olivine morphology tabular on (100) due to the inhibited growth on the (100) and, to a lesser extent, (010). Our study shows that surface-active molecules may play an essential role in shaping the morphology of growing crystals during fluid-present metamorphic crystallization.
Dunkl, I. Comparability of heavy mineral data - the first interlaboratory round robin. *** authors cited are too many + 50 more Not specific to diamondsEarth-Science Reviews, Vol. 211, doi.org/ 10.1016/ j.earscirev.2020 .103210 27p. Pdf Globalmineralogy - data

Abstract: Heavy minerals are typically rare but important components of siliciclastic sediments and rocks. Their abundance, proportions, and variability carry valuable information on source rocks, climatic, environmental and transport conditions between source to sink, and diagenetic processes. They are important for practical purposes such as prospecting for mineral resources or the correlation and interpretation of geologic reservoirs. Despite the extensive use of heavy mineral analysis in sedimentary petrography and quite diverse methods for quantifying heavy mineral assemblages, there has never been a systematic comparison of results obtained by different methods and/or operators. This study provides the first interlaboratory test of heavy mineral analysis. Two synthetic heavy mineral samples were prepared with considerably contrasting compositions intended to resemble natural samples. The contributors were requested to provide (i) metadata describing methods, measurement conditions and experience of the operators and (ii) results tables with mineral species and grain counts. One hundred thirty analyses of the two samples were performed by 67 contributors, encompassing both classical microscopic analyses and data obtained by emerging automated techniques based on electron-beam chemical analysis or Raman spectroscopy. Because relatively low numbers of mineral counts (N) are typical for optical analyses while automated techniques allow for high N, the results vary considerably with respect to the Poisson uncertainty of the counting statistics. Therefore, standard methods used in evaluation of round robin tests are not feasible. In our case the ‘true’ compositions of the test samples are not known. Three methods have been applied to determine possible reference values: (i) the initially measured weight percentages, (ii) calculation of grain percentages using estimates of grain volumes and densities, and (iii) the best-match average calculated from the most reliable analyses following multiple, pragmatic and robust criteria. The range of these three values is taken as best approximation of the ‘true’ composition. The reported grain percentages were evaluated according to (i) their overall scatter relative to the most likely composition, (ii) the number of identified components that were part of the test samples, (iii) the total amount of mistakenly identified mineral grains that were actually not added to the samples, and (iv) the number of major components, which match the reference values with 95% confidence. Results indicate that the overall comparability of the analyses is reasonable. However, there are several issues with respect to methods and/or operators. Optical methods yield the poorest results with respect to the scatter of the data. This, however, is not considered inherent to the method as demonstrated by a significant number of optical analyses fulfilling the criteria for the best-match average. Training of the operators is thus considered paramount for optical analyses. Electron-beam methods yield satisfactory results, but problems in the identification of polymorphs and the discrimination of chain silicates are evident. Labs refining their electron-beam results by optical analysis practically tackle this issue. Raman methods yield the best results as indicated by the highest number of major components correctly quantified with 95% confidence and the fact that all laboratories and operators fulfil the criteria for the best-match average. However, a number of problems must be solved before the full potential of the automated high-throughput techniques in heavy mineral analysis can be achieved.
Eaton-Magana, S., Ardon, T., Breeding, C.M., Shigley, J.E.Natural color D-to-Z diamonds: a crystal clear perspective.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 56, 3, pp. 318-335. pdfGlobaldiamond - colour

Abstract: Colorless to light yellow or brown diamonds with a “D-to-Z” color grade make up the overwhelming majority of the world’s gem diamond trade. Besides clarity features (such as inclusions) and fluorescence observations, however, comparatively little has been explored and published regarding the distinguishing characteristics of these diamonds. The vast majority are type Ia, with infrared spectra showing very high concentrations of nitrogen aggregates. This population of diamonds could not have been subjected to HPHT decolorizing treatment or been laboratory grown, and thus they have been spectroscopically scrutinized in much less detail than the far more rare natural diamonds of types IIa, IIb, and IaB, which need to be investigated as potentially color-treated or synthetic. This study examines a large sample set comprising the full complement of D-to-Z diamonds submitted to GIA laboratories during a significant portion of 2017. The data were evaluated on the basis of diamond type properties, as well as distribution among various grading quality factors, to provide an unprecedented glimpse into the role of these diamond types and differences in their geologic conditions of formation.
Eaton-Magana, S., McElhenny, G.Diamond with cavities showing radiation evidence. Gems & Gemology , Vol. 56, 1, pp. 126-127Technologydiamond inclusions

Abstract: The Carlsbad laboratory recently examined a 0.70 ct, E-color round brilliant. Infrared spectroscopy showed this to be a type IIa diamond, so we performed a variety of additional spectroscopy and imaging to verify its natural origin. This diamond also had I1 clarity due to a large inclusion under the table (figure 1). Raman analysis of the inclusions verified that this crystal was a metastable composite of the minerals wollastonite (CaSiO3) and CaSiO3-breyite (E.M. Smith et al., “The very deep origin of the world’s biggest diamonds,” Winter 2017 G&G, pp. 388-403), which indicates a sublithospheric origin. These minerals are believed to be the lower-pressure phases of CaSiO3-perovskite. Around these minerals were large disk-like graphitic fractures indicating inclusion expansion as pressures on the diamond reduced during exhumation from the mantle. The other inclusion present was unidentifiable due to its graphitic casing. Recent research of inclusions in other type II diamonds shows that many, if not most, have a superdeep origin (again, see Smith et al., 2017). This stone is one more example of diamonds forming at incredible depths of 360-750 km before being transported to near the surface.
Eppelbaum, L., Katz, Y.Integrated geological-geophysical study of the junction zone of Eurasia and Gondwana.EGU , 3p. Abstract pdfAfricageophysics

Abstract: Tectonically the considered area of junction of four lithospheric plates (Nubian, Arabian, Aegean- Anatolian and Sinai) belongs to the Eastern Mediterranean, with its Cyprus-Levantine marine and Anatolian-Nubian-Arabian continental framing. The anomalousness of the region is manifested in the tectono-structural features of the mantle, lithosphere, hydrosphere and specifics of atmospheric, biospheric processes, and Hominid evolution.
Evans, R.Grading fancy shaped diamonds. Gems & Gemology , Vol. 29, 4, p. 31. pdfGlobalgemmology
Fegley, B., Lodders, K., Jacobson, N.S.Volatile element chemistry during accretion of the Earth.Geochemistry, Vol. 80, doi.org/10.1016/ j.chemer. 2019.125594 40p. PdfMantlegeochemistry

Abstract: We review some issues relevant to volatile element chemistry during accretion of the Earth with an emphasis on historical development of ideas during the past century and on issues we think are important. These ideas and issues include the following: (1) whether or not the Earth accreted hot and the geochemical evidence for high temperatures during its formation, (2) some chemical consequences of the Earth’s formation before dissipation of solar nebular gas, (3) the building blocks of the Earth, (4) the composition of the Earth and its lithophile volatility trend, (5) chemistry of silicate vapor and steam atmospheres during Earth’s formation, (6) vapor - melt partitioning and possible loss of volatile elements, (7) insights from hot rocky extrasolar planets. We include tabulated chemical kinetic data for high-temperature elementary reactions in silicate vapor and steam atmospheres. We finish with a summary of the known and unknown issues along with suggestions for future work.
Feng, P., Wang, L., Brown, M., Johnson, T.E., Kylander-Clark, A., Piccoli, P.M.Partial melting of ultrahigh pressure eclogite by omphacite-breakdown facilitates exhumation of deeply-subducted crust.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 554, doi.org/10.1016/ j.epsl.2020. 116664 13p. PdfMantleeclogite

Abstract: Results from numerical modelling and experimental petrology have led to the hypothesis that partial melting was important in facilitating exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks from mantle depths. However, the melting reactions responsible are rarely well-documented from natural examples. Here we report microstructural features and compositional data that indicate in situ partial melting dominated by breakdown of omphacite in UHP eclogite from the Sulu belt, China. Diagnostic microstructures include: (i) the presence of in situ leucosome pockets composed of plagioclase, euhedral amphibole, minor K-feldspar and epidote within host zoisite- and phengite-bearing eclogite; (ii) skeletal omphacite within the leucosome pockets that has a lower jadeite content (25-45 mol.%) than rock-forming omphacite (39-54 mol.%); and, (iii) seams of Na-rich plagioclase that extend along grain boundaries separating phengite, quartz and zoisite, and which commonly exhibit low dihedral angles where they terminate at triple grain-boundary junctions. Major oxide proportions of 57 leucosome pockets, calculated using mineral modes and compositions, yield leucodiorite bulk compositions characterized by intermediate SiO2, high Al2O3 and Na2O, and low K2O contents. In primitive mantle-normalised trace element diagrams, the leucosome pockets show enrichment in large ion lithophile elements, U, Pb, Zr, Hf and Ti, but depletion in Th and Ta, patterns that are similar to those of rock-forming omphacite. Rather than forming predominantly by breakdown of phengite and/or zoisite, as widely proposed in the literature, the leucosome pockets have petrographic characteristics and major oxide and trace element compositions that are consistent with partial melting dominated by omphacite breakdown. Based on conventional thermobarometry, the eclogite was exhumed from pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of 3.6-3.1 GPa and 900-840 °C. Partial melting led to the formation of the leucosome pockets, which equilibrated with the rims of surrounding rock-forming garnet and pyroxene during crystallisation. Conventional thermobarometry using rim compositions yields P-T conditions of 1.6-1.2 GPa and 780-690 °C, broadly consistent with calculated phase equilibria and Ti-in-zircon temperatures from zircon overgrowths. Weighted mean ages of ca 217-214 Ma from thin overgrowths on zircon are interpreted to record melt crystallisation. This study provides insight into an overlooked mechanism by which eclogites partially melt during exhumation from UHP conditions, and permits a better understanding of the processes that assist deeply-subducted continental crust to return to shallower depths.
Ferrand, T.P.Conductive channels in the deep oceanic lithosphere could consist of garnet pyroxenites at the fossilized lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1107, doi.10.3390/ min10121107 28p. PdfMantlegeophysics - magnetotellurics

Abstract: Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys have identified anisotropic conductive anomalies in the mantle of the Cocos and Nazca oceanic plates, respectively, offshore Nicaragua and in the eastern neighborhood of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Both the origin and nature of these anomalies are controversial as well as their role in plate tectonics. The high electrical conductivity has been hypothesized to originate from partial melting and melt pooling at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The anisotropic nature of the anomaly likely highlights high-conductivity channels in the spreading direction, which could be further interpreted as the persistence of a stable liquid silicate throughout the whole oceanic cycle, on which the lithospheric plates would slide by shearing. However, considering minor hydration, some mantle minerals can be as conductive as silicate melts. Here I show that the observed electrical anomaly offshore Nicaragua does not correlate with the LAB but instead with the top of the garnet stability field and that garnet networks suffice to explain the reported conductivity values. I further propose that this anomaly actually corresponds to the fossilized trace of the early-stage LAB that formed near the EPR about 23 million years ago. Melt-bearing channels and/or pyroxenite underplating at the bottom of the young Cocos plate would transform into garnet-rich pyroxenites with decreasing temperature, forming solid-state high-conductivity channels between 40 and 65 km depth (1.25-1.9 GPa, 1000-1100 °C), consistently with experimental petrology.
Fichtner, C.E., Schmidt, M.W., Liebske, C., Bouvier, A-S., Baumgartner, L.P.Carbon partitioning between metal and silicate melts during Earth accretion.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 554, doi.org/10.1016/ j.epsl.2020. 116659 12p . PdfMantlecarbon

Abstract: In the accreting Earth and planetesimals, carbon was distributed between a core forming metallic melt, a silicate melt, and a hot, potentially dense atmosphere. Metal melt droplets segregating gravitationally from the magma ocean equilibrated near its base. To understand the distribution of carbon, its partitioning between the two melts is experimentally investigated at 1.5-6.0 GPa, 1300-2000 °C at oxygen fugacities of -0.9 to -1.9 log units below the iron-wuestite reference buffer (IW). One set of experiments was performed in San Carlos olivine capsules to investigate the effect of melt depolymerization (NBO/T), a second set in graphite capsules to expand the data set to higher pressures and temperatures. Carbon concentrations were analyzed by secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Raman spectra were collected to identify C-species in the silicate melt. Partition coefficients are governed by the solubility of C in the silicate melt, which varies from 0.01 to 0.6 wt%, while metal melts contain ~7 wt% C in most samples. C solubility in the silicate melt correlates strongly with NBO/T, which, in olivine capsules, is mostly a function of temperature. Carbon partition coefficients DCmetal/silicate at 1.5 GPa, 1300-1750 °C decrease from 640(49) to 14(3) with NBO/T increasing from 1.04 to 3.11. For the NBO/T of the silicate Earth of 2.6, DCmetal/silicate is 34(9). Pressure and oxygen fugacity show no clear effect on carbon partitioning. The present results differ from those of most previous studies in that carbon concentrations in the silicate melt are comparatively higher, rendering C to be about an order of magnitude less siderophile, and the discrepancies may be attributed to differences in the experimental protocols. Applying the new data to a magma ocean scenario, and assuming present day mantle carbon mantle concentrations from 120 to 795 ppm, implies that the core may contain 0.4-2.6 wt% carbon, resulting in 0.14-0.9 wt% of this element for the bulk Earth. These values are upper limits, considering that some of the carbon in the modern silicate Earth has very likely been delivered by the late veneer.
Figueiredo, J.Diamond desire: probing the epistemological entanglements of geology and ethnography at Diamang ( Angola).South African Historical Journal, Vol. 72, 3, pp. 431-460.Africa, Angolahistory

Abstract: In the wake of the Anthropocene there is a growing body of literature questioning the colonial and imperialistic underpinnings of geology, mineralogy and mining sciences. When focused on the African continent, these critiques echo and complement previous analyses of the role that anthropology has played as the ‘handmaiden of colonialism’. This article proposes to liken the two debates by focusing on the ethnographic practices promoted by the Angolan diamond mining company Diamang (1917-1988) during the interwar period. It argues that mineral desire, the greed for mineral resources such as diamonds, copper or gold, was the drive behind the introduction of ethnographic collecting and field-working to the Portuguese colony. The implications of this shift in perspective will be explored regarding the ongoing restitution debate. First, the article demonstrates that the history of the objects collected by Diamang disrupts ‘classic’ readings of the history of Portuguese anthropology focused on ‘disciplinary big men’ and their agendas. Second, it shows how the gathering and interpretation of ethnographic and archaeological data were totally integrated into the extractive apparatus of Diamang. The article then concludes by suggesting that the decolonisation of ethnographic collections must consider their entanglements with mining, geology and mineralogy.
Fiorentini, M.L., O'Neill, C., Giuliani, A., Choi, E., Maas, R., Pirajno, F., Foley, S.Bushveld superplume drove Proterozoic magmatism and metallogenesis in Australia. Nature Scientific Reports, doi.org/10.1038/ s41598-020-76800-0 10p. PdfAustralia, Africa, South Africaalkaline magmatism

Abstract: Large-scale mantle convective processes are commonly reflected in the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). These are high-volume, short-duration magmatic events consisting mainly of extensive flood basalts and their associated plumbing systems. One of the most voluminous LIPs in the geological record is the ~?2.06 billion-year-old Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa (BIC), one of the most mineralised magmatic complexes on Earth. Surprisingly, the known geographic envelope of magmatism related to the BIC is limited to a series of satellite intrusions in southern Africa and has not been traced further afield. This appears inconsistent with the inferred large size of the BIC event. Here, we present new radiometric ages for alkaline magmatism in the Archean Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia), which overlap the emplacement age of the BIC and indicate a much more extensive geographic footprint of the BIC magmatic event. To assess plume involvement at this distance, we present numerical simulations of mantle plume impingement at the base of the lithosphere, and constrain a relationship between the radial extent of volcanism versus time, excess temperature and plume size. These simulations suggest that the thermal influence of large plume events could extend for thousands of km within a few million years, and produce widespread alkaline magmatism, crustal extension potentially leading to continental break-up, and large ore deposits in distal sectors. Our results imply that superplumes may produce very extensive and diverse magmatic and metallogenic provinces, which may now be preserved in widely-dispersed continental blocks.
Fischer, K.M., Rychert, C.A., Dalton, C.A., Miller, M.S., Begheim, C., Schutt, D.L.A comparison of oceanic and continental mantle lithsophere.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 309, 106600, 20p. PdfMantlemelting

Abstract: Over the last decade, seismological studies have shed new light on the properties of the mantle lithosphere and their physical and chemical origins. This paper synthesizes recent work to draw comparisons between oceanic and continental lithosphere, with a particular focus on isotropic velocity structure and its implications for mantle temperature and partial melt. In the oceans, many observations of scattered and reflected body waves indicate velocity contrasts whose depths follow an age-dependent trend. New modeling of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves from the Pacific ocean indicates that cooling plate models with asymptotic plate thicknesses of 85-95 km provide the best overall fits to phase velocities at periods of 25 s to 250 s. These thermal models are broadly consistent with the depths of scattered and reflected body wave observations, and with oceanic heat flow data. However, the lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients for 85-95 km asymptotic plate thicknesses are too gradual to generate observable Sp phases, both at ages less than 30 Ma and at ages of 80 Ma or more. To jointly explain Rayleigh wave, scattered and reflected body waves and heat flow data, we propose that oceanic lithosphere can be characterized as a thermal boundary layer with an asymptotic thickness of 85-95 km, but that this layer contains other features, such as zones of partial melt from hydrated or carbonated asthenosphere, that enhance the lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradient. Beneath young continental lithosphere, surface wave constraints on lithospheric thickness are also compatible with the depths of lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients implied by converted and scattered body waves. However, typical steady-state conductive models consistent with continental heat flow produce thermal and velocity gradients that are too gradual in depth to produce observed converted and scattered body waves. Unless lithospheric isotherms are concentrated in depth by mantle upwelling or convective removal, the presence of an additional factor, such as partial melt at the base of the thermal lithosphere, is needed to sharpen lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients in many young continental regions. Beneath cratons, numerous body wave conversions and reflections are observed within the thick mantle lithosphere, but the velocity layering they imply appears to be laterally discontinuous. The nature of cratonic lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients remains uncertain, with some studies indicating gradual transitions that are consistent with steady-state thermal models, and other studies inferring more vertically localized velocity gradients.
Fischer, K.M., Rychert, C.A., Dalton, C.A., Miller, M.S., Beghein, C., Schutt, D.L.A comparison of oceanic and continental mantle lithosphere.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 309, di.org/10.1016/ jpepi.2020.106600 20p. PdfMantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Over the last decade, seismological studies have shed new light on the properties of the mantle lithosphere and their physical and chemical origins. This paper synthesizes recent work to draw comparisons between oceanic and continental lithosphere, with a particular focus on isotropic velocity structure and its implications for mantle temperature and partial melt. In the oceans, many observations of scattered and reflected body waves indicate velocity contrasts whose depths follow an age-dependent trend. New modeling of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves from the Pacific ocean indicates that cooling plate models with asymptotic plate thicknesses of 85-95 km provide the best overall fits to phase velocities at periods of 25 s to 250 s. These thermal models are broadly consistent with the depths of scattered and reflected body wave observations, and with oceanic heat flow data. However, the lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients for 85-95 km asymptotic plate thicknesses are too gradual to generate observable Sp phases, both at ages less than 30 Ma and at ages of 80 Ma or more. To jointly explain Rayleigh wave, scattered and reflected body waves and heat flow data, we propose that oceanic lithosphere can be characterized as a thermal boundary layer with an asymptotic thickness of 85-95 km, but that this layer contains other features, such as zones of partial melt from hydrated or carbonated asthenosphere, that enhance the lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradient. Beneath young continental lithosphere, surface wave constraints on lithospheric thickness are also compatible with the depths of lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients implied by converted and scattered body waves. However, typical steady-state conductive models consistent with continental heat flow produce thermal and velocity gradients that are too gradual in depth to produce observed converted and scattered body waves. Unless lithospheric isotherms are concentrated in depth by mantle upwelling or convective removal, the presence of an additional factor, such as partial melt at the base of the thermal lithosphere, is needed to sharpen lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients in many young continental regions. Beneath cratons, numerous body wave conversions and reflections are observed within the thick mantle lithosphere, but the velocity layering they imply appears to be laterally discontinuous. The nature of cratonic lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradients remains uncertain, with some studies indicating gradual transitions that are consistent with steady-state thermal models, and other studies inferring more vertically localized velocity gradients.
Gaillard, F., Sator, N., Guillot, B., Massuyeau, M.The link between the physical and chemical properties of carbon-bearing melts and their application for geophysical imaging of Earth's mantleResearchgate , DOI: 10.1017/ 9781108677950.007 26p. Pdfmantlecarbon

Abstract: Significant investment in new capacities for experimental research at high temperatures and pressures have provided new levels of understanding about the physical properties of carbon in fluids and melts, including its viscosity, electrical conductivity, and density. This chapter reviews the physical properties of carbon-bearing melts and fluids at high temperatures and pressures and highlights remaining unknowns left to be explored. The chapter also reviews how the remote sensing of the inaccessible parts of the Earth via various geophysical techniques - seismic shear wave velocity, attenuation, and electromagnetic signals of mantle depths - can be reconciled with the potential presence of carbon-bearing melts or fluids.
Galimov, E.M., Kaminsky, F.V.Diamond in oceanic lithosphere. Volcanic diamonds and diamonds in ophiolites.Geochemistry International, Vol. 59, 1, pp. 1-11. pdfRussiadeposit - Tolbachik, Kamchatka
Ganbat, A., Tsujimori, T., Boniface, N., Pastor-Galan, D., Aoki, S., Aoki, K.Crustal evolution of Paleoproterozoic Ubendian Belt ( SW Tanzania) western margin: a central African shield amalgamation take.Gondwana Research, Vol. 91, pp. 286-306. pdfAfrica, Tanzaniamagmatism

Abstract: The Ubendian Belt between the Archean Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block, represents a Paleoproterozoic orogeny of these two constituents of the Congo Craton assembled at ~1.8?Ga, forming the Central African Shield, during the Columbia Supercontinent cycle and consolidated during the Gondwana assembly. Metagranitoids from the Southern and Northern Ufipa Terranes (Western Ubendian Corridor) and those of the Bangweulu Block are compositionally similar and are contemporaneous. The protolith of the Ufipa Terrane is originated from the collided crustal rocks of the Bangweulu Block. New LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb age of metagranitoids and granoporphyries confirmed magmatic events from 1.89 to 1.85?Ga. The metagranitoids of the Western Ubendian Corridor and that of the Bangweulu Block cannot be distinguished by their trace element characteristics and ages. Geochemically, they belong to high-K calc-alkaline to tholeiite series. The 1.89-1.85?Ga metagranitoids and granoporphyries are characterized by evolved nature, which are common for slab-failure derived magmas. Such geochemical features and the presence of ~2.0?Ga eclogites suggest an Orosirian oceanic subduction and subsequent slab break-off. Melt derived from the mafic upper portion of torn slab led to the partial melting of crust which formed high-K and calc-alkaline, I- and S-type magmatism in the Bangweulu Block and the Ufipa Terrane. Zircons from two metagranites from the Northern Ufipa Terrane show Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) overprints at ~570?Ma, suggesting the Bangweulu Block collided with the continental margin of the Tanzania Craton. However, we found non-annealed Orosirian apatites in metagranitoids from the Southern Ufipa Terrane and the Kate-Ufipa Complex, implying that areal heterogeneity of the Pan-African tectonothermal overprint in the Ufipa Terrane. All evidences suggest that the Bangweulu Block and the Ubendian Belt participated in the amalgamation of the Central African Shield as separated continents surrounded by oceanic crusts during the Paleoproterozoic Eburnean and the Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogenies.
Geng, Y., Du, L., Kuang, H., Liu, Y.Ca. 1.7 Ga magmatism on southwestern margin of the Yangtze block: response to the breakup of Columbia.Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 94, 6, pp. 2031-2052.Chinamagmatism

Abstract: This paper presents some data of the Jiaopingdu gabbro and Caiyuanzi granite at the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Block, on the geochemical compositions, zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data. The Jiaopingdu gabbro gives the age of 1721 ± 5 Ma, the Caiyuanzi granite 1732 ± 6 Ma and 1735 ± 4 Ma, and the Wenjiacun porphyry granite 1713 ± 4 Ma, suggesting nearly contemporaneous formation time of the gabbro and granite. The bimodal feature is demonstrated by the gabbro SiO2 content of 44.64-46.87 wt% and granite 73.81-77.03 wt%. In addition, the granite has high content of SiO2 and Na2O + K2O, low content of Al2O3 and CaO, enriched in REEs (except Eu) and Zr, Nb, Ga and Y, depleted in Sr, implying it belongs to A-type granite geochemistry and origin of within-plate environment. The zircon ?Hf(t) of the granite and gabbro is at the range of 2-6, which is near the 2.0 Ga evolution line of the crust, implying the parent magma of the gabbro being derived from the depleted mantle and a small amount of crustal material, and the parent magma of the granite from partial melting of the juvenile crust and some ancient crustal material at the same time. Compared with 1.8-1.7 Ga magmatism during breakup of other cratons in the world, we can deduce that the Columbia has initially broken since ca. 1.8 Ga, and some continental marginal or intra-continental rifts occurred at ca. 1.73 Ga.
Geophysics ContractorsCompiled List of geophysical contractors sent out to members of SEGMIN. *** not specific to diamonds Geophysical contractors, SEGMIN website 13p. PdfGlobalgeophysics
Giro, J.P., Almeida, J., Guedes, E., Bruno, H.Tectonic inheritances in rifts: the meaning of NNE lineaments in the continental rift of SE Brazil.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 108, 103255. 17p. PdfSouth America, Brazillineaments, tectonics

Abstract: The effect of previous structures inheritance is known to be important in the development of tectonic rifts. A series of overlapping structures generally can be represented by lineaments marking the successive tectonic events. We studied the NNE structural lineaments corridor in the central region of the Ribeira Belt. We used a digital elevation model (DEM) and new and previous fieldwork data to investigate the structural control of such lineaments and their relevance for the Brazilian continental margin. Our results suggest that the NNE direction is a crustal weakness zone characterising corridors of intense ductile and brittle deformation which was recurrently reactivated. Aligned NNE Neoproterozoic-Ordovician ductile and brittle structures as foliations, shear zones, lithological boundaries, and fractures filled by pegmatitic veins coincide with the lineaments. During the Cretaceous rift, a transtensional sinistral regime generated NNE T-fractures filled by mafic dykes. In the Cenozoic, the NNE direction is represented by transfer and domino faults developed within a mega accommodation zone in an intracontinental rift system. Our results suggest that the NNE direction was active in this region throughout the Phanerozoic and has high relevance for the structural development of the continental margin of southeastern Brazil.
Giuliani, A., Jackson, M.G., Fitzpayne, A., Dalton, H.Remnants of early Earth differentiation in the deepest mantle-derived lavas. ( kimberlite source)PNAS, Vol. 118, 1 e201521118, 9p. PdfMantlekimberlite

Abstract: The noble gas isotope systematics of ocean island basalts suggest the existence of primordial mantle signatures in the deep mantle. Yet, the isotopic compositions of lithophile elements (Sr, Nd, Hf) in these lavas require derivation from a mantle source that is geochemically depleted by melt extraction rather than primitive. Here, this apparent contradiction is resolved by employing a compilation of the Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope composition of kimberlites—volcanic rocks that originate at great depth beneath continents. This compilation includes kimberlites as old as 2.06 billion years and shows that kimberlites do not derive from a primitive mantle source but sample the same geochemically depleted component (where geochemical depletion refers to ancient melt extraction) common to most oceanic island basalts, previously called PREMA (prevalent mantle) or FOZO (focal zone). Extrapolation of the Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of the kimberlite source to the age of Earth formation yields a 143Nd/144Nd-176Hf/177Hf composition within error of chondrite meteorites, which include the likely parent bodies of Earth. This supports a hypothesis where the source of kimberlites and ocean island basalts contains a long-lived component that formed by melt extraction from a domain with chondritic 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf shortly after Earth accretion. The geographic distribution of kimberlites containing the PREMA component suggests that these remnants of early Earth differentiation are located in large seismically anomalous regions corresponding to thermochemical piles above the core-mantle boundary. PREMA could have been stored in these structures for most of Earth’s history, partially shielded from convective homogenization.
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Pisarevesky, S.A., Salnikova E.B., Mazukabzov, A.M., Kotov, A.B., Motova, Z.I., Stepanova, A.V., Kovach, V.P.Evidence of the latest Paleoproterozoic ( ~1615 Ma) mafic magmatism the southern Siberia: extensional environments in Nuna subcontinent.Precambrian Research, Vol. 354, doi.org/10.1016 /j.precamres. 2020.10049 14p. PdfRussiaCraton - Siberian
Goodden, R.Ocean diamonds - alluvialsGems & Jewellery, Vol. 29, 4, pp. 14-16. pdfAfrica, Namibiaalluvials
Gress, M.U., Koornneef, J.M., Thomassot, E., Chinn, I.L., van Zuilen, K., Davies, G.R.Sm-Nd isochron age coupled with C-N isotope data of eclogitic diamonds from Jwaneng, Botswana.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 293, pp. 1-17. pdfAfrica, Botswanadeposit - Jwaneng

Abstract: Constraining the formation age of individual diamonds from incorporated mineral inclusions and assessing the host diamonds’ geochemical characteristics allows determination of the complex history of diamond growth in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). It also provides the rare opportunity to study the evolution of the deep cycling of volatiles over time. To achieve these aims, Sm-Nd isotope systematics are presented for 36 eclogitic garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions from 16 diamonds from the Jwaneng mine, Botswana. The inclusions and host diamonds comprise at least two compositional suites that record different ‘mechanisms’ of diamond formation and define two isochrons, one Paleoproterozoic (1.8?Ga) and one Neoproterozoic (0.85?Ga). There are indications of at least three additional diamond-forming events whose ages currently cannot be well constrained. The Paleoproterozoic diamond suite formed by large-scale (>100's km), volatile-rich metasomatism related to formation and re-working of the Proto-Kalahari Craton. In contrast, the heterogeneous composition of the Neoproterozoic diamond suite indicates diamond formation on a small-scale, through local (<10?km) equilibration of compositionally variable diamond-forming fluids in different eclogitic substrates during the progressive breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. The results demonstrate that regional events appear to reflect the input of volatiles (i.e., carbon-bearing) derived from the asthenospheric mantle, whereas local diamond-forming events mainly promote the redistribution of volatiles within the SCLM. The occurrence of isotopically light carbon analysed in distinct growth zones from samples of this study (d13C?
Gress, M.U., Pearson, D.G., Chinn, I.L., Thomassot, E., Davies, G.R.Mesozoic to Paleoproterozoic diamond growth beneath Botswana recorded by Re-Os ages from individual eclogitic and websteritic inclusions.Lithos, 38p. PdfAfrica, Botswanadeposit - Orapa, Jwaneng

Abstract: Re-Os isotope systematics are reported from a suite of eclogitic and websteritic sulphide inclusions extracted from well-characterised diamond growth zones from the Orapa and Jwaneng kimberlite clusters. Re-Os ages (786 ± 250 Ma) are within uncertainty of previously determined Sm-Nd ages (853 ± 55 Ma), demonstrating isotopic equilibrium, at varying levels of completeness, across multiple isotopic systems in different minerals at the time of diamond formation and inclusion encapsulation. These data confirm the concept that inclusion isochron ages, when used with detailed textural/ growth zone control, reflect the timing of diamond crystallisation. Our data substantiate previous Re-Os and Sm-Nd inclusion ages of diamonds from Orapa and Jwaneng, indicating that major tectono-magmatic events formed discrete diamond populations of Paleo- (~ 2.0 to 1.7 Ga), Meso- (~ 1.2 to 1.1 Ga) and Neoproterozoic (~ 0.9 to 0.75 Ga) age. Some of these processes occurred simultaneously across the Kalahari Craton and can be traced over 100's of km illustrating the significance of diamond inclusions for monitoring continental tectonics. Inclusion ages indicating diamond formation that are younger than 300 Ma appear to be more common than previously recognised, consistent with evidence of relatively abundant, young, fluid-rich "fibrous" and polycrystalline diamonds at Jwaneng and Orapa. The increasingly widespread evidence for Mesozoic diamond-forming events in southern Africa and elsewhere appears closely linked with the kimberlite-related magmatism that affected these regions and subsequently transported diamonds to the surface. The inclusion isochron ages emphasise that diamond formation is a multi-stage and episodic process that can occur contemporaneously in disparate substrates and produce multiple diamond populations in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle.
Gribkoff, E.Geologists shed light on the mantle with 3D model.EOS, 101, doi.org/10.1029/2020EOE152364 Dec. 4, 2p.Mantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: The model, which will incorporate 227 million surface wave measurements, could help with everything from earthquake characterization to neutrino geosciences.
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Saunders, M., Bindi, L., Alard, O., Toledo, V., O'Reilly, S.Y.Parageneses of TIB2 in corundum xenoliths from Mt. Carmel, Israel: siderophile behaviour of boron under reducing conditions.American Mineralogist , in press available 33p. PdfEurope, Israeldeposit - Mt. Carmel

Abstract: Titanium diboride (TiB2) is a minor but common phase in melt pockets trapped in the corundum aggregates that occur as xenoliths in Cretaceous basaltic volcanoes on Mt. Carmel, north Israel. These melt pockets show extensive textural evidence of immiscibility between metallic (Fe-Ti-C-Si) melts, Ca-Al-Mg-Si-O melts, and Ti-(oxy)nitride melts. The metallic melts commonly form spherules in the coexisting oxide glass. Most of the observed TiB2 crystallized from the Fe-Ti-C silicide melts and a smaller proportion from the oxide melts. The parageneses in the melt pockets of the xenoliths require fO2 = ?IW-6, probably generated through interaction between evolved silicate melts and mantle-derived CH4+H2 fluids near the crust-mantle boundary. Under these highly reducing conditions boron, like carbon and nitrogen, behaved mainly as a siderophile element during the separation of immiscible metallic and oxide melts. These parageneses have implications for the residence of boron in the peridotitic mantle and for the occurrence of TiB2 in other less well-constrained environments such as ophiolitic chromitites.
Gruber, B., Chacko, T., Pearson, D.G., Currie, C., Menzies, A.Heat production and moho temperatures in cratonic crust: evidence from lower crustal xenoliths from the Slave craton.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016/ j.lithos.2020.105889 13p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesdeposit - Diavik A-154

Abstract: Ambient Moho temperatures and lower crustal heat production are surprisingly poorly constrained in cratons. Here we address these problems using 15 lower crustal xenoliths from the Diavik A-154 kimberlite, Slave craton, Canada. Iron-magnesium exchange geothermometry on small biotite and amphibole inclusions in garnet indicates that the Slave craton lower crust was at a temperature of =500 °C at the time of kimberlite eruption (~55 Ma). The ambient lower crustal temperature was likely lower than 500 °C because the thermometers record the closure temperature of diffusional Fe2+-Mg exchange between touching mineral pairs. New measurements of K, U and Th concentrations in the constituent minerals, together with xenolith modes, allow reconstruction of the heat-producing element (HPE) K, U, and Th budget of the Slave craton lower crust. Metasedimentary granulites have an average heat production of 0.29 ± 0.01 µW/m3 (n = 3) whereas mafic granulites have an average heat production of 0.13 ± 0.03 µW/m3 (n = 12). Our new data clearly show that plagioclase abundance in both lithologies has a major influence on overall lower crustal heat production, being an important reservoir of all three HPE. Combining the heat production of mafic and metasedimentary granulites in their observed 80:20 proportions results in an average heat production value for the Slave craton lower crust of 0.16 ± 0.03 µW/m3. Using these heat production estimates, modeled Moho temperatures beneath Diavik of ~450-470 °C are broadly consistent with maximum lower crustal temperatures indicated by geothermometry. The low HPE contents predicted for cratonic lower crust must result in lower temperatures in the deep crust and mantle lithosphere, and in turn higher estimates for the thickness of mantle lithosphere. This effect becomes larger as the thickness of the low-HPE lower crustal layer increases. In the specific case of the central Slave craton, we find that model estimates of the diamond potential of the mantle lithosphere, as judged by the proportion of lithospheric mantle in the diamond stability field, are not strongly affected by small variations in lower crustal heat production and Moho temperature.
Gunduz, M., Asan, K.PetroGram: an excel-based petrology program for modeling of magmatic processes.Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 12, pp. 81-92. pdfGlobalpetrology

Abstract: PetroGram is an Excel© based magmatic petrology program that generates numerical and graphical models. PetroGram can model the magmatic processes such as melting, crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing based on the trace element and isotopic data. The program can produce both inverse and forward geochemical models for melting processes (e.g. forward model for batch, fractional and dynamic melting, and inverse model for batch and dynamic melting). However, the program uses a forward modeling approach for magma differentiation processes such as crystallization (EC: Equilibruim Crystallization, FC: Fractional Crystallization, IFC: Imperfect Fractional Crystallization and In-situ Crystallization), assimilation (AFC: Assimilation Fractional Crystallization, Decoupled FC-A: Decoupled Fractional Crystallization and Assimillation, A-IFC: Assimilation and Imperfect Fractional Crystallization) and magma mixing. One of the most important advantages of the program is that the melt composition obtained from any partial melting model can be used as a starting composition of the crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing. In addition, PetroGram is able to carry out the classification, tectonic setting, multi-element (spider) and isotope correlation diagrams, and basic calculations including Mg#, Eu/Eu*, eSr and eNd widely used in magmatic petrology.
Guo, H., Yu, X., Zheng, Y., Sun, Z., Ng, M.F-Y.Inclusion and trace element characteristics of emeralds from Swat Valley, Pakistan.Gems & Gemology, Vol. 56, 3, pp. 336-355. pdfAsia, Pakistandeposit - Swat Valley. Emerald

Abstract: Swat Valley has become an important source of emeralds, including recently discovered trapiche-type crystals. In this study, emerald samples from Swat were examined by standard gemological testing, UV-Vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman analysis, EDXRF, and LA-ICP-MS. The study found three-phase hexagonal inclusions consisting of water, gaseous carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and a magnesite crystal. The gaseous mixture in two-phase inclusions is characteristic in both trapiche-type (CO2 + N2) and non-trapiche samples (CO2 + N2 + CH4). Mineral inclusions of hematite, magnetite, rutile, graphite, and siderite are reported for the first time. Regular non-trapiche-type Swat emeralds contain high chromium (avg. 7471 ppmw), alkali metal (avg. 21040 ppmw), magnesium (avg. 34263 ppmw), and iron (avg. 9265 ppmw), as well as scandium (avg. 633 ppmw). Infrared spectra show that the absorption of type II H2O is stronger than that of type I H2O. Logarithm plots of trace elements appear to be diagnostic. Based on Raman spectroscopy, the trapiche-type emeralds’ colorless core, light green hexagonal growth zone area, and green rim are emerald, while the six black arms are a mixture of hematite and graphite.
Hainschwang, T.Wrestling with radiation ( diamonds)Gems & Jewellery, Vol. 29, 4, pp. 28-41.Globaldiamond colour
Hall, A.M., Putkinen, N., Hietala,, S., Lindsberg, E., Holma, M.Ultra-slow cratonic denudation in Finland since 1.5 Ga indicated by tiered unconformities and impact structures.Precambrian Research, Vol. 352, 106000, 18p. PdfEurope, Finlandgeothermometry

Abstract: The Earth’s cratons are traditionally regarded as tectonically stable cores that were episodically buried by thin sedimentary covers. Cratonic crust in southern Finland holds seven post-1.7 Ga tiered unconformities, with remnants of former sedimentary covers. We use the geometries of the tiered unconformities, along with previously dated impact structures and kimberlite and carbonatite pipes, to reconstruct the erosion and burial history of the craton and to derive estimates of depths of erosion in basement and former sedimentary rocks. The close vertical spacing (<200 m) of the unconformities and the survival of small (D = 5 km) Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic impact structures indicate minor later erosion. Average erosion rates (<2.5 m/Ma) in basement and cover are amongst the lowest reported on Earth. Ultra-slow erosion has allowed the persistence in basement fractures of Phanerozoic fracture coatings and Palaeogene groundwater and microbiomes. Maximum thicknesses of foreland basin sediments in Finland during the Sveconorwegian and Caledonide orogenies are estimated as ~1.0 km and <0.68-1.0 km, respectively. Estimated losses of sedimentary cover derived from apatite fission track thermochronology are higher by factors of at least 2 to 4. A dynamic epeirogenic history of the craton in Finland, with kilometre-scale burial and exhumation, proposed in recent thermochronological models is not supported by other geological proxies. Ultra-slow erosion rates in southern Finland reflect long term tectonic stability and burial of the craton surface for a total of ~1.0 Ga beneath generally thin sedimentary cover.
Hill, E.J., Pearce, M.A., Stromberg, J.M.Improving automated geological logging of drill holes by incorporating multiscale spatial methods. ( not specific to diamonds)Mathematical Geosciences, Vol. 53, pp. 21-53. pdfGlobaldrill hole data

Abstract: Manually interpreting multivariate drill hole data is very time-consuming, and different geologists will produce different results due to the subjective nature of geological interpretation. Automated or semi-automated interpretation of numerical drill hole data is required to reduce time and subjectivity of this process. However, results from machine learning algorithms applied to drill holes, without reference to spatial information, typically result in numerous small-scale units. These small-scale units result not only from the presence of very small rock units, which may be below the scale of interest, but also from misclassification. A novel method is proposed that uses the continuous wavelet transform to identify geological boundaries and uses wavelet coefficients to indicate boundary strength. The wavelet coefficient is a useful measure of boundary strength because it reflects both wavelength and amplitude of features in the signal. This means that boundary strength is an indicator of the apparent thickness of geological units and the amount of change occurring at each geological boundary. For multivariate data, boundaries from multiple variables are combined and multiscale domains are calculated using the combined boundary strengths. The method is demonstrated using multi-element geochemical data from mineral exploration drill holes. The method is fast, reduces misclassification, provides a choice of scales of interpretation and results in hierarchical classification for large scales where domains may contain more than one rock type.
Hoare, B.C., Tomlinson, E.L., Barnes, J.D., Tappe, S., Marks, M.A.W., Epp, T., Caulfield, J., Riegler, T.Tracking halogen recycling and volatile loss in kimberlite magmatism from Greenland: evidence from combined F-Cl-Br and Delta 37Cl systematics.Lithos, doi;101016/j. lithos.2021.105976 78p. PdfEurope, Greenlandhalogen
Houser, C., Hernlund, J.W., Valencia-Cardona, J., Wentzcovitch, R.M.Discriminating lower mantle composition.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 308, 106552, 14p. PdfMantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Constraining Earth's bulk composition is fundamental to understanding our planet's formation and evolution. While the lower mantle accounts for a majority of the bulk silicate Earth, it is also the least accessible. As experimental and theoretical mineral physics constraints on mineral elasticity at lower mantle temperatures and pressures have improved, comparisons between predicted seismic velocity and density profiles for hypothesized bulk compositions and 1D seismic models have become commonplace. However, the degree to which a given composition is a better or worse fit than another composition is not always reported, nor are the influences of the assumed temperature profile and other uncertainties discussed. Here we compare seismic velocities and densities for perovskitite, pyrolite, and harzburgite bulk compositions calculated using advanced ab initio techniques to explore the extent to which the associated uncertainties affect our ability to distinguish between candidate compositions. We find that predicted differences between model compositions are often smaller than the influence of temperature uncertainties and therefore these comparisons lack discriminatory power. The inability to distinguish between compositions is largely due to the high sensitivity of seismic properties to temperature accompanied by uncertainties in the mantle geotherm, coupled with diminished sensitivity of seismic velocity to composition toward the base of the mantle. An important exception is the spin transition in (Mg,Fe)O-ferropericlase, which is predicted to give a distinct variation in compressional wave velocity that should distinguish between relatively ferro-magnesian and silica-rich compositions. However, the absence of an apparent spin transition signature in global 1D seismic profiles is a significant unresolved issue in geophysics, and it has important geochemical implications. The approach we present here for establishing discriminatory power for such comparisons can be applied to any estimate of seismic velocities and associated uncertainties, and offers a straightforward tool to evaluate the robustness of model comparisons.
Houser, C., Hernlund, J.W., Valencia-Cardona, J., Wentzcovitch, R.M.Discriminating lower mantle composition.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 308, di.org/10.1016 /jpepi.2020. 106552 14p. PdfMantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Constraining Earth's bulk composition is fundamental to understanding our planet's formation and evolution. While the lower mantle accounts for a majority of the bulk silicate Earth, it is also the least accessible. As experimental and theoretical mineral physics constraints on mineral elasticity at lower mantle temperatures and pressures have improved, comparisons between predicted seismic velocity and density profiles for hypothesized bulk compositions and 1D seismic models have become commonplace. However, the degree to which a given composition is a better or worse fit than another composition is not always reported, nor are the influences of the assumed temperature profile and other uncertainties discussed. Here we compare seismic velocities and densities for perovskitite, pyrolite, and harzburgite bulk compositions calculated using advanced ab initio techniques to explore the extent to which the associated uncertainties affect our ability to distinguish between candidate compositions. We find that predicted differences between model compositions are often smaller than the influence of temperature uncertainties and therefore these comparisons lack discriminatory power. The inability to distinguish between compositions is largely due to the high sensitivity of seismic properties to temperature accompanied by uncertainties in the mantle geotherm, coupled with diminished sensitivity of seismic velocity to composition toward the base of the mantle. An important exception is the spin transition in (Mg,Fe)O-ferropericlase, which is predicted to give a distinct variation in compressional wave velocity that should distinguish between relatively ferro-magnesian and silica-rich compositions. However, the absence of an apparent spin transition signature in global 1D seismic profiles is a significant unresolved issue in geophysics, and it has important geochemical implications. The approach we present here for establishing discriminatory power for such comparisons can be applied to any estimate of seismic velocities and associated uncertainties, and offers a straightforward tool to evaluate the robustness of model comparisons.
Hu, L., Li, Y., Chuan, M., Li, R., Ke, C., Wu, Z.Post-magmatic fluids dominate the mineralization of dolomite carbonatitic dykes next to the giant Bayan Obo REE deposit, northern China.Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1117, doi:10.3390/ min10121117 20p. PdfChinadeposit - Bayan Obo

Abstract: The Bayan Obo rare earth element (REE) deposit in Inner Mongolia, northern China, is the largest REE deposit in the world, whose mineralization process remains controversial. There are dozens of carbonatite dykes that are tightly related to the deposit. Here we report the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of a typical dolomite carbonatite dyke near the deposit. The dolomite within the dyke experienced intense post-emplacement fluids metasomatism as evidenced by the widespread hydrothermal REE-bearing minerals occurring along the carbonate mineral grains. REE contents of bulk rocks and constituent dolomite minerals (>90 vol.%) are 1407-4184 ppm and 63-152 ppm, respectively, indicating that dolomite is not the dominant mineral controlling the REE budgets of the dyke. There are three types of apatite in the dyke: Type 1 apatite is the primary apatite and contains REE2O3 at 2.35-4.20 wt.% and SrO at 1.75-2.19 wt.%; Type 2 and Type 3 apatites are the products of replacement of primary apatite. The REE2O3 (6.10-8.21 wt.%) and SrO (2.83-3.63 wt.%) contents of Type 2 apatite are significantly elevated for overprinting of REE and Sr-rich fluids derived from the carbonatite. Conversely, Type 3 apatite has decreased REE2O3 (1.17-2.35 wt.%) and SrO (1.51-1.99 wt.%) contents, resulting from infiltration of fluids with low REE and Na concentrations. Our results on the dyke suggest that post-magmatic fluids expelled from the carbonatitic melts dominated the REE mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit, and a significant fluid disturbance occurred but probably provided no extra REEs to the deposit.
Hughes, H.S.R., Compton-Jones, C., MvDonald, I., Kiseeva, E.S., Kamenetsky, V.S., Rollinson, G., Coggon, J.A., Kinnaird, J.A., Bybee, G.M.Base metal sulphide geochemistry of southern African mantle eclogites ( Roberts Victor): implications for cratonic mafic magmatism and metallogenesis.Lithos, doi.org/10.1016/ j.lithos.2020.105918 67p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Roberts Victor

Abstract: Platinum-group elements (PGE) display a chalcophile behaviour and are largely hosted by base metal sulphide (BMS) minerals in the mantle. During partial melting of the mantle, BMS release their metal budget into the magma generated. The fertility of magma sources is a key component of the mineralisation potential of large igneous provinces (LIP) and the origin of orthomagmatic sulphide deposits hosted in cratonic mafic magmatic systems. Fertility of mantle-derived magma is therefore predicated on our understanding of the abundance of metals, such as the PGE, in the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle. Estimations of the abundance of chalcophile elements in the upper mantle are based on observations from mantle xenoliths and BMS inclusions in diamonds. Whilst previous assessments exist for the BMS composition and chalcophile element budget of peridotitic mantle, relatively few analyses have been published for eclogitic mantle. Here, we present sulphide petrography and an extensive in situ dataset of BMS trace element compositions from Roberts Victor eclogite xenoliths (Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa). The BMS are dominated by pyrite-chalcopyrite-pentlandite (± pyrrhotite) assemblages with S/Se ratios ranging 1200 to 36,840 (with 87% of analyses having S/Se this editing is incorrect. This should read "(with 87% of analyses having S/Se < 10,000)" Please note the <<10,000). Total PGE abundance in BMS range from 0.17 to 223 ppm. We recognise four end-member compositions (types i to iv), distinguished by total PGE abundance and Pt/Pd and Au/Pd ratios. The majority of BMS have low PGE abundances (< 10 ppm) but Type iv BMS have the highest concentration of PGE recorded in eclogites so far (> 100 ppm) and are characteristically enriched in Os, Ir, Ru and Rh. Nano- and micron-scale Pd-Pt antimonide, telluride and arsenide platinum-group minerals (PGM) are observed spatially associated with BMS. We suggest that the predominance of pyrite in the xenoliths reflects the process of eclogitisation and that the trace element composition of the eclogite BMS was inherited from oceanic crustal protoliths of the eclogites, introduced into the SCLM via ancient subduction during formation of the Colesberg Magnetic Lineament c. 2.9 Ga and the cratonisation of the Kaapvaal Craton. Crucially, we demonstrate that the PGE budget of eclogitic SCLM may be substantially higher than previously reported, akin to peridotitic compositions, with significant implications for the PGE fertility of cratonic mafic magmatism and metallogenesis. We quantitatively assess these implications by modelling the chalcophile geochemistry of an eclogitic melt component in parental magmas of the mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex.
Humbert, F., Elburg, M.A., Agangi, A., Belyanin, G., Akoh, J., Smith, A.J.B., Chou, Y-M., Beukes, N.J.A ~ 1.4 Ga alkaline mafic sill from the Carletonville area: connection to the Pilanesbeg alkaline province?South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 123, 4, pp. 597-614. pdfAfrica, South Africaalkaline rocks

Abstract: Numerous Mesoproterozoic alkaline intrusions belonging to the Pilanesberg Alkaline Province are present within the Transvaal sub-basin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The Pilanesberg Complex is the best-known example; it represents one of the world’s largest alkaline complexes, and is associated with a northwest-southeast trending dyke swarm that extends from Botswana to the southwest of Johannesburg. This paper documents the results of a petrological and geochemical study of a thin mafic sill (here referred to as an alkaline igneous body, AIB), which intrudes the ca. 2 200 Ma Silverton Formation close to the southernmost part of the Pilanesberg dyke swarm. The AIB has only been observed in cores from a borehole drilled close to Carletonville. It is hypocrystalline, containing randomly oriented elongated skeletal kaersutite crystals and 6 to 8 mm varioles mainly composed of radially oriented acicular plagioclase. These two textures are related to undercooling, probably linked to the limited thickness (70 cm) of the AIB coupled with a probable shallow emplacement depth. Ar-Ar dating of the kaersutite gives an age of ca. 1 400 Ma, similar to the age of Pilanesberg Complex. However, the AIB is an alkaline basaltic andesite and is thus notably less differentiated than the Pilanesberg Complex and some of its associated dykes, such as the Maanhaarrand dyke, for which we provide whole-rock geochemical data. Literature data indicate that the Pilanesberg dyke swarm also contains mafic hypabyssal rocks suggesting a link between the dyke swarm and the AIB. The AIB is characterized by strongly negative eNd and eHf, that cannot be related to crustal contamination, as shown by positive Ti and P anomalies, and the absence of negative Nb-Ta anomalies in mantle-normalised trace element diagrams. The AIB magma is interpreted to have been derived from a long-lived enriched, probably lithospheric mantle reservoir. The AIB thus provides important information on the magma source of the Pilanesberg Alkaline Province.
Joshi, K.B., Sorcar, N., Pant, N.C., Nandakumar, V., Ahmad, T., Tomson, J.K.Characterization of multiple episodes of melt generation from lower crust during Archean using amphibole composition.Episodes, doi.org/10.18814/ epiiugs/2020 /020092 24p. PdfIndiaCraton - Bundelkhand

Abstract: Spatial association of tonalite trondhjemite granodiorites (TTGs) and high-K granitoids (anatectic and hybrid granites) from the Bundelkhand Craton (BC), Central India, is well known. Geochronological data indicates multiple episodes of formation of these high silica rocks showing a spread of ~1 Ga during Paleo to Neoarchaean. In the present study, we try to understand the evolution of TTGs and high-K granitoids (hybrid granites) from the BC using amphibole composition. The amphibole in both TTGs and high-K granitoids (hybrid granites) from the BC are characterised as magmatic, zoned, and calcic in nature. We find that the amphibole composition of the studied rocks is dominated by magnesiohornblende along with less common occurrence of tschermakite, magnesiohastingsite and edenite. Overall variation in amphibole compositions in terms of exchange vectors show a well defined linear trend (except for a late stage low-grade metamorphic readjustment), which suggests melt control over crystallization and evolution of amphibole chemistry. Moreover, the geothermobarometric analysis points towards higher pressure formation of TTGs in comparison to that of high-K granitoids (hybrid granites), with nearly the same temperature conditions in both the cases. Combining all our findings, we propose the evolution of the two considered rock types through lower crustal melting under varying PH2O conditions at different depths of emplacement.
Kalugina, A.D., Zedgenizov, D.A.Micro-Raman spectroscopy assessment of chemical compounds of mantle clinopyroxenes. ( diamond)Minerals MDPI, Vol. 10, 1084, doi:10.3390/ min10121084 10p. PdfMantlespectroscopy

Abstract: The composition of clinopyroxenes is indicative for chemical and physical properties of mantle substrates. In this study, we present the results of Raman spectroscopy examination of clinopyroxene inclusions in natural diamonds (n = 51) and clinopyroxenes from mantle xenoliths of peridotites and eclogites from kimberlites (n = 28). The chemical composition of studied clinopyroxenes shows wide variations indicating their origin in different mantle lithologies. All clinopyroxenes have intense Raman modes corresponding to metal-oxygen translation (~300-500 cm-1), stretching vibrations of bridging O-Si-Obr (?11~670 cm-1), and nonbridging atoms O-Si-Onbr (?16~1000 cm-1). The peak position of the stretching vibration mode (?11) for the studied clinopyroxenes varies in a wide range (23 cm-1) and generally correlates with their chemical composition and reflects the diopside-jadeite heterovalent isomorphism. These correlations may be used for rough estimation of these compounds using the non-destructive Raman spectroscopy technique.
Karato, S-i., Karki, B., Park, J.Deep mantle melting, global water circulation and its implications for the stability of the ocean mass.Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 7, 76 25p. Doi.org/10.1186 /s40645-020-00379-3 pdfMantlewater

Abstract: Oceans on Earth are present as a result of dynamic equilibrium between degassing and regassing through the interaction with Earth’s interior. We review mineral physics, geophysical, and geochemical studies related to the global water circulation and conclude that the water content has a peak in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) with a value of 0.1-1 wt% (with large regional variations). When water-rich MTZ materials are transported out of the MTZ, partial melting occurs. Vertical direction of melt migration is determined by the density contrast between the melts and coexisting minerals. Because a density change associated with a phase transformation occurs sharply for a solid but more gradually for a melt, melts formed above the phase transformation depth are generally heavier than solids, whereas melts formed below the transformation depth are lighter than solids. Consequently, hydrous melts formed either above or below the MTZ return to the MTZ, maintaining its high water content. However, the MTZ water content cannot increase without limit. The melt-solid density contrast above the 410 km depends on the temperature. In cooler regions, melting will occur only in the presence of very water-rich materials. Melts produced in these regions have high water content and hence can be buoyant above the 410 km, removing water from the MTZ. Consequently, cooler regions of melting act as a water valve to maintain the water content of the MTZ near its threshold level (~?0.1-1.0 wt%). Mass-balance considerations explain the observed near-constant sea-level despite large fluctuations over Earth history. Observations suggesting deep-mantle melting are reviewed including the presence of low-velocity anomalies just above and below the MTZ and geochemical evidence for hydrous melts formed in the MTZ. However, the interpretation of long-term sea-level change and the role of deep mantle melting in the global water circulation are non-unique and alternative models are reviewed. Possible future directions of studies on the global water circulation are proposed including geodynamic modeling, mineral physics and observational studies, and studies integrating results from different disciplines.
Kopylova, M.G.Constraining carbonation freezing and petrography of the carbonated cratonic mantle with natural samples.Lithos, in press available 49p. PdfCanada, Nunavut, Baffin Islanddeposit - Chidliak

Abstract: Peridotite xenoliths from the Cretaceous Chidliak kimberlite province (SE Baffin Island, Canada) were recently studied by Kopylova et al. (2019). Here, we focus on rare textures, with orthopyroxene grains invariably rimmed by 3-20?µm coronas of clinopyroxene, while all clinopyroxenes are rimmed by equally thin monticellite coronas. Thicker, 0.1-0.5?mm texturally equilibrated clinopyroxene also mantles garnet, and there is a gradual transition from micron- to millimeter-thick clinopyroxene mantles. We investigated the origin of these rarely preserved textures using major and trace element zoning in minerals, and measured and reconstructed bulk compositions of xenoliths. Fluxes of major elements were identified based on the conserved element ratios while accounting for the closure effect due to normalization of bulk compositions to 100%. Ca dominates the absolute elemental gain, expressed in moles per 1000?mol of Fe. The observed mineralogical and compositional changes are associated with the significant metasomatic removal of Na (70% of its budget) Al, and Cr (35% loss), minor removal of Si, Mn, Mg and Ni and the gain of Ca (~ 20%), Ti, K and incompatible trace elements. The metasomatic fluid addition beneath Chidliak was likely below 10%. The fluid was very enriched and fractionated resembling volatile-rich low-degree melts like carbonatites or kimberlites. The Chidliak peridotites were affected by "“carbonation freezing", i.e. immobilization of a carbonate-rich metasomatic agent via reactions with pyroxenes. Clinopyroxene and monticellite coronas formed in decarbonation reactions, whereby ephemeral carbonatitic fluid readily gave away Ca to silicate minerals and exsolved CO2. Chidliak peridotites highlight that it would be deceptive to imagine "carbonated peridotites" storing carbon in a normal assemblage of peridotite plus carbonate. "Carbonated peridotites" are coarse peridotites with elevated modes of clinopyroxene, garnet and olivine, and with thin rims of calcic silicate minerals storing incompatible elements. The CO2-rich magmatism on cratons and the match between the temporal Ca addition to the cratonic mantle and the observed fluxes from the carbonate-rich metasomatism underscores the importance of the latter process in shaping up the lithospheric mantle and its melts.
Kozlov, E., Fomina, E., Sidorov, M., Shilovskikh, V.Ti-Nb mineralization of late carbonatites and role of fluid in its formation: Petyayan-Vara rare-earth carbonatites ( Vuoriyarvi Massif, Russia). ***dateMDPI Applied Sciences, 19p. PdfRussiacarbonatite

Abstract: This article is devoted to the geology of titanium-rich varieties of the Petyayan-Vara rare-earth dolomitic carbonatites in Vuoriyarvi, Northwest Russia. Analogues of these varieties are present in many carbonatite complexes. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of high field strength elements during the late stages of carbonatite formation. We conducted a multilateral study of titanium- and niobium-bearing minerals, including a petrographic study, Raman spectroscopy, microprobe determination of chemical composition, and electron backscatter diffraction. Three TiO2-polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) and three pyrochlore group members (hydroxycalcio-, fluorcalcio-, and kenoplumbopyrochlore) were found to coexist in the studied rocks. The formation of these minerals occurred in several stages. First, Nb-poor Ti-oxides were formed in the fluid-permeable zones. The overprinting of this assemblage by residual fluids led to the generation of Nb-rich brookite (the main niobium concentrator in the Petyayan-Vara) and minerals of the pyrochlore group. This process also caused niobium enrichment with of early generations of Ti oxides. Our results indicate abrupt changes in the physicochemical parameters at the late hydro (carbo) thermal stage of the carbonatite formation and high migration capacity of Ti and Nb under these conditions. The metasomatism was accompanied by the separation of these elements.
Krmicek, L., Romer, R.L., Timmerman, M.J., Ultych, J., Glodny, J.Long lasting ( 65Ma) regionally contrasting Late-to Post-orogenic variscan mantle-derived potassic magmatism in the Bohemian Massif.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 61, 7, doi.org/10.1093 /petrology/egaa072Europemagmatism

Abstract: The orogenic development after the continental collision between Laurussia and Gondwana, led to two contrasting associations of mantle-derived magmatic rocks on the territory of the Bohemian Massif: (i) a 340-310?Ma lamprophyre-lamproite orogenic association; and (ii) a 300-275?Ma lamprophyre association of anorogenic affinity. Major types of potassic mantle-derived magmatic rocks recognized in the orogenic and anorogenic associations include: (i) calc-alkaline to alkaline lamprophyres; (ii) alkaline ‘orthopyroxene minettes’ and geochemically related rocks grouped here under the new term lampyrite; and (iii) peralkaline lamproites. These three types significantly differ with respect to mineral, whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb-Li isotope composition and spatial distribution. The calc-alkaline lamprophyres occur throughout the entire Saxo-Thuringian and Moldanubian zones, whereas the different types of malte-derived potassic rocks are spatially restricted to particular zones. Rocks of the Carboniferous lamprophyre-lamproite orogenic association are characterized by variable negative eNd(i) and variably radiogenic Sr(i), whereas the rocks of the Permian lamprophyre association of anorogenic affinity are characterized by positive eNd(i) and relatively young depleted-mantle Nd-model ages reflecting increasing input from upwelling asthenospheric mantle. The small variation in the Pb isotopic composition of post-collisional potassic mantle-derived magmatic rocks (of both the orogenic and anorogenic series) implies that the Pb budget of the mantle beneath the Bohemian Massif is dominated by the same crust-derived material, which itself may include material derived from several sources. The source rocks of ‘orthopyroxene minettes’ are characterized by isotopically light (‘eclogitic’) Li and strongly radiogenic (crustal) Sr and may have been metasomatized by high-pressure fluids along the edge of a subduction zone. In contrast, the strongly Al2O3 and CaO depleted mantle source of the lamproites is characterized by isotopically heavy Li and high SiO2 and extreme K2O contents. This mantle source may have been metasomatized predominantly by melts. The mantle source of the lamprophyres may have undergone metasomatism by both fluids and melts.
Kropac, K., Dolnicek, Z., Uher, P., Burianek, D., Safai, A., Urubek, T.Zirconian-niobian titanite and associated Zr-, Nb-, REE-rich accessory minerals: products of hydrothermal overprint of leucocratic teschenites ( Sileasian Unit, outer western Carpathians, Czech Republic).Geologica Carpathica ** Eng, Vol. 71, 4, pp. 343-360. pdfEurope, Czech Republicalkaline rocks

Abstract: Sills of hydrothermally altered alkaline magmatic rock (teschenite) of Lower Cretaceous age at the Certák and Repište sites in the Silesian Unit (Flysch Belt of the Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic) host leucocratic dykes and nests which contain accessory minerals enriched in Zr, Nb and REE: Zr-, Nb-rich titanite, zircon, gittinsite, pyrochlore, monazite, REE-rich apatite, epidote, and vesuvianite. Titanite forms wedge-shaped crystals or irregular aggregates enclosed in the analcime groundmass or overgrowths on Zr-rich ferropargasite and taramite or Zr-rich aegirine-augite to aegirine. Titanite crystals show oscillatory or irregular patchy to sector zoning and contain up to 17.7 wt. % ZrO2 and 19.6 wt. % Nb2O5, and =1.1 wt. % REE2O3. High-field-strength elements (HFSE) are incorporated into the structure of the studied titanite predominantly by substitutions: (i) [6]Ti4+???[6]Zr4+; (ii) [6]Ti4+?+?[6]Al3+???[6]Zr4+?+?[6]Fe3+; and (iii) [6]2Ti4+???[6]Nb5+?+?[6](Al, Fe)3+. Magmatic fractional crystallization, high-temperature hydrothermal autometasomatic overprint and low-temperature hydrothermal alterations resulted in the formation of the HFSE-rich mineral assemblages within the leucocratic teschenites. Autometamorphic processes caused by high-temperature hypersaline aqueous solutions (salinity ~50 wt. %, ~390-510 °C), which were released from the HFSE-enriched residual melt, played a major role in the crystallization of Zr-, Nb-, and REE-rich minerals. The mobilization of HFSE could have occurred either by their sequestration into a fluid phase exsolved from the crystallizing melt or by superimposed alteration processes. The distinctive positive Eu anomaly (EuCN/Eu*?=?1.85) of leucocratic dykes infers possible mixing of Eu2+-bearing magmatic fluids with more oxidized fluids.
Kumar, A., Talukdar, D., Chalapathi Rao, N.V., Burgess, R., Lehmann, B.Mesoproterozoic 40Ar-39Ar ages of some lamproites from the Cuddapah Basin and eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for diamond provenance of the Banganapalle conglomerates, age of the Kurnool Group and Columbia tectonics.Geological Society, London, Special Publication , 10.1144/SP513- 2020-247 53p. PdfIndialamproites

Abstract: We report Mesoproterozoic 40Ar-39Ar (whole-rock) ages of lamproites from (i) the Ramadugu field (R4 dyke : 1434 ± 19 Ma and R5 dyke: 1334 ± 12 Ma) and the Krishna field (Pochampalle dyke: 1439 ± 3 Ma and Tirumalgiri dyke: 1256 ± 12 Ma) from the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and (ii) the Garledinne (1433 ± 8 Ma) and the Chelima (1373 ± 6 Ma) dykes from within the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, southern India. The ages reported for the Ramadugu and Tirumalgiri lamproites constitute their first radiometric dates. Ages of the Pochampalle and the Chelima lamproites from this study are broadly comparable to their previously reported 40Ar-39Ar (phlogopite) ages of c. 1500 Ma and 1418 ± 8 Ma, respectively. The ages of all these lamproites are much older than those of the (i) c. 1.1 Ga kimberlites from the Wajrakarur and Narayanpet fields of the EDC and (ii) c. 1.09 Ga lamproitic dykes at Zangamarajupalle which intrude the Cumbum Formation of the Cuddapah Basin. However, the age of the Tirumalgiri lamproite (c. 1256 Ma) is similar to that of the Ramannapeta lamproite (c. 1224 Ma) within the Krishna field. Our study provides evidence for protracted ultrapotassic (lamproitic) magmatism from c. 1.43 to 1.1 Ga over a widespread area (c. 2500 km2) in and around the Cuddapah Basin and the EDC. Implications of the obtained new ages for the diamond provenance of the Banganapalle Conglomerates, the age of the Kurnool Group and for the timing of break-up of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Columbia/Nuna are explored.
Kumar, S.P., Shaikh, A.M., Patel, S.C., Sheikh, J.M., Behera, D., Pruseth, K.L., Ravi, S., Tappe, S.Multi-stage magmatic history of olivine-leucite lamproite dykes from Banganapalle, Dharwar craton, India: evidence from compositional zoning of spinel.Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 115, pp. 87-112. pdfIndialamproite

Abstract: Mesoproterozoic lamproite dykes occurring in the Banganapalle Lamproite Field of southern India show extensive hydrothermal alteration, but preserve fresh spinel, apatite and rutile in the groundmass. Spinels belong to three genetic populations. Spinels of the first population, which form crystal cores with overgrowth rims of later spinels, are Al-rich chromites derived from disaggregated mantle peridotite. Spinels of the second population include spongy-textured grains and alteration rims of titanian magnesian aluminous chromites that formed by metasomatic interactions between mantle wall-rocks and precursor lamproite melts before their entrainment into the erupting lamproite magma. Spinels that crystallised directly from the lamproite magma constitute the third population and show five distinct compositional subtypes (spinel-IIIa to IIIe), which represent discrete stages of crystal growth. First stage magmatic spinel (spinel-IIIa) includes continuously zoned macrocrysts of magnesian aluminous chromite, which formed together with Al-Cr-rich phlogopite macrocrysts from an earlier pulse of lamproite magma at mantle depth. Crystallisation of spinel during the other four identified stages occurred during magma emplacement at crustal levels. Titanian magnesian chromites (spinel-IIIb) form either discrete crystals or overgrowth rims on spinel-IIIa cores. Further generations of overgrowth rims comprise titanian magnesian aluminous chromite (spinel-IIIc), magnetite with ulvöspinel component (spinel-IIId) and lastly pure magnetite (spinel-IIIe). Abrupt changes of the compositions between successive zones of magmatic spinel indicate either a hiatus in the crystallisation history or co-crystallisation of other groundmass phases, or possibly magma mixing. This study highlights how different textural and compositional populations of spinel provide important insights into the complex evolution of lamproite magmas including clues to elusive precursor metasomatic events that affect cratonic mantle lithosphere.
Kvasnytsya, V.M., Kaminsky, F.V,Unusual green type lb-lab Dniester-type diamond from Ukrainian placers.Mineralogy and Petrology, doi.org/10.1007/ s00710-020-00732-w 12p. PdfEurope, Ukrainediamond morphology

Abstract: Among placer diamond occurrences in Ukraine, a group of microdiamonds have been distinguished that have specific morphological, color and spectral characteristics, not observed in other natural diamonds. These diamonds, termed "Dniester-type diamonds", have tetrahexahedroidal and rhombododecahedroidal morphologies, green coloration, and high concentrations of single-atom, unaggregated nitrogen in the form of C-centers (66-74% of all N atoms), along with low ratios of nitrogen aggregation (0-13% agrregation ratio) and high total nitrogen content (892-1493 atomic ppm). With these characteristics, Dniester-type diamonds are approximate the Type Ib-Iab classification. The predominance of single-atom, unaggregated nitrogen indicates a short residence time under high-temperature conditions. These Dniester-type diamonds have a narrow range of carbon isotopic compositions, from d¹³? = -10.52‰ VPDB t? -12.82‰ VPDB (average d¹³? = -11.85‰ VPDB). They are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene sediments of the southwestern part of the Ukrainian Shield. This distribution forms a local halo within the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers interfluve and Black Sea beach sediments, approximately 650 km in length. This implies their endemic character and the likely nearby presence of primary source(s) of unknown, possibly non-kimberlitic type.
Latutrie, B., Ross, P-S.What lithic clasts and lithic-rich facies can tell us about diatreme processes: an example at Round Butte, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, Arizona.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research ( researchgate), 34p. PdfUnited States, Arizonadiatremes

Abstract: Round Butte (Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona) exposes a diatreme 170-190 m across, 190 m below the pre-eruptive surface. The central part of the massif is 130-150 m in diameter, displaying 20-30 m-high subvertical cliffs. The well-known layer-cake stratigraphy of the sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Plateau permits identification of the largest lithic fragments preserved in the Round Butte diatreme. We define three main groups of pyroclastic facies: undisturbed beds, disturbed beds and non-bedded rocks. Two other minor facies groups were mapped: megablocks (blocks over 2 m in long axis), and small-volume debris avalanche deposits. Pyroclastic megablocks are finer grained and richer in lithic clasts than most diatreme rocks surrounding them. These pyroclastic megablocks are interpreted as subsided portions of the maar ejecta ring. Sedimentary megablocks originate either from above, or from the same level, relative to their current location, i.e. no megablock has a net upward displacement. Small-volume debris avalanche deposits are poorly sorted deposits resulting from gravitational destabilization of the surrounding country rocks into the syn-eruptive crater. Small-volume debris avalanches and individual megablock collapse are the main ways in which the crater grew in size laterally during the eruption. We combine the componentry of the disturbed bedded pyroclastic facies, the non-bedded pyroclastic facies and the pyroclastic megablocks with a series of conceptual models for country rock fragmentation. This exercise further allows us to estimate diatreme wall slopes of 70° below the Bidahochi Formation to approximately the depth of the root zone around 440 m below the pre-eruptive surface. Lithic fragments at the current level of exposure come from elevations up to 190 m above (i.e., up to the pre-eruptive surface) and up to 250 m below (i.e., down to the root zone) their current locations. Pyroclastic units displaying the richest content of lithic clasts with a deep origin are typically the non-bedded facies interpreted to have formed from debris jets during the eruption.
Lebel, D.Geological survey of Canada 8.0: mapping the journey towards predictive geoscience.Hill, P.R., Lebel, D., Hitzman, M., Smelror, M., Thorleifson, H. eds The changing role of Geological Surveys . GSL SP 499, Vol. 499, pp. 28-30. pdfCanadatechnology

Abstract: The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has been furthering the geoscientific understanding of Canada since its inception in 1842, the equivalent of seven generations ago. The evolution of the activities of the GSC over this period has been driven by evolving geographic, economic and political contexts and needs. Likewise, new technologies and evolving scientific methods and models shaped broadly the successive generations of GSC geoscience activities. The most recent GSC generation presented a mixed portfolio of large framework mapping geoscience programmes, and more targeted, hypothesis-driven geoscience research, and the development of decision support products for a range of government, industry and other stakeholders needs. Entering its eighth generation, the GSC and related organizations are embracing digital technologies for applications such as the evaluation of mineral resource potential, the evaluation of risks and the early warning of earthquakes. In order to do so, the GSC will need to develop new methods and systems in co-operation with other geological survey organizations, and target its data acquisition and research to further advance its ability to respond to the evolving needs of society to navigate geology through space and time, from the past to the present, and from the present to the future.
Litasov, K.D., Kagi, H., Bekker, T.B., Makino, Y., Hirata, T., Brazhkin, V.V.Why Tolbachik diamonds cannot be natural.The American Mineralogist, Vol. 106. pp. 44-53. pdfRussiadeposit - Kamchatka

Abstract: Taking into account recent publications, we provide additional comprehensive evidence that type Ib cuboctahedral diamonds and some other microcrystalline diamonds from Kamchatka volcanic rocks and alluvial placers cannot be natural and undoubtedly represent synthetic materials, which appear in the natural rocks by anthropogenic contamination. The major arguments provided in favor of the natural origin of those diamonds can be easily disproved. They include the coexistence of diamond and deltalumite from Koryaksky volcano; coexistence with super-reduced corundum and moissanite, Mn-Ni silicide inclusions, F-Cl enrichment and F/Cl ratios, and carbon and nitrogen isotopes in Tolbachik diamonds, as well as microtwinning, Mn-Ni silicides, and other inclusions in microcrystalline diamond aggregates from other Kamchatka placers. We emphasize the importance of careful comparison of unusual minerals found in nature, which include type Ib cuboctahedral diamonds and super-reduced phase assemblages resembling industrial slags, with synthetic analogs. The cavitation model proposed for the origin of Tolbachik diamonds is also unreliable since cavitation has only been shown to cause the formation of nanosized diamonds only.
Liu, Y., Huang, R., Wu, Ye, Zhang, D., Zhang, J., Wu, X.Thermal equation of state of phase egg ( AlSi03OH): implications for hydrous phases in the deep Earth.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 176, 8 doi.org/10.1007 /s00410-020- 01758-1 10p. PdfMantlesubduction
Lou, W., Zhang, D., Bayless, R.C.Review of mineral recognition and its future. AI techniquesApplied Geochemistry, Vol. 122, 104727, 10p. PdfGlobalmineralogy

Abstract: Mineral identification is a basic skill in geological studies, and is useful for characterizing rocks and tracing diagenesis and mineralization processes. Traditional methods of observation under a microscope are subject to many complex factors such as the limitations of resolution and magnification, so they are poor in qualitative analysis, and inefficient. With the expansion of geological prospecting, it is necessary to provide information for all minerals, pores and trace elements in rocks. So, mineral identification has started to rely on advanced microbeam mineral analysis techniques. This paper summarizes the common mineral analysis techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Automated mineralogy (AM) systems. These microbeam technologies now approach a semi-automated analysis process, and most of these methods mainly detect the chemical composition of the mineral, rather than the mineral's optical characteristics which are the most basic properties of minerals. Therefore, this study proposes a method that can use mineral's optical features for automatic classification, mineral recognition based on convolutional neural network (CNN) and face recognition technology. The feasibility, research status and outlook of this method are also discussed. The proposed method uses convolution neural network technology to automatically extract the optical characteristics of minerals for mineral identification. Successful application of these techniques will have profound application value by reducing the cost and time needed to process and identify minerals.
Luo, Y., Korenaga, J.Efficiency of eclogite removal from continental lithosphere and its implications for cratonic diamonds. CLMGeology, in press available 5p. PdfMantlemelting

Abstract: Continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) may have been built from subducted slabs, but the apparent lack of concurrent oceanic crust in CLM, known as the mass imbalance problem, remains unresolved. Here, we present a simple dynamic model to evaluate the likelihood of losing dense eclogitized oceanic crust from CLM by gravitational instability. Our model allowed us to assess the long-term evolution of such crust removal, based on how thermal and viscosity profiles change over time across the continental lithosphere. We found that the oceanic crust incorporated early into CLM can quickly escape to the asthenosphere, whereas that incorporated after a certain age would be preserved in CLM. This study provides a plausible explanation for the mass imbalance problem posed by the oceanic ridge origin hypothesis of CLM and points to the significance of preservation bias inherent to the studies of cratonic diamonds.
Magna, T., Viladar, S., Rapprich, V., Pour, O., Hopp, J., Cejkova, B.Nb-V enriched sovites of the northeastern and eastern part of the Amba Dongar carbonatite ring dike, India - a reflection of post-emplacement hydrothermal overprint?Geochemistry, Vol. 80, doi.org/10.1016 /j.chemer.2019 .125534 11p. PdfIndiadeposit - Amba Dongar

Abstract: Wakefieldite-(Ce,La) and vanadinite in coarse-grained calciocarbonatites (sovites) are for the first time reported from the northeastern part of the worldwide largest fluorite deposit at the Amba Dongar carbonatite ring dike, India. Sovite in this part of the carbonatite ring dike is rich in pyrochlore, calcite and magnetite. Pyrochlore makes up almost 50% of some sovite samples and shows core-to-rim compositional changes. The core of pyrochlore consists of primary fluorcalciopyrochlore with high F and Na contents while the margins gained elevated amounts of Pb, La and Ce with the associated loss of F and Na due to circulation of hydrothermal solutions. The presence of wakefieldite-(Ce,La) and vanadinite points to an exceptionally high V abundance in hydrothermal solutions formed towards the end of the carbonatite magma activity. This investigation thus opens new promising areas for Nb and REE prospection in the eastern part of the Amba Dongar carbonatite body.
Martin, E.L., Spencer, C.J., Collins, W.J., Thomas, R.J., Macey, P.H., Roberts, N.M.W.The core of Rodinia formed by the juxtaposition of opposed retreating and advancing accretionary orogens.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 211, doi.org/10.1016 /j.earscirev.2020 .103413 17p. Pdf Globalcratons

Abstract: Long-lived (800?Ma) Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic accretionary orogens on the margins of Laurentia, Baltica, Amazonia, and Kalahari collided to form the core of the supercontinent, Rodinia. Accretionary orogens in Laurentia and Baltica record predominately radiogenic zircon eHf(t) and whole-rock Pb isotopic compositions, short crustal residence times (ca. 0.5?Ga), and the development of arc-backarc complexes. The accretionary orogenic record of Laurentia and Baltica is consistent with a retreating accretionary orogen and analogous to the Phanerozoic western Pacific orogenic system. In contrast, the Mesoproterozoic orogens of Amazon and Kalahari cratons record unradiogenic zircon eHf(t) values, ca. 0.8?Ga crustal residence times, and more ancient whole-rock Pb isotopic signatures. The accretionary orogenic record of Amazonia and Kalahari indicates the preferential incorporation of cratonic material in continental arcs of advancing accretionary orogens comparable to the Phanerozoic eastern Pacific orogenic system. Based on similarities in the geodynamic evolution of the Phanerozoic circum-Pacific orogens peripheral to Gondwana/Pangea, we suggest that the Mesoproterozoic accretionary orogens formed as peripheral subduction zones along the margin of the supercontinent Nuna (ca. 1.8-1.6?Ga). The eventual collapse of this peripheral subduction zone onto itself and closure of the external ocean around Nuna to form Rodinia is equivalent to the projected future collapse of the circum-Pacific subduction system and juxtaposition of Australia-Asia with South America. The juxtaposition of advancing and retreating accretionary orogens at the core of the supercontinent Rodinia demonstrates that supercontinent assembly can occur by the closure of external oceans and indicates that future closure of the Pacific Ocean is plausible.
Massonne, H-J., Li, B.Zoning of eclogitic garnet cores - a key pattern demonstrating the dominance of tectonic erosion as part of the burial process of worldwide occurring eclogites.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 210, doi.org/10.1016 /j.earscirev.2020. 103356 27p. Pdf MantleUHP, geodynamics

Abstract: Eclogites are witnesses of geodynamic processes that are commonly related to subduction of oceanic crust. Information on the part of these processes that refers to the burial of this rock type is rarely published but stored in the eclogitic garnet core and inclusions therein. To better understand general aspects of the burial process, a literature search on the chemical characteristics of garnet in worldwide occurrences of eclogite was undertaken. In most cases extended garnet cores show either a prograde growth zoning with increasing Mg, starting at a few percent of pyrope component, and decreasing Mn contents (type I eclogite) or a (nearly) constant chemical composition frequently with pyrope contents significantly above 10 percent (eclogites of types II and III). Only in minor cases, it is difficult to assign the reported garnet core to an eclogite type. The growth zoning of garnet was thermodynamically modelled for the chemical composition of a basalt following different burial paths. These paths are characterized either by a trajectory along a low geothermal gradient (type I eclogite), as expected for the subducting upper portion of oceanic crust, or a one characterized by nearly isothermal burial at temperatures above 500 °C reaching peak pressures up to 2.1 GPa (type III eclogite), as possibly due to crustal thickening during continent-continent collision, or more (type II eclogite) when basic rocks are tectonically eroded from the overriding continental plate before deep subduction. In addition, diffusion modelling was undertaken on mm-sized garnet demonstrating that the characteristics of the core zoning are not fully obliterated even during residence at temperatures of 800-850 °C within 10 million years. The scrutiny of more than 200 eclogites reported in the literature led to the following result: about half of them are type II eclogites; a third and a sixth can be related to type I and type III, respectively. Among type III are almost all of the few Proterozoic eclogites considered. To demonstrate the benefit of our study, we link the core zoning of eclogitic garnet from various (ultra)high-pressure terranes in Phanerozoic orogenic belts to the geodynamics shaping corresponding orogens. The eclogites in these belts are dominated by type II. Thus, we propose that some of the material of the lower portion of the overriding continental crust was tectonically eroded by a subducted oceanic plate and brought to great depth. Afterwards, this material was exhumed first in a deep subduction channel and then in an exhumation channel during continent-continent collision where a contact with the upper continental plate was re-established. Furthermore, we suggest that type II eclogite can also occur in extrusion wedges as far as oblique subduction took place.
Massuyeau, M., Gardes, E., Rogerie, G., Aulbach, S., Tappe, S., Le Trong, E., Sifre, D., Gaillard, F.MAGLAB: A computing platform connecting geophysical signatures to melting processes in Earth's mantle.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, doi.org/10.1016/ j.pepi.2020.106638 51p. PdfMantlegeophysics - magnetics

Abstract: Decompression melting of the upper mantle produces magmas and volcanism at the Earth's surface. Experimental petrology demonstrates that the presence of CO2 and H2O enhances peridotite melting anywhere within the upper mantle down to approximately 200-300?km depth. The presence of mantle melts with compositions ranging from carbonate-rich to silicate-rich unavoidably affects the geophysical signals retrieved from Earth's mantle. Geochemical investigations of erupted intraplate magmas along with geophysical surveys allow for constraining the nature and volume of primary melts, and a sound formalism is required to integrate these diverse datasets into a realistic model for the upper mantle including melting processes. Here, we introduce MAGLAB, a model developed to calculate the composition and volume fraction of melts in the upper mantle, together with the corresponding electrical conductivity of partially molten mantle peridotites at realistic pressure-temperature conditions and volatile contents. We use MAGLAB to show how the compositions of intraplate magmas relate to variations in lithosphere thickness. Progressive partial melting of a homogeneous peridotitic mantle source can in theory create the diversity of compositions observed among the spectrum of intraplate magma types, with kimberlite melts beneath thick continental shields, alkaline magmas such as melilitite, nephelinite and basanite beneath thinner continents and relatively old plus thick oceanic lithospheres, and ‘regular’ basalts beneath the youngest and thinnest oceanic lithospheres as well as beneath significantly thinned continental lithospheres. MAGLAB calculations support recent experimental findings about the role of H2O in the upper mantle on producing primary kimberlitic melts in addition to CO2. We demonstrate the robustness of MAGLAB calculations by reproducing the compositions of erupted melts as well as associated mantle electrical conductivities beneath the Society hotspot in the Pacific Ocean. A comparison of our simulations with magnetotelluric surveys at various oceanic settings shows that the heterogeneities in electrical conductivity of Earth's upper mantle are related to variations in volatile content via the presence of small (generally <<1?wt%) and heterogeneously distributed fractions of CO2-H2O-bearing melts.
Mazzero, F.C., Rocco, I., Tucker, R.D., Morra, V., D'Antonio, M., Melluso, L.Olivine melilitites, mantle xenoliths, and xenocrysts of the Takarindiona district: petrogenesis, magmatic evolution, and the sub-continental lithospheric mantle of east-central Madagascar.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 174, 104059, 17p. PdfAfrica, Madagascarmelilitites

Abstract: The olivine melilitites from the southern part of the 6.8 Ma-old Takarindiona volcanic field (Eastern Madagascar) are olivine ± chromite -phyric lavas, with zoned titanaugite, perovskite, melilite, nepheline, monticellite, Ba-Ti-mica and Fe-Ti oxides as microphenocrysts and groundmass phases. The rocks are very primitive, rich in incompatible trace elements (e.g., Ba = 1049 ± 153 ppm, Sr = 1050 ± 167 ppm, Nb = 98 ± 13 ppm; La/Ybn = 41 ± 5; La/Nb = 0.88 ± 0.05), and have restricted ranges of initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.70391-0.70410) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.51272-0.51282). The rocks follow a differentiation trend controlled by ab. 20% removal/addition of phenocryst olivine ± chromite. The olivine melilititic magmas are the product of small degrees of partial melting (1-3%) of a peridotitic source, enriched in highly incompatible trace elements by CO2-, F-, and H2O-rich melts, located within the garnet stability field (3-3.5 GPa and ~100 km depth) of sub-continental lithospheric mantle, where carbonates (dolomite) and possibly phlogopite were stable phases. Mantle xenoliths within the volcanics are mostly spinel harzburgites having mineral modes and chemical compositions suggesting variable degrees of "basalt" melt extraction. Based on textural and chemical evidence, and quantitative thermobarometric estimates, the xenoliths were incorporated at a pressure of ~1.1 GPa (~35-40 km depth), far shallower than the source of the melilititic magmas, and along a predictably cool geotherm beneath Archean continental lithosphere. Highly resorbed orthopyroxene xenocrysts mantled by augite indicate that the melilitites may have also entrained lower crustal materials or underplated subalkaline rocks. The mantle sources of the lavas and mantle xenoliths of the Takarindiona district indicate stratification of the lithospheric mantle, and help constraining the lithospheric features and the magmatic history of the Eastern Madagascar craton.
McElhenny, G., Turner, M., Breeding, C.M.Corundum inclusions in gem diamond.Gems & Gemology , Vol. 56, 1, pp. 129-131.Technologydiamond inclusions

Abstract: Inclusions can tell us a great deal about a diamond’s formation history. Inclusions such as olivine, garnet, and chromite are more common, while others such as kyanite, zircon, and corundum (Al2O3) can be quite rare. Regardless of their rarity, diamond inclusions are often quite fascinating as they trap a small bit of the deep earth that cannot otherwise be sampled.
Melnik, A.E., Korolev,N.M., Skublov, S.G., Muller, D., LiL, Q-L., Li, X-H.Zircon in mantle eclogite xenoliths: a reviewGeological Magazine, https://doi.org/ 10.1017/ S0016756820001387Africa, Angola, Central African Republic, GabonKasai craton

Abstract: Very few zircon-bearing, kimberlite-hosted mantle eclogite xenoliths have been identified to date; however, the zircon they contain is crucial for our understanding of subcratonic lithospheric mantle evolution and eclogite genesis. In this study, we constrain the characteristics of zircon from mantle eclogite xenoliths based on existing mineralogical and geochemical data from zircons from different geological settings, and on the inferred origin of mantle eclogites. Given the likely origin and subsequent evolution of mantle eclogites, we infer that the xenoliths can contain zircons with magmatic, metamorphic and xenogenic (i.e. kimberlitic zircon) origins. Magmatic zircon can be inherited from low-pressure mafic oceanic crust precursors, or might form during direct crystallization of eclogites from primary mantle-derived melts at mantle pressures. Metamorphic zircon within mantle eclogites has a number of possible origins, ranging from low-pressure hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crustal protoliths to metasomatism related to kimberlite magmatism. This study outlines a possible approach for the identification of inherited magmatic zircon within subduction-related mantle eclogites as well as xenogenic kimberlitic zircon within all types of mantle eclogites. We demonstrate this approach using zircon grains from kimberlite-hosted eclogite xenoliths from the Kasai Craton, which reveals that most, if not all, of these zircons were most likely incorporated as a result of laboratory-based contamination.
Merdith, A.S., Williams, S.E., Collins, A.S., Tetley, M.G., Mulder, J.A., Blades, M.L., Young, A., Armistead, S.E., Cannon, J., Zahirovic, S., Muller, R.D.Extending full plate tectonic models into deep time: linking the Neoproterozoic and the Phanerozoic.Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 214, 44p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: Recent progress in plate tectonic reconstructions has seen models move beyond the classical idea of continental drift by attempting to reconstruct the full evolving configuration of tectonic plates and plate boundaries. A particular problem for the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian is that many existing interpretations of geological and palaeomagnetic data have remained disconnected from younger, better-constrained periods in Earth history. An important test of deep time reconstructions is therefore to demonstrate the continuous kinematic viability of tectonic motions across multiple supercontinent cycles. We present, for the first time, a continuous full-plate model spanning 1 Ga to the present-day, that includes a revised and improved model for the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian (1000-520 Ma) that connects with models of the Phanerozoic, thereby opening up pre-Gondwana times for quantitative analysis and further regional refinements. In this contribution, we first summarise methodological approaches to full-plate modelling and review the existing full-plate models in order to select appropriate models that produce a single continuous model. Our model is presented in a palaeomagnetic reference frame, with a newly-derived apparent polar wander path for Gondwana from 540 to 320 Ma, and a global apparent polar wander path from 320 to 0 Ma. We stress, though while we have used palaeomagnetic data when available, the model is also geologically constrained, based on preserved data from past-plate boundaries. This study is intended as a first step in the direction of a detailed and self-consistent tectonic reconstruction for the last billion years of Earth history, and our model files are released to facilitate community development.
Meyer, N.Diamonds and their inclusions from the Koffiefontein pipe provide insights into the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal craton.Vancouver Kimberlite Cluster, Feb. 24, recorded update https://www.youtube.com/ channel/UCcZvayDnqDD azIHAh1Otreg gets you into the VKCAfrica, South Africadeposit - Koffiefontein

Abstract: Diamonds and their mineral inclusions preserve mantle processes over space and time. Forming over a protracted period, diamonds also provide snapshots of early craton formation and mantle evolution over much of Earth’s history. The lithosphere beneath Koffiefontein is extremely depleted and is characterised by high-Mg# olivine and low-Ca garnet. In addition to garnet LREE enrichment, Koffiefontein experienced a unique K-Nb-Ta-rich metasomatism event that resulted in new minerals. The lack of clinopyroxene and co-existing garnet-orthopyroxene assemblages lead to the use of the electron microprobe for trace element analysis of Al in olivine. Geothermobarometry indicates that upper mantle diamond formation conditions are 1100-1300 °C and 4-7 GPa. Koffiefontein diamonds have a main d13C mode for both peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds similar to mantle carbon. Relationships of d15N-[N] and d13C-d15N indicate that nitrogen was derived from subducted sources and suggests that formation of not only eclogitic but also peridotitic diamonds involved fluids derived from altered oceanic crust. Lower mantle diamonds with coexisting ferropericlase and former bridgmanite indicate formation at or below 660 km. The high bulk Mg# of this assemblage is consistent with the diamond substrate originating from the depleted lithospheric mantle portion of an oceanic slab. Diamond formation at Koffiefontein dominantly takes place in depleted peridotite at both lithospheric and lower mantle depths. The d13C-d15N systematics suggest the same subducted source for both peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds. Subduction has played an important role in the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton and subsequent diamond formation.
Mints, M.V., Dokukina, K.A., Afonina, T.B.Precambrian lithosphere beneath Hudson Bay: a new geological model based on the Hudson Bay lithospheric experiment ( HuBLE), Canadian shield.Tectonophysics, Vol. 799, 15p. Doi.org/10.1016/ j.tecto.2020.228701Canada, Ontario, Quebectomography

Abstract: The oval-shaped basin of Hudson Bay occurs near the center of the round-oval Archaean crustal domain of the North American continent. This paper presents models of the geological structure and evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle underlying Hudson Bay and surrounding tectonic provinces based on geological interpretations of regional geological and geophysical data and results of seismic tomography investigations that have been conducted under the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment. The experiment was aimed at lithospheric processes directly related to the origin of the North American craton and the Hudson Bay basin. Hudson Bay is located directly above the lithospheric keel of North America. The geological history demonstrates systematic "renovation" of the basin: (1) origin and evolution of the Neoarchaean Lake Minto basin (~2.75 Ga); (2) accumulation of the Palaeoproterozoic volcanic-sedimentary filling of the epicontinental basin, relics of which is preserved on its passive margins (2.03-1.87 Ga); (3) origin of Ordovician-Late Devonian sedimentary sequence whose maximum thickness reaches 2.5 km; and (4) the development of Late Jurassic-Miocene sediment-filled ring-shaped trough immediately above the lithospheric keel. The Hudson Bay basin occurs above the lithospheric keel in compliance with thermomechanical model of ascending plume. Tomography studies have not detected evidence of either production or transformation of the lithosphere in the Palaeoproterozoic, which are implied by the model of the United Plates of America. Interpretations of tomography data reveal a vertical axial zone in the lithosphere beneath Hudson Bay, which extends from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary to the base of the crust or, perhaps, even to the present day surface. The zone is made up of relatively light low-velocity igneous rocks, probably a swarm of kimberlite dikes or pipes. At 2.75 Ga, the North American continent was a single continental mass with Hudson Bay at its center.
Neil, B.J.C., Gibson, H.D., Pehrsson, S.J., Martel, E., Thiessen, E.J., Crowley, J.L.Provenance, stratigraphic and precise depositional age constraints for an outlier of the 1.9 to 1.8 Ga Nonacho Group, Rae craton, Northwest Territories, Canada.Precambrian Research, Vol. 352, 105999, 15p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesgeochronology

Abstract: The Nonacho Group comprises six formations of continental clastic rocks that were deposited between 1.91 and 1.83?Ga. The Nonacho Group is part of a broader assemblage of conglomerate and sandstone that was deposited atop the Rae craton in response to the amalgamation of Laurentia and supercontinent Nuna, but the details of its tectonic setting are contentious. This paper documents an outlier of Nonacho Group rocks ~50?km east of the main Nonacho basin. Field observations and LA-ICPMS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology are integrated with previous studies of the main basin to better understand the group’s depositional history, provenance and tectonic setting. The lithology and detrital zircon age spectra of the outlier allow for its correlation to the upper two formations of the Nonacho Group. CA-ID-TIMS (chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry) analyses of two fragments of the youngest detrital zircon provide a maximum depositional age of 1901.0?±?0.9?Ma. A felsic volcanic cobble dated at ca. 2.38?Ga provides evidence of volcanism during the Arrowsmith orogeny. Detrital zircon dates recovered from the outlier (ca. 3.4-3.0, 2.7, 2.5-2.3 and 2.0-1.9?Ga) are consistent with derivation from topography of the Taltson and/or Thelon orogens on the western margin of the Rae craton. Taltson-Thelon (2.0 to 1.9?Ga) aged detritus is only abundant in the upper two formations of the Nonacho Group, marking a change in provenance from the lower formations. This change in provenance may have coincided with a period of renewed uplift and the unroofing of Taltson-Thelon plutons. The detrital zircon provenance and depositional age of the Nonacho Group is consistent with models that link its deposition to the Taltson and/or Thelon orogens. However, tectonism associated with the 1.9 to 1.8?Ga Snowbird and Trans-Hudson orogens to the east could also have affected basin formation or the change in provenance from the lower to upper Nonacho Group. This study highlights the importance of CA-ID-TIMS in establishing accurate and precise maximum depositional ages for sedimentary successions.
Nemeth, P., McColl, K., Smith, R., Murri, M.Diamond-Graphene composite nanostructures.Nano Letters, doi.10.1021/acs/ nanolett.Oc0556 10p. PdfGlobalnanodiamond

Abstract: The search for new nanostructural topologies composed of elemental carbon is driven by technological opportunities as well as the need to understand the structure and evolution of carbon materials formed by planetary shock impact events and in laboratory syntheses. We describe two new families of diamond-graphene (diaphite) phases constructed from layered and bonded sp3 and sp2 nanostructural units and provide a framework for classifying the members of this new class of materials. The nanocomposite structures are identified within both natural impact diamonds and laboratory-shocked samples and possess diffraction features that have previously been assigned to lonsdaleite and postgraphite phases. The diaphite nanocomposites represent a new class of high-performance carbon materials that are predicted to combine the superhard qualities of diamond with high fracture toughness and ductility enabled by the graphitic units and the atomically defined interfaces between the sp3- and sp2-bonded nanodomains.
Neves, S.P.Comparative geological evolution of the Borobrema province and Sao Francisco craton ( eastern Brazil): decratonization and crustal reworking during west Gondwana assembly and implications for paleogeographic reconstructions.Precambrian Research, Vol. 355, 106119, 23p. PdfSouth America, Brazil, Paraibacraton

Abstract: 70-80% of the continental crust was produced during the 4.0-2.0 Ga time span, but the preserved area of Archean/early Paleoproterozoic cratons is smaller than 40%. Part of this deficit can be accounted for by the presence of reworked old crust in the basement of mid-Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic orogenic belts. Here, I compare the crustal evolution of the Brasiliano-Pan-African Borborema Province (BP) with that of the São Francisco Craton (SFC) in eastern Brazil and highlight numerous geological aspects, several of which are uncommon in other cratons/orogenic belts, indicating their shared evolution for most of the Precambrian. These include: 1. Presence of the oldest rocks (Eo- to Paleoarchean) from the South American Platform. 2. Occurrence of Siderian (2.5-2.3 Ga) rocks. 3. Generation of juvenile crust and reworking of pre-existing rocks during the Transamazonian event (2.2-2.0 Ga). 4. Intermittent rifting and intraplate magmatic events between 1.78 and 1.50 Ga. 5. Intrusion of mafic dykes and A-type granites at 1.0-0.85 Ga. 6. Intrusion of mafic rocks, syenites and granitoids with intraplate signature between ca. 0.71 and 0.64 Ga. 7. The lack of evidence for igneous and tectonic activity between ca. 1.95 and 1.78 Ga, during most of the Mesoproterozoic, and between 0.85 and 0.73 Ga. The temporal coincidence of Rhyacian orogenic events in the SFC and BP favors the hypothesis that they were part of a continent formed by the accretion of Archean/early-Paleoproterozoic blocks and of juvenile arc crust during the Transamazonian Orogeny. In addition, the recording of several intraplate tectonomagmatic events from the late-Paleoproterozoic to the Neoproterozoic indicates that they remained united until at least the mid-Neoproterozoic. In this context, BP can be interpreted as a fragment of the SFC re-accreted and reworked during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny (ca. 640-550 Ma). Recent studies demonstrate that most of the basement of the Brasília and Araçuaí belts, which occur to the west and east, respectively, of the SFC, also resulted from its reworking. Therefore, an area c. two times larger than the current outline of the SFC can be inferred, indicating an intense process of decratonization during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny. The intermittent late Paleoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic extension-related magmatism in this Greater São Francisco paleocontinent contrasts with the worldwide occurrence of orogenic episodes accompanying the amalgamation of the Columbia supercontinent, its fragmentation, and the build-up of Rodinia. These differences suggest that Greater São Francisco was not part of these supercontinental assemblages.
Ngwenya, N.S., Tappe, S.Diamondiferous lamproites of the Luangwa Rift in central Africa and links to remobilized cratonic lithosphere.Chemical Geology, in press available 31p. PdfAfrica, Zambialamproite

Abstract: Mesozoic diamondiferous lamproite pipes occur along the Kapamba River within the Luangwa Valley of eastern Zambia, which is a ca. 300-200?Ma old Karoo-age precursor branch to the East African Rift System. The Luangwa Rift developed above a reactivated mega-shear zone that cuts through the Proterozoic Irumide Belt between the Congo-Tanzania-Kalahari cratons and thus it provides a rare snapshot of early-stage cratonic rift evolution. The primary mineralogy of the fresh volcanic rocks suggests that they represent a continuum between primitive olivine lamproites and slightly more evolved olivine-leucite lamproites. Mineral compositions and evolutionary trends, such as the strong Al-depletion at Tisingle bondF enrichment in groundmass phlogopite and potassic richterite, resemble those of classic lamproite provinces in circum-cratonic settings (e.g., the Leucite Hills of Wyoming and the West Kimberley field in Australia). However, there are some similarities to orangeites from the Kaapvaal craton (formerly Group-2 kimberlites), type kamafugites from the East African Rift, and ultramafic lamprophyres from a key region of the rifted North Atlantic craton, which implies a complex interplay between source-forming and tectonic processes during Karoo-age lamproite magma formation beneath south-central Africa. The bulk compositions of the Kapamba volcanic rocks fall within the range of ‘cratonic’ low-silica lamproites, but there is overlap with orangeites, in particular with the more evolved leucite- and sanidine-bearing orangeite varieties. Modelling of the process by which most of the original leucite was transformed into analcime suggests that the primitive alkaline magmas at Kapamba contained ~6-9?wt% K2O and had high K2O/Na2O ratios between ~1.6-6.2 at >10?wt% MgO - confirming the ultrapotassic nature of the mantle-derived magmatism beneath the Luangwa Rift. The virtually CO2-free, H2O-F-rich Kapamba lamproites present an extension of the geochemical continuum displayed by the members of the CO2-H2O-rich kamafugite / ultramafic lamprophyre group. Hence, we suggest that the Kapamba lamproites and the type kamafugites, located within separate branches of the East African Rift System, represent melting products of similar K-metasomatized cratonic mantle domains, but their formation occurred under contrasting volatile conditions at different stages during rift development (i.e., incipient versus slightly more advanced rifting). Temperature estimates for peridotite-derived olivine xenocrysts from the Kapamba lamproites suggest that the Luangwa Valley is an aborted cratonic rift that retained a relatively cold (=42?mW/m2) lithospheric mantle root down to ~180-200?km depth during the Mesozoic. Olivine major and trace element compositions support the presence of an Archean mantle root (up to 92.4?mol% forsterite contents) that is progressively metasomatized toward its base (e.g., increasing Tisingle bondCu contents with depth). For south-central Africa, it appears that significant volumes of Archean cratonic mantle domains ‘survived’ beneath strongly deformed and granite-intruded Proterozoic terranes, which suggests that the continental crust is more strongly impacted during collisional or rift tectonics than the ‘stabilizing’ mantle lithosphere.
Oliveira, B., Alfonso, J.C., Tilhac, R.A disequilibrium reactive transport model for mantle magmatism.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 61, 9, egaa067, 35p. PdfMantlemagmatism

Abstract: Besides standard thermo-mechanical conservation laws, a general description of mantle magmatism requires the simultaneous consideration of phase changes (e.g. from solid to liquid), chemical reactions (i.e. exchange of chemical components) and multiple dynamic phases (e.g. liquid percolating through a deforming matrix). Typically, these processes evolve at different rates, over multiple spatial scales and exhibit complex feedback loops and disequilibrium features. Partially as a result of these complexities, integrated descriptions of the thermal, mechanical and chemical evolution of mantle magmatism have been challenging for numerical models. Here we present a conceptual and numerical model that provides a versatile platform to study the dynamics and nonlinear feedbacks inherent in mantle magmatism and to make quantitative comparisons between petrological and geochemical datasets. Our model is based on the combination of three main modules: (1) a Two-Phase, Multi-Component, Reactive Transport module that describes how liquids and solids evolve in space and time; (2) a melting formalism, called Dynamic Disequilibirum Melting, based on thermodynamic grounds and capable of describing the chemical exchange of major elements between phases in disequilibrium; (3) a grain-scale model for diffusion-controlled trace-element mass transfer. We illustrate some of the benefits of the model by analyzing both major and trace elements during mantle magmatism in a mid-ocean ridge-like context. We systematically explore the effects of mantle potential temperature, upwelling velocity, degree of equilibrium and hetererogeneous sources on the compositional variability of melts and residual peridotites. Our model not only reproduces the main thermo-chemical features of decompression melting but also predicts counter-intuitive differentiation trends as a consequence of phase changes and transport occurring in disequilibrium. These include a negative correlation between Na2O and FeO in melts generated at the same Tp and the continued increase of the melt’s CaO/Al2O3 after Cpx exhaustion. Our model results also emphasize the role of disequilibrium arising from diffusion for the interpretation of trace-element signatures. The latter is shown to be able to reconcile the major- and trace-element compositions of abyssal peridotites with field evidence indicating extensive reaction between peridotites and melts. The combination of chemical disequilibrium of major elements and sluggish diffusion of trace elements may also result in weakened middle rare earth to heavy rare earth depletion comparable with the effect of residual garnet in mid-ocean ridge basalt, despite its absence in the modelled melts source. We also find that the crystallization of basalts ascending in disequilibrium through the asthenospheric mantle could be responsible for the formation of olivine gabbros and wehrlites that are observed in the deep sections of ophiolites. The presented framework is general and readily extendable to accommodate additional processes of geological relevance (e.g. melting in the presence of volatiles and/or of complex heterogeneous sources, refertilization of the lithospheric mantle, magma channelization and shallow processes) and the implementation of other geochemical and isotopic proxies. Here we illustrate the effect of heterogeneous sources on the thermo-mechanical-chemical evolution of melts and residues using a mixed peridotite-pyroxenite source.
Otter, L.M., Forster, M.W., Belousova, E., O'Reilly, P., Nowak, D., Parlk, S., Clar, S., Foley, S.F., Jacob, D.E.GGR cutting-edge review nanoscale chemical imaging by photo-induced force microscopy: technical aspects and application to the geosciences. ( not specific to diamonds)Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, doi:10.111/ GGR.12373. 51p. PdfGlobalspectroscopy, mineralogy

Abstract: Photo-induced force microscopy (PiFM) is a new-frontier technique that combines the advantages of atomic force microscopy with infrared spectroscopy and allows for the simultaneous acquisition of 3D topographic data with molecular chemical information at high spatial (~ 5 nm) and spectral (~ 1 cm-1) resolution at the nanoscale. This non-destructive technique is time efficient as it requires only conventional mirror-polishing and has fast mapping rates on the order of a few minutes that allow the study of dynamic processes via time series. Here, we review the method’s historical development, working principle, data acquisition, evaluation, and provide a comparison with traditional geochemical methods. We review PiFM studies in the areas of materials science, chemistry, and biology. In addition, we provide the first applications for geochemical samples including the visualisation of faint growth zonation in zircons, the identification of fluid speciation in high-pressure experimental samples, and of nanoscale organic phases in biominerals. We demonstrate that PiFM analysis is a time- and cost-efficient technique combining high-resolution surface imaging with molecular chemical information at the nanoscale and, thus, complements and expands traditional geochemical methods.
Palyanov, Y.N., Borzdov, Y.M., Sokol, A.G., Btaaleva, Y.V., Kupriyanov, I.N., Reitsky, V.N., Wiedenbeck, M., Sobolev, N.V.Diamond formation in an electric field under deep Earth conditions.Science Advances, Vol. 7, 4, eabb4644 doi: 10.1126/ sciadv.abb4644 28p. PdfMantlegeophysics

Abstract: Most natural diamonds are formed in Earth’s lithospheric mantle; however, the exact mechanisms behind their genesis remain debated. Given the occurrence of electrochemical processes in Earth’s mantle and the high electrical conductivity of mantle melts and fluids, we have developed a model whereby localized electric fields play a central role in diamond formation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a diamond crystallization mechanism that operates under lithospheric mantle pressure-temperature conditions (6.3 and 7.5 gigapascals; 1300° to 1600°C) through the action of an electric potential applied across carbonate or carbonate-silicate melts. In this process, the carbonate-rich melt acts as both the carbon source and the crystallization medium for diamond, which forms in assemblage with mantle minerals near the cathode. Our results clearly demonstrate that electric fields should be considered a key additional factor influencing diamond crystallization, mantle mineral-forming processes, carbon isotope fractionation, and the global carbon cycle.
Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S., Cornuz, L., Raynaud, V., Luetrakulprawat, S.Update on emeralds from the Mananjary-Irondo area, Madagascar.Journal of Gemology, Vol. 37, 4, pp. 416-425.Africa, Madagascaremerald
Pattnaik, J., Demouchy, S., Ghosh, S.Low hydrogen concentrations in Dharwar cratonic lithospheric inferred from peridotites, Wajrakarur kimberlite field: implications for mantle viscosity and carbonated silicate melt metasomatism.Precambrian Research, Vol. 352, doi.org/1016 /j.precamres .2020.105982 15p. PdfIndiadeposit - Wajrakarur

Abstract: Hydrogen as an atomic impurity in mantle minerals is recurrently proposed as a key element impacting significantly on many mantle properties and processes such as melting temperature and mechanical strength. Nevertheless, interpretation based on the natural samples remains weak as we do not have yet a robust world-wild database for hydrogen concentrations in mantle minerals and rocks. Here, we report the first hydrogen concentrations in nominally anhydrous minerals from a rare selection of ultramafic rocks and minerals embedded in Mesoproterozoic Wajrakarur kimberlites (Eastern Dharwar craton, India). Based on key chemical elements, we demonstrate that olivine, pyroxenes and garnet from the Dharwar craton are of mantle origin. We quantify the hydrogen concentrations using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mineral-specific FTIR calibrations. Calculated hydrogen concentrations are, in average, 18 ppm wt H2O in olivine, 70 ppm wt H2O in orthopyroxene and 207 ppm wt H2O in clinopyroxene. Garnet has highly variable hydrogen concentration ranging from 0 to 258 ppm wt H2O, probably influenced by nano-scale inclusions. The average of clean garnet spectra yields 14.5 ppm wt H2O. The reconstructed hydrogen bulk concentrations of Dharwar peridotites yields ppm wt H2O. This value is two to five times lower than the estimated hydrogen concentration in the lithospheric mantle, and agree well with the lower range of hydrogen bulk concentration from the current data base for the upper mantle minerals transported by kimberlites from other cratons (e.g., South Africa, Siberia). The low hydrogen concentration in mantle minerals, together with petrological and geochemical evidence of carbonated silicate melt metasomatism in Dharwar cratonic lithospheric mantle, suggest that these xenoliths are possibly related to proto-kimberlite melts with low water activity prior to being transported to the surface by the Mesoproterozoic Wajrakarur kimberlites. These observations, valid to a depth of ~165-km, suggest that cratonic lithosphere beneath the Dharwar craton may not be particularly indicative of an abnormal hydrogen-rich southern Indian lithosphere in the late Archean and that hydroxylic weakening in olivine would induced a negligible effect on the mantle viscosity of Indian subcontinent.
Pavlushkin, A., Loginova, A., Seryotkin, Y.Crystallographic orientation and geochemical features of mineral inclusions in diamonds.Russian Geology and Geophysics, doi:10.15372 /RG2020144 21p. PdfRussiadeposit - Mir, Udachnaya, Aikal, Yubileinya

Abstract: The orientation of 76 mineral inclusions represented by olivine (25 inclusions), pyrope (13 inclusions), and magnesiochromite (38 inclusions) was measured in 16 diamond samples from the major primary diamond deposits of Yakutia: Mir, Udachnaya, Internatsionalnaya, Aikhal, and Yubileynaya kimberlite pipes. The novelty of the study is that it provides a special purposeful approach to selection of samples containing not only olivine inclusions that have been extensively studied in the most recent years after the publication of the book Carbon in Earth (2013). The present collection accounts for more than 25% of all samples studied across the world and includes the most typical mineral inclusions of the predominant peridotitic paragenesis in almost all known kimberlites. Both this experiment and similar studies conducted by foreign colleagues in 2014-2019 have found no inclusions whose orientation meets the epitaxial criterion. Only single magnesiochromite inclusions in three diamonds demonstrate an orientation close to the regular one. A significant correlation between the carbon isotope composition and the mineral composition of inclusions of peridotitic and eclogitic paragenesis diamonds as well as the lack of a correlation with other properties may be considered one of the geochemical features. However, given the numerous published and proprietary data demonstrating the complex diamond growth history and, in some cases, wide variations in the composition of mineral inclusions in different zones, along with the difference in their morphology, the authors a believe that syngenetic and protogenetic inclusions can coexist in the same diamond. This is also confirmed by the discoveries of diamondiferous peridotite and eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites where diamonds are completely enclosed in garnet or olivine. Of particular note is the constant presence of heavy hydrocarbons (rel.%), from pentane (C5H12) to hexadecane (C16H34), that are predominant in fluid inclusions in kimberlite and placer diamonds as well as in pyrope and olivine of diamondiferous peridotite xenoliths.
Pavlushkin, A., Zedgenizov, D., Vasilev, E., Kuper, K.Morphology and genesis of ballas and ballas-like diamonds.MDPI Crystals, Vol. 11, 17 dx.doi.org/ 103390/ Qcrystal11010017 24p. PdfRussia, Yakutia, Urals, South America, Brazildeposits - Mir, Udachnaya, Aikal, Yubilenya

Abstract: Ballas diamond is a rare form of the polycrystalline radial aggregate of diamonds with diverse internal structures. The morphological features of ballas diamonds have experienced repeated revision. The need that this paper presents for development of a crystal-genetic classification was determined by a rich variety of combined and transitional forms of ballas-like diamonds, which include aggregates, crystals, and intergrowths. The new crystal-genetic classification combines already-known and new morphological types of ballas as well as ballas-like diamonds discovered in the placers of Yakutia, the Urals, and Brazil. The ballas-like diamond forms include spherocrystals, aggregates with a single crystal core, split crystals, radial multiple twin intergrowths, and globular crystals. The crystal genetic scheme of the evolution of ballas and ballas-like diamonds is a sequence of the morphological types arranged in accordance with the conventional model of the dependence of the mechanism and diamond growth from carbon supersaturation developed by I. Sunagawa. The evolution of the growth forms of ballas and ballas-like diamonds was tracked based on the macrozonal structure of diamonds varying from a flat-faced octahedron to a fibrous cuboid with its transition forms to the radiating crystal aggregates. The morphological diversity of the ballas-like diamonds depends on the level of supersaturation, and abrupt changes of the level of supersaturation engender abrupt changes in a mechanism of crystal growth. The change in the rate of growth under the influence of adsorption and absorption of the mechanic impurities accompanied the sudden appearance of the autodeformation defects in the form of splitting and multiple radial twinning of crystals. The spherical shape of Yakutia ballas-like diamonds is due to the volumetric dissolution that results in the curved-face crystals of the "Urals" or "Brazilian" type associated with ballas diamonds in placers.
Pessano, P.C., Ganade, C.E., Tupinamba, M., Teixeira, W.Updated map of the mafic dike swarms of Brazil based on airborne geophysical data.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, in press available, 16p. PdfSouth America, Brazilgeophysics

Abstract: Identification of mafic dike swarms and LIPs (Large Igneous Provinces) are of vital importance in geologic history because they provide information on geodynamics, mantle geochemistry, and paleomagnetism. These data provide key information for paleogeographic reconstructions with the aid of barcode matches and precise radiometric ages. Considering such issues, the Brazilian Precambrian shield can be used as a case for refining the cartography of the relevant intraplate activity (e.g., dikes, sills, flood basalts) in space and time. This work presents an updated map of Brazilian mafic dike swarms produced from airborne geophysical maps (Series 1000 - Geological Survey of Brazil). Linear and strong anomalies found on aeromagnetic maps using First Vertical Derivative of the Magnetic Field and Amplitude of the Analytic Signal were mapped on a GIS platform. The obtained data were compared to ternary radiometric maps and geological maps in order to exclude those that do not correspond to mafic dikes. The remaining structures - those believed to represent mafic dikes - were classified based on data compiled from the literature. The updated map exhibits more than 5000 elements, including dikes and magmatic suites, in which about 75% were geologically identified and divided into 60 dike swarms and 10 igneous suites and/or units. The dikes were grouped into sixteen extensional episodes from the Archean to the Cenozoic, although some are related to extension/transtension domains within regional compressive zones akin to orogenic settings. The most frequent records refer to the Proterozoic, representing intraplate episodes, some of them consistent with LIPs. The dataset also includes a large record of the Mesozoic age, which corresponds to major LIP events related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the fragmentation of Gondwana.
Piccolo, A., Kaus, B.J.P., White, R.W., Palin, R.M., Reuber, G.S.Plume - Lid interactions during the Archean and implications for the generation of early continental terranes.Gondwana Research, Vol. 88, pp. 150-168. 19p. PdfMantlegeodynamics

Abstract: Many Archean terranes are interpreted to have a tectonic and metamorphic evolution that indicates intra-crustal reorganization driven by lithospheric-scale gravitational instabilities. These processes are associated with the production of a significant amount of felsic and mafic crust, and are widely regarded to be a consequence of plume-lithosphere interactions. The juvenile Archean felsic crust is made predominantly of rocks of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite, which are the result of partial melting of hydrous metabasalts. The geodynamic processes that have assisted the production of juvenile felsic crust, are still not well understood. Here, we perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations coupled with the state-of-the-art of petrological thermodynamical modelling to study the tectonic evolution of a primitive Archean oceanic plateau with particular regard on the condition of extraction of felsic melts. In our numerical simulations, the continuous emplacement of new, dry mafic intrusions and the extraction of the felsic melts, generate an unstable lower crust which drips into the mantle soon after the plume arrival. The subsequent tectonic evolution depends on the asthenosphere TP. If the TP is high enough (= 1500 °C) the entire oceanic crust is recycled within 2 Myrs. By contrast at low TP, the thin oceanic plateau slowly propagates generating plate-boundary like features.
Pilchin, A.N., Eppelbaum, L.V.Plate tectonics and Earth evolution: a conceptual review.ANAS Transactions, Earth Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 3-32. pdf doi: 10.33677 /ggianas20200200043Mantlegeodynamics

Abstract: Numerous attempts have been made to understand the rules of Earth’s tectono-geodynamic processes over the past centuries. While no paradigm has offered comprehensive answers to all of the questions, the present review aims to acquaint readers with the modern state of developments in the tectonic insights of Earth's evolution. A number of very interesting and unique processes and features took place during the evolution of early Earth. Most of these, however, were largely erased over the course of Earth’s ensuing evolution; some leaving only traces of their existence and some remnant phenomena, especially those taking place in the Hadean and Early to Late Archean. Among such processes and features are: the planetary accretion of Earth, formation of unique rock complexes, initiation of the plate tectonics phenomenon, main forces driving plate tectonics, significant influence of thermal parameters, role of overpressure under different physical-geological environments, stratification of Earth's crust and lithosphere by density, and various other thermodynamic models. Nearly all of these remain enigmatic, due to considerable uncertainty in the timing and methods of their evolution, and the ambiguity of their secondary processes and tectono-geophysical indicators. At the same time, majority of tectono-geodynamic processes and features are also interrelated, and the simultaneous fluctuation of myriad different factors played a significant role in their influence to the geological medium. Some of these intricate questions are discussed in this paper. For instance, what is the role of the plate tectonics phenomenon and when did this process initiate on Earth? Especial attention is paid in the review to the sophisticated methods of understanding tectonic processes over the course of various generations of geoscientists. In the conducted analyses, certain physical data derived from other planets of the Solar System were utilized as well.
Popov, M., Bondarenko, M., Kulnitskiy, B., Zholudev, S., Blank, V., Terentyev, S.Impulse laser cutting of diamond accompanied by phase transitions to fullerene -type onion.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 113, 108281, 6p. PdfGlobalraman spectroscopy
Presser, J.B.Lamproites of the Kaapvaal type, two reference mines: Finch with 59.9 cpht and Dokolwayo with 30 cpht. Others …..https://www.linkedin.com/in/jaime-I-b-presser, Jan. 7, 8p. Africa, South Africa, Australia, South America, Paraguaylamproite
Presser, J.L.B.Peridotite geotherms of the Rio de la Plata craton-archon core. *** in EngHistoria Natural , Vol. 10, 3, pp. 5-10. pdfSouth Americageothermometry

Abstract: At the Rio de la Plata Craton archon-core environment were inferred, based on 1D Vs profiles (on 208 numbers of points), of the peridotitic geotherms. Values for the archon-core environment, it was estimated 38.5 to 40 mW/m2 in its central northern portion and southern portion and in its edges/southern portion 40 to 42 mW/m2. Geotherm values that allowed estimate LAB between 243 to 237 km depth (northern portion) and 225 to 213 km depth (southern portion). The same 1D Vs information allowed recognizing for this geothermal environment the depth of the graphite-to-diamond phase transition, finding that it is located at ~135 km. depth. So, projecting 70-90 Km. (southern portion) to 102-108 km. (northern portion) thickness of the “diamond window” for the Rio de la Plata craton archon-core. "Diamond window" thickness very close to those of the Kalahari archon craton where the highest grade of diamond deposit is the Kimberley with 200 cpht. Thus, it is estimated for eventual diamond deposit, in the Río de la Plata craton core, are quite similar to Kimberley diamond deposits could be also expected in the archon-core of Río de la Plata craton.
Presser, J.L.B., Benitez, P.Eclogitic geotherms of the Rio de la Plata craton archon-core: Estancia Trementina and Puentesino, Dpto. Of Concepion - Paraguay. Compared to two large diamond deposits Argyle ( lamproitic) and Orapa ( Kimberlitic).Linked in, 20p. PdfSouth America, Paraguaygeothermometry
Priestley, K., Ho, T., McKenzie, D.The formation of continental roots.Geology, Vol. 49, pp. 190-194. pdfMantlegeophysics, seismics, tomography

Abstract: New evidence from seismic tomography reveals a unique mineral fabric restricted to the thick mantle lithosphere beneath ancient continental cratons, providing an important clue to the formation of these prominent and influential features in Earth’s geological history. Olivine, the dominant mineral of Earth’s upper mantle, has elastic properties that differ along its three crystallographic axes, and preferential alignment of individual olivine grains during plastic deformation can affect the bulk nature of seismic-wave propagation. Surface-wave tomography has shown that over most of Earth, deformation of the mantle lithosphere has oriented olivine crystals with the fast axis in the horizontal plane, but at depths centered at ~150 km within cratonic continental-lithosphere roots, the fast crystallographic axis is preferentially aligned vertically. Because of the high viscosity of the cratonic roots, this fabric is likely to be a vestige from craton formation. Geochemical and petrological studies of upper-mantle garnet-peridotite nodules demonstrate that the cratonic mantle roots are stabilized by their reduced density, which was caused by melt removal at much shallower depths than those from which the nodules were subsequently extracted. The mineral fabric inferred from surface-wave tomography suggests that horizontal shortening carried the depleted zone downward after the melt-depletion event to form the thick continental roots, stretching the depleted material in the vertical dimension by pure shear and causing the fast crystallographic axis to be aligned vertically. This seismological fabric at ~150 km is evidence of the shortening event that created the cratonic roots.
Regis, D., Pehrsson, S., Martel, E., Thiessen, E., Peterson, T., Kellett, D.Post - 1.9 Ga evolution of the south Rae craton ( Northwest Territories), Canada: a paleoproterozoic orogenic collapse system.Precambrian Research, Vol. 355, 106105, 29p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriessunduction

Abstract: The Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), formed from the convergence between the Superior craton and the composite Churchill Upper Plate (CUP), is one of the best-preserved examples of a collisional orogen in the Paleoproterozoic. Similar to modern collision systems such as the Himalayan orogen, it is characterized by a composite upper plate in which terrane accretion established a continental plateau that was tectonically and magmatically active for >100 myr. Our study presents new petrological and geochronological data for four samples collected in three lithotectonic domains of the south Rae craton (one of the CUP terranes). The results presented here allow us to re-define the previously proposed extent of THO reworking in the CUP and afford the opportunity to study and compare the evolution of various fragments that illustrate differing levels of a collapsed plateau in the CUP hinterland. The new data indicate that the south Rae craton locally preserves evidence for burial at 1.855-1.84 Ga with peak metamorphic conditions at approximately 790 °C and 9.5-12.5 kbar followed by rapid cooling and decompression melting (P < 6 kbar) at ca. 1.835-1.826 Ga. These results, which provide important and so far missing Pressure-Temperature-time (P-T-t) constraints on the evolution of the south Rae craton in the Northwest Territories at Trans-Hudson time, coupled with existing regional geochronological and geochemical data, are used to propose an updated model for the post-1.9 Ga THO collision and extensional collapse. Our results reveal that: i) initial thickening in the upper plate started at Snowbird time (ca. 1.94 Ga), then continued via Sask collision (with high-grade metamorphism recorded in the south Rae craton, ca. 1.85 Ga), and ended with Superior collision (ca. 1.83 Ga); ii) the extent of the THO structural and metamorphic overprint in the SW CUP is much broader across strike than previously recognized, and iii) T-t data in the south Rae are indicative of relatively fast cooling rates (8-25 °C/Ma) compared to other known Precambrian orogens. We suggest that the Paleoproterozoic THO represents the first record of a major ‘modern-style’ orogenic plateau collapse in Earth’s history.
Rezvukhina, O.V., Korsakov, A.V., Rezvukin, D.I., Mikhailenko, D.S., Zamyatin, D.A., Greshnyakov, E.D., Shur, V.Y.Zircon from diamondiferous kyanite gneisses of the Kokchetav massif: revealing growth stages using an integrated cathodluminescence- Raman spectroscopy- electron microprobe approach.Mineralogical Magazine, in press 28p. https://doi.org /10.1180/mgm.2020.95RussiaKokchetav
Ribeiro da Costa, I., Roseiro, J., Figueiras, J., Rodrigues, P.C.R., Mateus, A.Pyrochlore from the Bailundo carbonatite Complex ( Angola): compositional variation and implications to mineral exploration.Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 177, 104154, 16p. PdfAfrica, Angoladeposit - Bailundo

Abstract: Pyrochlore is a common accessory in carbonatite rocks and its composition can provide useful insights on petrogenetic and post-magmatic metal-enrichment processes, especially those which favour its occurrence and concentration. Comprehensive compositional and textural characterization of a large set of pyrochlores from the Bailundo Carbonatite Complex (SW Angola) and associated surface rocks was the basis to (i) evaluate the main effects of metasomatism and weathering as causes of metal leaching or concentration; and (ii) assess pyrochlore compositions as potential petrogenetic or metallogenetic tools, with particular emphasis on pyrochlore enrichment in economic components, such as Ta, REE, U, Th and Pb, during weathering processes. Unweathered fluor- and hydroxyl-calciopyrochlores from deep-seated carbonatitic rocks (provided by a 600 m-deep drill-core) often present high Ta/Nb ratios, as well as high U and Th contents, and comparatively low overall REE concentrations. Metasomatic effects are not easy to assess, given the extreme compositional variability of these pyrochlores. On the other hand, some systematic trends can be established in pyrochlores from weathered surface rocks: these pyrochlores usually show strong depletion in most A-site cations (e.g., Na, Ca, U), and clear enrichment in Nb and in large-ion metals (e.g., Ba, Sr, Pb) usually absent in unweathered pyrochlores. REE seem to be relatively immobile and to become concentrated during weathering. Along with some REE phosphates and oxides, pyrochlore is often present in several domains of the weathering profile, occurring in the outcropping weathered carbonatite as well as in the regolith immediately overlying the intrusion. Thus, both the Bailundo carbonatite intrusion and its weathering products, concentrated inside the ridge formed by differential erosion of the fenitic aureole, constitute good exploration targets for Nb (±Ta ± REE). However, future exploration work should also include a 3-D understanding of the chemical and geological processes at work in both geological environments.
Rocheleau, J.Modeling the creation of cratons, Earth's secret keepers.Eos 102 , https://doi.org/ 10.1029/ 2021EO153324Mantleperidotites

Abstract: Geoscientists have long been trying to answer the complicated questions of how and why Earth’s continents formed. New research suggests a solution that surprised even the investigators themselves.
Roseiro, J., Figueiras, J., Rodrigues, P.C.N., Mateus, A.M. Nb-bearing mineral phases in the Bailiundo carbonatite complex, ( Angola): implications of Nb geochemistry in metallogenesis.Comminocacoes Geologicas ( Researchgate), July, 7p. PdfAfrica, Angoladeposit - Bailundo

Abstract: Pyrochlore group minerals are common accessory phases in many rock types of the Bailundo Carbonatite Complex. These minerals record compositional and textural features that provide useful information regarding their genesis and accumulation, monitoring magmatic, metasomatic and weathering events. In drill core samples, primary compositions (significant Ta and U contents, and relatively low Nb and F values) are found in relict cores of strongly metasomatized pyrochlore grains; irregular patches in pyrochlore rims, typically enriched in F, Na and Nb, reflect fluid alteration fronts. At shallower levels, preserved pyrochlores show well-defined concentric zoning and substantially higher values of F and Nb. In the weathering profile, alteration processes include replacement of F, Na and Ca by Ba, Sr, Pb and H2O. These data suggest the possibility of Nb concentration in late-magmatic fluids as fluoride complexes, and its subsequent mobilization and crystallization in the form of pyrochlore at shallower levels of the Bailundo Carbonatite Complex.
Schmetzer, K., Martayan, G., Ortiz, J.G.History of the Chivor emerald mine, Part 1 ( 1880-1925): from rediscovery to early production. Part 2 listed previouslyGems & Gemology , Vol. 56, 1, pp. 66-109.South America, Colombiaemerald

Abstract: The history of the Chivor emerald mine in Colombia is rife with legend and adventure. The tale traces from early exploitation by indigenous people, to work by the Spanish in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, to 200 years of abandonment and jungle overgrowth. The story then picks up with rediscovery near the turn of the twentieth century by the Colombian mining engineer Francisco Restrepo using clues from a historical manuscript. Still the saga continued, with repeated shortages of investment funds driving multiple ownership changes and little progress toward mining the largely inaccessible deposit. The German gem merchant Fritz Klein, in cooperation with Restrepo, pursued limited mining activities with a small number of workers for a few months prior to the outbreak of World War I. After the war, the American company Colombian Emerald Syndicate, Ltd., took ownership, and mining operations resumed under the new leadership. Ownership changed yet again in the 1920s, followed by multiple cycles of expanding and shrinking mining activity, interrupted by completely unproductive periods.
Schmitz, M., Ramirez, K., Mazuera, F., Avila, J., Yegres, L., Bezada, M., Levander, A.Moho depth map of northern Venezuela on wide-angle seismic studies.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 107, 103088, 17p. PdfSouth America, VenezuelaGeophysics - seismics

Abstract: As part of the lithosphere, the crust represents Earth's rigid outer layer. Some of the tools to study the crust and its thickness are wide-angle seismic studies. To date, a series of seismic studies have been carried out in Venezuela to determine in detail the crustal thickness in the southern Caribbean, in the region of the Caribbean Mountain System in northern Venezuela, as well as along the Mérida Andes and surrounding regions. In this study, a review of the wide-angle seismic data is given, incorporating new data from the GIAME project for western Venezuela, resulting in a map of Moho depth north of the Orinoco River, which serves as the basis for future integrated models. Differences in Moho depths from seismic data and receiver function analysis are discussed. From the Caribbean plate, Moho depth increases from 20 to 25 km in the Venezuela Basin to about 35 km along the coast (except for the Falcón area where a thinning to less than 30 km is observed) and 40-45 km in Barinas - Apure and Guárico Basins, and Guayana Shield, respectively. Values of more than 50 km are observed in the Maturín Basin and in the southern part of the Mérida Andes.
Semple, A.G., Lenardic, A.Feedbacks between a non-Newtonian upper mantle, mantle viscosity structure and mantle dynamics.Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 224, 2, pp. 961-972.Mantlegeophysics - seismics

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that a low viscosity upper mantle can impact the wavelength of mantle flow and the balance of plate driving to resisting forces. Those studies assumed that mantle viscosity is independent of mantle flow. We explore the potential that mantle flow is not only influenced by viscosity but can also feedback and alter mantle viscosity structure owing to a non-Newtonian upper-mantle rheology. Our results indicate that the average viscosity of the upper mantle, and viscosity variations within it, are affected by the depth to which a non-Newtonian rheology holds. Changes in the wavelength of mantle flow, that occur when upper-mantle viscosity drops below a critical value, alter flow velocities which, in turn, alter mantle viscosity. Those changes also affect flow profiles in the mantle and the degree to which mantle flow drives the motion of a plate analogue above it. Enhanced upper-mantle flow, due to an increasing degree of non-Newtonian behaviour, decreases the ratio of upper- to lower-mantle viscosity. Whole layer mantle convection is maintained but upper- and lower-mantle flow take on different dynamic forms: fast and concentrated upper-mantle flow; slow and diffuse lower-mantle flow. Collectively, mantle viscosity, mantle flow wavelengths, upper- to lower-mantle velocities and the degree to which the mantle can drive plate motions become connected to one another through coupled feedback loops. Under this view of mantle dynamics, depth-variable mantle viscosity is an emergent flow feature that both affects and is affected by the configuration of mantle and plate flow.
Shaikh, A.M., Tappe, S., Bussweiler, Y., Patel, S.C., Ravi, S., Bolhar, R., Viljoen, F.Clinopyroxene and garnet mantle cargo in kimberlites as probes of Dharwar craton architecture and geotherms, with implications for post -1.1 Ga lithosphere thinning events beneath southern India.Journal of Petrology, Vol. 61, 9, egaa087 23p. PdfIndiadeposit - Wajrakarur

Abstract: The Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field (WKF) on the Eastern Dharwar Craton in southern India hosts several occurrences of Mesoproterozoic kimberlites, lamproites and ultramafic lamprophyres, for which mantle-derived xenoliths are rare and only poorly preserved. The general paucity of mantle cargo has hampered the investigation of the nature and evolution of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) beneath cratonic southern India. We present a comprehensive study of the major and trace element compositions of clinopyroxene and garnet xenocrysts recovered from heavy mineral concentrates for three c.1•1?Ga old WKF kimberlite pipes (P7, P9, P10), with the goal to improve our understanding of the cratonic mantle architecture and its evolution beneath southern India. The pressure-temperature conditions recorded by peridotitic clinopyroxene xenocrysts, estimated using single-pyroxene thermobarometry, suggest a relatively moderate cratonic mantle geotherm of 40 mW/m2 at 1•1?Ga. Reconstruction of the vertical distribution of clinopyroxene and garnet xenocrysts, combined with some rare mantle xenoliths data, reveals a compositionally layered CLM structure. Two main lithological horizons are identified and denoted as layer A (~80-145?km depth) and layer B (~160-190?km depth). Layer A is dominated by depleted lherzolite with subordinate amounts of pyroxenite, whereas layer B comprises mainly refertilised and Ti-metasomatized peridotite. Harzburgite occurs as a minor lithology in both layers. Eclogite stringers occur within the lower portion of layer A and at the bottom of layer B near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at 1•1?Ga. Refertilisation of layer B is marked by garnet compositions with enrichment in Ca, Ti, Fe, Zr and LREE, although Y is depleted compared to garnet in layer A. Garnet trace element systematics such as Zr/Hf and Ti/Eu indicate that both kimberlitic and carbonatitic melts have interacted with and compositionally overprinted layer B. Progressive changes in the REE systematics of garnet grains with depth record an upward percolation of a continuously evolving metasomatic agent. The intervening zone between layers A and B at ~145-160?km depth is characterized by a general paucity of garnet. This ‘garnet-paucity’ zone and an overlying type II clinopyroxene-bearing zone (~115-145?km) appear to be rich in hydrous mineral assemblages of the MARID- or PIC kind. The composite horizon between ~115-160?km depth may represent the product of intensive melt/rock interaction by which former garnet was largely reacted out and new metasomatic phases such as type II clinopyroxene and phlogopite plus amphibole were introduced. By analogy with better-studied cratons, this ‘metasomatic horizon’ may be a petrological manifestation of a former mid-lithospheric discontinuity at 1•1?Ga. Importantly, the depth interval of the present-day lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Peninsular India as detected in seismic surveys coincides with this heavily overprinted metasomatic horizon, which suggests that post-1•1?Ga delamination of cratonic mantle lithosphere progressed all the way to mid-lithospheric depth. This finding implies that strongly overprinted metasomatic layers, such as the ‘garnet-paucity’ zone beneath the Dharwar craton, present structural zones of weakness that aid lithosphere detachment and foundering in response to plate tectonic stresses.
Shatskiy, A., Arefiev, A.V., Podborodnikov, I.V., Litasov, K.D.Effect of water on carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility in the system KAlSi3O8-CaMgSiO6-NaAlSiO6-CaMg(CO3)2 at 6 Pa: implications for diamond forming melts.American Mineralogist, Vol. 106, pp. 165-173. pdfMantlemelting

Abstract: To evaluate the effect of Na on the carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility in the diamond stability field, we performed experiments along some specific joins of the system KAlSi3O8-CaMg(CO3)2 ± NaAlSi2O6 ± Na2CO3 at 6 GPa. Melting in all studied joins begins at 1000-1050 °C. The melting in the Kfs + Dol system is controlled by the reaction 6 KAlSi3O8 (K-feldspar) + 6 CaMg(CO3)2 (dolomite) = 2 (Can,Mg1-n)3Al2Si3O12 (garnet) + Al2SiO5 (kyanite) + 11 SiO2 (coesite) + 3 K2(Ca1-n,Mgn)2(CO3)3 (carbonatitic melt) + 3 CO2 (fluid), where n ~ 0.3-0.4. A temperature increasing to 1300 °C yields an appearance of the silicic immiscible melt in addition to carbonatitic melt via the reaction K2CO3 (carbonatitic melt) + Al2SiO5 (kyanite) + 5 SiO2 (coesite) = 2 KAlSi3O8 (silicic melt) + CO2 (fluid or solute in melts). The silicic melt composition is close to KAlSi3O8 with dissolved CaMg(CO3)2 and molecular CO2. An addition of NaAlSi2O6 or Na2CO3 to the system results in partial decomposition of K-feldspar and formation of K-bearing carbonates, (K, Na)2Mg(CO3)2 and (K, Na)2Ca3(CO3)4. Their melting produces carbonatite melt with the approximate composition of 4(K, Na)2CO3•6Ca0.6Mg0.4CO3 and magnesite. Besides, the presence of NaAlSi2O6 in the studied system shifts the lower-temperature limit of immiscibility to 1500°?, while the presence of Na2CO3 eliminates the appearance of silicic melt by the following reaction: 2 KAlSi3O8 (in the silicic melt) + Na2CO3 = 2 NaAlSi2O6 (in clinopyroxene) + K2CO3 (in the carbonatitic melt) + SiO2 (coesite). Thus, an increase of the Na2O content in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2 consumes Al2O3 and SiO2 from silicic melt to form clinopyroxene. We found that grossular-pyrope and diopside-jadeite solid solutions can coexist with CO2 fluid at 900-1500 °C and 6 GPa. Thus, CO2 fluid is stable in the eclogitic suite in the diamond stability field under temperature conditions of the continental lithosphere and subducting slabs. Variations in the Na2O content observed in carbonatitic melts trapped by natural in diamonds exceed those derived by the pelite melting. The present experiments show that an addition of NaAlSi2O6 to the Kfs + Dol system does not cause an increase of the Na2O content in the carbonatitic melt, whereas the addition of Na2CO3 at Na2O/Al2O3 > 1 yields the formation of the melts with the Na2O contents covering the entire range of natural compositions. Thus, only the presence of additional salt components can explain the elevated Na2O content in the melts trapped in lithospheric diamonds. In addition to carbonates, sodium can be hosted by chlorides, sulfates, etc.
Shearman, R.What is the story behind Aether and how did the business start? Gems & Gemology , Vol. 29, 4, pp. 22-24. pdfEurope, Switzerlandsynthetics
Shubin, I.I., Filina, M., Kogarko, L.Evolution of pyroxenes of the Lovozero rare metal deposit ( Lower zone).Geochemistry International, Vol. 59, pp. 92-98. pdfRussiaREE

Abstract: This paper reports the results of the first study of pyroxenes from the deepest zones of the Lovozero deposit. The geochemical and mineralogical study of these rocks is of great scientific interest, as they are the least differentiated rocks and provide insight into the composition of a parental magma. According to microprobe analysis, clinopyroxenes evolve from early diopside-hedenbergite-augite to later alkaline aegirine-augite species. Upsection, the contents of Na, Fe3+ and Ti increase, while Mg, Ca, Fe2+, and Zr decrease. Thus, isomorphic substitution in pyroxenes of the lower zone follows the scheme (Ca, Mg, Fe2+, Zr) ? (Na, Fe3+, Ti).
Simbanegavi, G.The mining mindset…. BlueRock story.Gems & Gemology , Vol. 29, 4, pp. 19-21. pdfAfrica, South Africamining
Sizyakov, V.M., Kawalla, R., Brichkin, V.N.Geochemical aspects of the mining and processing of the large tonne mineral resources of the hibinian alkaline massif.Geochemistry, Vol. 80, doi.org/10.1016 /j.chemer.2019 .04.002 5p. PdfRussiadeposit - Khibiny

Abstract: This article presents an analysis of the influences of nature and production factors relating to the chemical-mineralogical composition of products that formed at the stages of mining and processing apatite-nepheline ores in the Khibiny Mountain Massif. It is shown that all main production processes are connected to the formation of dump waste products that are subject to further changes under the influence of exogenous factors, which include conditions of outdoor storage in dumps and sludge accumulators. According to the dead tails (stale tails) of apatite production, the characteristic changes in the chemical-mineralogical composition and grain-size distribution are determined and have a significant effect on the indicators of their mineral processing. The experimental study of dead tails includes processing a set of technological operations, and their flowsheets are also determined. These flowsheets provide a nepheline concentrate of the required composition with indicators no worse than when processing the tailings of the current composition. It is shown that the existing flowsheets for apatite or nepheline concentrate processing lead to the accumulation of significant amounts of mulls associated with the separation of less valuable components of raw materials into the dump waste products, including calcium and silica. The experimental work also demonstrates the conversion process of gypsum wastes produced during the production of phosphoric acid and shows the importance of additional hydrochemical treatment of belite mull to achieve an economically justified ratio of the main and by-products in the processing of aluminosilicate raw materials.
Skublov, S.G., Tolstov, A.V., Baranov, L.N., Melnik, A.E., Levashova, E.V.First data on the geochemistry and U-Pb age of zircons from the kamaphorites of the Tomtor alkaline-ultrabasic massif, Arctic Yakutia.Geochemistry, Vol. 80, doi.org/10.1016 /j.chemer. 2019.04.001 11p. PdfRussiadeposit - Tomtor

Abstract: Zircon from Tomtor syenites and kamaphorites was dated following the U-Pb method (SHRIMP-II), and the distribution of trace and rare-earth elements (REE) was studied at the same zircon point using an ion microprobe. The main zircon population from syenites was dated at 402?±?7 Ma, while the age range of single zircon grains was 700-660 M?. Different-aged zircon groups from syenites exhibited the characteristics of magmatic zircon, but their concentrations of REE and other trace elements differed markedly. The REE distribution in 700-660-M? zircon is consistent with that of the typical zircon from syenites (Belousova et al., 2002), while the heavy rare-earth elements (HREE), P, Ti, and Y concentrations of ca. 400-Ma zircon differ from those of older zircon. This is the first isotope-geochemical study of zircon from kamaphorites, and the U-Pb age of ca. 400 M? is within the error limits with of the main zircon population from syenites. The considerable enrichment of REE, C?, Ti, Sr, Y, Nb, and Ba in zircon from kamaphorites may be partly due to the presence of burbankite microinclusions. The trace-element distribution pattern of zircon from kamaphorites is very similar to the geochemical characteristics of zircon from Tiksheozero carbonatites (Tichomirowa et al., 2013).The new age dates for Tomtor syenites and kamaphorites, consistent with 700-660 M? and ca. 400 M? events, support the zircon (Vladykin et al., 2014) and pyrochlore (Antonov et al., 2017) age dates determined following the U-Pb method and those of biotite obtained following the 40Ar-39Ar method (Vladykin et al., 2014).
Skuzovatov, S.Yu., Shatsky, V.S., Ragozin, A.L., Wang, K-L.Ubiquitous post-peak zircon in an eclogite from the Kumdy-Kol, Kokchetav UHP-HP massif ( Kazakhstan): significance of exhumation-related zircon growth and modification in continental-subduction settings.Island Arc, doi:10.1111/ iar.12385 29p. PdfRussia, Kazakhstandeposit - Kumby-Kol

Abstract: U-Pb geochronological, trace-element and Lu-Hf isotopic studies have been made on zircons from ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mafic eclogite from the Kumdy-Kol area, one of the diamond-facies domains of the Kokchetav Massif (northern Kazakhstan). The peak eclogitic assemblage equilibrated at >?900?°C, whereas the bulk sample composition displays light rare-earth element (LREE) and Th depletion evident of partial melting. Zircons from the eclogite are represented by exclusively newly formed metamorphic grains and have U-Pb age spread over 533-459?Ma, thus ranging from the time of peak subduction burial to that of the late post-orogenic collapse. The major zircon group with concordant age estimates have a concordia age of 508.1?±4.4?Ma, which corresponds to exhumation of the eclogite-bearing UHP crustal slice to granulite- or amphibolite-facies depths. This may indicate potentially incoherent exhumation of different crustal blocks within a single Kumdy-Kol UHP domain. Model Hf isotopic characteristics of zircons (eHf(t) +1.5 to +7.8, Neoproterozoic model Hf ages of 1.02-0.79?Ga) closely resemble the whole-rock values of the Kumdy-Kol eclogites and likely reflect in situ derivation of HFSE source for newly formed grains. The ages coupled with geochemical systematics of zircons confirm that predominantly late zircon growth occurred in Th-LREE-depleted eclogitic assemblage, that experienced incipient melting and monazite dissolution in melt at granulite-facies depths, followed by amphibolite-facies rehydration during late-stage exhumation-related retrogression.
Smart, K.A., Tappe, S., Woodland, A.B., Greyling, D.R., Harris, C., Gussone, N.Constraints on Archean crust recycling and the origin of mantle redox variability from delta 44/40 Ca - delta 18O - fO2 signatures of cratonic eclogites.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi.org/10.1016/ j.epsl.2020. 116720 19p. PdfAfrica, South Africadeposit - Bellsbank

Abstract: The nature of the deep calcium geochemical cycle through time is unresolved, in part due to the dearth of information about the calcium isotope composition of Archean recycled oceanic crust. Remnants of such ancient oceanic crust are preserved in the form of cratonic mantle eclogites, brought to surface as xenoliths in kimberlite magma eruptions. The d 44 / 40Ca of fresh mantle-derived eclogite xenoliths (i.e., garnet and omphacite mineral separates) from the Bellsbank kimberlite on the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa are presented here in combination with their trace element compositions, garnet Fe3+ contents and d18O values. The studied Bellsbank eclogite xenoliths have geochemical compositions that indicate oceanic crustal protoliths, with bulk Al2O3 from 15 to 27 wt.%, Eu anomalies from 0.8 to 2.6 and, significantly, garnet d18O values from +2.7 to +6.2‰. Garnet Fe3+/SFe contents yield logfO2(?FMQ) values between -4.0 and -1.2 for a depth range of 110-180 km, recording strong redox heterogeneity of the eclogite component within the Archean Kaapvaal mantle lithosphere. Reconstructed bulk eclogite MgO contents correlate negatively with fO2, suggesting that the redox compositions are related to magmatic differentiation during oceanic crust formation, excluding secondary metasomatic overprints. These data may thus emphasize that Archean basaltic oceanic crust had a similarly variable redox composition to modern MORB-type crust. Reconstructed bulk d 44 / 40Ca values for the Bellsbank eclogites range from +0.28 to +1.56‰. Although some of the xenoliths have d 44 / 40Ca values that overlap with the average mantle composition and modern MORB (+0.94 ± 0.1 and +0.83 ± 0.05‰), half of our dataset shows excursions to more extreme Ca isotopic compositions. Both higher and lower d 44 / 40Ca relative to mantle compositions are recorded by the eclogites, with a general negative correlation with d18O suggestive of seawater-alteration of oceanic crust. The combined low d 44 / 40Ca (+0.28‰) and d18O (+3.4‰) measured for one eclogite xenolith may record a subtle imprint by carbonate-rich mantle melts, which are known to contain isotopically light calcium contributed by recycled sediments. In contrast, the high d 44 / 40Ca of up to +1.56‰ for some eclogite xenoliths, coupled with strong LREE depletion, can be explained by calcium isotope fractionation during partial melting. The protracted history of recycled oceanic crust as probed by cratonic mantle eclogites is recorded by their highly variable d 44 / 40Ca-d18O-fO2 signatures. Whereas some of this heterogeneity can be linked to processes that operated on the Archean ocean floor such as seawater-alteration of basaltic crust, other sources of compositional variability are introduced by loss and addition of melts during subduction recycling and mantle residence. The observed d 44 / 40Ca complexity of ancient recycled oceanic crust components at the scale of a single mantle-derived eclogite xenolith suite implies that mantle plume sourced intraplate magmas should reveal similarly strong calcium isotope variations contributed by apparently essential recycled crust components - as observed in the global oceanic island basalt record.
Smith, E.M., Nestola, F., Paqualetto, L., Zorzi, F., Secco, L., Wang, W.The new mineral crowningshieldite: a high temperature NiS polymorph found in a type IIa diamond from the Letseng mine, Lesotho.American Mineralogist, Vol. 106, pp. 301-308. pdfAfrica, Lesothodeposit - Letseng

Abstract: Crowningshieldite is the natural analog of the synthetic compound a-NiS. It has a NiAs-type structure and is the high-temperature polymorph relative to millerite (ß-NiS), with an inversion temperature of 379 °C. Crowningshieldite is hexagonal, space group P63/mmc, with a = 3.44(1) Å, c = 5.36(1) Å, V = 55.0(2) Å3, and Z = 2. It has an empirical formula (Ni0.90Fe0.10)S and dcalc = 5.47(1) g/cm3. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction data are [dmeas in angstroms (I) (hkl)]: 1.992 (100) (102), 1.718 (55) (110), 2.978 (53) (100), 2.608 (35) (101), and 1.304 (17) (202). Crowningshieldite was found as part of a multiphase inclusion in a gem-quality, colorless, type IIa (containing less than ~5 ppm N) diamond from the Letseng mine, Lesotho. The inclusion contains crowningshieldite along with magnetite-magnesioferrite, hematite, and graphite. A fracture was observed that extended from the inclusion to the diamond exterior, meaning that fluids, possibly kimberlite-related, could have penetrated into this fracture and altered the inclusion. Originally, the inclusion might have been a more reduced, metallic Fe-Ni-C-S mixture made up of cohenite, Fe-Ni alloy, and pyrrhotite, akin to the other fracture-free, pristine inclusions within the same diamond. Such metallic Fe-Ni-C-S primary inclusions are a notable recurring feature of similar type IIa diamonds from Letseng and elsewhere that have been shown to originate from the sublithospheric mantle. The discovery of crowningshieldite confirms that the a-NiS polymorph occurs in nature. In this case, the reason for its preservation is unclear, but the relatively iron-rich composition [Fe/(Fe+Ni) = 0.1] or the confining pressure of the diamond host are potential factors impeding its transformation to millerite. The new mineral name honors G. Robert Crowningshield (1919-2006) (IMA2018-072).
Sokol, A.G., Kruk, A.N.Role of CO2 in the evolution of kimberlite magma: experimental constraints at 5.5GPa and 1200-1450 C.Lithos, in press available, 13p. PdfGlobalmagmatism

Abstract: According to the existing models of kimberlite origin, free exsolution CO2 may be an important agent in the evolution of primary kimberlite magma and initiation of crack propagation. We study the reaction of garnet lherzolite with carbonatitic melt rich in molecular CO2 and H2O in experiments at 5.5 GPa and 1200-1450 °C. The experimental results show that carbonation of olivine with formation of orthopyroxene and magnesite can buffer the contents of molecular CO2 in the melt, which impedes immediate separation of CO2 fluid from melt equilibrated with the peridotite source. The solubility of molecular CO2 in the melt decreases from 20 -25 wt% at 4.5-6.8 wt% SiO2 typical of carbonatite to below 7-12 wt% in more silicic melts with 26-32 wt% SiO2. Interaction of garnet lherzolite with carbonatitic melt (at a weight proportion of 2:1) in the presence of 2-3 wt% H2O and 17-24 wt% of total CO2 at 1200-1450 °C yields low-SiO2 (<10 wt%) alkali-carbonated melts, which shows multiphase saturation with magnesite-bearing garnet harzburgite. Thus, carbonatitic melts rich in volatiles can originate in a harzburgite source at moderate temperatures common to continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). Excessive volatiles may be present in carbonatitic melts not equilibrated with the peridotitic source due to the formation of metasomatic reaction zones. Having separated from the source, carbonatitic magma enriched in molecular CO2 and H2O can rapidly become more silicic (>25 wt% SiO2) by dissolution and carbonation of entrapped peridotite. Furthermore, interaction of garnet lherzolite with carbonatitic melt rich in K, CO2, and H2O at 1350 °C produces immiscible carbonate-silicate and K-rich silicate melts. Quenched silicate melt develops globules of foam-like vesicular glass. Differentiation of immiscible melts early during their ascent may equalize the compositions of kimberlite magmas generated in different CLM sources. The fluid phase can release explosively from ascending magma at lower pressures as a result of SiO2 increase which reduces the solubility of CO2 and due to the decarbonation reaction of magnesite and orthopyroxene.
Spengler, D., Alifirova, T.A.Formation of Siberian cratonic mantle websterites from high - Mg magmas.Lithos, in press available 13p. PdfRussiadeposit - Mir, Obnazhennaya, Udachnaya

Abstract: Garnet-(olivine) websterite xenoliths from the lithospheric mantle of the central and northeastern parts of the Siberian Craton contain exsolution microstructures after Si- and Ti-rich precursor garnets. We petrographically, geochemically, and thermobarometrically investigated 13 such xenoliths from the Mir, Obnazhennaya, and Udachnaya kimberlite pipes. All samples contain garnet grains with needle- to lamellae-shaped precipitates (up to 3.0?vol%), including Ti-oxide and/or pyroxene. Orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene grains host oriented lamellae of complementary Ca-rich and Ca-poor pyroxene, respectively, in addition to lamellae of garnet and Ti- and/or Cr-oxides. The common exsolution lamellae assemblages in garnet and pyroxene imply that exsolution occurred during cooling from high-temperature precursors. Exsolution is unlikely to have resulted from variations in pressure, given experimental and thermodynamic constraints. Host mineral partitioning of transition metal and lanthanide elements with different diffusivities record temperatures that range between those of local geotherms and a dry pyroxenite solidus. Inferred magmatic minimum temperatures of 1500-1700?°C satisfy the physical conditions predicted from experimental studies of the solubility of excess Si and Ti in garnet. Granular inclusions of all major minerals within each other imply an overlapping crystallisation history. The reconstructed compositions of the websterite whole-rocks have high MgO contents (15.7-35.7?wt%). A plot of MgO/SiO2 versus SiO2 forms an array, apart from the compositions of natural websterites that formed by interaction of peridotite with basaltic or siliceous melts. The array overlaps the compositional range of komatiite flows from Commondale and Barberton, South Africa, including spinifex, massive, and cumulate subtypes of komatiites. Other major and minor element abundances and ratios of the Siberian websterite suite resemble those of South African Al-enriched komatiites and are distinct from melt-rock reaction websterites. Therefore, the mineral microstructures and geochemistry of the Siberian websterites are suggestive of the former presence of a thermal anomaly. We propose that mantle plume activity or a similar form of lower-mantle ascent played a major role in stabilising cratonic nuclei before amalgamation of the present-day Siberian Craton.
Stagno, V.Carbon, carbides, carbonates and carbonatitic melts in the Earth's interiors. *** NOTE DATEresearchgate, doi:10.31223/ osf.io/uhSc8 40p. PdfMantlecarbonatite

Abstract: Over recent decades, many experimental studies have focused on the effect of CO2 on phase equilibria and melting behaviour of synthetic eclogites and peridotites as a function of pressure and temperature. These studies have been of fundamental importance to understanding the origin of carbonated magmas varying in composition from carbonatitic to kimberlitic. The occurrence of diamonds in natural rocks is further evidence of the presence of (reduced) carbon in the Earth's interior. The oxygenation of the Earth's interior (i.e. its redox state) through time has strongly influenced the speciation of carbon from the mantle to mantle-derived magmas and, in turn, to the volcanic gases released to the atmosphere. This paper explains how the knowledge of the oxygen fugacity recorded by mantle rocks and determined through the use of appropriate oxy-thermobarometers allows modelling of the speciation of carbon in the mantle, its mobilization in the asthenospheric mantle by redox partial melting, and its sequestration and storage during subduction by redox freezing processes. The effect of a gradual increase of the mantle fO2 on the mobilization of C is here discussed along with the main variables affecting its transport by subduction into the mantle.
Stanley, S.Subduction may recycle less water than thought.Eos, 102, doi.org/10.1029 /2021EO154530Mantlesubduction

Abstract: When one tectonic plate dives beneath another at a subduction zone, it recycles huge amounts of water and other chemicals into Earth’s mantle. The sinking plate carries seawater trapped in sediments and crust or chemically bound in minerals like serpentine. Later release of this water in the mantle contributes to key geological processes, such as earthquakes and the formation of volcano-feeding magma. By volume, the largest portion of a subducting plate is its bottom layer, which comprises upper mantle material. Estimates of the amount of water in downgoing slabs of upper mantle vary widely: Some suggest that worldwide, subduction zones have swallowed more than two oceans’ worth of water in the past 540 million years. However, new research by Miller et al. suggests that water transport at the Middle America Trench subduction zone is an order of magnitude less than previously estimated. As a plate approaches a subduction zone, it bends downward, causing faults to form. Models and earlier observations have suggested that this bending and faulting allow seawater to infiltrate into the upper mantle, where it fills cracks in fault zones, reacts with olivine to produce serpentine, and is later carried deeper into the subduction zone. Previous estimates of how much water reaches the upper mantle along bending faults have relied on measurements of the speed of seismic waves as they pass through a subducting plate. However, those measurements and estimates could not discern whether the upper mantle layer is uniformly hydrated or whether water is confined to bending fault zones. To address that limitation, the new study accounted for seismic anisotropy characterizing how the speed of seismic waves depends on the direction they travel through a material. The researchers used data collected by seafloor seismometers to measure seismic anisotropy along the Middle America Trench near Nicaragua, which enabled a much more detailed picture of upper mantle hydration. The data revealed that in the region studied, water storage in the upper mantle is limited to serpentinized fault zones that thin rapidly with depth, suggesting that fault dynamics and serpentinization reaction kinetics prevent seawater from hydrating the mantle between bending faults. New estimates of water transport that incorporate this finding are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates for the Middle America Trench. Because the same processes occur at other subduction zones, the researchers report that far less water may be transported worldwide than previously estimated. (Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JB020982, 2021)
Stern, R.J.The Mesoproterozoic single - lid tectonic episode: prelude to modern plate tectonics.GSA Today, Vol. 30, pp. 4-10. pdfMantletectonics

Abstract: The hypothesis that the Mesoproterozoic (1600-1000 Ma) tectonic regime was a protracted single-lid episode is explored. Single-lid tectonic regimes contrast with plate tectonics because the silicate planet or moon is encased in a single lithospheric shell, not a global plate mosaic. Single-lid tectonics dominate among the Solar System’s active silicate bodies, and these show a wide range of magmatic and tectonic styles, including heat pipe (Io), vigorous (Venus), and sluggish (Mars). Both positive and negative evidence is used to evaluate the viability of the Mesoproterozoic single-lid hypothesis. Four lines of positive evidence are: (1) elevated thermal regime; (2, 3) abundance of unusual dry magmas such as A-type granites and anorthosites; and (4) paucity of new passive continental margins. Negative evidence is the lack of rock and mineral assemblages formed by plate-tectonic processes such as ophiolites, blueschists, and ultra high-pressure terranes. Younger plate-tectonic-related and Mesoproterozoic mineralization styles contrast greatly. Paleomagnetic evidence is equivocal but is permissive that Mesoproterozoic apparent polar wander paths of continental blocks did not differ significantly. These tests compel the conclusion that the Mesoproterozoic single-lid hypothesis is viable.
Stoudmann, N., Reibelt, L.M., Rakotomalala, A.G., Randriamanjakahasina, O., Garcia, C.A., Waeber, P.O.A double edged sword: realities of artisanal and small scale mining for rural people in the Alaotra region of Madagascar. ** not specific to diamondsNatural Resources Forum, Vol 45 pp. 87-102. pdfAfrica, Madagascaralluvials

Abstract: A growing number of people are entering the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector worldwide. In Madagascar, millions of individuals depend on this informal activity. Through a case study in the Alaotra-Mangoro region of Madagascar, our research aimed to understand the "bottom-up" dynamics and ripple effects of the sector, by looking at the realities for rural communities where inhabitants are both directly and indirectly affected by ASM. We were interested in community members' and miners' perceptions of the socio-economic and environmental impacts of ASM, and in identifying the factors attracting people living in one of the country's agricultural hubs to this activity. Our results show a wide diversity of push and pull factors leading people to enter the sector. Although many positive impacts of ASM exist for miners and communities within the vicinity of mines, most miner participants considered themselves worse off since starting to mine, highlighting the high risk and low probability of return of ASM. ASM's potential for local and national development will remain squandered if its negative impacts continue to go unmanaged. Accounting for local contexts and the ripple effects of ASM will be crucial in achieving safety and security for miners, and to tap into the benefits it may offer communities while minimising environmental damage.
Sudholz, Z.J., Yaxley, G.M., Jaques, A.L., Brey, G.P.Experimental recalibration of the Cr-in-clinpyroxene geobarometer: improved precision and reliability above 4.5 Gpa.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 176, 10.1007/s0041 0-020-01768-z 21p. PdfMantlegeothermometry

Abstract: The pressure dependence of the exchange of Cr between clinopyroxene and garnet in peridotite is applicable as a geobarometer for mantle-derived Cr-diopside xenocrysts and xenoliths. The most widely used calibration (Nimis and Taylor Contrib Miner Petrol 139: 541-554, 2000; herein NT00) performs well at pressures below 4.5 GPa, but has been shown to consistently underestimate pressures above 4.5 GPa. We have experimentally re-examined this exchange reaction over an extended pressure, temperature, and compositional range using multi-anvil, belt, and piston cylinder apparatuses. Twenty-nine experiments were completed between 3-7 GPa, and 1100-1400 °C in a variety of compositionally complex lherzolitic systems. These experiments are used in conjunction with several published experimental datasets to present a modified calibration of the widely-used NT00 Cr-in-clinopyroxene (Cr-in-cpx) single crystal geobarometer. Our updated calibration calculates P (GPa) as a function of T (K), CaCr Tschermak activity in clinopyroxene (acpxCaCrTs), and Cr/(Cr?+?Al) (Cr#) in clinopyroxene. Rearranging experimental results into a 2n polynomial using multiple linear regression found the following expression for pressure: P(GPa)=11.03+(-T(K) ln(acpxCaCrTs)×0.001088)+(1.526×ln(Cr#cpxT(K))) where Cr#cpx=(CrCr+Al), acpxCaCrTs=Cr-0.81·Cr#cpx·(Na+K), with all mineral components calculated assuming six oxygen anions per formula unit in clinopyroxene. Temperature (K) may be calculated through a variety of geothermometers, however, we recommend the NT00 single crystal, enstatite-in-clinopyroxene (en-in-cpx) geothermometer. The pressure uncertainty of our updated calibration has been propagated by incorporating all analytical and experimental uncertainties. We have found that pressure estimates below 4 GPa, between 4-6 GPa and above 6 GPa have associated uncertainties of 0.31, 0.35, and 0.41 GPa, respectively. Pressures calculated using our calibration of the Cr-in-cpx geobarometer are in good agreement between 2-7 GPa, and 900-1400 °C with those estimated from widely-used two-phase geobarometers based on the solubility of alumina in orthopyroxene coexisting with garnet. Application of our updated calibration to suites of well-equilibrated garnet lherzolite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths and xenocrysts from the Diavik-Ekati kimberlite and the Argyle lamproite pipes confirm the accuracy and precision of our modified geobarometer, and show that PT estimates using our revised geobarometer result in systematically steeper paleogeotherms and higher estimates of the lithosphere?asthenosphere boundary compared with the original NT00 calibration.
Taguchi, T., Kouketsu, Y., Igami, Y., Kobayashi, T., Miyake, A.Hidden intact coesite in deeply subducted rocks.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 558, 115763, 6p. PdfEurope, ItalyUHP

Abstract: The stabilization of coesite is a diagnostic indicator of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and in many cases it implies that a rock has been subducted to a minimum depth of 80 km. Coesite typically occurs as rare relicts in rigid host minerals, but most commonly transforms into a-quartz pseudomorphs during exhumation. The abundance of coesite-bearing rocks in orogens worldwide is a contentious issue in the petrological community, despite evidence from numerical modeling that suggests that coesite formation should be a common geological process during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. This knowledge gap must be addressed to improve the understanding of the geological aspects of subduction-zone geodynamics. Here we report that minuscule coesites (<20 µm) occur as abundant inclusions in garnet-rich layers from the Italian Western Alps. The discovery of such intact inclusions may fill the gaps in the predicted and observed abundances of coesite worldwide. Through integrated approaches with resolutions down to the nano-scale, we show that these garnet-hosted inclusions are composed entirely of coesite. Our results suggest that common coesite-derived quartz pseudomorphs are less typical structures in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks and the minuscule coesite in many rocks may be overlooked because of its size. These findings open up new research directions for constraining the extent of deeply subducted rocks and their rheology.
Tang, M., Ji, W-Q., Chu, X., Wu, A., Chen, C.Reconstructing crustal thickness evolution from europium anomalies in detrital zircons.Geology, Vol. 49, pp. 76-80. pdfAsia, Tibetzircons

Abstract: A new data compilation shows that in intermediate to felsic rocks, zircon Eu/Eu* [chondrite normalized Eu/ graphic] correlates with whole rock La/Yb, which has been be used to infer crustal thickness. The resultant positive correlation between zircon Eu/Eu* and crustal thickness can be explained by two processes favored during high-pressure differentiation: (1) supression of plagioclase and (2) endogenic oxidation of Eu2+ due to garnet fractionation. Here we calibrate a crustal thickness proxy based on Eu anomalies in zircons. The Eu/Eu*-in-zircon proxy makes it possible to reconstruct crustal thickness evolution in magmatic arcs and orogens using detrital zircons. To evaluate this new proxy, we analyzed detrital zircons separated from modern river sands in the Gangdese belt, southern Tibet. Our results reveal two episodes of crustal thickening (to 60-70 km) since the Cretaceous. The first thickening event occurred at 90-70 Ma, and the second at 50-30 Ma following Eurasia-India collision. These findings are temporally consistent with contractional deformation of sedimentary strata in southern Tibet.
Thomson, A.R., Kohn, S.C., Prabhu, A., Walter, M.J.Evaluating the formation pressure of diamond-hosted majoritic garnets; a machine learning majorite barometer.Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth, in press available, 34p.Globaldiamond inclusions

Abstract: Natural diamonds, as well as being a cherished commodity, are valuable for scientists studying the Earth's interior because they only grow at depths greater than 140 km. When diamonds grow, they may trap tiny fragments of surrounding materials as sub-millimetre defects. Study of these inclusions can provide insights into the materials and processes occurring deep inside our planet. Sub-lithospheric diamonds are a relatively rare subset of natural diamonds, believed to have grown deeper than 250 km, and are thought to be the deepest Earth materials that have been transported to the surface. Ideally, we would be able to estimate their formation depths accurately. Inclusions of majoritic garnet provide a unique opportunity for this, as their chemistry is known to change systematically with formation depth. However, this behaviour is highly complex, and previous attempts to parameterise the depth dependence of inclusion chemistries have limitations. Here we have used data science to train a "Machine Learning" algorithm that improves the accuracy of estimating the formation pressures of majoritic garnet inclusion. The approach confirms that many natural diamonds containing inclusions of majoritic garnet must have originally formed at depths of 400 - 660 km.
Tomlinson, E.L., Kamber, B.S.Depth-dependent peridotite-melt interaction and the origin of variable silica in the cratonic mantle.Nature Communications, doi:101038/s41467- 021-21343-9 33p. Pdf Mantlecraton

Abstract: Peridotites from the thick roots of Archaean cratons are known for their compositional diversity, whose origin remains debated. We report thermodynamic modelling results for reactions between peridotite and ascending mantle melts. Reaction between highly magnesian melt (komatiite) and peridotite leads to orthopyroxene crystallisation, yielding silica-rich harzburgite. By contrast, shallow basalt-peridotite reaction leads to olivine enrichment, producing magnesium-rich dunites that cannot be generated by simple melting. Komatiite is spatially and temporally associated with basalt within Archaean terranes indicating that modest-degree melting co-existed with advanced melting. We envisage a relatively cool mantle that experienced episodic hot upwellings, the two settings could have coexisted if roots of nascent cratons became locally strongly extended. Alternatively, deep refractory silica-rich residues could have been detached from shallower dunitic lithosphere prior to cratonic amalgamation. Regardless, the distinct Archaean melting-reaction environments collectively produced skewed and multi-modal olivine distributions in the cratonic lithosphere and bimodal mafic-ultramafic volcanism at surface.
Tripathy-Lang, A.How geodynamo models churn the outer core.Eos, 102, doi.org/10.1029 /2021EO154727MantleGeodynamics

Abstract: New simulations of Earth’s outer core have reproduced magnetic fields that—for the first time-match paleomagnetic data collected from rocks.
Turner, S., Turner, M., Bourdon, B., Cooper, K., Porcelli, D.Extremely young melt infiltration of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle.Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, doi.org/10.1016/ j.pepi.2-19.106325 54p. PdfMantlemelting

Abstract: It has long been inferred that mantle metasomatism and the incompatible element enrichment of the continents both require movement of melts formed by very low degree melting of the mantle. Yet establishing the presence of these melts and whether this process is on-going and continuous, or spatially and temporally restricted, has proved difficult. Here we report large U-Th-Ra disequilibria in metasomatised, mantle xenoliths erupted in very young lavas from the Newer Volcanics Province in southeastern Australia. The 226Ra-230Th disequilibria appear to require reappraisal of previous estimates for the age of eruption that now seems unlikely to be more than a few kyr at most. We propose that infiltration of carbonatitic melts/fluids, combined with crystallization of pargasite, can account for the first order U-series disequilibria observations. Irrespective of the exact details of the complex processes responsible, the half-lives of the nuclides require that some of the chemical and isotopic disturbance was extremely young (« 8?kyr) and potentially on-going at the time of incorporation into the alkali basalts that transported the xenoliths to the surface. This provides evidence for the presence and possibly continuing migration of small melt fractions (~0.02%) in the upper convecting mantle that may contribute to the seismic low velocity zone. By implication, it appears that the asthenosphere must lie close to its solidus, at least in this region. Pressure-temperature estimates indicate that the small degree melts identified could infiltrate as far as 25?km upwards into the sub-continental lithospheric mantle leading to strong incompatible element enrichment and the recent timing of this event this urges a reappraisal of the meaning of 300-500?Ma Nd model ages in mantle xenoliths from this region. In principle, the resultant metasomatised mantle could provide a component for some ocean island basalts, should the sub-continental lithospheric mantle be returned to the asthenosphere by convective removal at some later time.
Urubek, T., Dolnicek, Z., Kropac, K.Genesis of syntectonic hydrothermal veins in the igneous rock of teschenite association ( Outer western Carpathians, Czeck Republic): growth mechanisms and origin of fluids. ( REE) ** note dateGeologica Carpathica ** Eng, Vol. 65, 6, pp. 419-431. pdf doi: 10.15 /geoca-2015-0003Europe, Czech Republicalkaline rocks

Abstract: Hydrothermal mineralization hosted by the Lower Cretaceous igneous rock of the teschenite association at Jasenice (Silesian Unit, Flysch Belt, Outer Western Carpathians) occurs in two morphological types - irregular vein filled by granular calcite and regular composite vein formed by both fibrous and granular calcite and minor chlorite, quartz, and pyrite. Crosscutting evidence indicates that the granular veins are younger than the composite vein. The composite vein was formed by two mechanisms at different times. The arrangement of solid inclusions in the marginal fibrous zone suggests an episodic growth by the crack-seal mechanism during syntectonic deformation which was at least partially driven by tectonic suction pump during some stages of the Alpine Orogeny. Both the central part of the composite vein and monomineral veins developed in a brittle regime. In these cases, the textures of vein suggest the flow of fluids along an open fracture. The parent fluids of both types of vein are characterized by low temperatures (Th=66-163 °C), low salinities (0.4 to 3.4 wt. % NaCl eq.), low content of strong REE-complexing ligands, and d18O and d13C ranges of + 0.2/+12.5 %. SMOW and -11.8/-14.1 %. PDB, respectively. The parent fluids are interpreted as the results of mixing of residual seawater and diagenetic waters produced by dewatering of clay minerals in the associ-ated flysch sediments. The flow of fluids was controlled by tectonic deformation of the host rock.
Vannucchi, P., Morgan, J.P., Polonia, A., Molli, G.The life cycle of subcontinental peridotites: from rifted continental margins to mountains via subduction processes.Geology, Vol. 48, pp. 1154-1158. pdfMantlesubduction

Abstract: Serpentinization greatly affects the physical and chemical properties of lithospheric mantle. Here we address the fate of serpentinized peridotites and their influence over an entire Wilson cycle. We document the near-surface journey of serpentinized subcontinental peridotites exhumed during rifting and continental breakup, reactivated as buoyant material during subduction, and ultimately emplaced as "ophiolite-like" fragments within orogenic belts. This life cycle is particularly well documented in former Tethys margins, where recent studies describe the ongoing incorporation of Mesozoic serpentinized subcontinental peridotites that diapirically rise from a subducting lower plate’s mantle to be emplaced into the accretionary prism in front of a continental arc. This newly recognized mode of subduction-linked serpentine diapirism from the downgoing lithospheric slab is consistent with the origin of some exhumed serpentinized subcontinental peridotites in the Apennines (Italy), these assemblages reaching their present locations during Alpine orogenesis. Transfer of serpentinized subcontinental peridotites from the downgoing to the overriding plate motivates the concept of a potentially "leaky" subduction channel. Weak serpentine bodies may in fact rise into, preferentially migrate within, and eventually leave the intraplate shear zone, leading to strong lateral heterogeneities in its composition and mechanical strength.
Vezinet, A., Pearson, A.D., Thomassot, E.Effects of contamination on whole rock isochrons in ancient rocks: a numerical modelling approach.Lithos, in press available, 44p. PdfGlobalmetamorphism

Abstract: Radiometric decay systems have played a crucial role in developing our understanding of the evolution of the early Earth. There are two main types of protocols for isotope measurements in geological materials: (i) bulk dissolution of rocks, or whole-grains and (ii) spatially resolved techniques (laser-ablation or ion-beam). These two approaches have sometimes led to results that are not easily reconciled for early Earth crustal rocks (= 3.6?Ga). While initial radiogenic isotope signatures (e.g. initial 176Hf/177Hf or initial 143Nd/144Nd) obtained from whole-rock protocols are significantly above chondritic values, indicative of extensive chemical differentiation of the mantle before 3.6?Ga, data from spatially resolved analysis of individual mineral growth domains point toward much less dramatic differentiation. This is indicated by the majority of data falling close to models of Earth's mantle that had not experienced major silicate melt removal into the crust. These data show chondritic or sub-chondritic signatures. Interpretations of whole rock isochrons are built on assumptions about the history and relationship of a number of different samples to each other. At the heart of these assumptions, the effects of secondary process-such as metasomatism-on isotopic compositions and consequently on the age and initial ratio of isochrons, are often considered negligible. In order to evaluate the possible effects of metasomatism and metamorphism on co-genetic igneous suites we modelled the impact of contamination by an external component on both the isochron slope (the apparent age) and the isochron intercept (the initial radiogenic isotope signature). A significant outcome is that the age significance of some of the modified isochron arrays remains to a large extent within uncertainty of the original crystallisation age of the igneous suite. In other words, the original age signature is preserved, but with lower precision. The intercept of the isochron, from which the initial isotope ratio is calculated, however is often significantly modified, which has consequences for the interpretation of these signatures. Our results provide an explanation for the discrepancy between whole-rock and spatially-resolved results observed in early Earth material. Lastly, our results, applied to studies of ancient crustal rocks, are interpreted as indicative of no significantly depleted mantle domains before 3.6?Ga, and no Hfsingle bondNd isotopes decoupling at that time.
Viladkar, S.G.First discovery of carbonatite in India.Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 96, 6, pp. 623-624.Indiacarbonatite
Vilella, K., Bodin, T., Boukare, C-E.,Deschamp, F., Badro, J., Ballmer, M.D. Li, Y.Constraints on the composition and temperature of LLSVPs from seismic properties of lower mantle minerals.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 554, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116685Mantlegeophysics - seismic

Abstract: Here, we provide a reappraisal of potential LLSVPs compositions based on an improved mineralogical model including, for instance, the effects of alumina. We also systematically investigate the effects of six parameters: FeO and Al2O3 content, proportion of CaSiO3 and bridgmanite (so that the proportion of ferropericlase is implicitly investigated), Fe3+/?Fe and temperature contrast between far-field mantle and LLSVPs. From the 81 millions cases studied, only 79000 cases explain the seismic observations. Nevertheless, these successful cases involve a large range of parameters with, for instance, FeO content between 12--25~wt\% and Al2O3 content between 3--17~wt\%. We then apply a principal component analysis (PCA) to these cases and find two robust results: (i) the proportion of ferropericlase should be low (<6vol\%); (ii) the formation of Fe3+-bearing bridgmanite is much more favored than other iron-bearing phases. Following these results, we identify two end-member compositions, Bm-rich and CaPv-rich, and discuss their characteristics. Finally, we discuss different scenarios for the formation of LLSVPs and propose that investigating the mineral proportion produced by each scenario is the best way to evaluate their relevance. For instance, the solidification of a primitive magma ocean may produce FeO and Al2O3 content similar to those suggested by our analysis. However, the mineral proportion of such reservoirs is not well-constrained and may contain a larger proportion of ferropericlase than what is allowed by our results.
Viles, H.A., Goudie, A.S., Goudie, A.M.Ants as geomorphological agents: a global assessment.Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 213, doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2020.103469 17p. PdfGlobalgeomorphology

Abstract: Ants are abundant in most of the world's terrestrial environments. They are energetic, strong for their size, numerous, and socially cooperative. They play many geomorphologically important roles. In particular, they construct mounds and subterranean galleries, create patterned ground, play a role in bioturbation, affect vegetation cover and soil properties (such as infiltration rate) and influence runoff and erosion. They also play roles in biogeochemical cycling and rock and mineral weathering. Here, we review and reanalyse data collected from over 80 studies on ant contributions to geomorphology from around the world. The clearest manifestation of the geomorphological role of ants is found in their various constructions, such as mounds. There can be hundreds or thousands of mounds per hectare, with a median density of 125 ha-1 recorded in the studies reviewed. The longevity of these features varies and some are stable while others are highly erodible. The construction of mounds and galleries causes bioturbation (pedoturbation), a role which ants share with termites, worms and many mammals. A median rate of 1.5 t ha-1 a-1 is derived from the studies reviewed. Ants also produce patterned ground through their effects on vegetation. The relationships between ant activity and runoff and erosion are complex and not consistent. Bioturbation of soil, tunnelling activity, the construction of underground chambers, galleries and macro-pores, the removal and/or accumulation of organic material, and changes in vegetation cover, are all mechanisms by which ants might modify soil infiltration characteristics. Because of their effect on soil infiltration rates, sediment provision and on vegetation cover, ants can have a profound influence on runoff and soil movement on slopes. Only a modest amount of work has been done to investigate the role that ants play in rock weathering. Ants are greatly affected by human activities (especially land cover changes), and some geomorphologically-active species have proved to be highly invasive. The response of ants to future climate changes needs further investigation.
Vladykin, N.V., Pirajno, F.Types of carbonatites: geochemistry, genesis and mantle sources.Lithos, Vol. 386-387, 105982, 13p. PdfGlobalcarbonatite

Abstract: Three types of carbonatites have been identified based on the analysis of alkaline complexes using geological, petrological, and geochemical data. It has been suggested that for distinguishing carbonatite complexes into these three types, the following criteria should be used: a) the alkalinity type (Na- or K- richer primary magmas) and b) the time when the carbonatite liquid separates from silicate melts in different stages of primary magma differentiation. The first type is genetically related to the kimberlite magmatism and the carbonatite liquid separates from ultramafic magma. The second type is associated with Na-rich alkaline ultramafic rocks and the carbonatite component separates when pyroxenites and ijolites crystallize. The third type is related to K-alkaline complexes and the carbonatite component separates when syenites and granites crystallize. In this article we discuss the geochemical characteristics of all 3 types and outline the difference between them. A model for the formation of carbonatite complexes under the influence of mantle plume processes is given. The geochemistry of C, O, Sr, and Nd isotopes shows that carbonatite complexes, depending on their geotectonic setting (platform surrounding, orogenic areas and rift zones) can originate from three types of mantle sources: depleted mantle, enriched mantle 1 (EM1), and enriched mantle 2 (EM2).
Voosen, P.Slowdown in plate tectonics may have led to Earth's ice sheets.Sciencemag,org, Dec. 22, 3p.Mantletectonics

Abstract: In seafloor trenches around the world, slabs of old ocean crust fall in slow motion into the mantle, while fresh slabs are built at midocean ridges, where magma emerges at the seams between separating tectonic plates. The engine is relentless, but maybe not so steady: Beginning about 15 million years ago, in the late Miocene epoch, ocean crust production declined by one-third over 10 million years to a slow pace that pretty much continues to today, says Colleen Dalton, a geophysicist at Brown University who presented the work this month at a virtual meeting of the American Geophysical Union. "It’s a global phenomenon."
Wang, C., Mitchell, Ross.N., Murphy, J.B., Peng, P., Spencer, C.J.The role of megacontinents in the supercontinent cycle.Geology, in press availabe 5p. PdfMantlePangea

Abstract: Supercontinent Pangea was preceded by the formation of Gondwana, a “megacontinent” about half the size of Pangea. There is much debate, however, over what role the assembly of the precursor megacontinent played in the Pangean supercontinent cycle. Here we demonstrate that the past three cycles of supercontinent amalgamation were each preceded by ~200 m.y. by the assembly of a megacontinent akin to Gondwana, and that the building of a megacontinent is a geodynamically important precursor to supercontinent amalgamation. The recent assembly of Eurasia is considered as a fourth megacontinent associated with future supercontinent Amasia. We use constraints from seismology of the deep mantle for Eurasia and paleogeography for Gondwana to develop a geodynamic model for megacontinent assembly and subsequent supercontinent amalgamation. As a supercontinent breaks up, a megacontinent assembles along the subduction girdle that encircled it, at a specific location where the downwelling is most intense. The megacontinent then migrates along the girdle where it collides with other continents to form a supercontinent. The geometry of this model is consistent with the kinematic transitions from Rodinia to Gondwana to Pangea.
Wang, C., Zhang, Z., Giuliani, A., Cheng, Z., Liu, B., Kong, W.Geochemical and O-C-Sr-Nd isotopic constraints on the petrogenetic link between aillikites and carbonatites in the Tarim Large Igneous Province.Journal of Petrology, in press available 69p. PdfChinacarbonatites

Abstract: Aillikites are carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres often associated with carbonatites. Despite their common field relationships, the petrogenetic links, if any, between aillikites and carbonatites remain controversial. To address this question, this study reports the results of a detailed geochemical and isotopic examination of the Permian Wajilitag aillikites in the northwestern Tarim large igneous province, including bulk-rock major-, trace-element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions, olivine major- and trace-element and (in-situ secondary ion mass spectrometry) oxygen isotope compositions, oxygen isotope data for clinopyroxene separates, and bulk-carbonate C-O isotopic analyses. Olivine in the aillikites occurs in two textural types: (i) microcrysts, 0.3-5?mm; and (ii) macrocrysts, 0.5-2.5?cm. The microcrysts exhibit well-defined linear correlations between Fo (79-89), minor and trace elements (e.g., Ni?=?1304-3764?µg/g and Mn?=?1363-3042?µg/g). In contrast, the olivine macrocrysts show low Fo79-81, Ni (5.3-442?µg/g) and Ca (477-1018?µg/g) and very high Mn (3418-5123?µg/g) contents, and are displaced from the compositional trend of the microcrysts. The microcrysts are phenocrysts crystallized from the host aillikite magmas. Conversely, the lack of mantle-derived xenoliths in these aillikites suggests that the macrocrysts probably represent cognate crystals (i.e., antecrysts) that formed from earlier, evolved aillikite melts. Olivine phenocrysts in the more primitive aillikite dykes (Dyke 1) have relatively higher Fo82-89 and mantle-like oxygen isotope values, whereas those in the more evolved dykes (Dyke 2 and 3) exhibit lower Fo79-86 and oxygen isotope values that trend toward lower than mantle d18O values. The decreasing d13C values of carbonate from Dyke 1 through to Dyke 2 and 3, coupled with the indistinguishable Sr-Nd isotopes of these dykes, suggest that the low d18O values of olivine phenocrysts in Dyke 2 and 3 resulted from carbonate melt/fluid exsolution from a common progenitor melt. These lines of evidence combined with the overlapping emplacement ages and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the aillikites and carbonatites in this area suggest that these exsolved carbonate melts probably contributed to the formation of the Tarim carbonatites thus supporting a close petrogenetic relationship between aillikites and carbonatites.
Wang, W., Yazawa, E., Persaud, S., Myagkaya, E., D'Haenens-Johansson, U., Moses, T.M.Formation of the Matryoshka diamond from Siberia.Gems & Gemology , Vol. 56, 1, pp. 127-129.Russia, Siberiadiamond crystalography

Abstract: A freely moving diamond trapped inside another diamond was discovered in Siberia by Alrosa in 2019. The unusual diamond, nicknamed the “Matryoshka” after the traditional Russian nesting dolls, attracted widespread interest in how this feature formed.
Wang, W., Zhang, H., Brodholt, J.P., Wu, Z.Elasticity of hydrous ringwoodite at mantle conditions: implications: implication for water distribution in the lower mantle transition zone.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 554, doi:10.1016/ j.epsl.2020. 116626 12p. PdfMantlewater

Abstract: The mantle transition zone (MTZ) is potentially a geochemical water reservoir because of the high H2O solubility in its dominant minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Whether the MTZ is wet or dry fundamentally impacts our understanding of the deep-water distribution, geochemical recycling, and the pattern of mantle convection. However, the water content in the MTZ inferred from previous studies remains disputed. Seismic observations such as velocity anomalies were used to evaluate the water content in the MTZ, but the hydration effect on the velocities of MTZ minerals under appropriate pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions is poorly constrained. Here we investigated the elastic properties and velocities of hydrous ringwoodite at high P-T conditions using first-principles calculations. Our results show that the hydration effects on elastic moduli and velocities of ringwoodite are significantly reduced by pressure but strongly enhanced by temperature. The incorporation of 1.0 wt% water into ringwoodite decreases the compressional and shear velocities of the pyrolitic mantle by -1.0% and -1.4% at the conditions of MTZ, respectively. Using results from seismic tomography and together with the topography of the 660-km discontinuity, we evaluate the global distribution of water in the lower MTZ. We find that about 80% of the MTZ can be explained by varying water content and temperature, however, the remaining 20% requires the presence of high-velocity heterogeneities such as harzburgite. Our models suggest an average water concentration of ~0.2 wt% in the lower MTZ, with an interregional variation from 0 to 0.9 wt%. Together with our previous work, we conclude that the water concentration in the MTZ likely decreases with depth globally and the whole MTZ contains the equivalent of about one ocean mass of water.
Wang, Y., Miller, J.D.Current developments and applications of micro-CT for the 3D analysis of multiphase mineral systems in geometallurgy. ( not specific to diamonds)Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 211, doi.org/10.1016/ j.earscirev.2020. 103406 26p. Pdf Globalmetallurgy

Abstract: The use of X-ray micro computed tomography (X-ray micro-CT) for three-dimensional (3D) characterization of multiphase systems continues to increase in metallurgical research. In recent years, a number of technical developments in X-ray sources and X-ray imaging arrays have broadened the utility of micro-CT. Here, the authors review the current state-of-the-art tomographic techniques for both qualitative and quantitative geometallurgical characterization. This review first considers the basic principles of tomography and commonly used tomographic systems. The advantages and disadvantages (shortcomings) of micro-CT are discussed. Software development, including current image reconstruction algorithms, such as traditional weighted back projection and iterative reconstruction algorithms, as well as image segmentation tasks, are then discussed for processing 3D images and conducting quantitative analysis. Based on the development of hardware and software, applications involved in geometallurgy and minerals engineering are then thoroughly discussed. Specifically, applications include the determination of microstructure such as particle size, shape, and damage, as well as porosity and pore network structure of packed particle beds. In this way, the permeability, mineral composition, coal washability, mineral liberation, and exposed grain surface area can be determined.
Wang, Y-F., Qin, J-Y., Soustelle, V., Zhang, J-F., Xu, H-J.Pyroxene does not always preserve its source hydrogen concentration: clues from peridotite xenoliths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press availabe 38p. PdfChinametasomatism

Abstract: Water is key to many geodynamical processes in the Earth's upper mantle, yet its preservation in mantle minerals is still debated. To throw some light on this problem, we here carried out an integrated study of whole-rock and mineral chemistry, and hydrogen concentrations in olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene within 18 spinel lherzolite samples from three localities (Lianshan, Panshishan, and Tashan) in the Nanjing area, eastern China. Whole-rock and mineral compositions suggest that the studied peridotite samples interacted with melt at different melt/rock ratios following various degrees of partial melting (up to 11%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements show that olivine is almost dry (<1 wt ppm H2O) while the cores of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene contain 14-151 wt ppm H2O and 41-218 wt ppm H2O, respectively. Profile analyses of >70 orthopyroxene grains, which are homogeneous in major-element compositions, covering all the studied samples show hydrogen-depleted rims, indicative of hydrogen diffusional loss. This hydrogen zonation is probably caused by hydrogen chemical diffusion controlled by the mobility of trivalent cations (most likely Al3+) in response to magma degassing or partial melting of peridotite during ascent, or interactions of peridotite with melt, or a combination of these processes. By contrast, no hydrogen zonation is observed in clinopyroxene. Based upon the comparison of chemical compositions (especially Fe and AlIV contents) of clinopyroxene within our samples with those in diffusion experiments, it is inferred that the hydrogen diffusivity in clinopyroxene should be larger than that in orthopyroxene from our samples. This inference points to that clinopyroxene within the studied samples must have experienced diffusional loss of hydrogen as well, suggesting that water concentrations in the lithospheric mantle beneath the study area are probably underestimated. Furthermore, it also implies that orthopyroxene instead of clinopyroxene most likely preserves the in-situ water concentrations at depth, at least at its core. The absence of hydrogen zonation in clinopyroxene can be attributed to its fine-grained nature and fast hydrogen diffusivity. Our FTIR data also show that Lianshan and Tashan samples have water concentration ratio between clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene (RCpx/Opx) of ~2, similar to mantle xenoliths from eastern China and other localities worldwide, yet Panshishan samples have higher RCpx/Opx values (2.3-5.9). Since hydrogen loss is suggested for both pyroxenes, RCpx/Opx of ~2 thus cannot be taken as a reliable indicator of preservation of original water concentration of mantle source and equilibrium partitioning of hydrogen between pyroxene, as opposed to previous suggestions.
Watchorn, B.Pt. 6 African continent evolution research using ultra-detailed landsat amd seismic tomography from surface to 2,900 km depth. Implications for plate tectonics, continent formation and the genesis and targeting of mineralization. Not specific to diamonds.Geotreks, https://www.geotreks.com.au/ work/.giant-ring-structures /africa-seismic- tomography-210-km-depthAfricatomography

Abstract: The majority of this paper is a transcription from the video of the AusIMM Webinar at the Western Australian, South West Branch on the 30th July 2020. To view the video go to https://vimeo.com/464013825/1ed4a0c752 . Start listening at about 5 minutes in. The language in this paper is thus vernacular and not geologese. This should make it more easily read and understood by the majority of readers. Africa is a rich source of minerals. The main mining fields in Africa are located on the ring structures and linears from the surface right to the limits of detailed data at 400 km depth. The mechanism and source of the fluid for most mineralisation may have been discovered by this research. This Part 6 section describes the relationship of the metal and diamond mineralisation to the linear and ring structures observed in African seismic tomography at 170-250 km depth.
Wheeler, J.A unifying basis for the interplay of stress and chemical processes in the Earth: support from diverse experiments.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, dor.org/10.1007/ s00410-020-01750-9 27p. PdfMantleGeothermometry

Abstract: The interplay between stress and chemical processes is a fundamental aspect of how rocks evolve, relevant for understanding fracturing due to metamorphic volume change, deformation by pressure solution and diffusion creep, and the effects of stress on mineral reactions in crust and mantle. There is no agreed microscale theory for how stress and chemistry interact, so here I review support from eight different types of the experiment for a relationship between stress and chemistry which is specific to individual interfaces: (chemical potential)?=?(Helmholtz free energy)?+?(normal stress at interface)?×?(molar volume). The experiments encompass temperatures from -100 to 1300 degrees C and pressures from 1 bar to 1.8 GPa. The equation applies to boundaries with fluid and to incoherent solid-solid boundaries. It is broadly in accord with experiments that describe the behaviours of free and stressed crystal faces next to solutions, that document flow laws for pressure solution and diffusion creep, that address polymorphic transformations under stress, and that investigate volume changes in solid-state reactions. The accord is not in all cases quantitative, but the equation is still used to assist the explanation. An implication is that the chemical potential varies depending on the interface, so there is no unique driving force for reaction in stressed systems. Instead, the overall evolution will be determined by combinations of reaction pathways and kinetic factors. The equation described here should be a foundation for grain-scale models, which are a prerequisite for predicting larger scale Earth behaviour when stress and chemical processes interact. It is relevant for all depths in the Earth from the uppermost crust (pressure solution in basin compaction, creep on faults), reactive fluid flow systems (serpentinisation), the deeper crust (orogenic metamorphism), the upper mantle (diffusion creep), the transition zone (phase changes in stressed subducting slabs) to the lower mantle and core mantle boundary (diffusion creep).
Wheeler, J.A unifying basis for the interplay of stress and chemical processes in the Earth: support from diverse experiments.Contributions to mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 175, 27p. PdfMantlemineralogy, geochemistry

Abstract: The interplay between stress and chemical processes is a fundamental aspect of how rocks evolve, relevant for understanding fracturing due to metamorphic volume change, deformation by pressure solution and diffusion creep, and the effects of stress on mineral reactions in crust and mantle. There is no agreed microscale theory for how stress and chemistry interact, so here I review support from eight different types of the experiment for a relationship between stress and chemistry which is specific to individual interfaces: (chemical potential)?=?(Helmholtz free energy)?+?(normal stress at interface)?×?(molar volume). The experiments encompass temperatures from -100 to 1300 degrees C and pressures from 1 bar to 1.8 GPa. The equation applies to boundaries with fluid and to incoherent solid-solid boundaries. It is broadly in accord with experiments that describe the behaviours of free and stressed crystal faces next to solutions, that document flow laws for pressure solution and diffusion creep, that address polymorphic transformations under stress, and that investigate volume changes in solid-state reactions. The accord is not in all cases quantitative, but the equation is still used to assist the explanation. An implication is that the chemical potential varies depending on the interface, so there is no unique driving force for reaction in stressed systems. Instead, the overall evolution will be determined by combinations of reaction pathways and kinetic factors. The equation described here should be a foundation for grain-scale models, which are a prerequisite for predicting larger scale Earth behaviour when stress and chemical processes interact. It is relevant for all depths in the Earth from the uppermost crust (pressure solution in basin compaction, creep on faults), reactive fluid flow systems (serpentinisation), the deeper crust (orogenic metamorphism), the upper mantle (diffusion creep), the transition zone (phase changes in stressed subducting slabs) to the lower mantle and core mantle boundary (diffusion creep).
White, M.A., Kahwaji, S., Freitas, V.L.S., Siewert, R., Weatherby, J.A., Ribeiro da Silva, M.D.M.C., Verevkin, S.P., Johnson, E.R., Zwanziger, J.W.The relative thermodynamic stability of diamond and graphite.Angewandte Chemie International, Vol. 60, 3, pp. 1546-1549. pdfGlobaldiamond, graphite

Abstract: Recent density-functional theory (DFT) calculations raised the possibility that diamond could be degenerate with graphite at very low temperatures. Through high-accuracy calorimetric experiments closing gaps in available data, we reinvestigate the relative thermodynamic stability of diamond and graphite. For T<400 K, graphite is always more stable than diamond at ambient pressure. At low temperatures, the stability is enthalpically driven, and entropy terms add to the stability at higher temperatures. We also carried out DFT calculations: B86bPBE-25X-XDM//B86bPBE-XDM and PBE0-XDM//PBE-XDM results overlap with the experimental -T?S results and bracket the experimental values of ?H and ?G, displaced by only about 2× the experimental uncertainty. Revised values of the standard thermodynamic functions for diamond are ?fHo=-2150±150 J?mol-1, ?fSo=3.44±0.03 J?K-1?mol-1 and ?fGo=-3170±150 J?mol-1.
Wildman, M., Gallagher, K., Chew, D., Carter, A.From sink to source: using offshore thermochronometric data to extract onshore erosion signals in Namibia.Basin Research, doi.org/10.111 /bre.12527 23p. PdfAfrica, NamibiaThermochron, temperature logging

Abstract: Products of onshore passive continental margin erosion are best preserved in offshore sedimentary basins. Therefore, these basins potentially hold a recoverable record of the onshore erosion history. Here, we present apatite fission track (AFT) data for 13 samples from a borehole in the southern Walvis basin, offshore Namibia. All samples show AFT central ages older or similar to their respective stratigraphic ages, while many single grain ages are older, implying none of the samples has been totally annealed post-deposition. Furthermore, large dispersion in single grain ages in some samples suggests multiple age components related to separate source regions. Using Bayesian mixture modelling we classify single grain ages from a given sample to particular age components to create ‘subsamples’ and then jointly invert the entire dataset to obtain a thermal history. For each sample, the post-depositional thermal history is required to be the same for all age components, but each component (‘subsample’) has an independent pre-depositional thermal history. With this approach we can resolve pre- and post-depositional thermal events and identify changes in sediment provenance in response to the syn- and post-rift tectonic evolution of Namibia and southern Africa. Apatite U-Pb and compositional data obtained during the acquisition of LA-ICP-MS FT data are also presented to help track changes in provenance with time. We constrain multiple thermal events linked to the exhumation and burial history of the continental and offshore sectors of the margin over a longer timescale than has been possible using only onshore AFT thermochronological data.
Windley, B.F., Kusky, T., Polat, A.Onset of plate tectonics by the Eoarchean.Precambrian Research, doi.org/1-.1016/ j.precamres.2020 .105980, 43p. PdfMantleplate tectonics

Abstract: One of the most contentious areas of Earth Science today is when, or whether or not modern-style plate tectonics was in operation in the Archean Eon. In this review we present evidence that the onset of plate tectonics was not at 3.2 Ga, as popularly conceived, but was in operation during the Eoarchean by at least ca. 4.0 Ga. Following a review of the main Eoarchean supracrustal belts of the world, constrained by relevant geochemical/isotopic data, we present evidence that suggests that from at least ca. 4.0 Ga Earth produced considerable juvenile mafic crust and consequent island arcs by Accretionary Cycle Plate Tectonics. From ~3.2 Ga there was a gradual transition in geodynamics to more abundant active continental margin magmatism in the form of voluminous TTGs and sanukitoids. From 3.2 Ga to 2.5 Ga juvenile oceanic crust and arcs continued to form, accompanied by more active continental margin magmatism until ~2.7-2.5 Ga, by which time there were sufficient crustal rocks to amalgamate into incipient large continents, the fragmentation of which started the first complete classical Wilson Cycle Plate Tectonics of breaking apart and re-assembling large continental masses. In other words, there were two types of plate tectonics in operation in the early Earth, Accretionary Cycle Plate Tectonics and Wilson Cycle Plate Tectonics, but Wilson Cycle type plate interactions only became more common after contiguous continental landmass became voluminous and extensive enough around 2.7-2.5 Ga. Failure to realize this dual mechanism of continental growth may lead to erroneous ideas such as "plate tectonics started at 3.2 Ga", or "mantle plumes generated early Archean magmatic rocks." We present new geochemical data that together with lithological and structural relationships, negate the various plume-type speculations including stagnant lids, heat pipes, and mushy-lid tectonics. It is interesting to consider that the way Earth’s crust developed in the first Gigayear of the geological record continued later, albeit in more advanced forms, into the Phanerozoic, where we can still recognize Accretionary Cycle Plate Tectonics and orogens still with short boundaries in examples including the Altaids of Central Asia, the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Japanese Islands, and in incipient form in Indonesia, as well as Wilson Cycle Plate Tectonics that leads inexorably to continental collisions as in the Alpine-Himalayan orogen with its long plate boundaries. We recommend this holistic view of crustal growth and the evolution of continents that leads to a robust, viable, and testable model of Earth evolution.
Woodland, A.B., Graf, C., Sandner, T., Hofer, H.E., Seitz, H-M., Pearson, D.G., Kjarsgaard, B.A.Oxidation state and metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae craton, Canada: strong gradients reflect craton formation and evolution.Nature Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-021-83261-6 11p. PdfCanada, Northwest Territoriesmetasomatism

Abstract: We present the first oxidation state measurements for the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Rae craton, northern Canada, one of the largest components of the Canadian shield. In combination with major and trace element compositions for garnet and clinopyroxene, we assess the relationship between oxidation state and metasomatic overprinting. The sample suite comprises peridotite xenoliths from the central part (Pelly Bay) and the craton margin (Somerset Island) providing insights into lateral and vertical variations in lithospheric character. Our suite contains spinel, garnet-spinel and garnet peridotites, with most samples originating from 100 to 140 km depth. Within this narrow depth range we observe strong chemical gradients, including variations in oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) of over 4 log units. Both Pelly Bay and Somerset Island peridotites reveal a change in metasomatic type with depth. Observed geochemical systematics and textural evidence support the notion that Rae SCLM developed through amalgamation of different local domains, establishing chemical gradients from the start. These gradients were subsequently modified by migrating melts that drove further development of different types of metasomatic overprinting and variable oxidation at a range of length scales. This oxidation already apparent at ~?100 km depth could have locally destabilised any pre-existing diamond or graphite.
Wu, J.What might Earth's next supercontinent look like? New study provides clues. Name Amasia Gondwana +Science, doi.10.1126/ science.abg6491 1p. GlobalTectonics

Abstract: From Columbia to Rodinia to Pangaea, Earth has seen a few supercontinents come and go in its ancient past. Now, researchers theorize that these giant landmasses form in regular cycles, about once every 600 million years. They even predict when and where the next supercontinent will form, driven by the creeping flow of rocks in our planet’s hot mantle.
Yakmchuck, C., Kirkland, C.L., Cavosie, A.J., Szilas, K., Hollis, J., Gardinerm N.J., Waterton, P., Steenfelt, A., Martin, L.Stirred not shaken; critical evaluation of a proposed Archean meteorite impact in West Greenland.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 557, doi.org/10.1016/ j.epsl.2020.116730 9p. PdfEurope, Greenlandmeteorite

Abstract: Large meteorite impacts have a profound effect on the Earth's geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. It is widely accepted that the early Earth was subject to intense bombardment from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga, yet evidence for subsequent bolide impacts during the Archean Eon (4.0 to 2.5 Ga) is sparse. However, understanding the timing and magnitude of these early events is important, as they may have triggered significant change points to global geochemical cycles. The Maniitsoq region of southern West Greenland has been proposed to record a ~3.0 Ga meteorite impact, which, if confirmed, would be the oldest and only known impact structure to have survived from the Archean. Such an ancient structure would provide the first insight into the style, setting, and possible environmental effects of impact bombardment continuing into the late Archean. Here, using field mapping, geochronology, isotope geochemistry, and electron backscatter diffraction mapping of 5,587 zircon grains from the Maniitsoq region (rock and fluvial sediment samples), we test the hypothesis that the Maniitsoq structure represents Earth's earliest known impact structure. Our comprehensive survey shows that previously proposed impact-related geological features, ranging from microscopic structures at the mineral scale to macroscopic structures at the terrane scale, as well as the age and geochemistry of the rocks in the Maniitsoq region, can be explained through endogenic (non-impact) processes. Despite the higher impact flux, intact craters from the Archean Eon remain elusive on Earth.
Zaitsev, A.M., Kazuchits, N.M., Moe, K.S., Butler, J.E., Korolik, O.V., Rusetsky, M.S., Kazuchits, V.Luminescence of brown CVD diamond: 468 nm luminescence center.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 113, 108255, 7p. PdfGloballuminescence

Abstract: Detailed study of the luminescence of multiple brown CVD diamonds was performed. It has been found that the well-known optical center with zero-phonon line at 468 nm is a characteristic of brown color. It has been found that the defects responsible for 468 nm center are located within brown striations suggesting close relation of the 468 nm center and the vacancy clusters. Simultaneous reduction of the intensity of 468 nm center and brown color during annealing support the assumption of their close relation. Identical spectroscopic parameters of the 468 nm center and the radiation center with ZPL at 492 nm suggest that the former relates to an intrinsic defect probably containing vacancies. The distribution of intensity of the 468 nm center in some brown diamonds follows the distribution of the NV- center while being opposite to that of the NV0 center and the dislocation-related A-band. This observation suggests the negative charge state of the 468 nm center. Due to its high luminescence efficiency, the 468 nm center can be used as a highly sensitive indicator of the traces of vacancy clusters. We found that the 468 nm center is detected practically in every as-grown CVD diamond including colorless CVD diamonds of high structural perfection and high purity.
Zayakina, N., Ugapeva, S., Oleinikov, O.Rare hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals of the kimberlite pipe Obnazhennaya, the Yakutian kimberlite province.6th World Multidisciplenary Earth Sciences Symposium IOP Publ., 9p. PdfRussiadeposit - Obnazhennaya

Abstract: The first discovery of hydrated magnesium carbonates, dypingite and nesquehonite, in the kimberlite pipe Obnazhennaya of the Kuoyka field, the Yakutian kimberlite province is described. The pipe is composed of kimberlite breccia with abundant diverse xenoliths of practically intact mantle rocks. Olivine in phenocrysts and mantle rock is generally intact. The main body of the rock is carbonate-serpentine. Nesquehonite and dypingite are rare minerals and have first been observed in relation to kimberlites. The minerals were found in the bedrock outcrop of the Obnazhennaya pipe as white crusts up to 5 mm thick scattered over an area of a few tens of square meters. To identify and study the crusts we used the following methods: powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. A comprehensive study suggests that the main minerals of these epigenetic formations are hydrated carbonates: nesquehonite MgCO3squ3H2O and dypingite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2squ5H2O. Also, Raman scattering spectroscopy revealed a small proportion of hydromagnesite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2squ4H2O. Hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals we found make a significant contribution to the collection of kimberlites. They are epigenetic in nature, with their origin being related to weathering of silicates, in particular serpentine. Mechanisms of carbonate formation appear to be close to that suggested by Wilson et. al., 2009, with CO2 being trapped from the atmosphere to form nesquehonite. In the case of the Obnazhennaya pipe, mineral solutions form when rainwater filters through the talus at the top of the outcrop. They are enriched in Mg from minerals and trap CO2 from the atmosphere. After filtering, solutions reach the vertical wall of kimberlite breccia where modern precipitation of nesquehonite upon evaporation occurs. Further, dypingite and hydromagnesite form via decomposition of nesquehonite. A lip extending over the rock wall significantly contributes to the development and stability of nesquehonite and dypingite aggregates. Crusts of nesquehonite and dypingite are not found on rock outcrops without lips at the top. Thus, despite the fact that intrusion of the kimberlite pipe occurred during the Jurassic (Zaitsev, Smelov, 2010), formation of nesquehonite and dypingite in association with kimberlite rocks continues in the modern time due to favorable environmental factors, first of all, a unique natural outcrop of kimberlite.
Zeng, C., Shen, J., Zhang, J.High thermal conductivity in indium-based metal/diamond composites by good wettability of diamond with indium.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 112, 108230, 10p. PdfGlobalmarkets for miniturization

Abstract: Low melting point metal (LMPM) has potential application value in the field of thermal management. Indium-based LMPM/diamond composites were manufactured using sintering technique. The thermal conductivity of Bi-In-Sn/diamond composites was improved by pre-adding indium particles fabricated using slice technique. Using in-situ imaging and particle dipping experiment, the wetting behavior of diamond microparticle with pure indium, indium-based and gallium-based liquid metal (LM) was investigated. The diamond microparticle was well wetted by molten indium. The wettability of diamond with gallium can be improved by alloying gallium with indium. Oxide film of LM would hinder the wetting of LM on diamond. The highest thermal conductivity of Bi-In-Sn/diamond composites and indium/diamond composites obtained in this work was up to 157 W m-1 K-1 and 211 W m-1 K-1, respectively.
Zeug, M., Nasdala. L., Ende, M., Habler, G., Hauzenberger, C., Chanmuang, C., Skoda, R., Topa, D., Wildner, M., Wirth, R.The parisite - (Ce) enigma: challenges in the identification of fluorcarbonate minerals ( Bastanite)Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 115, 19p. Doi.org/101007 /s00710-020- 00723-x pdfSouth America, ColombiaREE

Abstract: A multi-methodological study was conducted in order to provide further insight into the structural and compositional complexity of rare earth element (REE) fluorcarbonates, with particular attention to their correct assignment to a mineral species. Polycrystals from La Pita Mine, Municipality de Maripí, Boyacá Department, Colombia, show syntaxic intergrowth of parisite-(Ce) with röntgenite-(Ce) and a phase which is assigned to B3S4 (i.e., bastnäsite-3-synchisite-4; still unnamed) fluorcarbonate. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal well-ordered stacking patterns of two monoclinic polytypes of parisite-(Ce) as well as heavily disordered layer sequences with varying lattice fringe spacings. The crystal structure refinement from single crystal X-ray diffraction data - impeded by twinning, complex stacking patterns, sequential and compositional faults - indicates that the dominant parisite-(Ce) polytype M1 has space group Cc. Parisite-(Ce), the B3S4 phase and röntgenite-(Ce) show different BSE intensities from high to low. Raman spectroscopic analyses of parisite-(Ce), the B3S4 phase and röntgenite-(Ce) reveal different intensity ratios of the three symmetric CO3 stretching bands at around 1100 cm-1. We propose to non-destructively differentiate parisite-(Ce) and röntgenite-(Ce) by their 1092 cm-1 / 1081 cm-1 ?1(CO3) band height ratio.
Zhang, M., Wang, C., Zhang, Qi., Qin, Y., Shen, J., Hu, X., Zhou, G., Li, S.Temporal-spatial analysis of alkaline rocks based in GEOROC. Not specific to diamondsApplied Geochemistry, Vol. 124, 104853 8p. PdfAsia, TibetGEOROC
Zheng, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, L.The role of sulfate-, alkali-, and halogen-rich fluids in mobilization and mineralization of rare earth elements: insights from bulk fluid compositions in the Mianning-Dechang carbonatite-related REE belt, southwestern China.Lithos, Vol. 386-387, 106008, 15p. PdfChinadeposit - Mianning-Dechang

Abstract: Carbonatites host the world's most important rare earth element (REE) resources. The origins of REE mineralization in carbonatite-related deposits, particularly the role of hydrothermal fluids in REE mobilization and mineralization, remain enigmatic. The Cenozoic Mianning-Dechang REE belt in eastern Tibet is one of the largest REE production regions worldwide, and is an ideal area for investigating REE mineralization. Geological investigations and fluid inclusion studies suggest that ore fluids in this belt evolved from hydrothermal stage I (fenitization at high temperatures of ~480 °C) to hydrothermal stage II (calcite, quartz, barite, and fluorite crystallization at temperatures of 300-350 °C and salinities of ~20 wt% NaCl equiv.), and then to the REE mineralization stage (temperatures of ~200 °C and low salinities of ~9 wt% NaCl equiv.). The bulk fluid compositions demonstrate that the ore fluids contained significant amounts of alkalis (up to 5 wt% Na + K), halogens (up to 12 wt% Cl; up to 7 wt% F), sulfate (>2 wt% SO42-), Ba (>1123 ppm), Sr (>1120 ppm), and REEs (>5 wt%). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these fluids are light REE-enriched and exhibit moderate depletion in Eu ([Eu/Eu?]CN = 0.85 ± 0.08), similar to the carbonatites and nordmarkites. These fluid characteristics and plots of Rb/Na vs. K/Na and Mn vs. Na suggest that the ore fluids in the Mianning-Dechang REE belt were derived from a late-stage alkaline-carbonatitic magma. High concentrations of Cl-, F-, SO42-, and REEs, and the absence of REE fluoride (REEF3) and fluorite (CaF2), suggest that the ore fluids in hydrothermal stage I were a high-temperature, SO42--rich (>2 wt%), and acidic fluid system (pH < 3.5). In this system, chloride REE complexes were predominant over fluoride and sulfate REE complexes, which resulted in efficient transport of REEs. Sulfate species were predominant in hydrothermal stage II at temperatures of 260-350 °C and a pH between 3.5 and 5.2. The higher pH and fluid cooling from hydrothermal stage I to hydrothermal stage II caused an increase in F-, which in turn lowered fluid REE concentrations, owing to the formation of REE-rich fluorite. This suggests that F- was a depositional ligand in hydrothermal stage II. Continued fluid cooling (~200 °C) and increasing pH (~6), combined with the precipitation of barite and fluorite in the REE mineralization stage, destabilized the REE complexes because of the decreasing concentrations of SO42-, Cl-, and F-, which thus led to widespread REE deposition. A review of different-sized deposits in the Mianning-Dechang REE belt indicates that appreciable amounts of SO42-, Cl-, REEs, CO2, and particularly F- and alkalis in fluids, along with a high fluid exsolution temperature, represent the ideal conditions for potential REE mineralization in a carbonatite-related setting.
Zhou, L., Chai, C., Zhang, W., Song, Y., Zhang, Z., Yang, Y.oI20-carbon: a new superhard carbon allotrope.Diamond & Related Materials, Vol. 113, 108284, 8p. PdfGlobalcarbon

Abstract: A new orthorhombic carbon crystal denoted oI20-carbon possessing the Immm space group was designed. Its structure is formed by stacking of a cage structure, which consists of 32 carbon atoms. Its stability and structural, mechanical and electronic properties were investigated by first-principles simulations. Density functional theory calculations show that this new carbon allotrope is thermodynamically stable (even more stable than synthesized T-carbon and supercubane). Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations show that it can maintain the structure above a temperature of 1000 K, indicating its excellent thermal stability. oI20-carbon can also maintain dynamic stability under a high pressure of 100 GPa. It is an anisotropic superhard material with a Vickers hardness of 46.62 GPa. Notably, the cage structure gives it a low density, which has a really small value among superhard carbon allotropes. In addition, it is worth noting that oI20-carbon has an indirect ultrawide band structure with a bandgap of 4.55 eV (HSE06), which is higher than that of most previously reported superhard carbon allotropes. All these outstanding properties show that it is a potential material for high-temperature, high-frequency electronic devices and the aerospace industry.
Zimmer, E.H., Howell, J.A.Predicting river mouth location from delta front dip and clinoform dip in modern and ancient wave dominated deltas. * not specific to diamondsSedimentology, doi.org/10.111/ sed.12800 24p. South America, Brazilgeomorphology

Abstract: Wave-dominated deltas and strandplains make up the majority of the world’s depositional coastlines, provide an important record of sea-level change and serve as hydrocarbon reservoirs worldwide. Satellite imagery forms a great source of data on the recent depositional history of modern deltaic systems. In the subsurface, three-dimensional seismic and well data make the three-dimensional assessment of large-scale deltaic reservoir bodies possible but struggle to resolve internal heterogeneities away from wells. To bridge this gap in characterizing deltaic sedimentation, this study combines measurements from both the shallow, high-resolution section of three-dimensional seismic data of the Eocene Halibut Delta in the Outer Moray Firth, offshore Scotland, with information from Google Earth’s satellite imagery and digital elevation model on south-east Brazilian river deltas (São Francisco, Jequitinhonha, Doce and Paraíba do Sul) to present a means of predicting the location of fluvial sediment input points with respect to clinoform geometry. The key measurement for this study is the delta front and clinoform dip which has been measured at multiple locations along strike of the coastline of the examined deltas. Dip decreases away from the inferred river mouth for all deltas by 50% within 7.2 km. The river mouth location was inferred from the position of palaeo-channels visible on the delta top and coarse sediment recorded in grab samples offshore for the south-east Brazilian deltas, and from imprints of palaeo-channels on attribute maps for the Eocene Halibut Delta. In summary, this study found that delta front dip is steepest at the location of the river mouth and decreases, along with grain size, away from it. This suggests that high dip values correlate with the proximity to the channel mouth and can be used to predict fluvial channel facies in modern deltaic systems and subsurface reservoirs.

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